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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e6227, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839309

ABSTRACT

Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine that has several oligomeric forms in the blood stream, which broadly regulates innate and acquired immunity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to observe the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells and expression of costimulatory signaling molecules affected by adiponectin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin and its receptors in oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol-treated endothelial cells were assayed by real time PCR and immunofluorescence. The endothelial cells were then treated with adiponectin with or without adipoR1 or adipoR2 siRNA and co-cultured with T lymphocytes. The distribution of Th1, Th2 and Th17 subsets were assayed by flow cytometry. The effects of adiponectin on costimulatory signaling molecules HLA-DR, CD80, CD86 and CD 40 was also assayed by flow cytometry. The results showed that endothelial cells expressed adiponectin and its receptor adipoR1 and adipoR2, but not T-cadherin. Adiponectin suppressed Th1 and Th17 differentiation through adipoR1 receptor, contributed to the inhibition of CD80 and CD40, and inhibited differentiation of Th1 and Th17 by inhibiting antigen presenting action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Adiponectin/metabolism , B7-1 Antigen/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/drug effects , Adiponectin/genetics , Adiponectin/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Receptors, Adiponectin/drug effects , Receptors, Adiponectin/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism
2.
Clinics ; 70(3): 169-172, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the macrophage migration inhibitory factor and E-selectin levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the plasma migration inhibitory factor and E-selectin levels in 87 patients who presented with chest pain at our hospital. The patients were classified into two groups according to their cardiac status. Sixty-five patients had acute myocardial infarction, and 22 patients had non-cardiac chest pain (non-coronary disease). We designated the latter group of patients as the control group. The patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction were further divided into two subgroups: ST-elevated myocardial infarction (n = 30) and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (n = 35). RESULTS: We found higher plasma migration inhibitory factor levels in both acute myocardial infarction subgroups than in the control group. However, the E-selectin levels were similar between the acute myocardial infarction and control patients. In addition, we did not find a significant difference in the plasma migration inhibitory factor levels between the ST elevated myocardial infarction and NST-elevated myocardial infarction subgroups. DISCUSSION: The circulating concentrations of migration inhibitory factor were significantly increased in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas the soluble E-selectin levels were similar between acute myocardial infarction patients and control subjects. Our results suggest that migration inhibitory factor may play a role in the atherosclerotic process. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , /metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/immunology , Spheroids, Cellular/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Alginates , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Chitosan , /genetics , /immunology , Glucuronic Acid , Granzymes/metabolism , Hexuronic Acids , Immunity, Cellular , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/pathology , Spheroids, Cellular/metabolism , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(4): 336-346, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718287

ABSTRACT

Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods: The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results: The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion: There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Periapical Granuloma/pathology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/analysis , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/immunology , Periapical Granuloma/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
4.
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2014; 8 (1): 59-66
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157597

ABSTRACT

Disorders in immune system regulation may result in pregnancy abnormalities such as recurrent spontaneous abortion [RSA]. This study aims to determine the ratio of regulatory T [Treg] and T helper [Th] 17 cells in unexplained RSA [URSA] women during proliferative and secretory phases of their menstrual cycles compared to healthy non-pregnant women. In this case control study, 25 women with URSA and 35 healthy, non-pregnant women were enrolled. The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in participants peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. The percentage of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in serum [IL-17A] were higher in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycles of URSA women compared to the control women. However, a lower percentage of Treg cells and their related cytokines in serum, transforming growth factor [TGF] beta1 and interleukin [IL]-10 were detected in the proliferative but not the secretory phase of the URSA group. The ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg was higher in the URSA group than the control group. We observed an increased ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg during the proliferative and secretory phases in URSA women. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells during the proliferative phase of menstrual cycles in the URSA group may be considered a cause for spontaneous abortion


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factors , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology , Interleukin-17 , Menstrual Cycle/immunology , Case-Control Studies
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138748

ABSTRACT

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) occurs in more than 50% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Indian patients. This study was carried out to determine the immunophenotypic and intracellular cytokine profile of patients with HIV-TB co-infection. Patients and Methods. Fifteen patients with HIV-TB co-infection and 15 each with TB alone and healthy individuals were studied. Immunophenotypic analysis and intracellular cytokines were measured using appropriate antibodies on a flowcytometer. Results. Percentage of CD3+ did not differ significantly in the three groups. The ratio of CD4+ : CD8+ was reversed among patients with TB and HIV-TB. CD19+ and CD25+ were present on fewer cells of healthy individuals but this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher percentage of cells of patients with TB and HIV-TB were CD69 positive. Interferongamma (INF-g ) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) levels are significantly reduced in the CD4+ cells of patients with HIV-TB when compared with those with TB and healthy individuals. In CD8+ cells of patients with HIV-TB, levels of TNF-a are higher when compared with the other two groups. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing cells were not significantly different in any of the above subsets. Monocytes in individuals with HIV-TB had significantly higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-a. Conclusions. T-helper cells among patients with HIV-TB have significantly lower cytokine production. T-suppressor cells and monocytes produce more TNF-a. These findings may be significant in view of recent attempts to treat HIV-TB coinfected patients with anti-TNF therapy.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/metabolism , Adult , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Intracellular Fluid/metabolism , Male , Prevalence , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37561

ABSTRACT

CD4 is a cell surface glycoprotein that acts as a co-receptor for the T cell antigen receptor by binding to a non-polymorphic portion of MHC molecules. CD4 also functions as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) because the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 binds to CD4 with a high affinity. We have previously demonstrated that introduction of mutations into CD4 abolished the binding of gp120 and prevented HIV-1 from entering cells and spreading. However, whether introduction of such mutations into CD4 causes decreased binding to MHC and loss of function is yet to be determined. We generated transgenic mouse lines by injecting a mutant human CD4 (muthCD4) gene under a murine CD4 enhancer/promoter to ensure tissue and stage specific expression. To exclude the influence of endogenous murine CD4, transgenic mice were crossed with murine CD4-targeted mice to produce muthCD4 transgenic mice lacking endogenous CD4 (muthCD4TG/KO mice). In these mice, T lymphocytes expressing muthCD4 expanded and matured in the thymus and were present in the spleen and lymph nodes. They also activated B cells to mount an antibody response to a T-dependent antigen. The results from this study suggest that a human variant of CD4 modified to be resistant to HIV-1 binding can rescue the signaling for T cell development in the thymus in vivo, having helper T cell functions. Thus, further characterization of muthCD4 molecules should open the way to new HIV treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Virus Internalization , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Protein Binding , Mutation/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Mice , Humans , HIV-1/metabolism , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/metabolism , CD4 Antigens/genetics , Animals
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 103-105, Sept. 2001.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295885

ABSTRACT

In this communication the authors analyzed the pattern of expression of IFN-gamma as a surrogate type 1 response in different clinical forms of schistosomiasis in response to stimulation involving T-cell dependent and T-cell independent pathways, to investigate which pathways were functional in human schistosomiasis, and to further characterize the nature of Th1 response impairment in this parasitic disease


Subject(s)
Humans , CD40 Antigens/physiology , CD40 Ligand/physiology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , CD40 Antigens/metabolism , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 89-101, Sept. 2001. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295895

ABSTRACT

T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/classification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antigens, Helminth , Cell Line , Clone Cells/classification , Clone Cells/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Parasite Egg Count , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/classification , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/classification , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Titrimetry
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