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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of corticosteroids therapy on the inflammatory response in a critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient.@*METHODS@#A 55-year old female patient with critical ill COVID-19 was admitted in Taizhou Hospital on January 19, 2020. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone 80 mg on the 2nd day after admission. Thereafter, the dose was adjusted in a timely manner and the therapy lasted for 13 days. The peripheral lymphocyte subsets (CD3T, CD4 T, CD8 T, NK cells, B cells), as well as serum levels of lymphocyte factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) were dynamically monitored.@*RESULTS@#On D1 of admission, the numbers of peripheral blood CD3 T, CD4 T, CD8 T, and NK cells were significantly lower than the normal range. With the improvement of the disease, the numbers of CD3 T, CD8 T and CD4 T cells gradually recovered and showed a linear growth trend (linear fitting equation: =18.59+109.4, <0.05). On D2 of admission, the patient's IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than normal values, IFN-γ was at a normal high value, and then rapidly decreased; IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α were all in the normal range. On the D6 and D7, the IL-6 and IL-10 decreased to the normal range for the first time. On the D18, the sputum virus nucleic acid test was negative for the first time, and the fecal virus nucleic acid test was still positive; on the D20 the sputum and fecal virus nucleic acid test were both negative. On D34, the patient recovered and was discharged. At the discharge the muscle strength score of the patient was 44 and the daily life ability evaluation was 90.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the absence of effective antiviral drugs, early use of appropriate doses of corticosteroids in critically ill patient with COVID-19 can quickly alleviate inflammatory response and improve clinical symptoms, however, it may reduce the number of T cells, and to adjust the dose in time is necessary.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cell Count , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Critical Illness , Cytokines , Blood , Female , Humans , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Treatment Outcome
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of icariin (ICA) on early β-defensin-2 and T cell subsets in rats after tracheotomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 54 SPF male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (group A), a model group (group B), and a model+ICA treatment group (group C), with 18 rats in each group. A tracheotomy intubation model of the B and C group was prepared. After 6 h of surgery, ICA intervention was given to group C. Groups A and B were given the same amount of normal saline. Lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were taken at 24 h, 72 h and 168 h, respectively. The expression of rat β-defensin-2 mRNA in lung tissue was detected by RT-PCR. The content of β-defensin-2 in alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood serum was detected by ELISA. The content of peripheral blood T cell subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8) was detected by flow cytometry, and the ratio of CD4/CD8 was calculated.@*RESULTS@#After tracheotomy, the levels of β-defensin-2 mRNA and β-defensin-2 in lung tissue from the group B were increased significantly at 24 h, then they were decreased gradually, and decreased most significantly at 168 h (0.05). The level of CD3 T cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower than that in the group A (0.05). After ICA intervention in group C: lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid, peripheral blood serum β-defensin-2 content, and peripheral blood CD3 and CD4 T cell levels were gradually increased, significantly higher than those in the group B (<0.05). CD8 T cell level was significantly lower than that in the group A at 24 h (<0.05), the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher at 168 h than those in the group A or B (both <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ICA can improve the early lung immune function in rats with tracheotomy, which might be related to up-regulation of β-defensin-2 in lung tissue and alveolar lavage fluid, concomitant with increases in CD3 and CD4 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood while reduction in CD8 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Tracheotomy , beta-Defensins
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunological mechanisms underlying asthma exacerbation have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of various asthma exacerbation traits with selected serum microRNA (miRNA) expression and T-cell subpopulations. METHODS: Twenty-one asthmatics were studied during asthma exacerbation (exacerbation visit [EV] and the follow-up visit [FV] at 6 weeks). At both visits, spirometry was performed, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured, and nasopharyngeal and blood samples were collected. In nasopharyngeal samples, respiratory viruses were assayed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and bacterial cultures were performed. Serum miRNAs were assayed with real-time PCR. T-cell surface markers, eosinophil progenitors and intracellular cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients had moderate or severe exacerbation and the FV, overall improvement in asthma control was observed. The mean expression of serum miRNA-126a, miRNA-16 and miRNA-21 was significantly lower at the EV than at the FV. At EV, miRNA-29b correlated with FeNO (r = 0.44, P < 0.05), and 5 of 7 miRNA tested correlated with pulmonary function tests. The number of cluster of differentiation (CD)45+CD4+interleukin (IL)4+ cells was significantly higher at the EV than at the FV, and positive correlations of T-regulatory cells and eosinophil progenitors with asthma control was found. At the EV, serum miRNAs negatively correlated with the number of T cells expressing IL-4, IL-17, IL-22 and interferon gamma, while at the FV both positive and negative correlations with T-cell subsets were observed. No association of detected pathogen (viruses and bacteria) in nasopharyngeal fluid with clinical, functional and immunological parameters was found. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic dysregulation during asthma exacerbation could be related to respiratory function, airway inflammation and T-cell cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Epigenomics , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , MicroRNAs , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nitric Oxide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1271-1275, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic effect and the mechanism of the adjuvant treatment with moxibustion on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).@*METHODS@#A total of 95 patients with COVID-19 were randomly divided into a moxibustion group (45 cases) and a basic treatment group (50 cases). The routine treatment of western medicine was applied in the patients of both groups. In the moxibustion group, on the base of the treatment of western medicine, moxibustion was applied to Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Qihai (CV 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), once daily and consecutively for 14 days. At the end of treatment courses, clinical symptom scores for cough, asthmatic breathing, chest oppression and short breath, as well as their remission rates were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Before and after treatment, the white blood cell (WBC) count, the levels of c-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the absolute number of T lymphocyte subsets, i.e. , and of the peripheral blood were compared in the patients between the two groups. The principal component analysis was adopted to analyze the common data extracted from the above 10 clinical indexes variables and comprehensively evaluate the differences in the therapeutic effect of two regimens.@*RESULTS@#The clinical symptom scores were all decreased after treatment in both of the moxibustion group and the basic treatment group as compared with those before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#On the base of the routine treatment with western medicine, moxibustion therapy supplemented relieves the clinical symptoms, reduces the levels of inflammatory indexes, i.e. IL-6 and CRP as well as improves the absolute number of peripheral T lymphocyte subsets. The clinical therapeutic effect of such regimen with moxibustion supplemented is significantly better than the simple routine treatment of western medicine.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Moxibustion , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology
5.
Immune Network ; : 2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811180

ABSTRACT

Acute viral infection or vaccination generates highly functional memory CD8 T cells following the Ag resolution. In contrast, persistent antigenic stimulation in chronic viral infection and cancer leads to a state of T-cell dysfunction termed T-cell exhaustion. We and other have recently identified a novel subset of exhausted CD8 T cells that act as stem cells for maintaining virus-specific CD8 T cells in a mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. This stem cell-like CD8 T-cell subset has been also observed in both mouse and human tumor models. Most importantly, in both chronic viral infection and tumor models, the proliferative burst of Ag-specific CD8 T cells driven by PD-1-directed immunotherapy comes exclusively from this stem cell-like CD8 T-cell subset. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms how CD8 T-cell subsets are regulated during chronic viral infection and cancer is required to improve the current immunotherapies that restore the function of exhausted CD8 T cells. In this review, we discuss the differentiation of virus-specific CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection, the characteristics and function of CD8 T-cell subsets, and the therapeutic intervention of PD-1-directed immunotherapy in cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus , Memory , Mice , Stem Cells , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
6.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 52-55, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983741

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Pityriasis rosea is a common papulosquamous disorder. However, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Objective: We investigate the types of inflammatory cells infiltrating the lesional skin of pityriasis rosea and demonstrate whether T-cell-mediated immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of this condition or not. Methods: The biopsies were taken from the lesional skin of 35 cases of patients diagnosed with pityriasis rosea. The specimens were prepared in paraffin sections, then submitted to routine immunohistochemistry procedures using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD45RO and horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-human antibodies. The positive sections were determined by the ratio and staining intensity of positive inflammatory cells. Results: The mean score of positive CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD45RO staining was respectively 3.74±3.88, 5.67±4.40, 2.94±3.42 and 7.68±4.33 in these pityriasis rosea patients (P<0.001). The percentage of positive staining was 54.29% (19/35), 69.7% (23/33), 40% (14/35) and 79.41% (27/34) (P<0.05). However, the staining of CD20 was negative in all samples. The mean score of CD3 staining in patients with time for remission ≤60 days (4.90±4.21) was higher than that in patients with time for remission >60 days (2.00±2.5) (P<0.05), whereas no statistical difference in the mean score of CD4, CD8 and CD45RO staining was observed. study liMitations: The sample size and the selected monoclonal antibody are limited, so the results reflect only part of the cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of pityriasis rosea. Conclusion: Our findings support a predominantly T-cell mediated immunity in the development of pityriasis rosea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Pityriasis Rosea/pathology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Time Factors , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Pityriasis Rosea/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , CD3 Complex/analysis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunity, Cellular
8.
Immune Network ; : e2-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740212

ABSTRACT

The enhanced differentiation and activation of osteoclasts (OCs) in the inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout causes not only local bone erosion, but also systemic osteoporosis, leading to functional disabilities and morbidity. The induction and amplification of NFATc1, a master regulator of OC differentiation, is mainly regulated by receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand-RANK and calcium signaling which are amplified in the inflammatory milieu, as well as by inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. Moreover, the predominance of CD4+ T cell subsets, which varies depending on the condition of inflammatory diseases, can determine the fate of OC differentiation. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies which are critical in the pathogenesis of RA can bind to the citrullinated vimentin on the surface of OC precursors, and in turn promote OC differentiation and function via IL-8. In addition to adaptive immunity, the activation of innate immune system including the nucleotide oligomerization domain leucine rich repeat with a pyrin domain 3 inflammasome and TLRs can regulate OC maturation. The emerging perspectives about the diverse and close interactions between the immune cells and OCs in inflammatory milieu can have a significant impact on the future direction of drug development.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Calcium Signaling , Cytokines , Gout , Immune System , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Leucine , Osteoclasts , Osteolysis , Osteoporosis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Vimentin
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1876-1880, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression level of T lymphocyte subsets in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), and to evaluated the prognostic value of T lymphocytic abnormalities in elderly NDMM patients.@*METHODS@#Pretreated peripheral blood of 39 newly diagnosed elder patients with MM was tested by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) to quantitatively detect T lymphocyte subsets, including CD4T cell, CD8T cell, and CD4/CD8 ratio. The prognostic values T-lymphocyte subset were evaluated in newly diagnosed elderly patients with MM.@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up time was 21.5 (range, 3.0-66.0) months. Absolute counts of CD4T cell and CD4/CD8 ratio positively correlated with prognosis. In the multivariate COX analysis, lower CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4T cell counts were identified to be independent adverse prognostic factors for OS.@*CONCLUSION@#Lower CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4T cell counts at initial diagnosis are independent unfavorable prognostic factors for elderly patients with MM, and T lymphocyte subsets are crucial indicators for MM patients' prognosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Multiple Myeloma , Prognosis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777460

ABSTRACT

Databases including China Biological Medicine database(CBM), Chinese scientific journals full-text database(VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure database(CNKI), WanFang Data, PubMed, and EMbase were searched from inception to March 2018 to collect the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on Shenqi Fuzheng Injection combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. All included studies were critically appraised by two independent reviewers by following the cochrane systematic review method and using Revman 5.3 software and State 12.0 for data analysis. After screening, 20 RCTs involving 2 095 patients were included in the study. Meta-analysis showed that as compared with control group of chemotherapy alone, Shenqi Fuzheng Injection combined with chemotherapy could improve the clinical curative efficiency, the KPS score, and immune function indexes such as total T cells, Th cells and Ts cells; inhibit the decline of white blood cells(WBC), platelets in blood system, T-lymphocyte subsets such as CD3~+, CD4~+, CD4~+/CD8~+, alleviate myelosuppression and reduce the incidence of side effects such as gastrointestinal adverse reaction, liver and kidney dysfunction and abnormal electrocardiogram. The results revealed that for clinical breast cancer patients, Shenqi Fuzheng Injection combined with chemotherapy could significantly improve its clinical efficacy and reduce adverse reactions. However, the conclusions still need to be verified by high-quality, multi-center, large-sample, prospective, randomized and double-blind clinical trials. In conclusion, this study has systemically evaluated the efficacy and safety of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection combined with chemotherapy in treatment of breast cancer and provided the reference of evidence-based medicine for safe and effective clinical application of medicines.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1201-1207, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation of IL-37 with T lymphocytes subsets and NK cells in ITP patients, and to explore its possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ITP.@*METHODS@#Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed ITP(newly diagnosed group), 32 patients of complete remission (remission group) and 22 healthy persons(control group) were selected. The serum level of IL-37 in 3 groups was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression of IL-37, IL-17 and IL-18 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMNC) in 3 groups was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The number of IL-18RαCD4 T cells and Tim-3NK cells in the peripheral blood in 3 groups was detected by flow cytometry (FCM).@*RESULTS@#The serum level of IL-37 in the peripheral blood of ITP patients in the newly diagnosed group was significantly higher than that in the control group and the remission group(P<0.01) . The expression level of IL-37 in PBMNC of the ITP patients in newly diagnosed group was higher than that in the control group and the remission group(P<0. 05). The expression level of IL-17 and IL-18 in PBMNC of the ITP patients in newly diagnosed group was higher than that in the control group and the remission group(P<0. 01); the expression of IL-18Rα in CD4 T cells in newly diagnosed group was significantly higher than that in both the control and the remission group(P<0.01).The expression of Tim-3 in NK cells in ITP patients was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0. 01). In ITP patients, the serum IL-37 level and IL-18RαCD4T cells ratio both negatively correlated with Plt count (r=-0.58, r=-0.48) moreo-ver the serum IL-37 level also negatively correlated with amount of CD4 T cells and NK cells (r=-0.29, r=-0.28), but positively correlated with amount of CD8 T cells (r=0.329).@*CONCLUSION@#The IL-37 and its receptors may play an immunoregulatory role in CD4 T cells and NK cells, the IL-37 may be a therapeutic target for ITP patients.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interleukin-1 , Allergy and Immunology , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of T lymphocyte subsets, B lymphocyte and NK cells in peripheral blood of patients with acute leukemia at different periods and their significance.@*METHODS@#The peripheral T lymphocyte subsets and B lymphocyte of 95 patients with acute leukemia [(43 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 52 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)] and 50 normal people were detected by flow cytometry respectively.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of CD3, CD3CD4, CD3CD8, NK cells and CD4/CD8 in the patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia were significantly lower than those in normal controls (P<0.05) , but increased obviously after complete remission. The positive rate of Treg cells in the patients with newly diagnosed leukemia group was significantly higher than that in normal controls (P<0.01) , but decreased obviously after complete remission. Positive rate of CD3CD19 cells in the patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia was significantly lower , but higher in the patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia than that in normal controls with statistical significant difference (P<0.05) , and increased obviously in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (P<0.05) after complete remission , but decreased in the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P<0.01) after complete remission or no-remission.@*CONCLUSION@#Changes of T lymphocyte subsets, B lymphocytes and NK cells in the patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia are significant, thus the detection of T lymphocyte cell subsets, B lymphocytes and NK cells can provide some evidences. for evaluation of the disease severity, curative efficiency and prognosis of patients with acute leukemia.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
13.
Immune Network ; : e26-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764020

ABSTRACT

Since primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoummune disease of B cell hyperactivity and pathologic autoantibody response, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells are suggested to be key players in pSS. We examined subsets of Tfh and Tfr cells from the blood in pSS patients, and whether these subsets represent disease activity, glandular inflammation, or autoantibody responses in pSS. Circulating Tfh and Tfr cells, along with their specific subsets, were identified from the peripheral blood of 18 pSS patients and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) using flow cytometry analysis. Blood Tfr and Tfh cell ratios were increased in pSS patients compared with HCs. The CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset of circulating Tfh cells was increased in pSS patients with high degree of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis; whereas circulating Tfh cells did not differ between pSS patients and HCs. The frequency of CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) Tfh cells was significantly correlated with disease activity scores and differentiated B cells. PD-1 expression on blood Tfh and Tfr cells showed positive correlations with IL-21 in pSS. Increasing trend of blood Tfr cells was observed in pSS patients, and blood Tfr cells (particularly Th1 and Th17 subsets) represented hypergammaglobulinemia in pSS. In summary, circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) Tfh cells indicated disease activity and glandular inflammation in pSS. Circulating Tfr cells, shifted toward Th1 and Th17 subsets, indicated ongoing IgG production in pSS. Subsets of circulating Tfh or Tfr cells could be biomarkers for disease monitoring and patient stratification in pSS.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , B-Lymphocytes , Biomarkers , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypergammaglobulinemia , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation , Sialadenitis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
14.
Immune Network ; : 38-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785823

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is a worldwide foodborne pathogen, associated with human gastroenteritis. The efficient translocation of Campylobacter and its ability to secrete toxins into host cells are the 2 key features of Campylobacter pathophysiology which trigger inflammation in intestinal cells and contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhoea, in humans. The purpose of conducting this literature review is to summarise the current understanding of: i) the human immune responses involved in the elimination of Campylobacter infection and ii) the resistance potential in Campylobacter against these immune responses. This review has highlighted that the intestinal epithelial cells are the preliminary cells which sense Campylobacter cells by means of their cell-surface and cytosolic receptors, activate various receptors-dependent signalling pathways, and recruit the innate immune cells to the site of inflammation. The innate immune system, adaptive immune system, and networking between these systems play a crucial role in bacterial clearance. Different cellular constituents of Campylobacter, mainly cell membrane lipooligosaccharides, capsule, and toxins, provide protection to Campylobacter against the human immune system mediated killing. This review has also identified gaps in knowledge, which are related to the activation of following during Campylobacter infection: i) cathelicidins, bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, chemokines, and inflammasomes in intestinal epithelial cells; ii) siglec-7 receptors in dendritic cell; iii) acute phase proteins in serum; and iv) T-cell subsets in lymphoid nodules. This review evaluates the existing literature to improve the understanding of human immunity against Campylobacter infection and identify some of the knowledge gaps for future research.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Campylobacter Infections , Campylobacter , Cathelicidins , Cell Membrane , Chemokines , Cytosol , Dendritic Cells , Epithelial Cells , Gastroenteritis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Homicide , Humans , Immune System , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Toll-Like Receptors
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e032, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001608

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AsIV) on inflammation and immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis. Periodontitis was established in 48 Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into model and 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg AsIV groups, with 12 rats in each group. The latter 3 groups were treated with AsIV at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The control group (12 rats, without periodontitis) and model group were given the same amount of 5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The treatment was performed once per day for 8 weeks. Before and after treatment, the tooth mobility scores of the rats were determined. After treatment, the salivary occult blood index (SOBI), plaque index (PLI), peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, and serum inflammatory factor and immunoglobulin levels were determined. The results showed that, after treatment, compared with that in model group, in 40 mg/kg AsIV group, the general state of rats was improved, while the tooth mobility score, SOBI and PLI were significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the peripheral blood CD4+ T cell percentage and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the CD8+ T cell percentage was significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05); the serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, AsIV can alleviate inflammation and enhance immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Periodontitis/immunology , Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Tooth Mobility , Immunoglobulins/blood , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Interleukin-2/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Interleukin-1beta/blood
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(2): 150-159, feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961372

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The dual potential to promote tolerance or inflammation when facing self-antigens makes dendritic cells (DCs) fundamental players in autoimmunity. There is an association between smoking and DCs maturation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, ethnicity is a key factor in autoimmune disorders. Aim: To evaluate phenotypic and functional alterations of DCs obtained from Chilean patients with RA as compared to healthy controls (HC). In second term, to compare the inflammatory behaviour of DCs between smoker and non-smoker patients. Material and Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs and T-cells were obtained from blood samples isolated from 30 HC and 32 RA-patients, 14 of which were currently smokers and 18 non-smokers. Several maturation surface markers were evaluated in DCs, including HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. Furthermore, autologous co-cultures of DCs and T-cells were carried out and then T-cell proliferation, and expansion of Th1, Th17 and Tregs were analysed. Results: Compared with HC, RA-patients displayed increased HLA-DR expression in DCs, which was manifested mainly in patients with moderate-to- high disease activity scores (DAS28). Furthermore, RA-patients presented a stronger Th17-expansion and a correlation between DAS28 and Th1-expansion. Both effects were mainly observed in patients in remission or with a low DAS28. Moreover, smoker RA-patients displayed enhanced HLA-DR and CD83 expression in DCs as well as an exacerbated Th17-expansion and a correlation between DAS28 and Th1-expansion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that smoking enhances the inflammatory behaviour of DCs and the consequent Th1 and Th17-mediated response in patients with RA


Introducción: El potencial dual que poseen para promover tolerancia o inflamación ante antígenos propios, hace de las células dendríticas (CDs) actores fundamentales en el desarrollo de autoinmunidad. Existe una asociación entre fumar y la maduración de las CDs en pacientes con artritis reumatoide (AR). No obstante, la etnicidad es un factor clave a considerar en desórdenes autoinmunes. Objetivos: Comparar las alteraciones fenotípicas y funcionales de las CDs obtenidas desde pacientes Chilenos con AR y controles sanos (CS). Además, analizamos las diferencias en el comportamiento inflamatorio que existe entre las CDs obtenidas de pacientes fumadores y CS. Materiales y Métodos: Se obtuvieron CDs derivadas de monocitos y células T desde muestras de sangre aisladas de 30 CS y 32 pacientes con AR, 14 de los cuales eran fumadores y 18 no fumadores. Se evaluaron marcadores de maduración en la superficie de las CDs: HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83 y CD86. Además, se realizaron co-cultivos autólogos de células T y CDs, analizando la proliferación de células T, y la expansión de células Th1, Th17 y Tregs. Resultados: En comparación con los CS, los pacientes AR mostraron un aumento de la expresión de HLA-DR en las CDs, principalmente en los individuos con DAS28 moderado-alto. Los pacientes con AR presentaron una mayor expansión de células Th17 y una correlación entre el DAS28 y la expansión de células Th1, ambos efectos manifestados principalmente en los individuos con un DAS28 bajo o en remisión. Además, los pacientes con AR fumadores mostraron un aumento en la expresión de HLA-DR y CD83 en las CDs y una expansión de células Th17 exacerbada así como una correlación entre el DAS28 y la expansión de células Th1. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que fumar favorece el comportamiento inflamatorio de las CDs y en consecuencia la inducción de respuestas mediadas por células Th1 y Th17 en los pacientes Chilenos con AR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Smoking/adverse effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Phenotype , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Smoking/physiopathology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Chile , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Disease Progression , Flow Cytometry , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/drug therapy
17.
Immune Network ; : e1-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740206

ABSTRACT

Lymphocytes, such as T cells, B cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), play central roles in regulating immune responses. Retinoic acids (RAs) are vitamin A metabolites, produced and metabolized by certain tissue cells and myeloid cells in a tissue-specific manner. It has been established that RAs induce gut-homing receptors on T cells, B cells, and ILCs. A mounting body of evidence indicates that RAs exert far-reaching effects on functional differentiation and fate of these lymphocytes. For example, RAs promote effector T cell maintenance, generation of induced gut-homing regulatory and effector T cell subsets, antibody production by B cells, and functional maturation of ILCs. Key functions of RAs in regulating major groups of innate and adaptive lymphocytes are highlighted in this article.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Myeloid Cells , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Tretinoin , Vitamin A
18.
Immune Network ; : e13-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740199

ABSTRACT

IL-15 is a cytokine of the common γ-chain family that is critical for natural killer (NK), invariant natural killer T (iNKT), and CD8 memory T cell development and homeostasis. The role of IL-15 in regulating effector T cell subsets, however, remains incompletely understood. IL-15 is mostly expressed by stromal cells, myeloid cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Whether T cells themselves can express IL-15, and if so, whether such T cell-derived IL-15 could play an autocrine role in T cells are interesting questions that were previously addressed but answered with mixed results. Recently, three independent studies described the generation of IL-15 reporter mice which facilitated the identification of IL-15-producing cells and helped to clarify the role of IL-15 both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the findings of these studies and place them in context of recent reports that examined T cell-intrinsic IL-15 expression during CD4 effector T cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Dendritic Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-15 , Memory , Mice , Myeloid Cells , Receptors, Cytokine , Stromal Cells , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells
19.
Immune Network ; : e14-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740198

ABSTRACT

T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies. Therefore, the tight regulation of ROS production by cellular antioxidant pathways is critical to maintaining proper signal transduction without compromising the integrity of the cell. This review intends to detail the common metabolic sources of intracellular ROS and the mechanisms by which ROS contributes to the development of T cell-mediated immunity. The regulation of ROS levels by the glutathione pathway and the Nrf2-Keap1-Cul3 trimeric complex will be discussed. Finally, T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases exacerbated by defects in ROS regulation will be further examined in order to identify potential therapeutic interventions for these disorders.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Cytotoxins , DNA , Glutathione , Immunity, Cellular , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Second Messenger Systems , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690963

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of bortezomib(BTZ) and thalidomide(TM) on peripheral blood memory T-cells (T) and regulatory T cells(Tregs) in patients with multiple myeloma(MM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty-six MM patients received 2 courses of chemotherapy were divided into effective (partial response at least) group (63 cases) and ineffective (no partial response) group (17 cases) according to therapeutic efficacy; these 80 patients were divided into BTZ group (38 cases) and TM group (42 cases) yet according to therapeutic regimens, 20 newly diagnosed MM patients were used as baseline group, 30 healthy volunteers were used as healthy control group. The T subsets and Treg in peripheral blood of each groups were detected by flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The CD4 central memory T cells (CD4 T) percentage of CD4 T, the CD18 T percentage of CD18T and ratio of CD8 T and CD8 effector memory T cells (T) (CD8 T/T) in baseline group were all significantly lower than those in healthy control group (P<0.05). After treatment with BTZ regimen or TM regimen, the CD8T percentage of CD8 T in effective group significantly increased to level of healthy control group (P<0.05); the Treg cell level in effective and in effective groups was not significantly different from that in baseline group(P>0.05), but the Treg percentage of CD4 cells ineffective group was significantly higher than that in baseline group and ineffective group (P<0.05). According to ROC curve, the critical value of CD8T/T for predicting chemotherapeutic response was 0.27 with sensitivity of 57.1% and specificity of 94.1%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>When MM patients are in an immuno-exhanstive status, the treatment with BTZ or TM both can reverse the immuno-inhibitory status of MM patients, moreover, does not affect the Treg cell count; the Treg percentage in BTZ and TM effective groups both are significantly higher than that in baseline group and ineffective group. The ratio of CD8T/T contributes to evaluating the chemotherapeutic efficacy.</p>


Subject(s)
Bortezomib , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Thalidomide
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