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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538


Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.

Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.

Animals , Ants , Turnera , Plants , Soil , Symbiosis , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486


Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.

Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Pakistan , Specimen Handling , Symbiosis
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462


Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.

Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rain , Rodentia , Pakistan , Symbiosis , Agriculture
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3853-3862, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921471


With the cooperation of bacteria and the human body, the nutrients in food are deeply digested, utilized, and shared. In addition, symbiosis is formed between microorganisms and hosts. Such a delicate combination makes the microorganisms form the inherent flora in the human body. They obtain the biological basis for survival, and provide the necessary regulation and support for the host in terms of immunity and nutrition, through their functional metabolism and population signals. At present, most of the researches focus on the isolation and evaluation of the functional components of plants, such as plant polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, and other active functional components. However, in traditional Chinese medicine, plants are often used with whole food components. To date, studies have found that the dynamics of flora affecting human health are not fixed, nor dependent on the change of a single strain. The ecological competition and metabolic regulation between microorganisms are usually coevolved with the host. The regulatory effect of natural plants for both medicine and food mainly depends on their whole food components. This provides evidence to support the role of whole food components played in promoting the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine from the perspective of microenvironment. Therefore, the development and utilization of medicinal and edible natural plant activities should be fully understood and evaluated with flora regulation.

Bacteria , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polysaccharides , Symbiosis
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3604-3621, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921451


The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants , Symbiosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.

Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 921-933, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142517


Abstract This work evaluated the effect of seasonality on ant-plant interaction in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, using as an ecological model the species Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae). We performed systematic collection of ants, herbivores and leaves in marked plants, evaluated the efficiency of herbivorous capture by ants, and the effects of ant presence over the pollinator behavior and plant fitness in dry and rainy seasons. The presence of ants in the plants reduced the number of herbivores (dry season: F2.27=4.7617, p=0.0166; rainy season: F2.27=5.8655, p=0.0078). However, the capture efficiency was negatively affected by the presence of myrmecophilous larvae, so that the average of ants recruited on termite leaves was 2.06 ants per termite, the average recruitment of ants on larval leaves was 22.4 larva ants. In addition, the presence of ants reduced pollinator visits and promoted fruit reduction during the dry season (ANOVA: F = 3.44; p = 0.0653). In conclusion, the association with ants can result in a balance not always favorable to the host plant, and this result actually depends on abiotic (e.g. precipitation) and biotic factors (e.g. ant species composition and abundance, influence of other trophic levels and identity of associated herbivores).

Resumo Este trabalho avaliou o efeito da sazonalidade sobre a interação planta-formiga em uma Floresta Tropical Sazonal Seca, utilizando como modelo ecológico a espécie Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae). Realizamos coleta sistemática de formigas, herbívoros e folhas em plantas marcadas, avaliamos a eficiência de captura de herbívoros pelas formigas, e efeitos da presença de formigas sobre o comportamento dos polinizadores e fitness da planta nas estações seca e chuvosa. A presença de formigas nas plantas reduziu número de herbívoros (estação seca: F2.27 = 4.7617, p = 0.0166; estação chuvosa: F2.27 = 5.8655, p = 0.0078). No entanto, a eficiência de captura foi afetada negativamente pela presença de mirmecófilos larvas, enquanto a média de formigas recrutadas em folhas com cupins foi de 2,06 formigas por cupim, a média de recrutamento de formigas nas folhas com larvas foi de 22,4 formigas de larva. Além disso, a presença de formigas reduziu as visitas aos polinizadores e promoveu a redução de frutos durante a estação seca (F = 3.44, p = 0.0653). Em conclusão, a associação com formigas pode resultar em um balanço nem sempre favorável à planta hospedeira, e este resultado depende de fato de fatores abióticos (e. g. precipitação) e fatores bióticos (e.g. composição e abundância de espécies de formigas, influência de outros níveis tróficos, e identidade dos herbívoros associados).

Animals , Ants , Plants , Seasons , Symbiosis , Forests , Herbivory
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 256-259, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118852


The oviposition behavior of the rare butterfly Minstrellus grandis (Callaghan, 1999) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is recorded for the first time. Two females laid eggs on the old leaves of an unidentified Triplaris sp. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophytic plant typically known as 'Triplaria' or 'novice' tree, inhabited by aggressive 'taxi' ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These observations suggest that M. grandis caterpillars live associated with one of the most harmful types of Amazon ant-plant symbiosis. (AU)

Ants , Symbiosis , Butterflies , Amazonian Ecosystem , Carnivory , Oviposition
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 311-318, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132392


Abstract Aphids can harbor several secondary symbionts that alter important aphid-related ecological traits, such as defense against natural enemies, heat tolerance and host plant utilization. One of these secondary symbionts, Spiroplasma, is well known in Drosophila as a sex modulator and by interacting with the host immune system. However, little is known on the effects of Spiroplasma on aphids, such as its influence on the host immune defense against fungi and on host plant utilization. Aphid infections by Spiroplasma are known to be low and few aphid species were reported to be infected with this secondary symbiont, however aphids belonging to the genus Aphis in neotropical regions show high infection rates by Spiroplasma. Thus, we investigated the association of Spiroplasma with the tropical aphid Aphis citricidus through comparative biology experiments on two host plants with different nutritional value to the aphid. We demonstrate Spiroplasma induced no significant fitness costs to A. citricidus on either host plant as no changes in the fitness traits we assessed were observed. Spiroplasma infection only induced sutle changes on host longevity and fecundity. Therefore, we concluded Spiroplasma established a neutral interaction with A. citricidus under the selection pressure we tested, and argue on stress conditions that could better demonstrate the role of Spiroplasma in A. citricidus bioecology and associated costs involved.

Resumo Pulgões podem abrigar vários simbiontes secundários que alteram características ecológicas importantes, como defesa contra inimigos naturais, tolerância ao calor e utilização da planta hospedeira. Um desses simbiontes secundários, Spiroplasma, é estudado em Drosophila por alterar a razão sexual e interagir com o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do Spiroplasma em pulgões, como sua influência na defesa contra fungos entomopatogénicos ou na utilização da planta hospedeira, por exemplo. Spiroplasma foi identificado em poucas espécies de pulgão e geralmente em baixa densidade, contudo pulgões pertencentes ao gênero Aphis em regiões neotropicais apresentam altas taxas de infecção por Spiroplasma. Assim, investigamos a associação entre Spiroplasma e o pulgão neotropical Aphis citricidus por meio de biologia comparativa em duas plantas hospedeiras com diferentes valores nutricionais para o pulgão. Spiroplasma não causou custo adaptativo significativo para A. citricidus em ambas planta hospedeira. A infecção por Spiroplasma induziu apenas pequenas mudanças na longevidade e fecundidade do hospedeiro. Portanto, concluímos que Spiroplasma estabeleceu uma interação neutra com A. citricidus sob ausência de pressão de seleção. Entretanto, discutimos sobre condições de estresse que possam demonstrar o papel de Spiroplasma na bioecologia de A. citricidus e os possíveis custos envolvidos.

Animals , Aphids , Spiroplasma , Plants , Symbiosis , Fungi
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 84-93, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1059207


Abstract: This study aims primarily to reflect on the role of symbiotic illusion in the construction of female identity in women with eating disorders (ED), using premises from psychoanalytic psychosomatics. Considering ED as psychopathologies related to the affective economy, Oedipal relations play crucial role in the process of identity constitution. Mother-daughter relationships in ED are shaped in the molds of symbiotic illusion, with weak father figures. We presented a case study to briefly illustrate the theoretical framework. The omissive posture of a father to interdict the symbiotic relation leads daughters to find themselves unable to libidinally invest in other objects.

Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo refletir sobre o papel da ilusão simbiótica na construção da identidade feminina em mulheres com transtornos alimentares (TAs), utilizando as premissas da psicossomática psicanalítica. Considerando-se os TAs como psicopatologias relacionadas à economia afetiva, as relações edípicas desempenham papel crucial no processo de construção de identidade. As relações mãe-filha nos TAs são moldadas pela ilusão simbiótica, com figuras paternas enfraquecidas. Nós apresentamos brevemente um estudo de caso para ilustrar os conceitos do referencial teórico. A postura omissa do pai para interditar a relação simbiótica com a mãe leva a filha à impossibilidade de investir libidinalmente em outros objetos.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychophysiologic Disorders/psychology , Social Identification , Women/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Symbiosis , Anorexia Nervosa/psychology , Libido
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 209-214, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089298


Abstract Rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes can help their hosts absorb nutrients and regulate the levels of plant hormones. Moreover, they can modulate the expressions of host genes, assist hosts in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secreting volatile organic compounds. Therefore, rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes are considered as determinant factors driving processes involved in the growth of host plants. However, the physiological and ecological functions, as well as the molecular mechanism underlying the behavior of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes in their role in the adaptive capacity of host plants in the karstic high-calcium environment have not been systematically studied. This review summarizes the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes which help host plants to adapt to various kinds of adverse environments. The adaptive capacities of plants growing in adverse environments, partly, or totally, depends on microorganisms co-existing with the host plants.

Resumo Os microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera podem ajudar seus hospedeiros a absorver nutrientes e regular os níveis de hormônios vegetais. Além disso, eles podem modular as expressões dos genes hospedeiros, auxiliar os hospedeiros na eliminação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e secretar compostos orgânicos voláteis. Portanto, microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera são considerados determinantes dos processos envolvidos no crescimento de plantas hospedeiras. No entanto, as funções fisiológicas e ecológicas, bem como o mecanismo molecular subjacente ao comportamento dos microrganismos e endofíticos da rizosfera no seu papel na capacidade adaptativa das plantas hospedeiras no ambiente cárstico de alto teor de cálcio, não foram sistematicamente estudados. Esta revisão resume os mecanismos fisiológicos e moleculares de microrganismos e endófitos da rizosfera que ajudam as plantas hospedeiras a se adaptarem a vários tipos de ambientes adversos. As capacidades adaptativas das plantas que crescem em ambientes adversos, em parte ou totalmente, dependem de microrganismos coexistentes com as plantas hospedeiras.

Symbiosis , Calcium , Plants , Rhizosphere , Endophytes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827982


The technique of "simulative habitat cultivation" is to preserve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine by simulating the original habitat and site environment of wild Chinese medicine resources. Dendrobium nobile is the most representative variety of traditional Chinese medicine which reflects the coordinated development of medicinal material production and ecological environment. In this paper, the main technical points of the simulated cultivation model of D. nobile were summarized as follows: rapid propagation of seedling tissue technology to ensure the genetic stability of provenance; line card+fermented cow manure+live moss method to improve the survival rate; epiphytic stone cultivation to improve the quality of medicinal materials; and the integration of mycorrhizal fungi to improve the quality stability of medicinal materials. On the basis of summarizing the ecological benefits, economical and social benefits generated by the application of the technology, the paper systematically analyzes the principle of the technology for the cultivation of D. nobile to promote the excellent quality, the light, gas, heat and fertilizer resources of the undergrowth niche are in line with the wild site environment of D. nobile. The rich and complex soil microbial community in the forest laid the foundation for the species diversity needed for the growth of D. nobile.The stress effect on the growth of D. nobile resulted in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. The symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic fungi such as bryophytes and D. nobile promotes the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites. The high quality D. nobile was produced efficiently by improving and optimizing the cultivation techniques.

Animals , Cattle , Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Female , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mycorrhizae , Symbiosis
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 521-526, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001458


Abstract Since the foundation of the Malacological Center in 1980, Universidad Centro Americana (UCA), Managua-Nicaragua, has been monitoring and collecting the marine, terrestrial, fluvial and lake mollusk population of the country. Many specimens have been photographed by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), and in one of these, observation of the hairy periostracum reveals a seemingly thriving population of minute protists in possible symbiosis with their host. Adequate magnification and comparison with previous studies allowed the determination of these hosts as diatoms, testaceous amoebae, yeast, phacus, spores and other undetermined organisms which occur in tropical forests on rocks, trees and leaves. Here illustrated are diatoms and other organisms detected for the first time on the periostracum of a tropical rainforest mollusk.

Resumo Desde a fundação do Centro Malacológico em 1980, a Universidad Central Americana (UCA), Manágua-Nicarágua, vem acompanhando e coletando a população de moluscos marinhos, terrestres, fluviais e lagoas do país. Muitos espécimes foram fotografados pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM) e, em um deles, a observação do periostracum peludo revela uma população aparentemente próspera de protistas de minuto em possível simbiose com o hospedeiro. A ampliação adequada e a comparação com estudos anteriores permitem a determinação dessas diatomáceas, amebas testaceas, leveduras, phacus, esporos e outros organismos indeterminados que ocorrem em florestas tropicais em rochas, árvores e folhas. Aqui estão as diatomeas e outros organismos pela primeira vez detectados no periostracum de um molusco tropical.

Animals , Snails/physiology , Symbiosis , Diatoms/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Diatoms/classification , Rainforest , Nicaragua
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 40-44, July. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053231


Background: The study of plant-associated microorganisms is very important in the discovery and development of bioactive compounds. Pseudomonas is a diverse genus of Gammaproteobacteria comprising more than 60 species capable of establishing themselves in many habitats, which include leaves and stems of many plants. There are reports of metabolites with diverse biological activity obtained from bacteria of this genus, and some of the metabolites have shown cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines. Because of the high incidence of cancer, research in recent years has focused on obtaining new sources of active compounds that exhibit interesting pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that lead to the development of new therapeutic agents. Results: A bacterial strain was isolated from tumors located in the stem of Pinus patula, and it was identified as Pseudomonas cedrina. Extracts from biomass and broth of P. cedrina were obtained with chloroform:methanol (1:1). Only biomass extracts exhibited antiproliferative activity against human tumor cell lines of cervix (HeLa), lung (A-549), and breast (HBL-100). In addition, a biomass extract from P. cedrina was fractioned by silica gel column chromatography and two diketopiperazines were isolated: cyclo-(L-Prolyl-L-Valine) and cyclo-(L-Leucyl-L-Proline). Conclusions: This is the first report on the association of P. cedrina with the stems of P. patula in Mexico and the antiproliferative activity of extracts from this species of bacteria against human solid tumor cell lines.

Pseudomonas/chemistry , Pinus/microbiology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Plants/microbiology , Symbiosis , Biomass , Gammaproteobacteria/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 47-55, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003280


La alelopatía es un fenómeno que involucra la producción de metabolitos secundarios que influyen en el crecimiento de las plantas, pero este potencial alelopático ha sido poco estudiado en la simbiosis rizobio-leguminosa. Esta investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: 1) evaluar el potencial alelopático de lixiviados acuosos de Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth en la germinación de semillas y en el crecimiento radical de plántulas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 2) determinar el efecto de estos lixiviados en el crecimiento in vitro de Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, y 3) evaluar el potencial alelopático de I. purpurea en el crecimiento, la fisiología y la nodulación de frijol en simbiosis con R. tropici. Tanto el lixiviado acuoso de raíz como el de la parte aérea de I. purpurea estimularon la germinación de semillas de frijol y la elongación radical. El crecimiento in vitro de R. tropici fue inhibido al aplicar los 2 tipos de lixiviado. La presencia de I. purpurea tuvo un efecto negativo en el crecimiento y en las respuestas fisiológicas de las plantas de frijol, que fue atenuado cuando las plantas fueron inoculadas con Rhizobium tropici; no obstante, la nodulación asociada a esta bacteria fue afectada en presencia de la planta alelopática. Los resultados indican que la simbiosis de rizobios en las raíces de frijol es un elemento importante en la atenuación de los danos producidos por la planta alelopática I. purpurea.

Allelopathy is a phenomenon that involves the production of secondary metabolites that influence the growth of plants and microorganisms; however, this alellopathic effect has been scarcely studied on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. The aims of this research were 1) to assess the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth on seed germination and root length of common bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), 2) to determine its effects on the in vitro growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and 3) to evaluate the allelopathic potential of I. purpurea on the growth, nodulation and physiology of common bean plants inoculated with R. tropici. After 48 h, 15% of the aqueous root extract of I. purpurea stimulated seed germination, whereas 4% of the aqueous shoot extracts stimulated such germination. Both the root or shoot extracts stimulated seed germination and e root length. In vitro growth of R. tropici was inhibited as a result of the application of both aqueous extracts. The presence of I. purpurea negatively affected both the growth and physiological responses of common bean plants, and this effect was attenuated after the inoculation of R. tropici; nevertheless, this allelopathic plant affected root nodulation. Our results suggest that the symbiosis of rhizobia and roots of common bean plants is an important element for attenuating the negative effects caused by the allelopathic plant.

Symbiosis/physiology , Ipomoea purpurea/analysis , Phaseolus/growth & development , Rhizobium tropici/growth & development , Allelopathy/physiology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Fabaceae/physiology
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 244-253, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771382


Natural lignocellulosic materials contain cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose hydrolysis to glucose requires a series of lignocellulases. Recently, the research on the synergistic effect of lignocellulases has become a new research focus. Here, four lignocellulase genes encoding β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-glucanase, xylanase and laccase from termite and their endosymbionts were cloned into pETDuet-1 and pRSFDuet-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli. After SDS-PAGE analysis, the corresponding protein bands consistent with the theoretical values were observed and all the proteins showed enzyme activities. We used phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) as substrate to measure the synergistic effect of crude extracts of co-expressing enzymes and the mixture of single enzyme. The co-expressed enzymes increased the degradation efficiency of PASC by 44% compared with the single enzyme mixture; while the degradation rate increased by 34% and 20%, respectively when using filter paper and corn cob pretreated with phosphoric acid as substrates. The degradation efficiency of the co-expressed enzymes was higher than the total efficiency of the single enzyme mixture.

Animals , Cellulase , Cellulose , Hydrolysis , Isoptera , Lignin , Symbiosis , beta-Glucosidase
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180165, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990195


Studies of mixed-species groups of animals can reveal emergent complexities of collective behaviors. In this study we collected data on mixed-species hunting groups composed primarily of piscivorous fishes (species composition, abundance, behavioral interactions) and used both multivariate and network analyses to quantify pair-wise and guild level behavioral relationships. Our results indicate that such collective behaviors exhibit consistent patterns of associations (33 species with 282 pair-wise links within the observed network) with 10 dominant species accounting for 60% of pair-wise interactions. Species richness within groups varied (mean = 2.4, range 2-6 species) as did group size (mean = 8.1 individuals, range 2-80). Mixed-species groups, in general, were composed of species representing morphologically diverse forms that appeared to enhance access to shelter sites and implement diverse strategies for prey capture. It is noteworthy that the composition of groups did not reflect the relative abundances of their component species within the overall community of fishes, suggesting that group membership was an elective choice. The identification of these patterns, assuming they are persistent features of these communities, can be used as a foundation for studies to assess dynamics of mixed-species relationships, rates of predator success based on group membership, demographic consequences, and responses to variations in habitat attributes and associated prey resources. Such information could be used to interpret the nature of multispecies interactions within predator communities and potentially aid in conservation and management.(AU)

Estudios de grupos mixtos de animales puede revelar complejidades y sutilezas del comportamiento colectivo. En este estudio recolectamos datos sobre depredación de grupos mixtos de especies, compuestos principalmente por piscívoros (composición de especies, abundancia, interacciones) y usamos tanto análisis multivariado como de redes para cuantificar relaciones de comportamiento entre pares de especies y a nivel de gremios. Nuestros resultados indican que los comportamientos colectivos exhiben patrones consistentes de asociaciones (33 especies con 382 interacciones entre pares de especies dentro de la red) con 10 especies dominantes que constituyen el 60% de las interacciones entre dos especies. La riqueza de especies dentro de grupos varió (media = 2.4, ámbito 2-6 especies) cómo también el tamaño del grupo (media = 8.1, ámbito 2-80). Los grupos de especies mixtas, en general, estaban compuestos por especies con diversas morfologías que aparentemente aumentan el accesos a lugares estrechos y además, implementa diversas estrategias de captura de presas. Vale la pena resaltar que la composición de los grupos no reflejaba la abundancia relativa de las especies en la comunidad total de peces, sugiriendo que la membresía en el grupo era algo electivo. La identificaión de estos patrones, asumiendo que son características persistentes de la comunidad, se podrán usar en estudios para determinar la dinámica de las relaciones de grupos mixtos, tasa de éxito de depredación basado en la membresía del grupo, consecuencias demográficas y respuestas a varicaciones en las habitat y presas. Esta información servirá para interpretar la naturaleza de las interacciones multiespecíficas dentro de la comunidad de depredadores y potencialmente ayudar en la conservación y manejo de recursos.(AU)

Animals , Predatory Behavior , Symbiosis , Behavior, Animal , Hunt/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 703-713, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974305


ABSTRACT The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils.

Bradyrhizobium/isolation & purification , Bradyrhizobium/genetics , Agricultural Inoculants/isolation & purification , Agricultural Inoculants/genetics , Vigna/microbiology , Phylogeny , Symbiosis , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Evolution, Molecular , Bradyrhizobium/classification , Bradyrhizobium/physiology , Genomics , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology , Agricultural Inoculants/classification , Agricultural Inoculants/physiology , Vigna/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 421-428, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951563


Abstract Wolbachia (Hertig) endosymbionts are extensively studied in a wide range of organisms and are known to be transmitted through the egg cytoplasm to the offsping. Wolbachia may cause several types of reproductive modifications in arthropods. In Trichogramma species, parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria allow females wasps to produce daughters from unfertilized eggs and these bacteria are present in at least 9% of all Trichogramma species. Phylogenetic studies have led to the subdivision of the Wolbachia clade in five supergroups (A, B, C, D and E) and Wolbachia from Trichogramma belong to supergroup B. Here, using the wsp gene, four groups of Wolbachia that infect Trichogramma species were distinguished and the addition of a new group "Ato" was suggested due to the addition of Wolbachia from Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner). Specific primers were designed and tested for the "Ato" group. Seventy-five percent of all evaluated Wolbachia strains from Trichogramma fell within "Sib" group.

Resumo Endosimbiontes do gênero Wolbachia (Hertig) são extensivamente estudados em uma ampla gama de organismos e são conhecidos por serem transmitidos via citoplasma do ovo hospedeiro para seu descendente. Wolbachia pode causar vários tipos de alterações reprodutivas nos artrópodes. Nas espécies de Trichogramma, a reprodução partenogenética induzida por Wolbachia, possibilita as fêmeas dos parasitoides a produção de fêmeas a partir de ovos não fertilizados e estas bactérias estão presentes em pelo menos 9% de todas as espécies de Trichogramma. Estudos filogenéticos têm levado a subdivisão do clado Wolbachia em cinco supergrupos (A, B, C, D and E). Wolbachia em Trichogramma pertence ao supergrupo B. Com o gene wsp foi possível se distinguir quatro grupos de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma e adicionar um novo grupo (Ato) devido a inclusão de Wolbachia detectada em Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner, 1983). Primers específicos foram construídos e testados para o grupo "Ato". Setenta e cinco por cento de todas as linhagens de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma se enquadraram dentro do grupo "Sib".

Animals , Female , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Wasps/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolism , Wolbachia/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Phylogeny , Reproduction , Species Specificity , Symbiosis , Wasps/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 503-512, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951798


Abstract Erythrina velutina ("mulungu") is a legume tree from Caatinga that associates with rhizobia but the diversity and symbiotic ability of "mulungu" rhizobia are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize "mulungu" rhizobia from Caatinga. Bacteria were obteined from Serra Talhada and Caruaru in Caatinga under natural regeneration. The bacteria were evaluated to the amplification of nifH and nodC and to metabolic characteristics. Ten selected bacteria identified by 16S rRNA sequences. They were tested in vitro to NaCl and temperature tolerance, auxin production and calcium phosphate solubilization. The symbiotic ability were assessed in an greenhouse experiment. A total of 32 bacteria were obtained and 17 amplified both symbiotic genes. The bacteria showed a high variable metabolic profile. Bradyrhizobium (6), Rhizobium (3) and Paraburkholderia (1) were identified, differing from their geographic origin. The isolates grew up to 45 °C to 0.51 mol L-1 of NaCl. Bacteria which produced more auxin in the medium with l-tryptophan and two Rhizobium and one Bradyrhizobium were phosphate solubilizers. All bacteria nodulated and ESA 90 (Rhizobium sp.) plus ESA 96 (Paraburkholderia sp.) were more efficient symbiotically. Diverse and efficient rhizobia inhabit the soils of Caatinga dry forests, with the bacterial differentiation by the sampling sites.

Rhizobium/physiology , Symbiosis , Bradyrhizobium/physiology , Erythrina/microbiology , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Rhizobium/isolation & purification , Rhizobium/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Forests , Bradyrhizobium/isolation & purification , Bradyrhizobium/genetics , Erythrina/physiology