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1.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 98-102, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009900

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a complex syndrome characterized by multi-organ involvement that has emerged in the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. The clinical presentation of MIS-C is similar to Kawasaki disease but predominantly presents with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, and severe cases can involve toxic shock and cardiac dysfunction. Epidemiological findings indicate that the majority of MIS-C patients test positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of MIS-C remain unclear, though immune dysregulation following SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered a major contributing factor. Current treatment approaches for MIS-C primarily involve intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and symptomatic supportive care. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 55-59, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 11 children with MIS-C, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and follow-up of MIS-C were summarized in this study. Results: The 11 cases contained 7 boys and 4 girls, with an age of 4.4 (2.0, 5.5) years on admission. All the patients had fever, with a duration of 7(5, 9) days. Other clinical manifestations included rash in 7 cases, conjunctival hyperemia in 5 cases, red lips and raspberry tongue in 3 cases, lymphadenopathy in 3 cases, and swollen fingers and toes in 2 cases. There were 8 cases of digestive symptoms, 8 cases of respiratory symptoms, and 3 cases of nervous system symptoms. Eight patients had multi-system injuries, and one of them had shock presentation. All 11 patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BF.7 variant. The laboratory examination results showed that all cases had elevated inflammatory indicators, abnormal coagulation function and myocardial damage. Six patients had elevated white blood cell counts, 5 cases had liver function abnormalities, 3 cases had kidney function abnormalities, and 8 cases had coronary artery involvement. All 11 patients received anti-infection treatment, of which 3 cases received only 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), while the remaining 8 cases received a combination of IVIG and 2 mg/(kg·d) methylprednisolone. Among the 8 cases with coronary artery disease, 6 cases received low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation therapy. All patients were followed up in 2 weeks after being discharged, and their inflammatory markers had returned to normal by that time. The 8 cases with coronary artery disease and 3 cases with pneumonia showed significant improvement or back to normal at the 4-week follow-up. All patients had no new complications or comorbidities during follow-up of more than 3 months. Conclusions: MIS-C may present with Kawasaki disease-like symptoms, with or without gastrointestinal, neurological, or respiratory symptoms. Elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation function, and cardiac injury contribute to the diagnosis of MIS-C. IVIG and methylprednisolone were the primary treatments for MIS-C, and a favorable short-term prognosis was observed during a follow-up period of more than 3 months.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronary Artery Disease , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Connective Tissue Diseases , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202893, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518725

ABSTRACT

El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico (MIS-C, por su sigla en inglés) es una enfermedad rara. Se desconoce si los niños que se recuperaron del MIS-C tienen riesgo de recurrencia de MIS-C cuando presentan reinfección por SARS-CoV-2. El objetivo de este estudio es describir los casos de dos niñas que se recuperaron del MIS-C y presentaron reinfección por SARS-CoV-2 sin recurrencia de MIS-C.


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare condition. It is still unknown if children who have recovered from MIS-C are at a risk of recurrence of MIS-C when they are reinfected with SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we aimed to report 2 children who recovered from MIS-C and reinfected with SARS-CoV-2 without recurrence of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
4.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 865, 30 Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La sepsis es un estado de disfunción multisistémica, que se produce por una respuesta desregulada del huésped a la infección. Diversos factores influyen en la gravedad, manifestaciones clínicas y progresión de la sepsis, tales como, heterogeneidad inmunológica y regulación dinámica de las vías de señalización celular. La evolución de los pacientes depende del tratamiento oportuno, las escalas de puntuación clínica permiten saber la mortalidad estimada. OBJETIVO. Evaluar la mortalidad en la unidad de cuidados intensivos; establecer el manejo y la utilidad de aplicar paquetes de medidas o "bundlers" para evitar la progresión a disfunción, fallo multiorgánico y muerte. METODOLOGÍA. Modalidad de investigación tipo revisión sistemática. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos como Google académico, Mendeley, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, revistas como New England Journal Medicine, Critical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal. Se obtuvo las guías "Sobreviviendo a la sepsis" actualización 2021, 3 guías internacionales, 10 estudios observacionales, 2 estudios multicéntricos, 5 ensayos aleatorizados, 6 revisiones sistémicas, 5 metaanálisis, 1 reporte de caso clínico, 4 artículos con opiniones de expertos y actualizaciones con el tema mortalidad de la sepsis en UCI con un total de 36 artículos científicos. RESULTADOS. La mortalidad de la sepsis en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, fue menor en el hospital oncológico de Guayaquil, seguido de Australia, Alemania, Quito, Francia, Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Vietnan, La mortalidad más alta se observa en pacientes con enfermedades del tejido conectivo. DISCUSIÓN. La aplicación de los paquetes de medidas o "bundlers" en la sepsis, se asocia con una mejor supervivencia y menores días de estancia hospitalaria. CONCLUSIÓN. Las escalas SOFA, APACHE II y SAPS II ayudan a predecir la mortalidad de forma eficiente, en la detección y el tratamiento temprano en pacientes con enfermedades agudas y de alto riesgo.


INTRODUCTION. Sepsis is a state of multisystem dysfunction, which is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Several factors influence the severity, clinical manifestations and progression of sepsis, such as immunological heterogeneity and dynamic regulation of cell signaling pathways. The evolution of patients depends on timely treatment, clinical scoring scales allow to know the estimated mortality. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate mortality in the intensive care unit; to establish the management and usefulness of applying bundlers to prevent progression to dysfunction, multiorgan failure and death. METHODOLOGY. Systematic review type research modality. A bibliographic search was carried out in databases such as Google Scholar, Mendeley, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, journals such as New England Journal Medicine, Critical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal. We obtained the guidelines "Surviving Sepsis" update 2021, 3 international guidelines, 10 observational studies, 2 multicenter studies, 5 randomized trials, 6 systemic reviews, 5 meta-analyses, 1 clinical case report, 4 articles with expert opinions and updates on the subject of sepsis mortality in ICU with a total of 36 scientific articles. RESULTS. The mortality of sepsis in the intensive care unit, was lower in the oncological hospital of Guayaquil, followed by Australia, Germany, Quito, France, United States of America and Vietnam, The highest mortality is observed in patients with connective tissue diseases. DISCUSSION. The application of bundlers in sepsis is associated with better survival and shorter days of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS. The SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II scales help to predict mortality efficiently in the early detection and treatment of patients with acute and high-risk disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tertiary Healthcare , Hospital Mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Sepsis , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Intensive Care Units , Vasodilator Agents , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Ecuador , Hypotension , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Organ Failure
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 685-688, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical features and treatment strategies of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of four children with MIS-C who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Xuzhou Children's Hospital, Xuzhou Medical Universityfrom January to February 2023.@*RESULTS@#All four children had multiple organ involvements and elevated inflammatory markers, with a poor response to standard therapy for Kawasaki disease after admission. Two children were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy pulse therapy twice, and all four children were treated with glucocorticoids. The children had a good prognosis after the treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MIS-C often appears within 4-6 weeks or a longer time after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and anti-inflammatory therapy in addition to the standard treatment regimen for Kawasaki disease can help to achieve a favorable treatment outcome.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 47-57, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971663

ABSTRACT

Sepsis-induced uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a critical cause of multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications associated with an extremely high mortality rate in SIRS, and it lacked simple, safe, and effective treatment strategies. Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv (LLB) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic nephritis. However, it remains unclear whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects LPS-induced AKI. To identify the molecular mechanisms of LLB in LPS-induced HK-2 cells and mice, LLB was prepared by extraction with 70% methanol, while a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HK-2 cell model and an AKI model were established in this study. Renal histopathology staining was performed to observe the morphology changes. The cell supernatant and kidney tissues were collected for determining the levels of inflammatory factors and protein expression by ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. The results indicated that LLB significantly reduced the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced HK-2 cells, as well as the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the supernatant. The same results were observed in LPS-induced AKI serum. Further studies revealed that LLB remarkably improved oxidative stress and apoptosis based on the content of MDA, SOD, and CAT in serum and TUNEL staining results. Notably, LLB significantly reduced the mortality due to LPS infection. Renal histopathology staining results supported these results. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and Western blot results confirmed that LLB significantly reduced the expression of the protein related to the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 which were significantly increased through LPS stimulation. These findings clearly demonstrated the potential use of LLB in the treatment of AKI and the crucial role of the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway in the process through which LLB attenuates AKI induced by LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1086-1091, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013229

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 in China, and to improve the understanding of MIS-C among pediatricians. Methods: Case series study.Collect the clinical characteristics, auxiliary examinations, treatment decisions, and prognosis of 64 patients with MIS-C from 9 hospitals in China from December 2022 to June 2023. Results: Among the 64 MIS-C patients, 36 were boys and 28 were girls, with an onset age being 2.8 (0.3, 14.0) years. All patients suffered from fever, elevated inflammatory indicators, and multiple system involvement. Forty-three patients (67%) were involved in more than 3 systems simultaneously, including skin mucosa 60 cases (94%), blood system 52 cases (89%), circulatory system 54 cases (84%), digestive system 48 cases (75%), and nervous system 24 cases (37%). Common mucocutaneous lesions included rash 54 cases (84%) and conjunctival congestion and (or) lip flushing 45 cases (70%). Hematological abnormalities consisted of coagulation dysfunction 48 cases (75%), thrombocytopenia 9 cases (14%), and lymphopenia 8 cases (13%). Cardiovascular lesions mainly affected cardiac function, of which 11 patients (17%) were accompanied by hypotension or shock, and 7 patients (12%) had coronary artery dilatation.Thirty-six patients (56%) had gastrointestinal symptoms, 23 patients (36%) had neurological symptoms. Forty-five patients (70%) received the initial treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin in combination with glucocorticoids, 5 patients (8%) received the methylprednisolone pulse therapy and 2 patients (3%) treated with biological agents, 7 patients with coronary artery dilation all returned to normal within 6 months. Conclusions: MIS-C patients are mainly characterized by fever, high inflammatory response, and multiple organ damage. The preferred initial treatment is intravenous immunoglobulin combined with glucocorticoids. All patients have a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Connective Tissue Diseases , Coronary Aneurysm , Fever , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
8.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e204, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420116

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características de ocho pacientes pediátricos que se presentaron con síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (MIS-C) asociado a SARS-CoV-2 y compromiso cardíaco. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de ocho pacientes con edades entre 1 y 13 años, con diagnóstico de MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, asistidos en el CHPR. Se analiza su historia clínica, evolución y tratamiento. Resultados: los pacientes presentaron fiebre en el 100%, exantema e hiperemia conjuntival en el 88%, síntomas digestivos en el 50%, insuficiencia respiratoria en el 25% y shock en el 50%. Todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. La alteración de la contractilidad cardíaca estuvo presente en el 63% de los pacientes, fue leve y segmentaria en el 80%, el 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por 3 días, recuperando una función normal en 7 días. La insuficiencia mitral se presentó en el 25% y el derrame pericárdico en el 38%, ambos de grado leve. Un paciente presentó dilatación de arterias coronarias con Z score < 2. El 85% de los pacientes presentó alteraciones del ECG, en el 29% se trató de alteración en la repolarización, en el 29% intervalo QTc prolongado, en el 15% bloqueo atrioventricular de 1er grado y bloqueo incompleto de rama derecha. Un paciente tuvo fibrilación auricular por 3 días con remisión espontánea a ritmo sinusal. Las troponinas estuvieron altas en el 57% de los pacientes y el ProBNP elevado en el 100%. Todos recibieron inmunoglobulinas, metilprednisolona y aspirina. Conclusiones: se presentaron ocho pacientes pediátricos con MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, el 50% se presentó en shock, todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. El 85% presento alteraciones en el ECG. El 63% presentó compromiso de la contractilidad sectorial y leve, se normalizó en 7 días. El 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por una media de 3 días.


Objective: describe the characteristics of 8 children who presented Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome associated with SARS-CoV2 infections (MIS-C) and cardiac involvement. Material and methods: descriptive, retrospective study of 8 patients of between 1 and 13 years of age, diagnosed with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, assisted at the Pereira Rossell Children Hospital, analysis of their medical records, evolution and treatment. Results: the patients showed: fever in 100% of the cases, rash and conjunctival hyperemia in 88%, digestive symptoms in 50%, respiratory failure in 25% and shock in 50%. All required admission to Intensive Care. Cardiac contractility alteration was present in 63% of patients, the affectation was mild and segmental in 80%, 60% required inotropic support for 3 days and recovered normal functions in 7 days. Mitral regurgitation was present in 25% of the cases and pericardial effusion in 38%, mild in both cases. One patient had dilated coronary arteries with a Z score <2. 85% of the patients presented ECG abnormalities, 29% present alteration of repolarization, 29% prolonged QTc, 15% 1st degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block. One patient had atrial fibrillation for 3 days with spontaneous remission to sinus rhythm. Troponins were increased in 57% of the patients and ProBNP elevated in 100%. All patients received Immunoglobulins, Methylprednisolone and Aspirin. Conclusions: we present eight pediatric patients with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, 50% suffered shock, all required admission to Intensive Care. ECG abnormalities were found in 85% of the patients. Mild and segmental contractility compromise was found in 63% of the patients and normalized in 7 days. 60% required inotropic support for a mean of 3 days.


Objetivo: descrever as características de 8 pacientes pediátricos que apresentaram Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica (MIS-C) associada ao SARS-CoV-2 e comprometimento cardíaco. Material e métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, de oito pacientes com idade entre 1 e 13 anos, com diagnóstico de MIS-C e comprometimento cardíaco, assistidos pelo CHPR. Seu prontuário médico, evolução e tratamento são analisados. Resultados: os pacientes apresentaram febre em 100%, erupção cutânea e hiperemia conjuntival em 88%, sintomas digestivos em 50%, insuficiência respiratória em 25% e choque em 50%. Todos necessitaram de internação nos cuidados intensivos. A alteração da contratilidade cardíaca esteve presente em 63% dos pacientes, foi leve e segmentar em 80%, 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por 3 dias, recuperando a função normal em 7 dias. A regurgitação mitral ocorreu em 25% dos pacientes e o derrame pericárdico em 38%, ambos de grau leve. Um paciente apresentou dilatação da artéria coronária com escore Z < 2. 85% dos pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ECG, 29% foram alterações de repolarização, 29% intervalo QTc prolongado em bloqueio atrioventricular de 1º grau a 15% e bloqueio incompleto do ramo direito. Um paciente apresentou fibrilação atrial por 3 dias com remissão espontânea ao ritmo sinusal. As troponinas foram elevadas em 57% dos doentes e ProBNP elevado em 100%. Todos receberam imunoglobulinas, Metilprednisolona e aspirina. Conclusões: houve oito pacientes pediátricos com SMIM-C e comprometimento cardíaco, 50% em choque, todos necessitaram de internação em terapia intensiva. 85% apresentaram elevações no ECG. 63% apresentaram comprometimento setorial e de contratilidade leve, normalizados em 7 dias. 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por uma média de 3 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e207, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439319

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en marzo del 2021 se registró el pico de incidencia de COVID-19 en Uruguay y un aumento de la infección en pediatría. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, el tratamiento y la evolución de una serie de menores de 15 años con SIM-Ped S hospitalizados en dos centros de salud. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de los niños hospitalizados entre el 1/3 y el 31/6 de 2021 que cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos de SIM-Ped de la OMS. Se analizan variables clínicas, paraclínicas, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: se incluyeron 12 niños, mediana de edad 7 años (22 meses-10 años). Se presentaron complicación posinfecciosas en 8 y en el curso de la infección en 4. Las manifestaciones fueron: fiebre (media 6 días, rango 3-10), digestivas 10 y mucocutáneas 7. Se presentaron como enfermedad Kawasaki símil 5 y como shock 2. La infección por SARS CoV-2 se confirmó por PCR en 6, serología 4 y test antigénico 2. Recibieron tratamiento en cuidados moderados 8 e intensivos 4: inmunoglobulina 9, corticoides 11, heparina 7 y ácido acetilsalicílico 7. Presentaron dilatación de arterias coronarias 2, alteraciones valvulares 2, disminución de la FEVI 2 y derrame pericárdico 2. Todos evolucionaron favorablemente. Conclusiones: en estos centros, los primeros casos de SIMS-Ped S coincidieron con el pico de incidencia de COVID-19 en el país. Predominaron las formas postinfecciosas en escolares con manifestaciones digestivas. Este estudio puede contribuir al reconocimiento de esta entidad y adecuar los algoritmos nacionales de manejo.


Introduction: in March 2021, there was a peak incidence of COVID-19 and an increase in pediatric infections in Uruguay. Objective: describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and evolution of a group of children under 15 years of age with SIM-Ped S hospitalized in two health centers. Methodology: descriptive, retrospective study of children hospitalized between 3/1 and 6/31 of 2021 who met the WHO diagnostic criteria for SIM-Ped. Clinical and paraclinical variables, as well as treatment and evolution were analyzed. Results: 12 children were included, median age 7 years (22 months-10 years). Eight of them showed post-infectious complications and 4 of them had complications during the course of the infection. The manifestations were: fever (mean 6 days, range 3-10), digestive symptoms 10 and mucocutaneous 7. Five of them presented a Kawasaki-like disease and 2 of them shock. SARS CoV-2 infection was confirmed by PCR in 6 cases, serology in 4 and antigenic test in 2. Eight of them received treatment in moderate care and 4 of them in intensive care: immunoglobulin 9, corticosteroids 11, heparin 7 and acetylsalicylic acid 7. Two of them presented dilated arteries coronary , valvular alterations 2, decreased LVEF 2 and pericardial effusion 2. All progressed favorably. Conclusions: in these centers, the first cases of SIMS-Ped S coincided with the peak incidence of COVID-19 in the country. Post-infectious forms predominated in schoolchildren who showed digestive manifestations. This study may contribute to the recognition of this entity and to the adaptation of national management algorithms.


Introdução: em março de 2021, foi registrado no Uruguai um pico de incidência da COVID-19 e um aumento dos casos da infecção pediátrica. Objetivo: descrever as características clínicas, tratamento e evolução de uma série de crianças menores de 15 anos com SIM-Ped S internadas em dois centros de saúde. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, de crianças internadas entre 1/3 e 31/6 de 2021 que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos da OMS para o SIM-Ped. Foram analisadas variáveis clínicas e para-clinicas, tratamento e evolução. Resultados: foram incluídas 12 crianças, com idade média de 7 anos (22 meses-10 anos). Oito delas apresentaram complicações pós-infecciosas e 4 delas durante o curso da infecção. As manifestações foram: febre (média de 6 dias, intervalo 3-10), digestivas 10 e mucocutânea 7. Cinco delas apresentaram doença de Kawasaki-like e 2 delas sofreram Shock. A infecção por SARS CoV-2 foi confirmada por PCR em 6, sorologia em 4 e teste antigênico em 2. Oito delas receberam tratamento em cuidados moderados e 4 delas em cuidados intensivos: imunoglobulina 9, corticosteroides 11, heparina 7 e ácido acetilsalicílico 7. Duas delas apresentaram artérias coronárias dilatadas 2, alterações valvares 2, diminuição da FEVE 2 e derrame pericárdico 2. Todas evoluíram favoravelmente. Conclusões: nesses centros, os primeiros casos de SIMS-Ped S coincidiram com um pico de incidência de COVID-19 no país. As formas pós-infecciosas predominaram em escolares com manifestações digestivas. Este estudo pode contribuir para o reconhecimento desta entidade e adaptar algoritmos nacionais de gestão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Fever/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Symptom Assessment , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy
10.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(2): e216, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1520116

ABSTRACT

El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico asociado a COVID-19 es una presentación postinfecciosa, que puede ser particularmente grave, pudiendo producir una severa disfunción multiorgánica. Se presenta una serie de 6 casos clínicos, asistidos en Servicio Médico Integral, Montevideo-Uruguay, con el fin de exponer las características clínicas y paraclínicas de este nuevo síndrome, y la evolución clínica de los mismos. Se realiza un estudio observacional descriptivo. La edad media fue de 6 años, con predominio en sexo femenino. Estos pacientes tuvieron una presentación clínica leve a moderada, con buena evolución Las manifestaciones clínicas principales fueron: fiebre, compromiso gastrointestinal, mucocutáneo y afectación ocular; dos de estos pacientes presentaron compromiso cardiovascular. Todos tuvieron alteraciones en la paraclínica, destacándose reactantes de fase aguda elevados. Todos los pacientes recibieron inmunoglobulina intravenosa y corticoides, tres de ellos recibieron heparina de bajo peso molecular por valor de D-dímeros 5 veces por encima del valor de referencia. No descartamos el impacto del diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz en la buena evolución de estos niños.


The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome associated with COVID-19 is a postinfectious presentation, which can be particularly serious, and can produce severe multiorgan dysfunction. A report of 6 clinical cases, assisted in the Comprehensive Medical Service, Montevideo-Uruguay, is presented in order to expose the clinical and paraclinical characteristics of this new syndrome, and their clinical evolution. A descriptive observational study was carried out. The mean age was 6 years, with a predominance of females. These patients had a mild to moderate clinical presentation, with good evolution. The main clinical manifestations were: fever, gastrointestinal and mucocutaneous involvement, and ocular involvement; two of these patients had cardiovascular compromise. All had alterations in the paraclinical, standing out elevated acute phase reactants. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids, three of them received low molecular weight heparin with a value of D-dimers 5 times higher than the reference value. We do not rule out the impact of early diagnosis and treatment on the positive evolution of these children.


A Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica associada à COVID-19 é uma apresentação pósinfecciosa, que pode ser particularmente grave e produzir disfunção grave de múltiplos órgãos. Apresentamos um relato de 6 casos clínicos, atendidos no Serviço Médico Integral, Montevidéu-Uruguai, com o objetivo de expor as características clínicas e para clínicas desta nova síndrome, e sua evolução clínica. Tratase de um estudo observacional descritivo. A média de idade foi de 6 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino. Esses pacientes tinham apresentação clínica leve a moderada, com boa evolução. As principais manifestações clínicas foram: febre, envolvimento gastrointestinal, muco cutâneo e ocular; dois desses pacientes apresentaram comprometimento cardiovascular. Todos apresentavam alterações para clínicas, destacandose elevados reagentes na fase aguda. Todos os pacientes receberam imunoglobulina e corticosteroides endovenosos, três deles receberam heparina de baixo peso molecular com valor do dímero D 5 vezes acima do valor de referência. Não descartamos o impacto do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces na evolução positiva dessas crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications
12.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e316, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1411568

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) causada por la infección por SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) se ha extendido por todo el mundo desde diciembre de 2019. Luego de la primera ola de COVID-19, se reporta por primera vez en mayo de 2020 en el Reino Unido un estado hiperinflamatorio asociado temporalmente a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en un grupo de niños ingresados a unidades de cuidado intensivo pediátrico. Este nuevo fenotipo, con características similares a la enfermedad de Kawasaki y al síndrome del shock tóxico, se ha denominado síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños (MIS-C). Es fundamental la sospecha y el reconocimiento tempranos de esta entidad, con el fin de ofrecer un tratamiento médico oportuno, para prevenir la muerte y el desarrollo de secuelas. Presentamos el caso de una preescolar de 5 años, en la que se realizó diagnóstico de MIS-C con un fenotipo shock e íleo paralítico.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the infection by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has spread worldwide since December 2019. After the first wave of COVID-19, a hyperinflammatory condition temporarily associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection appeared in a group of children admitted to pediatric intensive care units and reported for the first time in May 2020 in the United Kingdom. This new phenotype shared characteristics with the Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome and has been called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Early suspicion and recognition of this condition is key in order to offer timely medical treatment to prevent death and the development of sequelae. We present the case of a 5-year-old child, in which diagnosis of MIS-C with a shock phenotype and paralytic ileus.


A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) causada pela infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (síndrome respiratória aguda grave coronavírus 2) se espalhou pelo mundo desde dezembro de 2019. Após a primeira onda de COVID-19, houve relatos pela primeira vez em maio de 2020 no Reino Unido duma doença hiperinflamatória temporariamente associada à infecção por SARS-CoV-2 num grupo de crianças internadas em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Esse novo fenótipo com características semelhantes à doença de Kawasaki e a síndrome do choque tóxico foi chamado de síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica em crianças (MIS-C). A suspeita precoce e o reconhecimento dessa entidade são essenciais, a fim de oferecer tratamento médico oportuno, para prevenir a morte e o desenvolvimento de sequelas. Apresentamos o caso de uma menina pré-escolar de 5 anos que foi diagnosticada com MIS-C com fenótipo de choque e íleo paralítico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Shock, Septic/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
13.
Florianópolis; SES/SC; 08 nov. 2022. 24 p. ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SC | ID: biblio-1417404

ABSTRACT

Desde abril de 2020, em vários países da Europa, América do Norte e inclusive no Brasil, foram identificados casos de crianças e adolescentes com uma nova apresentação clínica associada à Covid-19 e caracterizada por um quadro inflamatório tardio e exacerbado, denominada em português como Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P). Evidências posteriores mostram que, em casos raros, indivíduos adultos (acima dos 20 anos) também podem desenvolver uma síndrome semelhante, associada à infecção atual ou anterior pelo SARS-CoV-2.1-3. Relatos desses pacientes destacam o reconhecimento de uma síndrome hiperinflamatória multissistêmica em adultos, com heterogeneidade de sinais e sintomas clínicos.4 A maioria dos pacientes apresenta febre e hipotensão e uma pequena parcela pode apresentar sintomas similares à síndrome de Kawasaki, síndrome de ativação macrofágica e síndrome do choque tóxico.5 No Brasil, a síndrome foi nomeada de Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica em Adultos (SIM-A). Alguns casos suspeitos dessa condição já foram identificados no país e notificados voluntariamente pelos profissionais de saúde da assistência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 310-316, oct. 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1390872

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El compromiso renal (CR) en niñosinternados con enfermedad por coronavirus2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) varía entre el 1,2 % y el 44 %. Dado que existe limitada información local, el objetivo primario de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de CR en nuestro medio. Población y métodos. Estudio transversalrealizado en 13 centros de Argentina entre marzo y diciembre de 2020. Se incluyeron pacientes internados con COVID-19, de 1 mes a 18 años y que tuvieran al menos una determinación de creatinina sérica y/o de orina completa.Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad renal conocida. Se consideró CR la presencia de lesión renal aguda (LRA), proteinuria, hematuria, leucocituria y/o hipertensión arterial (HTA). Resultados. De 528 historias clínicas elegibles, seincluyeron las de 423 pacientes (el 55,0 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad 5,3 años). El cuadro clínico fue asintomático en el 31 %, leve en el 39,7 %, moderado en el 23,9 %, grave en el 1,2 %, crítico en el 0,7 %, y el 3,5 % presentó síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico (SIMP). Dos pacientes (0,47 %) fallecieron. La prevalencia de CR fue del 10,8 % (intervalo de confianza 95% 8,2-14,2), expresada por leucocituria (16,9 %), proteinuria (16,0 %), hematuria (13,2 %), HTA (3,7 %) y LRA (2,3 %). Ninguno requirió diálisis. Presentar CR se asoció (p <0,0001) con formas graves de enfermedad. Conclusión. La prevalencia de CR en pacientes pediátricos internados con COVID-19 en 13 centros de nuestro país fue del 10,8 % y predominó en las formas clínicas graves.


Introduction. Renal involvement among pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges between 1.2% and 44%. Given the limited information available locally, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of renal involvement in our setting. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study conducted in 13 Argentine sites between March and December 2020. Patients aged 1 month to 18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 and with at least one measurement of serum creatinine and/or a urinalysis were included. Those with a known kidney disease were excluded. Renal involvement was defined as the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and/or arterial hypertension (HTN). Results. Among 528 eligible medical records, 423 patients were included (55.0% were males; median age: 5.3 years). The clinical presentation was asymptomatic in 31%; mild, in 39.7%; moderate, in 23.9%; severe, in 1.2%; critical, in 0.7%; and 3.5% had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Two patients (0.47%) died. The prevalence of renal involvement was 10.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.2­14.2); it was described as leukocyturia (16.9%), proteinuria (16.0%), hematuria (13.2%), HTN (3.7%), and AKI (2.3%). No patient required dialysis. Renal involvement was associated with severe forms of disease (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. The prevalence of renal involvement among pediatric patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in 13 Argentine sites was 10.8%; severe forms of disease prevailed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Creatinine , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematuria/etiology , Hematuria/epidemiology
15.
Florianópolis; Secretaria de Estado de Saúde; set. 27, 2022. 28 p tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | SES-SC, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1415261

ABSTRACT

Este relatório refere-se à análise crítica da Nota Técnica do Ministério da Saúde nº 38/2022-DEIDT/SVS/MS1 apresentada pela DIVE/SES/SC para a elaboração de um Protocolo Estadual de Atendimento para Casos Suspeitos ou Confirmados de Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica em Adultos (SIM-A) associada à Covid-19. Na Nota Técnica emitida pelo Ministério da Saúde consta uma breve contextualização, objetivos da notificação, quadro clínico de SIM-A, definições de casos, exames complementares, exames específicos para COVID-19, manejo clínico, notificação e registro. Este relatório visa avaliar e emitir um parecer técnico embasado em evidências científicas sobre a disponibilização do medicamento Imunoglobulina Humana intravenosa (IGHIV) para o tratamento de SIM-A, fluxo de acesso ao medicamento e avaliação do impacto orçamentário, para posterior elaboração de um Protocolo Estadual para esta síndrome, destinado aos profissionais da saúde, pacientes e gestores do estado de Santa Catarina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , State Government , Clinical Protocols , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): e183-e186, Agosto 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1379148

ABSTRACT

Las encefalitis son cuadros clínicos frecuentes en la edad pediátrica. Pueden dividirse en aquellas causadas por la infección del sistema nervioso central y en las de etiología inmunomediada (algunas de las cuales pueden ser para- o posinfecciosas). En marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la pandemia por el coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés). Los reportes pediátricos de enfermedad por dicho agente describen una amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas: compromiso respiratorio, gastrointestinal, síntomas neurológicos, entre otros; y el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico asociado a COVID-19 (SIM-C). Describimos el caso de un niño de 2 años con diagnóstico de encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor N-metil-d-aspartato (anti-NMDAR), en quien se comprobó, mediante serología, una infección reciente por SARS-CoV-2. La presencia de marcadores serológicos positivos para SARS-CoV-2 en un paciente que presentó encefalitis por anticuerpos anti-NMDAR podría interpretarse como una asociación temporal, estableciéndose la posibilidad de que el virus haya actuado como gatillo de una enfermedad autoinmunitaria.


Encephalitis are frequent clinical pictures in pediatric age. They can be divided into those caused by infection of the central nervous system and those of immune-mediated etiology (some of which may be para- or post-infectious). In March 2020, the WHO declared a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatric reports of disease caused by this agent describe a wide range of clinical manifestations: respiratory and gastrointestinal compromise, neurological symptoms, among others; and a multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C).We describe the case of a 2-year-old boy with a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis, in whom a recent SARSCoV-2 infection was serologically proven. The presence of positive serological markers for SARS-CoV-2 in a patient who presented encephalitis due to anti-NMDAR antibodies could be interpreted as a temporal association; establishing the possibility that the virus has acted as a trigger for an autoimmune disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Encephalitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e147-e150, junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370740

ABSTRACT

El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños y adolescentes relacionado temporalmente con la COVID-19 (SIM-C) es una entidad poco frecuente en pediatría, que emerge en relación con la pandemia por el coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) y fue descripto por primera vez en mayo de 2020. Debido al escaso tiempo de evolución de esta enfermedad, hay aspectos sobre su fisiopatología, pronóstico y posibilidad de recurrencia, que aún se desconocen. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 12 años que cursó un cuadro compatible con SIM-C en enero de 2021, con buena evolución clínica posterior. Luego presentó una reinfección por SARS-CoV-2 a los 5 meses de la infección inicial (junio de 2021), con síntomas leves y sin recurrencia del SIM-C.


The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19 (MIS-C) is a rare disease in pediatrics, which emerges related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was initially described in May 2020. Given the short time of evolution of this disease, little is known about the pathophysiology, prognosis, and the possibility of recurrence. We present a clinical case of a 12-year-old patient who presented symptoms compatible with MIS-C in January 2021, with good subsequent clinical evolution. He developed reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 at five months later (June 2021), with mild symptoms and without recurrence of MIS-C


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Reinfection
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 80-88, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363652

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La evidencia actual indica que la gravedad de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es menor en la población pediátrica, los datos locales aún son limitados. Objetivo: caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por COVID-19 en menores de 18 años en Argentina. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional y analítico de casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 0 y 18 años asistidos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021 en 19 centros pediátricos de referencia de Argentina. Se realizó un análisis multivariado para identificar las variables predictoras de cuadros graves. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2690 casos de COVID-19: 77,7 % residentes del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 50,1 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad de 5,6 años. El 90 % ocurrió entre las semanas epidemiológicas 20-47 del 2020; 60,4 % con antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19; y 96,6 % en el entorno familiar. El 51,4 % presentó síntomas respiratorios; 61,6 % síntomas generales; 18,8 % síntomas gastrointestinales; 17,1 % síntomas neurológicos; 7,2 % otros y 21,5 % fueron asintomáticos. El 59,4 % fue hospitalizado; 7,4 fueron graves o críticos. Se registraron 57 casos de síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico. El antecedente de asma, displasia broncopulmonar, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición moderada a grave, obesidad, enfermedad neurológica crónica y/o edad menor de 6 meses resultaron predictores independientes de gravedad. Residir en barrios vulnerables resultó protector. Conclusiones. Más de la mitad de los casos refirieron antecedente de contacto con personas con COVID-19 en el entorno familiar. La hospitalización no respondió a criterios clínicos de gravedad. La gravedad se encuentra asociada a la existencia de ciertas comorbilidades.


Introduction. The current evidence indicates that the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lower in the pediatric population but local data are still limited. Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 infection in patients younger than 18 years in Argentina. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational, and analytical study of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 0-18 years seen between March 2020 and March 2021 at 19 referral children's hospitals of Argentina. A multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of severe cases. Results. A total of 2690 COVID-19 cases were included: 77.7% lived in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires; 50.1% were males; patients' median age was 5.6 years. Of them, 90% were seen during epidemiological weeks 20-47 of 2020; 60.4% had a history of contact with COVID-19 patients; and 96.6% in their family setting. Also, 51.4% had respiratory symptoms; 61.6%, general symptoms; 18.8%, gastrointestinal symptoms; 17.1%, neurological symptoms; 7.2%, other symptoms; and 21.5% were asymptomatic. In addition, 59.4% of patients were hospitalized and 7.4% had a severe or critical course. A total of 57 patients developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome. A history of asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, moderate to severe malnutrition, obesity, chronic neurological disease and/or age younger than 6 months were independent predictors of severity.Livinginavulnerableneighborhoodwas a protective factor. Conclusions. More than half of cases referred a history of contact with COVID-19 patients in the family setting. Hospitalization was not based on clinical criteria of severity. Severity was associated with the presence of certain comorbidities


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , Preliminary Data
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 216-222, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928590

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a type of hyperinflammatory symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is commonly observed in children aged 8-10 years. Primary therapeutic medications for MIS-C are intravenous immunoglobulins and glucocorticoids. It has been reported that biologics, such as IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, and TNF-α receptor antagonist infliximab, can be used as an option for critically ill patients. This article elaborates on the mechanism of action of the above biologics and discusses the efficacy and safety biologics in the treatment of MIS-C after SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to provide methods for the treatment of MIS-C with severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Biological Products , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe1): e311, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1393872

ABSTRACT

En Uruguay, la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha generado menos afectación en pacientes de la edad pediátrica, aumentando el número de casos positivos en este grupo etario de forma proporcional al aumento de la circulación del virus. La forma de presentación es generalmente asintomática o con síntomas respiratorios leves a moderados. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico postinfección por SARS-CoV-2 (SIM-C) ha sido descrito como una de las principales complicaciones postinfección. Se describe el primer caso de un paciente con SIM-C en la ciudad de Paysandú, Uruguay. Se trata de un escolar de 6 años que cursó una infección por SARS-CoV-2 un mes previo. Se presenta con un cuadro febril de 4 días de evolución asociado a lesiones de piel e inyección conjuntival y odinofagia, con parámetros inflamatorios elevados y afectación cardiológica. Se traslada a CTI local con buena evolución posterior. El alto índice de sospecha de SIM-C mejora el diagnóstico y en consecuencia la morbimortalidad de la enfermedad.


Summary: In Uruguay, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected the pediatric population less and the number of positive cases in this age group has increased proportionally to the rise of the virus circulation. The presentation is generally asymptomatic or with mild to moderate respiratory symptoms. Post-Infection Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome by SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) has been described as one of the main post-infection complications. We describe the first case of a patient with MIS-C in the city of Paysandú, Uruguay. It is a 6-year-old schoolboy who had had a SARS-CoV-2 infection a month earlier. He showed a 4-day history of fever associated with skin lesions and conjunctival injection and odynophagia, with high inflammatory parameters and cardiac involvement. He was transferred to a local ICU and had a good subsequent evolution. The high index of suspicion of MIS-C improves the diagnosis and consequently the morbidity and mortality rates of the disease.


No Uruguai, a pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 gerou menos afetação em pacientes pediátricos, e o número de casos positivos nessa faixa etária aumentou proporcionalmente ao aumento da circulação do vírus. A forma de apresentação é geralmente assintomática ou com sintomas respiratórios leves a moderados. A Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica Pós-Infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) tem sido descrita como uma das principais complicações pós-infecção. Descreve-se o primeiro caso de paciente com MIS-C na cidade de Paysandú, Uruguai. Ele é um estudante de 6 anos de idade que tinha tido uma infecção por SARS-CoV-2 um mês antes. Apresentou história de febre de 4 dias associada a lesões cutâneas e hiperemia conjuntival e odinofagia, com parâmetros inflamatórios elevados e envolvimento cardiológico. Foi transferido para uma UTI local com boa evolução posterior. O alto índice de suspeita de MIS-C melhora o diagnóstico e, consequentemente, a morbimortalidade da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
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