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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921691

ABSTRACT

Mecicinal plants boast abundant natural compounds with significant pharmacological activity, and such compounds, featuring diversified and complex structures, can be used for research and development of drugs. At present, these natural compounds are directly extracted from herbs which, however, suffer from damaged wild resources and shortage of planting resources attributing to the increasing demand. Moreover, the low content in medicinal plants and complex structures are another challenge to the research and development of drugs. Heterologous synthesis with synthetic biology methods is a solution that has attracted wide attention. Synthetic bio-logy for the production of natural active compounds in Chinese medicinal plants involves the exploration of key enzymes in compound bio-synthetic pathways from plants, analysis of enzyme functions and mechanisms, and reconstruction and optimization of biosynthetic pathways in microorganisms for efficient synthesis of compounds. This study briefed the development process of synthetic biology and the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, and summarized the related strategies of synthetic biology such as the reconstruction and optimization of metabolic pathways, regulation of fermentation process, and strain improvement, and the latest applications of heterogeneous synthetic biology in the production of natural compounds from Chinese medicinals. This study is expected to serve as a reference for the efficient production of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other active compounds from Chinese medicinal plants with strategies of synthetic biology.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Biosynthetic Pathways , China , Plants, Medicinal , Synthetic Biology
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2211-2222, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887790

ABSTRACT

Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have been widely used to construct microbial cell factories for efficient production of bio-based chemicals, which mainly focus on the modification and regulation of metabolic pathways. The characteristics of microorganisms themselves, e.g. morphology, have rarely been taken into consideration in the biotechnological production processes. Morphology engineering aims to control cell shapes and cell division patterns by manipulating the genes related to cell morphology, providing a new strategy for developing efficient microbial cell factories. This review summarized the proteins related to cell morphology, followed by illustrating a few examples of using morphology engineering strategies for improving production of bio-based chemicals. This includes increasing intracellular product accumulation by regulating cell size, enhancing extracellular secretion of target products by improving cell permeability, reducing production cost by achieving high cell density, and improving product performance by controlling the degree of product hydrolysis. Finally, challenges and perspectives for the development of morphology engineering were discussed.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Synthetic Biology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2085-2104, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887783

ABSTRACT

Terpenoids are a group of structurally diverse compounds with good biological activities and versatile functions such as anti-cancer and immunity-enhancing effects, and are widely used in food, healthcare and medical industries. Facilitated by the increasing understandings on the natural biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids in recent years, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered into high-yield strains for production of a variety of terpenoids, some of which have reached or become close to the level required by industrial production. In this connection, synthetic biology driven biotechnological production of terpenoids has become a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and traditional extraction approaches. This article summarizes the recent process in engineering S. cerevisiae for terpenoids biosynthesis, highlighting the effect of synthetic biology strategies by taking a couple of typical terpenoids as examples.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2010-2025, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887778

ABSTRACT

Plant-derived aromatic natural products have important medicinal value and can be made into pharmaceutical and healthcare products with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, insecticidal and anthelmintic, expectorant and cough suppressant, tranquilizer and antitumor effects. However, the low content of aromatic natural products in plants and the difficulty and high costs in extraction and purification hampered its large-scale production and application. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled the tailor-made production of aromatic natural products using engineered microbial cell factories. This review summarizes the categories, the synthetic pathways, the key enzymes and the synthetic biology strategies for production of aromatic natural products, and discusses the challenges and opportunities in this area.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Metabolic Engineering , Plants , Synthetic Biology
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1998-2009, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887777

ABSTRACT

Aromatic compounds make up a large part of fragrances and are traditionally produced by chemical synthesis and direct extraction from plants. Chemical synthesis depends on petroleum resources and has disadvantages such as causing environment pollutions and harsh reaction conditions. Due to the low content of aromatic compounds in plants and the low yield of direct extraction, plant extractions require large amounts of plant resources that occupy arable land. In recent years, with the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, microbial synthesis of aromatic compounds from renewable resources has become a promising alternative approach to traditional methods. This review describes the research progress on the synthesis of aromatic fragrances by model microorganisms such as Escherichia coli or yeast, including the synthesis of vanillin through shikimic acid pathway and the synthesis of raspberry ketone through polyketide pathway. Moreover, this review highlights the elucidation of native biosynthesis pathways, the construction of synthetic pathways and metabolic regulation for the production of aromatic fragrances by microbial fermentation.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Odorants , Shikimic Acid , Synthetic Biology
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1931-1951, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887773

ABSTRACT

Medicinal natural products derived from plants are usually of low content and difficult to extract and isolate. Moreover, these compounds are structurally complex, making it difficult to obtain them by environmental unfriendly chemical synthesis. Biosynthesis of medicinal natural products through synthetic biology is a novel, environment-friendly and sustainable approach. Taking terpenoids (ginsenosides, paclitaxel, artemisinin, tanshinones), alkaloids (vincristine and morphine), and flavonoids (breviscapine) as examples, this review summarizes the advances of the biosynthetic pathways and synthetic biology strategies of plant-derived medicinal natural products. Moreover, we introduce the key technologies and methods of synthetic biology used in the research of medicinal natural products, and provide future prospects in this area.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Biosynthetic Pathways , Plants , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1821-1826, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887765

ABSTRACT

Natural products, important sources of innovative drugs, food, spices and daily chemicals, are closely related to people's healthy life. With the development and integration of modern biological and chemical technologies of natural products, the researches on biosynthesis of natural products have made great progresses in recent years. The biosynthetic pathways of a number of natural products have been analyzed. Many pathway enzymes and modifying enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products have been mined and functionally characterized. Furthermore, genes encoding pathway enzymes have been introduced into chassis to construct cell factories producing natural products through synthetic biology technologies. Also, other biotechnologies including genome editing and genome mining, have been used in the biosynthesis of natural products. In order to further promote the development of researches on biosynthesis of natural products, we edited a Special Issue on the topic of "biosynthesis of natural products", focusing on the researches progress in three aspects: the analysis of biosynthetic pathways of natural products, genome-wide mining and functional characterization of genes encoding tool enzymes, and the scale preparation of natural products by biosynthetic technology. Also included in this Special Issue was the prospect of the biosynthesis of natural products. This Special Issue can provide reference and guidance for the further development of natural product biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Biotechnology , Genome , Synthetic Biology
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1721-1736, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878663

ABSTRACT

Higher alcohols that contain more than two carbon atoms have better fuel properties than ethanol, making them important supplements and alternatives to fossil fuels. Using microbes to produce higher alcohols from renewable biomass can alleviate the current energy and environmental crises, and has become a major future direction for green biomanufacturing. Since natural microbes can only produce a few higher alcohols in small amounts, it is necessary to reconstruct the synthetic pathways for higher alcohols in model industrial strains through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology to overcome the metabolic bottlenecks. A series of milestones have been accomplished in past decades. The authors of this review have witnessed the entire journey of this field from its first success to the leaping development. On the 30th anniversary of the founding of the discipline of metabolic engineering, this review dates back to the great milestones in achieving heterologous production of higher alcohols in non-native strains. The design and optimization of high alcohol biosynthetic pathways, the expansion of feedstock, the engineering of host strains and the industrialization process are summarized. This review aims to draw further attention to microbial synthesis of higher alcohols, inspire the development of novel techniques and strategies of metabolic engineering, and promote the innovation and upgrade of China's biofuel industry.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Biofuels , Biosynthetic Pathways , Ethanol , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1677-1696, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878661

ABSTRACT

Fermentative production of amino acids is one of the pillars of the fermentation industry in China. Recently, with the fast development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology technologies, the metabolic engineering for production of amino acids has been flourishing. Conventional forward metabolic engineering, reversed metabolic engineering based on omics data and in silico simulation, and evolutionary metabolic engineering mimicking the natural evolution, have shown increasingly promising applications. A series of highly efficient and robust amino acids-producing strains have been developed and applied in the industrial production of amino acids. The increasingly fierce market competition has put forward new requirements for strain breeding and selection, such as developing high value-added amino acids, dynamic regulation of cellular metabolism, and adapting to the requirements of new process. This review summarizes the advances and prospects in metabolic engineering for the production of amino acids.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , China , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1659-1676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878660

ABSTRACT

Over the past 30 years, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Candida, Hansenula and other non-conventional yeasts have attracted wide attention because of their desirable phenotypes, such as rapid growth, capability of utilizing multiple substrates, and stress tolerance. A variety of synthetic biology tools are being developed for exploitation of their unique phenotypes, making them potential cell factories for the production of recombinant proteins and renewable bio-based chemicals. This review summarizes the gene editing tools and the metabolic engineering strategies recently developed for non-conventional yeasts. Moreover, the challenges and future perspectives for developing non-conventional yeasts into efficient cell factories for the production of useful products through metabolic engineering are discussed.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Pichia/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Yarrowia/genetics , Yeasts
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1578-1602, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878656

ABSTRACT

Since its birth in the early 1990s, metabolic engineering technology has gone 30 years rapid development. As one of the preferred chassis for metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae cells have been engineered into microbial cell factories for the production of a variety of bulk chemicals and novel high value-added bioactive compounds. In recent years, synthetic biology, bioinformatics, machine learning and other technologies have also greatly contributed to the technological development and applications of metabolic engineering. This review summarizes the important technological development for metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae in the past 30 years. Firstly, classical metabolic engineering tools and strategies were reviewed, followed by reviewing systems metabolic engineering and synthetic biology driven metabolic engineering approaches. The review is concluded with discussing future perspectives for metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae in the light of state-of-the-art technological development.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1541-1563, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878654

ABSTRACT

The regulation of the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways, termed as metabolic regulation, is vital to construct efficient microbial cell factories. With the continuous breakthroughs in synthetic biology, the mining and artificial design of high-quality regulatory elements have substantially improved our ability to modify and regulate cellular metabolic networks and its activities. The research on metabolic regulation has also evolved from the static regulation of single genes to the intelligent and precise dynamic regulation at the systems level. This review briefly summarizes the advances of metabolic regulation technologies in the past 30 years.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Synthetic Biology
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1494-1509, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878651

ABSTRACT

In 1990s, Bailey and Stephanopoulos put forward the concept of classic metabolic engineering, aiming to use DNA recombination technology to rewire metabolic network to achieve improved cell performance and increased target products. In the last 30 years since the birth of metabolic engineering, life science have flourished, and new disciplines such as genomics, systems biology and synthetic biology have emerged, injecting new connotations and vitality into the development of metabolic engineering. Classic metabolic engineering research has entered into an unprecedented stage of systems metabolic engineering. The application of synthetic biology tools and strategies, such as omics technology, genomic-scale metabolic model, parts assembly, circuits design, dynamic control, genome editing and many others, have greatly improved the design, build, and rewiring capabilities of complex metabolism. The intervention of machine learning and the combination of evolutionary engineering and metabolic engineering will further promote the development of systems metabolic engineering. This paper analyzes the development of metabolic engineering in the past 30 years and summarizes the novel theories, techniques, strategies, and applications of metabolic engineering that have emerged over the past 30 years.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Systems Biology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1477-1493, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878650

ABSTRACT

Since its establishment 30 years ago, the discipline of metabolic engineering has developed rapidly based on its deep integration with molecular biology, systems biology and synthetic biology successively, which has greatly contributed to advancing and upgrading biotechnology industry. This review firstly analyzes the current status of academic research and China's competence in the area of metabolic engineering according to the data of papers published in SCI-indexed journals in the past 30 years. Subsequently, the article summarizes the development of systems biology methods and enabling technologies of synthetic biology and their applications in metabolic engineering in the past 10 years. Finally, the major challenges and future perspectives for the development of metabolic engineering are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Industry , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology , Systems Biology
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1471-1476, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878649

ABSTRACT

Metabolic engineering is the use of recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology and genome editing to modify the cellular networks including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling networks of an organism. It can achieve the desirable goals such as enhanced production of metabolites, and improve the capability of biomanufacturing pharmaceuticals, biofuels and biochemicals as well as other biotechnology products. In order to comprehend the status of metabolic engineering in past 30 years, we published this special issue to review the progress and trends of metabolic engineering from the four aspects of overall development, key technologies, host engineering and product engineering, respectively, for laying the foundation for the further development of metabolic engineering.


Subject(s)
Anniversaries and Special Events , Biofuels , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1017-1031, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878611

ABSTRACT

Cyanobacteria is one of the promising microbial chassis in synthetic biology, which serves as a typical host for light-driven production. With the gradual depletion of fossil resources and intensification of global warming, the research on cyanobacterial cell factory using CO2 as carbon resource is ushering in a new wave. For a long time, research focus on cyanobacterial cell factory has mainly been the production of energy products, such as liquid fuels and hydrogen. One of the critical bottlenecks occurring in cyanobacterial cell factory is the poor economic performance, which is mainly caused by the inherent inefficiency of cyanobacteria. The problem is particularly prominent for these extremely cost-sensitive energy products. As an indispensable basis for modern industry, polymer monomers belong to the bulk chemicals with high added value. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on polymer monomers which are superior in overcoming the economic barrier in commercialization of cyanobacterial cell factories. Here, we systematically review the progress on the production of polymer monomers using cyanobacteria, including the strategies for improving production, and the related technologies for the application of this important microbial cell factory. Finally, we summarize several issues in cyanobacterial synthetic biology and proposed future developing trends in this field.


Subject(s)
Cyanobacteria , Macromolecular Substances , Polymers , Synthetic Biology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 911-922, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878603

ABSTRACT

Transcription factor-based biosensors (TFBs) play an essential role in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. TFBs sense the metabolite concentration signals and convert them into specific signal output. They hold high sensitivity, strong specificity, brief analysis speed, and are widely used in response to target metabolites. Here we reviewe the principles of TFBs, the application examples, and challenges faced in recent years in microbial cells, including detecting target metabolite concentrations, high-throughput screening, adaptive laboratory evolutionary selection, and dynamic control. Simultaneously, to overcome the challenges in the application, we also focus on reviewing the performance tuning strategies of TFBs, mainly including traditional and computer-aided tuning strategies. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges that TFBs may face in practical applications, and propose the future research trend.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Gene Expression Regulation , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology , Transcription Factors/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 874-910, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878602

ABSTRACT

The development and implement of microbial chassis cells can provide excellent cell factories for diverse industrial applications, which help achieve the goal of environmental protection and sustainable bioeconomy. The synthetic biology strategy of Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) plays a crucial role on rational and/or semi-rational construction or modification of chassis cells to achieve the goals of "Building to Understand" and "Building for Applications". In this review, we briefly comment on the technical development of the DBTL cycle and the research progress of a few model microorganisms. We mainly focuse on non-model bacterial cell factories with potential industrial applications, which possess unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, capabilities of utilizing one-carbon compounds or of producing platform compounds efficiently. We also propose strategies for the efficient and effective construction and application of synthetic microbial cell factories securely in the synthetic biology era, which are to discover and integrate the advantages of model and non-model industrial microorganisms, to develop and deploy intelligent automated equipment for cost-effective high-throughput screening and characterization of chassis cells as well as big-data platforms for storing, retrieving, analyzing, simulating, integrating, and visualizing omics datasets at both molecular and phenotypic levels, so that we can build both high-quality digital cell models and optimized chassis cells to guide the rational design and construction of microbial cell factories for diverse industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 831-845, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878599

ABSTRACT

As a model industrial host and microorganism with the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status, Corynebacterium glutamicum not only produces amino acids on a large scale in the fermentation industry, but also has the potential to produce various new products. C. glutamicum usually encounters various stresses in the process of producing compounds, which severely affect cell viability and production performance. The development of synthetic biology provides new technical means for improving the robustness of C. glutamicum. In this review, we discuss the tolerance mechanisms of C. glutamicum to various stresses in the fermentation process. At the same time, we highlight new synthetic biology strategies for boosting C. glutamicum robustness, including discovering new stress-resistant elements, modifying transcription factors, and using adaptive evolution strategies to mine stress-resistant functional modules. Finally, prospects of improving the robustness of engineered C. glutamicum strains ware provided, with an emphasis on biosensor, screening and design of transcription factors, and utilizing the multiple regulatory elements.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 806-815, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878597

ABSTRACT

Yeast are comprised of diverse single-cell fungal species including budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and various nonconventional yeasts. Budding yeast is well known as an important industrial microorganism, which has been widely applied in various fields, such as biopharmaceutical and health industry, food, light industry and biofuels production. In the recent years, various yeast strains from different ecological environments have been isolated and characterized. Novel species have been continuously identified, and strains with diverse physiological characteristics such as stress resistance and production of bioactive compounds were selected, which proved abundant biodiversity of natural yeast resources. Genome mining of yeast strains, as well as multi-omics analyses (transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, etc.) can reveal diverse genetic diversity for strain engineering. The genetic resources including genes encoding various enzymes and regulatory proteins, promoters, and other elements, can be employed for development of robust strains. In addition to exploration of yeast natural diversity, phenotypes that are more suitable for industrial applications can be obtained by generation of a variety of genetic diversity through mutagenesis, laboratory adaptation, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology design. The optimized genetic elements can be used to efficiently improve strain performance. Exploration of yeast biodiversity and genetic diversity can be employed to build efficient cell factories and produce biological enzymes, vaccines, various natural products as well as other valuable products. In this review, progress on yeast diversity is summarized, and the future prospects on efficient development and utilization of yeast biodiversity are proposed. The methods and schemes described in this review also provide a reference for exploration of diversity of other industrial microorganisms and development of efficient strains.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Biofuels , Industrial Microbiology , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology
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