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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRB6077, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154101

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Follicular helper T lymphocytes are a subpopulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes initially identified in germinal centers of follicles found in secondary lymphoid organs. The primary function of follicular helper T lymphocytes is to help B lymphocytes' antibody production. Changing of antibody class and affinity, B cell differentiation and memory generation depend on cooperation between follicular helper T lymphocytes and B cells. In blood, follicular helper T lymphocytes are called circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes. They are considered to have specificities similar to those developed in the secondary lymphoid organs. The phenotype of human follicular helper T lymphocytes is given by simultaneous expression of the markers CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1, and ICOS. In germinal centers, follicular helper T lymphocytes synthesize interleukin 21 as predominant cytokine. In blood, subpopulations of circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes can be recognized, with different expressions of the classical follicular helper T lymphocytes markers and, in addition, can express other markers such as CXCR3 and CCR6. Presently, there is great interest in follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes in vaccination studies as indicators of immunization efficacy. In addition, follicular helper T lymphocytes are investigated as possible markers of activity in many diseases and potential therapeutic intervention. This short review describes aspects of immunobiology and quantification of follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes, and presents a few examples of related findings in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection and vaccination.


RESUMO Linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares são uma subpopulação de linfócitos T CD4+ identificada inicialmente nos centros germinativos dos folículos dos órgãos linfoides secundários. Sua função primordial é auxiliar os linfócitos B na produção de anticorpos. A mudança de classe e de afinidade dos anticorpos, a diferenciação das células B e a geração de memória dependem da cooperação entre os linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares e as células B. No sangue, recebem o nome de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes. Considera-se que possuem especificidades semelhantes às desenvolvidas nos órgãos linfoides secundários. O fenótipo dos linfócitos T auxiliares humanos é dado pela expressão conjunta dos marcadores CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1 e ICOS. Nos folículos, linfócitos T auxiliares sintetizam a interleucina 21 como citocina predominante. No sangue, são descritas várias subpopulações de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes com expressões variadas dos marcadores clássicos de linfócitos T auxiliares, além de poderem agregar outros, como CXCR3 e CCR6. Existe um enorme interesse no estudo de linfócitos T auxiliares e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, para a avaliação de eficácia de vacinação. São também investigados como possíveis marcadores de atividade em muitas doenças e potenciais intervenções terapêuticas. Esta breve revisão descreve aspectos da imunobiologia e da quantificação de linfócitos T auxiliares humanos e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, além de apresentar alguns achados relacionados em lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, artrite reumatoide, infecção por HIV e vacinação.


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(1): 66-72, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic Nasal polyps (NPs) are different subtypes of NPs and require different treatment methods. Objective To compare the histologic characteristics, mRNA and protein expression between Nasal Polyps with and without eosinophilia. Methods NPs tissues were obtained from eighty-six NPs patients during surgery. Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs were distinguished according to immunochemical results of the specimen. The histological, mRNA and protein expression features were compared between the two groups. Results In eosinophilic NPs, we observed a significantly higher GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and protein expression. In noneosinophilic NPs, IL-17, IL-23 and RORc mRNA and protein expression were increased. Immunohistochemistry tests showed, more mast cells and less neutrophils in eosinophilic NPs compared with noneosinophilic NPs. Eosinophilic NPs patient presented more severe symptom scores when compared to noneosinophilic NPs. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that Th2 is the predominant reaction in eosinophilic NPs while Th17 is the predominant reaction in noneosinophilic NPs. Our study may provide new treatment strategy for NPs.


Resumo Introdução Pólipos nasais (PNs) eosinofílicos e não eosinofílicos são diferentes subtipos de PNs e requerem diferentes métodos de tratamento. Objetivo Comparar as características histológicas e a expressão de mRNAs e proteínas entre PNs com e sem eosinofilia. Método Amostras de PNs foram obtidos de 86 pacientes durante a cirurgia. PNs eosinofílicos e não eosinofílicos foram diferenciados segundo os resultados imunoistoquímicos de cada amostra. As características histológicas e de expressão de mRNAs e de proteínas foram comparadas entre os dois grupos. Resultados Em PNs eosinofílicos, observamos uma expressão significativamente maior dos mRNAs e proteínas GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4 e IL-13. Nos PNs não eosinofílicos, aumentou a expressão dos mRNAs e das proteínas IL-17, IL-23 e RORc. Nos testes imunoistoquímicos, observamos maior número de mastócitos e menor número de neutrófilos nos PNs eosinofílicos, em comparação com PNs não eosinofílicos. Os pacientes com PNs eosinofílicos obtiveram escores de sintomas mais graves vs. PNs não eosinofílicos. Conclusão Demonstramos, pela primeira vez, uma reação Th2 predominante em PNs eosinofílicos e uma reação Th17 predominante em PNs não eosinofílicos. Nosso estudo pode proporcionar novas estratégias terapêuticas para a rinossinusite crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sinusitis/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Sinusitis/complications , Transcription Factors , Severity of Illness Index , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rhinitis/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , Nasal Polyps/pathology , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Eosinophilia/complications , Eosinophilia/metabolism , Eosinophilia/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5209, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951671

ABSTRACT

The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th) responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17) and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh). These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R), the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Interleukins/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Interleukin-17/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(3): 329-355, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752428

ABSTRACT

Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells). Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as a stage that presents a significantly host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge that determine of susceptibility to develop the destructive/progressive periodontitis under the influence of multiple behavioral, environmental and genetic factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Medical Illustration , Matrix Metalloproteinases/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/etiology
5.
Clinics ; 70(3): 169-172, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the macrophage migration inhibitory factor and E-selectin levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the plasma migration inhibitory factor and E-selectin levels in 87 patients who presented with chest pain at our hospital. The patients were classified into two groups according to their cardiac status. Sixty-five patients had acute myocardial infarction, and 22 patients had non-cardiac chest pain (non-coronary disease). We designated the latter group of patients as the control group. The patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction were further divided into two subgroups: ST-elevated myocardial infarction (n = 30) and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (n = 35). RESULTS: We found higher plasma migration inhibitory factor levels in both acute myocardial infarction subgroups than in the control group. However, the E-selectin levels were similar between the acute myocardial infarction and control patients. In addition, we did not find a significant difference in the plasma migration inhibitory factor levels between the ST elevated myocardial infarction and NST-elevated myocardial infarction subgroups. DISCUSSION: The circulating concentrations of migration inhibitory factor were significantly increased in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas the soluble E-selectin levels were similar between acute myocardial infarction patients and control subjects. Our results suggest that migration inhibitory factor may play a role in the atherosclerotic process. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , /metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/immunology , Spheroids, Cellular/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Alginates , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Chitosan , /genetics , /immunology , Glucuronic Acid , Granzymes/metabolism , Hexuronic Acids , Immunity, Cellular , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/pathology , Spheroids, Cellular/metabolism , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(4): 336-346, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718287

ABSTRACT

Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods: The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results: The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion: There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Periapical Granuloma/pathology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/analysis , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/immunology , Periapical Granuloma/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161403

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(1): 25-32, Jan. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610550

ABSTRACT

Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has been shown to have beneficial effects on numerous immune system parameters, but little is known about the effects of Tα1 on patients with gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Tα1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro, and to evaluate its efficacy as an immunoregulatory factor in patients with gastric carcinoma. We compared the effect of Tα1 on the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, especially the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from gastric carcinoma patients (N = 35) and healthy donors (N = 22). We also analyzed the changes in the proliferation of PBMCs in response to treatment with Tα1, and examined the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by PBMCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The treatment of PBMCs from gastric cancer patients, with Tα1 (50 µg/mL) alone increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (suppressive antitumor-specific Tregs) from 1.68 ± 0.697 to 2.19 ± 0.795 percent (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that Tα1 increases the percentage of Tregs and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in vitro.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/drug effects , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , Thymosin/analogs & derivatives , Antineoplastic Agents/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/drug effects , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , /drug effects , /immunology , /drug effects , /immunology , Thymosin/immunology , Thymosin/pharmacology , Thymosin/therapeutic use
9.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 33-43, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626745

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-α/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-γ. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , /analysis , /immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Immunophenotyping , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(4): 322-327, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658005

ABSTRACT

It was assessed the immunohistochemical profile of CD25+ cells in cases of chronic gingivitis (CG) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Immunohistochemistry was carried out using streptoavidin-biotin complex and anti-CD25 antibody in 17 cases of CG and 25 cases of CP. Sixteen cases (94.1%) of CG were immunopositive. CD25 was focally expressed in 50% of the sample and diffusely expressed in 25%. The stained cells were localized not only beneath the epithelium, but also far from it. In relation to the cellular density quantification of CD25+ cells, score ++ was the most common. Concerning CP, all cases were immunopositive. CD25+ cells were expressed in focal or diffuse pattern either close or far from the epithelium. Diffuse distribution of positive cells throughout the connective tissue was seen in 60% of the cases and 32% showed focal or diffuse cellular pattern. Sixteen cases (64%) received score +++. It was identified that CD25+ cells are present in either a focal or a diffuse pattern in connective tissue. Significant differences in the density of cellular immunostaining between CG and CP were found. The greatest density was observed in CP cases, which suggests that the infiltrate of lymphocytes show a higher degree of cellular activation in periodontitis compared with gingivitis.


Foi avaliado o perfil imunohistoquímico das células CD25+ em casos de gengivite (CG) e periodontite crônica (CP). A imunohistoquímica foi realizada utilizando o complexo de streptoavidina-biotina e o anticorpo anti-CD25 em 17 casos de CG e 25 casos de CP. 16 casos (94.1%) de CG foram imunopositivos. O CD25 foi expresso focalmente em 50% da amostra e difusamente em 25% dos casos. As células imunomarcadas estavam localizadas não apenas no epitélio, mas também por todo o tecido conjuntivo. Em relação à quantificação da densidade celular de células CD25+, o escore ++ foi o mais comum. Em relação a CP, todos os casos foram imunopositivos. As células CD25+ foram expressas em padrão ora focal ora difuso, tanto no epitélio como no conjuntivo. A distribuição difusa das células positivas apenas no tecido conjuntivo foi observada em 60% dos casos, e 32% dos casos exibiram padrão celular ora focal ora difuso. 16 casos (64%) foram considerados como escore +++. Identificamos que as células CD25+ estão presentes em padrão ora focal ora difuso no tecido conjuntivo. Diferenças significantes na densidade da imunomarcação celular entre CG and CP foram encontradas. A maior densidade celular foi observada na periodontite, sugerindo que o infiltrado de linfócitos mostrou um maior grau de ativação celular na periodontite comparada à gengivite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Periodontitis/immunology , Gingivitis/immunology , /analysis , Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Connective Tissue Cells/immunology , Disease Progression , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
13.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 21(2): 332-335, abr.-jun. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-570037

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori, es una bacteria Gram negativa que coloniza la mucosa gástrica y contribuye al desarrollo de patologías como la gastritis crónica, úlceras duodenales y en menor medida cáncer gástrico. Si bien la infección por H. pylori por sí sola es capaz de producir daño al epitelio gástrico a través de la expresión de numerosos factores de virulencia, es la respuesta inmune local la mayor responsable de la patogenia de las enfermedades asociadas a dicha infección. La clásica dicotomía en la respuesta T helper tipo 1 vs tipo 2 para explicar el daño asociado a la bacteria, ha dado paso a un escenario más complejo con la reciente descripción de las células T regulatorias y la existencia de nuevos perfiles de respuesta T helper como Th 17. El delicado equilibrio entre virulencia y respuesta infl amatoria inmune es principalmente regulado por la intensidad de la respuesta T regulatoria, cuya supresión permite la expresión de una respuesta efectora potencialmente responsable del daño final.


Helicobacter pylori a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes gastric mucosa and that has been associated to different disease such as chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Although the infection by itself is able to produce damage to the gastric mucosa through the expression and interaction of well-known virulence factors, the immune local response is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated diseases. The classic dichotomy T helper type 1 vs type 2 response to explain the damage associated to the bacterium, has been reevaluated in a more complex scenario with the recent description of the T regulatory response and the new patterns of T helper response such as Th17. The extremely well balanced equilibrium between virulence and immune inflammatory response is mainly regulated by the intensity of the T regulatory response; its suppression would allow the expression of different T helper responses that account for the final damage and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Autoimmunity , Gastric Mucosa/immunology , Gastric Mucosa/microbiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79617

ABSTRACT

Interleukin (IL)-10 exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of both T-help (Th) 1 and Th2 cells. Previous studies have reported that IL-10 can ameliorate various inflammatory disorders. The present study was performed to examine whether IL-10 plasmid DNA could suppress development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice, as an initial step towards the development of an appliance for use in dogs with AD. Intradermal injection of IL-10 plasmid DNA markedly inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions, as evidenced by a marked decrease in skin symptoms and reduced inflammation within the skin lesions. Efficacy was confirmed by significant decreases in eosinophil ratio and serum IgE concentration, and a reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from the ear. Moreover, relative mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and interferon-gamma in the skin lesions of mice injected with IL-10 plasmid DNA were also decreased compared with those of control mice. Of note, higher serum IL-10 levels in mice injected with IL-10 plasmid DNA were maintained compared with those in control mice. Taken together, the results indicate that IL-10 plasmid DNA can suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing both Th1 and Th2 cell responses. Beneficial effects of IL-10 plasmid DNA may be expected in dogs with AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Case-Control Studies , DNA Primers/genetics , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , Interleukin-10/genetics , Mice , Mice, Mutant Strains , Plasmids/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Statistics, Nonparametric , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138748

ABSTRACT

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) occurs in more than 50% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Indian patients. This study was carried out to determine the immunophenotypic and intracellular cytokine profile of patients with HIV-TB co-infection. Patients and Methods. Fifteen patients with HIV-TB co-infection and 15 each with TB alone and healthy individuals were studied. Immunophenotypic analysis and intracellular cytokines were measured using appropriate antibodies on a flowcytometer. Results. Percentage of CD3+ did not differ significantly in the three groups. The ratio of CD4+ : CD8+ was reversed among patients with TB and HIV-TB. CD19+ and CD25+ were present on fewer cells of healthy individuals but this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher percentage of cells of patients with TB and HIV-TB were CD69 positive. Interferongamma (INF-g ) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) levels are significantly reduced in the CD4+ cells of patients with HIV-TB when compared with those with TB and healthy individuals. In CD8+ cells of patients with HIV-TB, levels of TNF-a are higher when compared with the other two groups. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing cells were not significantly different in any of the above subsets. Monocytes in individuals with HIV-TB had significantly higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-a. Conclusions. T-helper cells among patients with HIV-TB have significantly lower cytokine production. T-suppressor cells and monocytes produce more TNF-a. These findings may be significant in view of recent attempts to treat HIV-TB coinfected patients with anti-TNF therapy.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/metabolism , Adult , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Intracellular Fluid/metabolism , Male , Prevalence , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/metabolism , Young Adult
17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Jan; 25(1): 18-23
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53451

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to understand the in vivo and in vitro immune responses and to find whether there exists any difference in the systemic and localized immune responses in tuberculous pleuritis. METHODS: The in vivo levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 were compared in plasma (BL) and pleural fluid (PF) of 47 tuberculous (TB) and 31 nontuberculous pleuritis (Non-TB) patients. In vitro cytokine response to various mycobacterial antigens was studied in 19 TB patients by ELISA. Both ex vivo and in vitro cytokine responses were further ascertained by intracellular cytokine staining on purified CD4+ T cells from pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) of 10 TB patients. RESULTS: The ex vivo results showed a significant increase in IFN-gamma levels and higher IFN-gamma + T cells in PF. On the other hand, in vitro results showed simultaneous increase in both IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels in the supernatants of antigen stimulated PFMC. Similarly antigen specific increase was observed in both IFN-gamma + and IL-4+ T cells in all cultured conditions. However, the percentile increase was more in IL-4 secreting T cells, significant for PPD stimulation (P < 0.05), indicating that in vitro cellular response was dominated by Th2 type. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed a differential T-helper response in TB pleuritis suggestive of predominant Th1 in vivo and mixed response (Th1 and Th2) under in vitro conditions.


Subject(s)
Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/immunology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148131

ABSTRACT

Immunocastration is a considerable alternative to a surgical castration method especially in male animal species for alleviating unwanted male behaviors and characteristics. Induction of high titer of antibody specific for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) correlates with the regression of testes. Fusion proteins composed of canine GnRH and T helper (Th) cell epitope p35 originated from canine distemper virus (CDV) F protein and goat rotavirus VP6 protein were produced in E. coli. When these fusion proteins were injected to male dogs which were previously immunized with CDV vaccine, the fusion protein of GnRH-CDV Th cell epitope p35 induced much higher antibody than that of GnRH-rotavirus VP6 protein or GnRH alone. The degeneration of spermatogenesis was also verified in the male dogs immunized with the fusion protein of GnRH-CDV Th cell epitope p35. These results indicate that canine GnRH conjugated to CDV Th cell epitope p35 acted as a strong immunogen and the antibody to GnRH specifically neutralized GnRH in the testes. This study also implies a potential application of GnRH-based vaccines for immunocastration of male pets.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/blood , Base Sequence , Contraception, Immunologic/methods , Distemper Virus, Canine/immunology , Dogs/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Fertility/immunology , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/chemistry , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Organ Size , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spermatogenesis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Testis/immunology , Vaccines, Contraceptive/immunology
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 24(2): 140-152, jun. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-635438

ABSTRACT

En el presente estudio se examinó la especificidad y la sensibilidad de los anticuerpos antipéptidos citrulinados cíclicos (CCP) en pacientes latinoamericanas con artritis reumatoidea (AR), así como su relación con la actividad de la enfermedad, manifestaciones extraarticulares (MEA), síntesis de citocinas (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-µ e IFN-gamma ) y factor reumatoideo (FR) IgM e IgA, y con el polimorfismo del HLA-DRB1. Se examinaron 79 pacientes con AR (69 con AR establecida y 10 con AR temprana sin previo tratamiento), 56 pacientes con espondilitis anquilosante (EA), 25 con lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), 50 con síndrome de Sjögren primario (SSp) y diez individuos sanos. De las 69 pacientes con AR establecida, 36 fueron reevaluadas 2 años después. La actividad de la AR se examinó según los criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología. Los anticuerpos anti-CCP2, el FR y los niveles de citocinas se determinaron mediante inmunoensayo, y la genotipificación del HLA se llevó a cabo por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa utilizando mezclas de iniciadores específicos. Los anticuerpos anti-CCP se observaron en 96% de los pacientes con AR en la primera evaluación y en 86% en la segunda ( p=0,12), sin modificación significativa en los valores (131±58,7 vs. 130,6±67,1 UI). Su sensibilidad y especificidad global fue de 94% y 92%, respectivamente, pero cuando sólo se consideraron los niveles altos (>60 UI) fueron de 84% y 95%, respectivamente. La razón de probabilidades (RP) positiva fue de 12 y la RP negativa de 0,06. El valor predictivo (VP) positivo fue de 87% y el VP negativo de 96%. Los anticuerpos anti-CCP se observaron en 12% de los pacientes con LES y con SSp, en 2% de los de EA y en 10% de los controles sanos. En los pacientes con AR no se asociaron con la actividad de la enfermedad, MEA y alelos del HLA-DRB1. Tampoco se observaron correlaciones significativas entre sus valores y los niveles de citocinas. En conclusión, los anticuerpos anti-CCP tienen un interés diagnóstico para la AR en nuestra población, pero su utilidad en el seguimiento clínico es limitada y su síntesis es independiente del HLA-DRB1 y no se correlacionan con niveles de citocinas Th1/Th2.


The specificity and sensitivity of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) was examined in Latin-American patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The variables considered included: 1) relation with the activity of disease, 2) extra-articular manifestations (EAM), 3) synthesis of cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha , and IFN-gamma ) and IgM and IgA rheumatoid factor (RF), and 4) the association with HLA-DRB1 polymorphism. Seventy-nine RA patients were assessed (69 with established RA, and 10 with recent-onset RA not receiving any treatment), 56 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 25 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 50 with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), and 10 healthy individuals. Of the 69 patients with established RA, 36 were reexamined 2 years later. The activity of the RA was measured by criteria adopted by the American College of Rheumatology. Anti-CCP2, RF and cytokines levels were determined by ELISA. HLA genotypes were established by first, PCR sequence amplification using sequence-specific primers and then, complete sequencing of the product. Anti-CCP antibodies were observed in 96% of patients with RA during the first evaluation and in 86% at the second evaluation ( p=0.12). No significant change in antibody titre was observed between the two evaluations (131±58.7 and 130.6±67.1 IU, respectively). The overall sensitivity and specificity was 94% and 92%, respectively; however, at titres >60 IU, the values were 84% and 95%, respectively. The anti-CCP likelihood ratio positive test was 12 and the likelihood ratio negative test was 0.06. The positive predictive value was 87%, and the negative predictive value was 96%. Anti-CCP antibodies were observed in 12% of SLE and pSS patients, in 2% of AS patients, and in 10% of healthy controls. In RA patients, these antibodies were not associated with the activity of disease, EAM or HLA-DRB1 alleles; no significant correlation was observed between antibody titre and cytokines level. Although anti-CCP antibodies have potential as a diagnostic tool for RA, they are not useful for monitoring clinical activity or predicting the clinical course of disease. Antibody synthesis is HLA-DRB1 independent and not correlated with Th1/Th2 cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies/blood , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Peptides, Cyclic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Rev. Fed. Odontol. Colomb ; (205): 38-47, mar.-jun. 2003. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-357461

ABSTRACT

En este estudio se investigó la localización y distribución de os linfocitos T en el tejido gingival afectado de pacientes con periodontits agresiva (PA) y gingivitis inducida por placa bacteriana (GIPB). Las biopsias se obtuvieron de 20 pacientes entre 18 y 41 años de edad y fueron procesadas para estudio histpatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Los linfocitos T gingivales (CD3+), las células T ayudantes (CD4+) y las células T supresoras-citotóxicas (CD8+) fueron identificadas usando anticuerpos monoclonales y la técnica de inmunoperoxidasa. El infiltrado inflamatorio en GIPB fue escaso y se localizó principalmente en la lámina propia debajo del epitelio sulcular y de unión y estuvo dominado por linfocitos T, mientras que en las biopsias de periodontitis agresiva se localizó primordialmente en el tejido conjuntivo profundo, debajo del epitelio de la bolsa y estaba compuesto por linfocitos y células plasmáticas. El porcentaje de células CD3+ disminuyó en PA, al compararlo con GIPB, como consecuencia de una reducción en las células CD4+, especialmente. Estos hallazgos sugieren un papel inmunorregulador de las células T en la patogenia de las enfermedades periodontales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Gingiva/ultrastructure , Periodontitis , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Biopsy , Dental Plaque , Gingivitis , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunohistochemistry/methods , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Statistical Analysis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
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