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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 451-457, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020508


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the aortic wall elasticity using the maximal rate of systolic distension (MRSD) and maximal rate of diastolic recoil (MRDR) and their correlation with the aortic size index (ASI). Methods: Forty-eight patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm were enrolled in this study. A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was used to calculate MRSD and MRDR. Both MRSD and MRDR were expressed as percentile of maximal area/10-3 sec. ASI (maximal aortic diameter/body surface area) was calculated. A correlation between MRSD, MRDR, ASI, and the patient's age was performed using regression plot. Results: A significant correlation between MRSD (t=-4,36; r2=0.29; P≤0.0001), MRDR (t=3.92; r2=0.25; P=0.0003), and ASI (25±4.33 mm/m2; range 15,48-35,14 mm/m2) is observed. As ASI increases, aortic MRSD and MRDR decrease. Such inverse correlation between MRSD, MRDR, and ASI indicates increased stiffness of the ascending aorta. A significant correlation between the patient's age and the decrease in MRSD and MRDR is observed. Conclusion: MRSD and MRDR are significantly correlated with ASI and the patient's age. They seem to describe properly the increasing stiffness of aortas. These two new indexes provide a promising, accessible, and reproducible approach to evaluate the biomechanical property of the aorta.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Systole/physiology , Diastole/physiology , Dilatation, Pathologic , Elasticity
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 392-398, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950084


ABSTRACT Objective: Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH), especially the mild form of ScH, is controversial because thyroid hormones influence cardiac function. We investigate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in ScH and evaluate the effect of 5-month levothyroxine treatment. Subjects and methods: Fifty-four patients with newly diagnosed mild ScH (4.2 <TSH < 10.0 mU/L) and 30 euthyroid subjects matched by age were analysed. Laboratory analyses and an echocardiography study were done at the first visit and after 5 months in euthyroid stage in patients with ScH. Results: Compared to healthy controls, patients with ScH had a lower E/A ratio (1.03 ± 0.29 vs. 1.26 ± 0.36, p < 0.01), higher E/e' sep. ratio (762 ± 2.29 vs. 6.04 ± 1.64, p < 0.01), higher myocardial performance index (MPI) (0.47 ± 0.08 vs. 0.43 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), lower global longitudinal strain (GLS) (-19.5 ± 2.3 vs. −20.9 ± 1.7%, p < 0.05), and lower S wave derived by tissue Doppler imaging (0.077 ± 0.013 vs. 0.092 ± 0.011 m/s, p < 0.01). Levothyroxine treatment in patients with ScH contributed to higher EF (62.9 ± 3.9 vs. 61.6 ± 4.4%, p < 0.05), lower E/e' sep. ratio (6.60 ± 2.06 vs. 762 ± 2.29, p < 0.01), lower MPI (0.43 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.08%, p < 0.01), and improved GLS (-20.07 ± 2.7 vs. −19.55 ± 2.3%, p < 0.05) compared to values in ScH patients at baseline. Furthermore, in all study populations (ScH patients before and after levothyroxine therapy and controls), TSH levels significantly negatively correlated with EF (r = −0.15, p < 0.05), E/A (r = −0.14, p < 0.05), GLS (r = −0.26, p < 0.001), and S/TDI (r = −0.22, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with E/e' sep. (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism versus healthy individuals had subtle changes in certain parameters that indicate involvement of systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Although the values of the parameters were in normal range, they were significantly different compared to ScH and the control group at baseline, as well as to the ScH groups before and after treatment.The results of our study suggest that patients with ScH must be followed up during treatment to assess improvement of the disease. Some of the echocardiography obtained parameters were reversible after levothyroxine therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Systole/drug effects , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Diastole/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Systole/physiology , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Thyroxine/blood , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed , Diastole/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888046


Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.

Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/blood , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 231-239, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888029


Abstract Background: Despite significant advances in understanding the pathophysiology and management of asthma, some of systemic effects of asthma are still not well defined. Objectives: To compare heart function, baseline physical activity level, and functional exercise capacity in young patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and healthy controls. Methods: Eighteen healthy (12.67 ± 0.39 years) and 20 asthmatics (12.0 ± 0.38 years) patients were enrolled in the study. Echocardiography parameters were evaluated using conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Results: Although pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were within normal limits, these parameters differed significantly between the control and asthmatic groups. PAT was lower (p < 0.0001) and PASP (p < 0.0002) was higher in the asthma group (114.3 ± 3.70 ms and 25.40 ± 0.54 mmHg) than the control group (135.30 ± 2.28 ms and 22.22 ± 0.40 mmHg). The asthmatic group had significantly lower early diastolic myocardial velocity (E', p = 0.0047) and lower E' to late (E'/A', p = 0.0017) (13.75 ± 0.53 cm/s and 1.70 ± 0.09, respectively) compared with control group (15.71 ± 0.34 cm/s and 2.12 ± 0.08, respectively) at tricuspid valve. In the lateral mitral valve tissue Doppler, the asthmatic group had lower E' compared with control group (p = 0.0466; 13.27 ± 0.43 cm/s and 14.32 ± 0.25 cm/s, respectively), but there was no statistic difference in the E'/A' ratio (p = 0.1161). Right isovolumetric relaxation time was higher (p = 0.0007) in asthmatic (57.15 ± 0.97 ms) than the control group (52.28 ± 0.87 ms), reflecting global myocardial dysfunction. The right and left myocardial performance indexes were significantly higher in the asthmatic (0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.37 ± 0.01, respectively) compared with control group (0.40 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.01, respectively) (p = 0.0383 and p = 0.0059, respectively). Physical activity level, and distance travelled on the six-minute walk test were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Changes in echocardiographic parameters, evaluated by conventional and TDI, were observed in mild-to-moderate asthma patients even with normal functional exercise capacity and baseline physical activity level. Our results suggest that the echocardiogram may be useful for the early detection and evoluation of asthma-induced cardiac changes.

Resumo Fundamento: Apesar de avanços significativos no entendimento da fisiopatologia e manejo da asma, alguns efeitos sistêmicos da asma ainda não são bem definidos. Objetivos: Comparar a função cardíaca, o nível de atividade física basal, e a capacidade funcional de pacientes jovens com asma leve a moderada com controles saudáveis. Métodos: Dezoito voluntários saudáveis (12,67 ± 0,39 anos) e 20 pacientes asmáticos (12,0 ± 0,38 anos) foram incluídos no estudo. Os parâmetros de ecocardiografia foram avaliados pelo exame de ecocardiogragia com Doppler convencional e tecidual (EDT). Resultados: Apesar de o tempo de aceleração pulmonar (TAP) e da pressão arterial sistólica pulmonar (PASP) encontrarem-se dentro da faixa de normalidade, esses parâmetros foram significativamente diferentes entre o grupo controle e o grupo asmático. O TAP foi menor (p < 0,0001) e a PASP maior (p < 0,0002) no grupo de indivíduos asmáticos (114,3 ± 3,70 ms e 25,40 ± 0,54 mmHg) que o grupo controle (135,30 ± 2,28 ms e 22,22 ± 0,40 mmHg). O grupo asmático apresentou velocidade diastólica inicial do miocárdio (E', p = 0,0047) e relação entre E' e velocidade tardia mais baixas (E'/A', p = 0,0017) (13,75 ± 0,53 cm/s e 1,70 ± 0,09, respectivamente) em comparação ao grupo controle (15,71 ± 0,34 cm/s e 2,12 ± 0,08, respectivamente) na valva tricúspide. No exame Doppler tecidual do anel mitral lateral, o grupo asmático apresentou menor E' em comparação ao grupo controle (p = 0,0466; 13,27 ± 0,43 cm/s e 14,32 ± 0,25 cm/s, respectivamente), mas não houve diferença estatística na razão E'/A' (p = 0,1161). O tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico foi maior no grupo de pacientes asmáticos (57,15 ± 0,97 ms) que no grupo controle (52,28 ± 0,87 ms) (p = 0,0007), refletindo uma disfunção global do miocárdio. O índice de performance miocárdica direito e esquerdo foi significativamente maior no grupo asmático (0,43 ± 0,01 e 0,37 ± 0,01, respectivamente) que no grupo controle (0,40 ± 0,01 e 0,34 ± 0,01, respectivamente) (p = 0,0383 e p = 0,0059 respectivamente). O nível de atividade física e a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foram similares entre os grupos. Conclusão: Mudanças nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos, avaliados pela ecocardiografia convencional e pela EDT foram observadas em pacientes com asma moderada a grave com capacidade funcional e nível de atividade física basal normais. Nossos resultados sugerem que o ecocardiograma pode ser útil para a detecção precoce e a evolução de alterações cardíacas induzidas pela asma. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; 110(3):231-239)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Function/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Quality of Life , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed/methods , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 265-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713094


PURPOSE: Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the presence of microalbuminuria indicate early cardiac and renal dysfunction. We aimed to determine the relationships among 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variables, LV GLS, and urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 130 hypertensive patients (mean age 53 years; 59 men) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, measurements of peripheral and central BPs, and transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with apparent LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction < 50%) or chronic kidney disease were not included. LV GLS was calculated using two-dimensional speckle tracking, and UACR was analyzed from spot urine samples. RESULTS: In simple correlation analysis, LV GLS showed the most significant correlation with mean daytime diastolic BP (DBP) (r=0.427, p < 0.001) among the various BP variables analyzed. UACR revealed a significant correlation only with night-time mean systolic BP (SBP) (r=0.253, p=0.019). In multiple regression analysis, daytime mean DBP and night-time mean SBP were independent determinants for LV GLS (β=0.35, p=0.028) and log UACR (β=0.49, p=0.007), respectively, after controlling for confounding factors. Daytime mean DBP showed better diagnostic performance for impaired LV GLS than did peripheral or central DBPs, which were not diagnostic. Night-time mean SBP showed satisfactory diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: There are different associations for daytime and night-time BP with early cardiac and renal dysfunction. Ambulatory BP monitoring provides more relevant BP parameters than do peripheral or central BPs regarding early cardiac and renal dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Echocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 323-330, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838725


Abstract Background: Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. Objective: To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. Methods: We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. Conclusion: A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions.

Resumo Fundamento: Os treinamentos de força e aeróbio são indicados para o tratamento adjuvante da hipertensão. Entretanto, o número de sessões necessárias até estabilização do efeito hipotensor com o exercício ainda não está claramente estabelecido. Objetivo: Estabelecer a cinética adaptativa das respostas tensionais em função do tempo e do tipo de treinamento em hipertensos. Métodos: Foram recrutados 69 hipertensos com idade média de 63,4 ± 2,1 anos, randomizados em um grupo de treinamento de força (n = 32) e outro de treinamento aeróbio (n = 32). Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e testes de uma repetição máxima (1RM). A pressão arterial (PA) foi medida antes de cada sessão de treinamento com um aparelho de pressão digital de braço. As 50 sessões de treinamento foram categorizadas em quintis. Para comparar o efeito da redução da PA entre os métodos de treinamentos (between), utilizamos análise de covariância (ANCOVA) bifatorial ajustada para os valores de PA pré-intervenção. As diferenças entre os momentos foram estabelecidas por análise de variância (ANOVA) unifatorial. Resultados: As reduções na PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) foram de 6,9 mmHg e 5,3 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento de força e 16,5 mmHg e 11,6 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento aeróbio. A cinética hipotensiva da PAS apresentou reduções significativas até a 20ª sessão em ambos os grupos. Observou-se estabilização da PAD na 20ª sessão com o treinamento de força e na 10ª sessão com o aeróbio. Conclusão: São necessárias 20 sessões de treinamento de força ou aeróbio para alcance dos benefícios máximos de redução da PA. Os métodos investigados proporcionaram padrões cinéticos adaptativos distintos ao longo das 50 sessões.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Resistance Training , Post-Exercise Hypotension/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Kinetics , Analysis of Variance , Diastole/physiology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 75-81, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65060


PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and an important risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated the impact of DM on subclinical CV damage by comprehensive screening protocol in ESRD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiogram, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and central blood pressure with pulse wave velocity (PWV) were performed in 91 ESRD patients from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic disease Etiology Research Center-HIgh risk cohort. RESULTS: The DM group (n=38) had higher systolic blood pressure than the non-DM group (n=53), however, other clinical CV risk factors were not different between two groups. Central aortic systolic pressure (148.7±29.8 mm Hg vs. 133.7±27.0 mm Hg, p= 0.014), PWV (12.1±2.7 m/s vs. 9.4±2.1 m/s, p<0.001), and early mitral inflow to early mitral annulus velocity (16.7±6.4 vs. 13.7±5.9, p=0.026) were higher in the DM group. Although the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) was not different between the DM and the non-DM group (95% vs. 84.4%, p=0.471), the severity of CAD was higher in the DM group (p=0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, DM was an independent determinant for central systolic pressure (p=0.011), PWV (p<0.001) and the prevalence of CAD (p=0.046). CONCLUSION: Diabetic ESRD patients have higher central systolic pressure and more advanced arteriosclerosis than the non-DM control group. These findings suggest that screening for subclinical CV damage may be helpful for diabetic ESRD patients.

Aged , Aorta , Biomarkers , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulse Wave Analysis , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Systole/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 305-313, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827859


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in adults. Atrial stunning is defined as the temporary mechanical dysfunction of the atrial appendage developing after AF has returned to sinus rhythm (SR). Objectives: We aimed to evaluate atrial contractile functions by strain and strain rate in patients with AF, following pharmacological and electrical cardioversion and to compare it with conventional methods. Methods: This study included 41 patients with persistent AF and 35 age-matched control cases with SR. All the AF patients included in the study had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed before and after. Septum (SEPsSR), left atrium (LAsSR) and right atrium peak systolic strain rate (RAsSR) were defined as the maximum negative value during atrial contraction and septum (SEPε), left atrium (LAε) and right atrium peak systolic strain (RAε) was defined as the percentage of change. Parameters of two groups were compared. Results: In the AF group, 1st hour and 24th hour LAε, RAε, SEPε, LAsSR, RAsSR, SEPsSR found to be significantly lower than in the control group (LAε: 2.61%±0.13, 3.06%±0.19 vs 6.45%±0.27, p<0.0001; RAε: 4.03%±0.38, 4.50%±0.47 vs 10.12%±0.64, p<0.0001; SEPε: 3.0%±0.22, 3.19%±0.15 vs 6.23%±0.49, p<0.0001; LAsSR: 0.61±0.04s-1, 0.75±0.04s- 1 vs 1.35±0.04s-1, p<0.0001; RAsSR: 1.13±0.06s-1, 1.23±0.07s-1 vs 2.10±0.08s- 1, p<0.0001; SEPsSR: 0.76±0.04s- 1, 0.78±0.04s- 1 vs 1.42±0.06 s- 1, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Atrial strain and strain rate parameters are superior to conventional echocardiographic parameters for the evaluation of atrial stunning in AF cases where SR has been achieved.

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia mais comum em adultos. Define-se atordoamento atrial como a disfunção mecânica temporária do apêndice atrial que se desenvolve depois de reversão da FA ao ritmo sinusal (RS). Objetivos: Avaliar as funções atriais contráteis através de strain atrial e strain rate em pacientes com FA, após cardioversão farmacológica e elétrica, assim como compará-los com os métodos convencionais. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 41 pacientes com FA persistente e 35 controles com RS e pareados por idade. Todos os pacientes com FA incluídos neste estudo foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica e transesofágica antes e após. Strain rates de pico sistólico do septo (SEPsSR), do átrio esquerdo (LAsSR) e do átrio direito (RAsSR) foram definidas como o máximo valor negativo durante contração atrial. Strains de pico sistólico do septo (SEPε), do átrio esquerdo (LAε) e do átrio direito (RAε) foram definidas como porcentagem de mudança. Resultados: No grupo com FA, os parâmetros LAε, RAε, SEPε, LAsSR, RAsSR e SEPsSR da 1a hora e da 24a hora foram significativamente mais baixos que no grupo controle (LAε: 2,61%±0,13; 3,06%±0,19 vs 6,45%±0,27; p<0,0001; RAε: 4,03%±0,38; 4,50%±0,47 vs 10,12%±0,64; p<0,0001; SEPε: 3,0%±0,22; 3,19%±0,15 vs 6,23%±0,49; p<0,0001; LAsSR: 0,61±0,04s-1; 0,75±0,04s-1 vs 1,35±0,04s-1; p<0,0001; RAsSR: 1,13±0,06s-1; 1,23±0,07s-1 vs 2,10±0,08s-1; p<0,0001; SEPsSR: 0,76±0,04s-1; 0,78±0,04s-1 vs 1,42±0,06 s-1; p<0,0001). Conclusão: Os parâmetros strain atrial e strain rate são superiores aos parâmetros ecocardiográficos convencionais para avaliar atordoamento atrial em pacientes com FA que reverteram ao RS.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Function/physiology , Myocardial Stunning/physiopathology , Atrial Appendage/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Electric Countershock/methods , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Myocardial Stunning/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 354-364, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827854


Abstract Background: Orthostatic intolerance patients' pathophysiological mechanism is still obscure, contributing to the difficulty in their clinical management. Objective: To investigate hemodynamic changes during tilt test in individuals with orthostatic intolerance symptoms, including syncope or near syncope. Methods: Sixty-one patients who underwent tilt test at - 70° in the phase without vasodilators were divided into two groups. For data analysis, only the first 20 minutes of tilting were considered. Group I was made up of 33 patients who had an increase of total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) during orthostatic position; and Group II was made up of 28 patients with a decrease in TPVR (characterizing insufficient peripheral vascular resistance). The control group consisted of 24 healthy asymptomatic individuals. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained by a non-invasive hemodynamic monitor in three different moments (supine position, tilt 10' and tilt 20') adjusted for age. Results: In the supine position, systolic volume (SV) was significantly reduced in both Group II and I in comparison to the control group, respectively (66.4 ±14.9 ml vs. 81.8±14.8 ml vs. 101.5±24.2 ml; p<0.05). TPVR, however, was higher in Group II in comparison to Group I and controls, respectively (1750.5± 442 dyne.s/cm5 vs.1424±404 dyne.s/cm5 vs. 974.4±230 dyne.s/cm5; p<0.05). In the orthostatic position, at 10', there was repetition of findings, with lower absolute values of SV compared to controls (64.1±14.0 ml vs 65.5±11.3 ml vs 82.8±15.6 ml; p<0.05). TPVR, on the other hand, showed a relative drop in Group II, in comparison to Group I. Conclusion: Reduced SV was consistently observed in the groups of patients with orthostatic intolerance in comparison to the control group. Two different responses to tilt test were observed: one group with elevated TPVR and another with a relative drop in TPVR, possibly suggesting a more severe failure of compensation mechanisms.

Resumo Fundamento: O mecanismo fisiopatológico de pacientes com intolerância ortostática ainda é obscuro, contribuindo para a dificuldade no manejo clínicos desses pacientes. Objetivo: Investigar as alterações hemodinâmicas durante teste de inclinação (tilt teste) em indivíduos com sintomas de intolerância ortostática, incluindo síncope ou pré-síncope. Métodos: Sessenta e um pacientes, com tilt teste a 70º negativo na fase livre de vasodilatador, foram divididos em dois grupos. Para análise dos dados foram considerados apenas os primeiros 20 minutos de inclinação. Grupo I (33 pacientes) que tiveram elevação da resistência vascular periférica total (RVPT) durante posição ortostática e Grupo II (28 pacientes) com queda da RVPT (caracterizando insuficiência de resistência vascular periférica). O grupo controle consistia de indivíduos saudáveis e assintomáticos (24 indivíduos). Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram obtidos por um monitor hemodinâmico não invasivo em 3 momentos distintos (posição supina, tilt 10' e tilt 20'), ajustados para idade. Resultados: Na posição supina, o volume sistólico (VS) foi significantemente reduzido tanto no Grupo II quanto no I, quando comparado ao do Grupo controle, respectivamente (66,4 ±14,9 ml vs. 81,8±14,8 ml vs. 101,5±24,2 ml; p<0,05.) A RVPT, no entanto, foi mais elevada no Grupo II, quando comparada a do Grupo I e controles, respectivamente (1750,5± 442 dyne.s/cm5 vs.1424±404 dyne.s/cm5 vs. 974,4±230 dyne.s/cm5; p<0,05). Na posição ortostática, aos 10', houve repetição dos achados, com valores absolutos inferiores de VS Comparado aos controles (64,1±14,0 ml vs 65,5±11,3 ml vs 82,8±15,6 ml; p<0,05). A RVPT, todavia, apresentou queda relativa no Grupo II comparado ao I. Conclusão: Volume sistólico reduzido foi consistentemente observado nos grupos de pacientes com intolerância ortostática, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Foram observadas duas respostas distintas ao teste de inclinação: um grupo com elevação de RVPT e outro com queda relativa desta, indicando, possivelmente, falência mais acentuada dos mecanismos de compensação.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Tilt-Table Test/methods , Orthostatic Intolerance/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Reference Values , Syncope/physiopathology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Retrospective Studies , Supine Position/physiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(4): 341-347, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792947


ABSTRACT Objective Several studies have shown that left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is increased in individuals with diabetes. However, there are scarce data about LV function in prediabetics. This study assessed the early changes in LV diastolic and systolic myocardial function in normotensive prediabetics using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Subjects and methods We evaluated 94 patients with prediabetes (mean age of 50.8 ± 6.9 years, 78 female) without known cardiovascular diseases and 70 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics. Systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle was evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography according to the latest consensus recommendations including TDE. Results The mean results of septal and lateral parts of the mitral annulus Pulsed wave TDE showed that myocardial systolic wave (Sm), myocardial early diastolic wave (Em) and Em to atrial peak velocity (Am) ratio were significantly lower whereas early diastolic peak flow velocity (E) to Em ratio, myocardial isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRTm), myocardial isovolumetric contraction time (IVCTm) and myocardial performance index (MPI) values were significantly higher in patients with prediabetes (preDM). In addition, mean left atrium (LA) diameter measured with M-mode echocardiography was significantly higher in prediabetics than controls. Conclusion PreDM is associated with subclinical LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction as evaluated by TDE.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diastole/physiology , Heart/physiology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 130-133, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786996


Introdução: A medida acurada do tamanho do anel valvar aórtico tem importância fundamental para o planejamento do implante percutâneo de prótese valvar aórtica transcateter (TAVI) em pacientes comestenose valvar aórtica grave. Embora haja recomendação de se realizar a medida na sístole, pouco se sabe sobre a importância das diferenças entre as dimensões sistólica e diastólica do anel. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos referidos para TAVI foram avaliados com tomografia computadorizada para medida do anel valvar na sístole e na diástole. Área, circunferência, diâmetros máximo e mínimo, e seus diâmetros médios derivados foram obtidos em ambas as fases do ciclo cardíaco. Gráficos de Bland Altman foram construídos para se avaliarem as diferenças entre as medidas.Resultados: Foram incluídos na análise 41 pacientes com estenose aórtica grave. As médias da área, circunferência e diâmetros médios foram discretamente maiores na sístole. No entanto, em 35% dos pacientes, as dimensões diastólicas foram maiores. Essas diferenças, embora estatisticamente significantes, foram pequenas (a maior diferença de 0,6 mm no diâmetro médio). Gráficos de Bland Altman revelaram bons níveis de concordância entre as medidas sistólicas e diastólicas em todos os parâmetros avaliados.Conclusões: Observamos pequenas diferenças nas dimensões sistólicas e diastólicas no anel valvar aórtico à tomografia computadorizada, as quais, embora estatisticamente significantes, provavelmente não impactam na seleção da prótese e nem no resultado do procedimento.

Background: Accurate aortic valve annulus sizing has critical importance for the planning of percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Although there is a recommendation to perform the measurement during systole, little is known about the importance of the differences between systolic and diastolic dimensions of the annulus. Methods: Consecutive patients referred for TAVI were evaluated with computed tomography for valve annulus sizing during systole and diastole. Area, circumference, minimum and maximum diameters, and their mean derived diameters were obtained in both phases of the cardiac cycle. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to evaluate the differences between the measures. Results: The analysis included 41 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Mean area, circumference, and diameters were slightly greater in systole. However, in 35% of patients, diastolic dimensions were greater.These differences, although statistically significant, were small (the greatest difference of 0.6 mm in mean diameter). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between systolic and diastolic measurements on all parameters evaluated Conclusions: Small differences were observed in the systolic and diastolic dimensions of the aortic valve annulus with computed tomography scan, which, although statistically significant, probably do not impact the selection of prosthesis or the procedure outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Diastole/physiology , Systole/physiology , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Femoral Artery/surgery , Echocardiography/methods , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy , Prosthesis Implantation , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 171-173, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792644


Abstract Objective: To complement the ISO 5840 standards concerning the duration of left ventricular systole and diastole as a function of changes in heart rates according to in vivo studies from the physiologic literature review. Methods: The systolic and diastolic durations from three in vivo studies were compared with the durations of systole proposed by the ISO 5840:2010 and ISO 5840-2:2015 for hydrodynamic performance assessment of prosthetic heart valves. Results: Based on the in vivo studies analyzed, the systolic durations proposed by the ISO 5840 standard seemed consistent for 45 and 120 beats per minute (bpm), and showed diverse results for the 70 bpm condition. Conclusion: Information on the realistic validation of the operation of left ventricular models for different heart rates were obtained.

Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis/standards , Heart Rate/physiology , Systole/physiology , Pulsatile Flow , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Diastole/physiology , Hydrodynamics , Models, Cardiovascular
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(2): 105-112, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775094


Background: Heart failure prediction after acute myocardial infarction may have important clinical implications. Objective: To analyze the functional echocardiographic variables associated with heart failure in an infarction model in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into two groups: control and infarction. Subsequently, the infarcted animals were divided into groups: with and without heart failure. The predictive values were assessed by logistic regression. The cutoff values predictive of heart failure were determined using ROC curves. Results: Six months after surgery, 88 infarcted animals and 43 control animals were included in the study. Myocardial infarction increased left cavity diameters and the mass and wall thickness of the left ventricle. Additionally, myocardial infarction resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, characterized by lower area variation fraction values, posterior wall shortening velocity, E-wave deceleration time, associated with higher values of E / A ratio and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate. Among the infarcted animals, 54 (61%) developed heart failure. Rats with heart failure have higher left cavity mass index and diameter, associated with worsening of functional variables. The area variation fraction, the E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate were functional variables predictors of heart failure. The cutoff values of functional variables associated with heart failure were: area variation fraction < 31.18%; E / A > 3.077; E-wave deceleration time < 42.11 and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate < 69.08. Conclusion: In rats followed for 6 months after myocardial infarction, the area variation fraction, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate are predictors of heart failure onset.

Fundamento: A predição de insuficiência cardíaca após o infarto agudo do miocárdio pode ter importantes implicações clínicas. Objetivo: Analisar as variáveis funcionais ecocardiográficas associadas com insuficiência cardíaca no modelo do infarto em ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: infarto e controle. Após, os animais infartados foram divididos em grupos com e sem insuficiência cardíaca. Os valores preditivos foram avaliados por regressão logística. Os valores de corte preditivos de insuficiência cardíaca foram determinados por meio de curvas ROC. Resultados: Após 6 meses da cirurgia, 88 animais com infarto e 43 animais controle foram incluídos no estudo. O infarto aumentou os diâmetros das cavidades esquerdas, a massa e a espessura da parede do ventrículo esquerdo. Adicionalmente, o infarto resultou em disfunção sistólica e diastólica, caracterizada por menores valores da fração de variação de área, velocidade de encurtamento da parede posterior, tempo de desaceleração da onda E, associada com maiores valores da relação E/A e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca. Dentre os animais infartados, 54 (61%) desenvolveram insuficiência cardíaca. Ratos com insuficiência cardíaca apresentaram maiores índices de massa e diâmetros das cavidades esquerdas, associadas com piora das variáveis funcionais. A fração de variação de área, relação E/A, tempo de desaceleração da onda E e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca foram variáveis funcionais preditoras de insuficiência cardíaca. Os valores de corte das variáveis funcionais associados com insuficiência cardíaca foram: fração de variação de área < 31,18%; E/A > 3,077; tempo de desaceleração da onda E < 42,11 e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca < 69,08. Conclusão: Em ratos acompanhados por 6 meses após o infarto, a fração de variação de área, relação E/A, tempo de desaceleração da onda E e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca são preditores do aparecimento de insuficiência cardíaca.

Animals , Male , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Models, Animal , Diastole/physiology , Heart Failure , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Infarction , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(4): 333-339, out.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770035


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de disfunção miocárdica e seu valor prognóstico em pacientes com sepse grave e choque séptico. Métodos: Pacientes sépticos adultos, admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, foram estudados de forma prospectiva por meio de ecocardiografia transtorácica dentro das primeiras 48 horas após sua admissão e, então, entre o sétimo e o décimo dias. As variáveis ecográficas de função biventricular, inclusive a relação E/e', foram comparadas entre sobreviventes e não sobreviventes. Resultados: Foi realizado um total de 99 ecocardiogramas (53 na admissão e 46 entre os dias 7 e 10) em 53 pacientes com média de idade de 74 anos (desvio padrão de 13 anos). Estava presente disfunção sistólica em 14 (26%); disfunção diastólica foi observada em 42 (83%) pacientes; e ambos os tipos de disfunção estavam presentes em 12 (23%) pacientes. A relação E/e', ou índice de disfunção diastólica, foi o melhor preditor de mortalidade hospitalar segundo a área sob a curva ROC (0,71) e se constituiu em um preditor independente do desfecho, conforme determinado pela análise multivariada (odds ratio - OR = 1,36 [1,05 - 1,76]; p = 0,02). Conclusão: Em pacientes sépticos admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, a disfunção sistólica determinada ecograficamente não se associa com aumento da mortalidade. Em contraste, a disfunção diastólica foi um preditor independente do desfecho.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial dysfunction and its prognostic value in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods: Adult septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit were prospectively studied using transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours after admission and thereafter on the 7th-10th days. Echocardiographic variables of biventricular function, including the E/e' ratio, were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results: A total of 99 echocardiograms (53 at admission and 46 between days 7 - 10) were performed on 53 patients with a mean age of 74 (SD 13) years. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction was present in 14 (26%) and 42 (83%) patients, respectively, and both types of dysfunction were present in 12 (23%) patients. The E/e' ratio, an index of diastolic dysfunction, was the best predictor of hospital mortality according to the area under the ROC curve (0.71) and was an independent predictor of outcome, as determined by multivariate analysis (OR = 1.36 [1.05 - 1.76], p = 0.02). Conclusion: In septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit, echocardiographic systolic dysfunction is not associated with increased mortality. In contrast, diastolic dysfunction is an independent predictor of outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shock, Septic/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Sepsis/complications , Prognosis , Shock, Septic/mortality , Systole/physiology , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Sepsis/metabolism , Diastole/physiology , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 145-150, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757999


AbstractBackground:The prevalence and clinical outcomes of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction have not been well elucidated.Objective:To analyze the prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction and its association with mortality.Methods:Patients with acute myocardial infarction (n = 1,474) were prospectively included. Patients without heart failure (Killip score = 1), with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction ≥ 50%), and with systolic dysfunction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction < 50%) on admission were compared. The association between systolic dysfunction with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in-hospital mortality was tested in adjusted models.Results:Among the patients included, 1,256 (85.2%) were admitted without heart failure (72% men, 67 ± 15 years), 78 (5.3%) with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (59% men, 76 ± 14 years), and 140 (9.5%) with systolic dysfunction (69% men, 76 ± 14 years), with mortality rates of 4.3%, 17.9%, and 27.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Logistic regression (adjusted for sex, age, troponin, diabetes, and body mass index) demonstrated that heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.35–6.27; p = 0.006) and systolic dysfunction (OR 5.38; 95% CI 3.10 to 9.32; p < 0.001) were associated with in-hospital mortality.Conclusion:One-third of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted with heart failure had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Although this subgroup exhibited more favorable outcomes than those with systolic dysfunction, this condition presented a three-fold higher risk of death than the group without heart failure. Patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction encounter elevated short-term risk and require special attention and monitoring during hospitalization.

ResumoFundamento:A prevalência e os desfechos clínicos em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio ainda não foram bem elucidados.Objetivo:Analisar a prevalência de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada no infarto agudo do miocárdio e sua associação com a mortalidade.Métodos:Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (n = 1.474) foram incluídos prospectivamente. Pacientes admitidos sem insuficiência cardíaca (Killip = 1), com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (Killip > 1 e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≥ 50%) e com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (Killip > 1 e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo < 50%) foram comparados. A associação entre insuficiência cardíaca sistólica e com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada, com a mortalidade hospitalar foi testada em modelos ajustados.Resultados:Dentre os incluídos, 1.256 (85,2%) pacientes foram admitidos sem insuficiência cardíaca (72% homens, 67 ± 15 anos), 78 (5,3%) com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (59% homens, 76 ± 14 anos) e 140 (9,5%) com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (69% homens, 76 ± 14 anos), com mortalidade, respectivamente, de 4,3; 17,9 e 27,1% (p < 0,001). A regressão logística (ajustada para sexo, idade, troponina, diabetes e índice de massa corporal) demonstrou que insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (odds ratio de 2,91; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 1,35-6,27; p = 0,006) e insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (odds ratio de 5,38; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 3,10-9,32; p < 0,001) se associaram à mortalidade intra-hospitalar.Conclusão:Um terço dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio admitidos com insuficiência cardíaca apresentou fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada. Apesar de esse subgrupo ter evolução mais favorável que os pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica, ele apresentou risco de morte três vezes maior do que o grupo sem insuficiência cardíaca. Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio e insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada apresentaram elevado risco em curto prazo e mereceram especial atenção e monitorização durante a internação hospitalar.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Diastole/physiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hospitalization , Prognosis , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(4): 284-291, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745744


Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2) was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0) or excessive weight (≥25.0). Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454), as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018). Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610) and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266). Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period. .

Fundamento: O sistema cardiovascular materno sofre adaptações progressivas durante a gestação, acarretando flutuações da pressão arterial. Entretanto, não há consenso sobre a variação pressórica normal na gravidez saudável. Objetivo: Descrever a variação da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) durante a gravidez e no pós-parto imediato segundo o índice de massa corporal (IMC) no início da gravidez. Métodos: A PAS e a PAD foram medidas no 1º, 2º e 3º trimestres gestacionais e aos 30-45 dias pós-parto em uma coorte prospectiva de 189 mulheres com idade entre 20 e 40 anos. O IMC (kg/m2) foi aferido até a 13a semana e classificado como normal (< 25,0) ou excessivo (≥ 25,0). Modelos longitudinais de efeitos mistos foram utilizados para a análise estatística. Resultados: Observou-se diminuição da PAS e da PAD do primeiro para o segundo trimestre (βPAS=-0,394; IC95%:-0,600- -0,188 e βPAD=-0,617; IC95%:-0,780- -0,454) e subsequente aumento de ambas até 30-45 dias após o parto (βPAS=0,010; IC95%:0,006-0,014 e βPAD=0,015; IC95%:0,012-0,018). As mulheres com IMC excessivo apresentaram média de PAS maior em todos os trimestres, e de PAD maior no primeiro e no terceiro trimestres. O IMC excessivo no início da gestação esteve positivamente associado com mudanças na PAS (βPAS=7,055; IC95%:4,499-9,610) e na PAD (βPAD=3,201; IC95%:1,136-5,266). Conclusão: A PAS e a PAD diminuíram do primeiro para o segundo trimestre e aumentaram do segundo trimestre até o pósparto. Mulheres com IMC excessivo no início da gestação apresentaram valores mais elevados de PAS e PAD ao longo da gravidez, mas não no pós-parto, quando comparadas às de IMC normal. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Body Mass Index , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pregnancy Trimesters/physiology , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Diastole/physiology , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Lost to Follow-Up , Obesity/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Systole/physiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157432


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular (LV) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis using three methods of cavity delineation (classic or modified inclusion methods, and the exclusion method) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 consecutive HCM patients who underwent 1.5-T CMR imaging with short-axis cine stacks of the entire LV. LV measurements were performed using three different methods of manual cavity delineation of the endocardial and epicardial contours: method A, presumed endocardial boundary as seen on short-axis cine images; method B, including solely the cavity and closely adjacent trabeculae; or method C, excluding papillary muscles and trabeculae. Ascending aorta forward flow was measured as reference for LV-stroke volume (SV). Interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Method A showed larger end-diastole and end-systole volumes (largest percentage differences of 25% and 68%, respectively, p 0.05). CONCLUSION: In HCM patients, LV measurements are strikingly different dependent on whether papillary muscles and trabeculae are included or excluded. Therefore, a consistent method of LV cavity delineation may be crucial during longitudinal follow-up to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous clinical decision-making.

Adult , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/pathology , Female , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Middle Aged , Papillary Muscles/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systole/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 521-529, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732166


Background: Morbimortality in patients with dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy is high, even under optimal medical treatment. Autologous infusion of bone marrow adult stem cells has shown promising preliminary results in these patients. Objective: Determine the effectiveness of autologous transplantation of bone marrow adult stem cells on systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, and on the degree of mitral regurgitation in patients with dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy in functional classes NYHA II and III. Methods: We administered 4,54 x 108 ± 0,89 x 108 bone marrow adult stem cells into the coronary arteries of 24 patients with dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy in functional classes NYHA II and III. Changes in functional class, systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and degree of mitral regurgitation were assessed after 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Results: During follow-up, six patients (25%) improved functional class and eight (33.3%) kept stable. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved 8.9%, 9.7% e 13.6%, after 3, 6 and 12 months (p = 0.024; 0.017 and 0.018), respectively. There were no significant changes neither in diastolic left ventricular function nor in mitral regurgitation degree. A combined cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardioversion defibrillation was implanted in two patients (8.3%). Four patients (16.6%) had sudden death and four patients died due to terminal cardiac failure. Average survival of these eight patients was 2.6 years. Conclusion: Intracoronary infusion of bone marrow adult stem cells was associated with an improvement or stabilization of functional class and an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, suggesting the efficacy of this intervention. There were no significant changes neither in left ventricular diastolic function nor in the degree of mitral regurgitation. .

Fundamento: Pacientes portadores de cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática apresentam alta morbimortalidade, mesmo em tratamento clínico otimizado. A infusão autóloga de células-tronco adultas da medula óssea mostrou resultados clínicos preliminares promissores nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia do transplante autólogo de células-tronco adultas da medula óssea sobre as funções sistólica e diastólica, e o grau de insuficiência mitral em pacientes portadores de cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática em classes funcionais NYHA II e III. Métodos: Infundiram-se 4,54 x 108 ± 0,89 x 108 células-tronco adultas da medula óssea nas artérias coronárias de 24 pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática em classes funcionais NYHA II e III. Após 3 meses, 6 meses e 1 ano, avaliaram-se as mudanças de classe funcional, das funções ventricular esquerda sistólica e diastólica, e do grau da insuficiência mitral. Resultados: No seguimento, seis (25%) pacientes melhoraram sua classe funcional e oito (33,3%) mantiveram sua classe funcional inicial. A fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda aumentou 8,9%, 9,7% e 13,6%, após 3 e 6 meses e 1 ano (p = 0,024; p = 0,017 e p = 0,018), respectivamente. A função diastólica ventricular esquerda e o grau de insuficiência mitral não demonstraram mudanças significativas. Dois pacientes (8,3%) receberam cardioversor e ressincronizador implantável. Ocorreram quatro (16,6%) mortes súbitas e quatro (16,6%) mortes por insuficiência cardíaca terminal. A sobrevida média desses oitos pacientes foi de 2,6 anos. Conclusão: A infusão intracoronariana de células-tronco adultas da medula óssea em pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática promoveu melhora ...

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adult Stem Cells/transplantation , Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/surgery , Bone Marrow Transplantation/mortality , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/mortality , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronary Vessels/surgery , Diastole/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Transplantation, Autologous/methods , Transplantation, Autologous/mortality , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(2): 124-130, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720810


Background: Gender can influence post-infarction cardiac remodeling. Objective: To evaluate whether gender influences left ventricular (LV) remodeling and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Female and male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups: sham, moderate MI (size: 20-39% of LV area), and large MI (size: ≥40% of LV area). MI was induced by coronary occlusion, and echocardiographic analysis was performed after six weeks to evaluate MI size as well as LV morphology and function. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to quantify ILK in the myocardium. Results: MI size was similar between genders. MI resulted in systolic dysfunction and enlargement of end-diastolic as well as end-systolic dimension of LV as a function of necrotic area size in both genders. Female rats with large MI showed a lower diastolic and systolic dilatation than the respective male rats; however, LV dysfunction was similar between genders. Gene and protein levels of ILK were increased in female rats with moderate and large infarctions, but only male rats with large infarctions showed an altered ILK mRNA level. A negative linear correlation was evident between LV dimensions and ILK expression in female rats with large MI. Conclusions: Post-MI ILK expression is altered in a gender-specific manner, and higher ILK levels found in females may be sufficient to improve LV geometry but not LV function. .

Fundamento: O gênero pode ser decisivo no remodelamento cardíaco após infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Avaliar diferenças de gênero associadas ao remodelamento do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) após infarto do miocárdio (IM) e associadas à modulação de quinases acopladas à integrina (integrin-linked kinases-ILK). Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos e fêmeas foram divididos em 3 grupos: grupo sham, grupo com IM de extensão moderada (tamanho: 20-39% da área do VE); grupo com IM de grande extensão (tamanho: ≥ 40% da área do VE). O IM foi produzido por oclusão coronária e as análises ecocardiográficas foram obtidas após 6 semanas para avaliar a extensão do IM, bem como a morfologia e função do VE. RT-PCR em tempo real e Western blott foram realizados para quantificar a ILK no miocárdio. Resultados: A extensão do IM foi semelhante entre os gêneros. O IM resultou em disfunção sistólica e aumento do tamanho do VE no final da diástole e da sístole em função do tamanho da área necrótica para ambos os sexos. Ratos fêmeas com IM de grande extensão apresentaram dilatação diastólica e sistólica inferior a de ratos machos, mas a disfunção do VE foi semelhante em ambos os sexos. Os níveis gênicos e proteicos de ILK aumentaram em ratos fêmeas com infartos de extensão moderada e grande, mas apenas ratos machos com infartos de grande extensão apresentaram níveis alterados de mRNA do ILK. Uma correlação linear negativa foi observada entre as dimensões do VE e a expressão de ILK em ratos fêmeas com IM de grande extensão. Conclusões: A expressão de ILK pós-IM variou de maneira gênero-especifica, e os níveis mais elevados de ILK observados em ...

Animals , Female , Male , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Sex Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Blotting, Western , Diastole/physiology , Echocardiography , Myocardial Infarction , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(6): 549-556, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712924


Background: The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods: A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results: In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion: In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction. .

Fundamento: Os efeitos da terapêutica moderna na recuperação funcional após o infarto agudo do miocárdio não são conhecidos. Objetivos: Avaliar os fatores preditores da recuperação funcional sistólica após infarto agudo do miocárdio de parede anterior em pacientes submetidos à terapia moderna (reperfusão, antiagregação plaquetária agressiva, inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e betabloqueadores). Métodos: Foram incluídos 94 pacientes consecutivos com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Ecocardiogramas foram realizados na fase intra-hospitalar e após 6 meses. Disfunção sistólica foi definida pela presença de fração de ejeção de valor < 50%. Resultados: No ecocardiograma inicial, 64% dos pacientes apresentaram disfunção sistólica. Os pacientes com disfunção ventricular apresentaram tamanhos maiores de infarto, avaliados pelas enzimas creatinofosfoquinase total e isoenzima MB, que os pacientes sem disfunção. Adicionalmente, 24,5% dos pacientes inicialmente com disfunção sistólica apresentaram recuperação no período de 6 meses após o infarto agudo do miocárdio. Os pacientes que recuperaram a função ventricular apresentaram menores tamanhos de infarto, mas maiores valores da fração de ejeção e tempo de desaceleração da onda E que pacientes sem recuperação. Na análise multivariada, observa-se que o tamanho de infarto foi o único fator preditor independente de recuperação funcional após 6 meses de infarto, quando ajustado pela idade, sexo, fração de ejeção e tempo de desaceleração da onda E. Conclusão: Apesar do tratamento agressivo, a disfunção ventricular ...

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Recovery of Function , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/rehabilitation , Echocardiography , Logistic Models , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome