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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22099, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439517

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, the manufacturing process of lamivudine (3TC) and zidovudine (AZT) tablets (150+300 mg respectively) was evaluated using statistical process control (SPC) tools. These medicines are manufactured by the Fundação para o Remédio Popular "Chopin Tavares de Lima" (FURP) laboratory, and are distributed free of charge to patients infected with HIV by the Ministry of Health DST/AIDS national program. Data of 529 batches manufactured from 2012 to 2015 were collected. The critical quality attributes of weight variation, uniformity of dosage units, and dissolution were evaluated. Process stability was assessed using control charts, and the capability indices Cp, Cpk, Pp, and Ppk (process capability; process capability adjusted for non-centered distribution; potential or global capability of the process; and potential process capability adjusted for non-centered distribution, respectively) were evaluated. 3TC dissolution data from 2013 revealed a non-centered process and lack of consistency compared to the other years, showing Cpk and Ppk lower than 1.0 and the chance of failure of 2,483 in 1,000,000 tablets. Dissolution data from 2015 showed process improvement, revealed by Cpk and Ppk equal to 2.19 and 1.99, respectively. Overall, the control charts and capability indices showed the variability of the process and special causes. Additionally, it was possible to point out the opportunities for process changes, which are fundamental for understanding and supporting a continuous improvement environment.


Subject(s)
Tablets/analysis , Zidovudine/agonists , HIV/pathogenicity , Lamivudine/agonists , Patients/classification , Total Quality Management/organization & administration , Fees and Charges/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories/classification , Manufactured Materials/supply & distribution
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21265, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439543

ABSTRACT

Abstract Piper nigrum (black pepper) is used in Indian traditional medicine and its main alkaloid, Piperine (PIP), presents antioxidant, antitumor and neuroprotective pharmacological properties. This substance is insoluble in aqueous media and can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Aiming to avoid these inconvenient characteristics and enable PIP oral administration, this study suggested the PIP microencapsulation through the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and the preparation of microparticulated tablets by direct compression. An UV-spectroscopy method was validated to quantify PIP. Microparticles and microparticulated tablets were successfully obtained and the microparticles exhibited excellent flow. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that PIP microparticles were intact after compression. The in vitro release showed a controlled release of PIP from microparticles and PIP microparticles from tablets in comparison to PIP and PIP tablets. The release profiles of PIP microparticles and the microparticulated tablets were similar. Therefore, tablets containing PIP microparticles are promising multiparticulated dosage forms because a tablet allows microparticles administration and the intact ones promote a controlled release, decreasing its irritating potential on the mucosa.


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Piper nigrum/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Tablets/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/adverse effects , Medicine, Traditional/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22725, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447572

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution properties of ibuprofen solid oral dosage forms commercially available in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to estimate the influence of dissolution medium composition on the drug release. Eight products (A-H) were subjected to in vitro dissolution test using experimental conditions described in USP42-NF37. Dissolution properties of one selected product were examined in the presence of alcohol (22.2% v/v) and fruit juice (22.2% v/v). Products marked B-H complied with the pharmacopeial criteria. Dissolution profile of product B was similar with dissolution profiles of products D, E, F and G and similarity was also found between products A-D, C-G, D-G and E-F. Drug release from most of the examined preparations fitted best to the Weibull kinetic model. In the presence of alcohol in the medium, higher amount of ibuprofen was dissolved. Contrary, ibuprofen dissolved in the presence of fruit juice was significantly lower. Differences in the dissolution profiles of investigated preparations suggest that their interchangeability should be additionally considered and demonstrated with in vivo bioequivalence studies. Presence of different substances in the medium can affect dissolution properties of ibuprofen, emphasizing the importance of the patient's compliance.


Subject(s)
Ibuprofen/analysis , Interchange of Drugs , Dissolution , Tablets , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Liberation/drug effects
4.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 116-120, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970977

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Patients with multiple traumas are at high risk of developing respiratory complications, including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many pulmonary complications are associated with systemic inflammation and pulmonary neutrophilic infiltration. Leukotriene-receptor antagonists are anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant drugs subsiding airway inflammation. The present study investigates the effectiveness of montelukast in reducing pulmonary complications among trauma patients.@*METHODS@#This randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial was conducted in patients with multiple blunt traumas and evidence of lung contusion detected via CT scan. We excluded patients if they met at least one of the following conditions: < 16 years old, history of cardiopulmonary diseases or positive history of montelukast-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Patients were allocated to the treatment (10 mg of montelukast) or placebo group using permuted block randomization method. The primary measured outcome was the volume of pulmonary contusion at the end of the trial. The secondary outcomes were intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, ventilation days, multi-organ failure, and the in-hospital mortality rate.@*RESULTS@#In total, 65 eligible patients (treatment = 31, placebo = 34) were included for the final analysis. The treatment group had more pulmonary contusion volume (mean (SD), mm3) at the right (68726.97 (93656.54) vs. 59730.27 (76551.74)) and the left side (67501.71 (91514.04) vs. 46502.21 (80604.21)), higher initial C-reactive peptide level (12.16 (10.58) vs. 10.85 (17.87)) compared to the placebo group, but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). At the end of the study, the mean (SD) of pulmonary contusion volume (mm3) (right side = 116748.74 (361705.12), left side = 64522.03 (117266.17)) of the treatment group were comparable to that of the placebo group (right side = 40051.26 (64081.56), left side = 25929.12 (47417.13), p = 0.228 and 0.082, respectively). Moreover, both groups have statistically similar hospital (mean (SD), days) (10.87 (9.83) vs. 13.05 (10.12)) and intensive care unit length of stays (mean (SD), days) (7.16 (8.15) vs. 7.82 (7.48)). Of note, the frequency of the in-hospital complications (treatment vs. control group) including acute respiratory distress syndrome (12.9% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.71), pneumonia (19.4% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.85), multi-organ failure (12.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.58) and the mortality rate (22.6% vs. 14.7%, p = 0.41) were comparable between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Administrating montelukast has no preventive or therapeutic effects on lung contusion or its complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Thoracic Wall , Pneumonia , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Thoracic Injuries/drug therapy , Lung Injury , Contusions , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Inflammation , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 588-595, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970527

ABSTRACT

Lozenge is one of the traditional dosage forms of Chinese medicine. It has been recorded in traditional Chinese medical classics of all dynasties since the Eastern Han Dynasty and has been developing and evolving continuously. The unique pharmaceutical methods and application scope are the driving force of its emergence, existence, and development. Up to now, lozenge has been included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as an independent dosage form. Lozenge has been endowed with new meaning by modern Chinese medicine pharmaceutics, which is worth tracing origin and exploring value. The present study reviewed the origin and development of lozenge, compared lozenge with other similar dosage forms, analyzed the characteristics of modern and ancient dosage forms of lozenge, and discussed the development prospect and potential of lozenge in combination with the demand development of modern Chinese medicine preparation, so as to provide references for expanding the modern application of lozenge.


Subject(s)
Biopharmaceutics , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Tablets , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 247-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970520

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Guanxinning Tablets+conventional western medicine in the treatment of angina pectoris of coronary heart disease, and provide evidence-based references for clinical medication. Retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, randomized controlled trial(RCT) about Guanxinning Tablets for the treatment of angina pectoris of coronary heart disease from the inception to April 2022 were collected. After literature screening and data extraction, the bias risk assessment tool recommended by the Cochrane evaluation manual handbook 5.1.0 was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature, and RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 were used for Meta-analysis. Eighteen RCTs were finally included, involving 2 281 patients. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with conventional western medicine treatment alone, Guanxinning Tablets+conventional western medicine significantly improved angina pectoris efficacy(RR=1.33, 95%CI[1.13, 1.57], P=0.000 8), electrocardiogram efficacy(RR=1.32, 95%CI[1.02, 1.71], P=0.03), and exercise duration(MD=59.53, 95%CI[39.16, 79.90], P<0.000 01) and reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events(MACE)(RR=0.43, 95%CI[0.30, 0.61], P<0.000 01), high sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP)(MD=-2.75, 95%CI[-3.71,-1.79], P<0.000 01), and endothelin-1(ET-1) levels(MD=-9.34, 95%CI[-11.36,-7.32], P<0.000 01). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between two groups(RR=0.91, 95%CI[0.68, 1.22], P=0.52). Subgroup analysis showed that Guanxinning Tablets may have better short-term efficacy(less than 6 months) in the treatment of heart-blood stasis syndrome. GRADE grading showed that angina pectoris efficacy, electrocardiogram efficacy, MACE, and ET-1 were in the medium grade, hs-CRP and adverse reactions were in the low grade, and exercise duration was in the extremely low grade. In conclusion, the efficacy of Guanxinning Tablets+conventional western medicine is better than conventional western medicine treatment alone, with good safety. Therefore, it is recommended for the short-term treatment of patients with heart-blood stasis syndrome. However, the evidence quality of some results is low, and more rigo-rous RCT is still needed to enhance the reliability of evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Reproducibility of Results , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Tablets
7.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 19-22, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture (acupuncture for regulating mind and relieving depression) combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet and simple sertraline hydrochloride tablet for post-stroke depression (PSD).@*METHODS@#A total of 76 patients with PSD were randomized into an observation group (38 cases, 6 cases dropped off) and a control group (38 cases, 4 cases dropped off). Both groups were treated with conventional treatment i.e. controlling blood pressure and anti-inflammation. Sertraline hydrochloride tablet was given orally in the control group, 20 mg a time, once a day. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 24+), Neiguan (PC 6), Taichong (LR 3), etc. in the observation group, Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 24+) were connected to electroacupuncture, with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, 30 min a time, once a day, 6 times a week. Treatment of 8 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were observed respectively, the therapeutic efficacy and rate of adverse reactions were evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI were lower while BI scores were higher than those before treatment in both groups (P<0.05); the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI in the observation group were lower while BI score was higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.8% (30/32) in the observation group, which was higher than 70.6% (24/34) in the control group (P<0.05). The rate of adverse reactions was 9.4% (3/32) in the observation group, which was lower than 32.4% (11/34) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet can improve the depression degree, neurological function, activity of daily living and sleep quality in patients with post-stroke depression, the clinical efficacy is superior to simple sertraline hydrochloride, and can alleviate the adverse reactions caused by medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sertraline/adverse effects , Depression/etiology , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture , Stroke/complications , Acupuncture Points , Treatment Outcome , Tablets
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6645-6652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008862

ABSTRACT

In light of the liver injury risk associated with the oral administration of Xianlin Gubao oral preparation, this study compared the differences in liver injury induced by two different extraction processes in rats and explored the correlation between hepatotoxicity and extraction process from the perspective of the differences in the content of the relevant components. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a normal group, tablet extract groups of different doses, and capsule extract groups of different doses, with 6 rats in each group. Each group received continuous oral administration for 4 weeks. The assessment of liver injury caused by different extracts was conducted by examining rat body weight, liver function blood biochemical indicators, liver coefficient, and liver pathological changes. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method was established to simultaneously determine the content of icariin, baohuoside I, and bakuchiol in the extracts to compare the differences in the content of these three components under the two extraction processes. The results showed that both extracts caused liver injury in rats. Compared with the normal group, the tablet extract groups, at the studied dose, led to slow growth in body weight, a significant increase in triglyceride levels(P<0.05), a significant decrease in liver-to-brain ratio(P<0.05), and the appearance of hepatic steatosis. The capsule extract groups, at the studied dose, resulted in slow growth in body weight, a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase levels(P<0.05), a significant decrease in body weight, liver weight, and liver-to-brain ratio(P<0.05), and the presence of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. In comparison, the capsule extraction process had a higher risk of liver injury. Furthermore, based on the completion of the liquid chromatography method, the content of icariin and baohuoside Ⅰ in the capsule extract groups was 0.83 and 0.81 times that in the tablet extract groups, respectively, while the bakuchiol content in the capsule extract group was 29.80 times that in the tablet extract groups, suggesting that the higher risk of liver injury associated with the capsule extraction process may be due to its higher bakuchiol content. In summary, the differences in rat liver injury caused by the two extracts are closely related to the extraction process. This should be taken into consideration in the formulation production and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Fatty Liver , Tablets , Body Weight , Plant Extracts , Phenols
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5871-5880, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008785

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanism of Liujing Toutong Tablets(LJTT) on a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion(pMCAO). The pMCAO model was established using the suture method. Eighty-four male SPF-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a nimodipine group(0.020 g·kg~(-1)), and high-, medium-, and low-dose LJTT groups(2.8, 1.4, and 0.7 g·kg~(-1)). The Longa score, adhesive removal test and laser speckle contrast imaging technique were used to evaluate the degree of neurological functional impairment and changes in local cerebral blood flow. The survival and mortality of rats in each group were recorded daily. After seven days of continuous administration following the model induction, the rats in each group were euthanized, and brain tissue and blood samples were collected for corresponding parameter measurements. Nissl staining was used to examine pathological changes in brain tissue neurons. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), IL-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP), beta-endorphin(β-EP), and endogenous nitric oxide(NO) in rat serum were measured using specific assay kits. The entropy weight method was used to analyze the weights of various indicators. The protein expression levels of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB), inhibitor kappaB alpha(IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα(p-IκBα), and phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB kinase alpha(p-IKKα) in brain tissue were determined using Western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of chemokine-like factor 1(CKLF1) and C-C chemokine receptor 5(CCR5) in rat brain tissue. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group showed significantly higher neurological functional impairment scores, prolonged adhesive removal time, decreased cerebral blood flow, increased neuronal damage, reduced survival rate, significantly increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CGRP, and NO in serum, significantly decreased levels of VEGF and β-EP, significantly increased expression levels of NF-κB p65, p-IκBα/IκBα, and p-IKKα in rat brain tissue, and significantly upregulated protein expression of CKLF1 and CCR5. Compared with the model group, the high-dose LJTT group significantly improved the neurological functional score of pMCAO rats after oral administration for 7 days. LJTT at all doses significantly reduced adhesive removal time and restored cerebral blood flow. The high-and medium-dose LJTT groups significantly improved neuronal damage. The LJTT groups at all doses showed reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CGRP, and NO in rat serum, increased VEGF and β-EP levels, and significantly decreased expression levels of NF-κB p65, p-IκBα/IκBα, p-IKKα, and CCR5 protein in rat brain tissue. The entropy weight analysis revealed that CGRP and β-EP were significantly affected during the model induction, and LJTT exhibited a strong effect in reducing the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β. LJTT may exert a neuroprotective effect on rats with permanent cerebral ischemia by reducing neuroinflammatory damage, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway and the regulation of the CKLF1/CCR5 axis. Additionally, LJTT may exert certain analgesic effects by reducing CGRP and NO levels and increasing β-EP levels.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Tablets
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5548-5557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008751

ABSTRACT

To explore the quality consistency evaluation method for multi-component traditional Chinese medicine and establish a dissolution evaluation method suitable for the characteristics of multi-component Chinese patent medicine, this study discussed the characteristics and advantages of the flow-through cell method in the dissolution evaluation of Chinese patent medicine by comparing the impact of the small cup method and the flow-through cell method on the dissolution behavior of water-soluble and lipid-soluble major active components of Danshen Tablets. Dissolution tests were performed using the small cup method as described in the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the newly introduced flow-through cell method(closed-loop method) with water solution containing 0.5% SDS as dissolution medium. Cumulative dissolution curves of the water-soluble component salvianolic acid B and the lipid-soluble component tanshinone Ⅱ_A in Danshen Tablets were plotted, and fitting and similarity analysis of the dissolution models was conducted to identify the characteristics and advantages of the flow-through cell method. For the small cup method, 150 mL of water containing 0.5% SDS was used as the dissolution medium, with a rotation speed of 75 r·min~(-1) and a temperature of(37±0.5) ℃, and 3 mL of samples were taken at 15, 30 min, 1, 2, and 4 h, with fresh dissolution medium added at the same temperature and volume. For the flow-through cell method, a closed-loop system was used. Danshen Tablets were placed in the flow-through cell with approximately 6.7 g of glass beads, and 150 mL of water containing 0.5% SDS was used as the dissolution medium. The flow rate was set at 20 mL·min~(-1), and the temperature and sampling were the same as the small cup method. The results showed that compared with the small cup method, the flow-through cell method had stronger discriminative power and higher sensitivity in distinguishing the dissolution behavior of the two components, and could better reflect the differences in formulation quality, especially for water-insoluble lipid-soluble components. Given that there were no essential differences in the in vitro release kinetics between the two methods, the flow-through cell method could not only replace the traditional small cup method but also better guide the formulation development and identify quality issues of formulations.


Subject(s)
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Lipids , Solubility
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4675-4685, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008634

ABSTRACT

The Compound Cheqian Tablets are derived from Cheqian Power in Comprehensive Recording of Divine Assistance, and they are made by modern technology with the combination of Plantago asiatica and Coptis chinensis. To investigate the material basis of Compound Cheqian Tablets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, in this study, the chemical components of Compound Cheqian Tablets were characterized and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and a total of 48 chemical components were identified. The identified chemical compounds were analyzed by network pharmacology. By validating with previous literature, six bioactive compounds including acteoside, isoacteoside, coptisine, magnoflorine, palmatine, and berberine were confirmed as the index components for qua-lity evaluation. Furthermore, the content of the six components in the Compound Cheqian Tablets was determined by the "double external standards" quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS), and the relative correction factor of isoacteoside was calculated as 1.118 by using acteoside as the control; the relative correction factors of magnoflorine, palmatine, and berberine were calculated as 0.729, 1.065, and 1.126, respectively, by using coptisine as the control, indicating that the established method had excellent stability under different conditions. The results obtained by the "double external standards" QAMS approximated those obtained by the external standard method. This study qualitatively characterized the chemical components in the Compound Cheqian Tablets by applying UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and screened the pharmacodynamic substance basis for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy via network pharmacology, and primary pharmacodynamic substance groups were quantitatively analyzed by the "double external stan-dards" QAMS method, which provided a scientific basis for clarifying the pharmacodynamic substance basis and quality control of Compound Cheqian Tablets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Berberine/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Network Pharmacology , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control , Tablets
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1128-1133, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between the combined therapy of fire needling and cupping, and western medication on herpes zoster of acute stage, as well as the effects on Th17 and Treg cells and inflammatory factors, i.e. IL-10 and IL-17 in the peripheral blood.@*METHODS@#Eighty patients with herpes zoster of acute stage were randomly divided into a combined therapy (fire needling plus cupping) group and a western medication group, 40 cases in each one. In the combined therapy group, the pricking and scattering techniques with fire needle were used at ashi points and Jiaji (EX-B 2) corresponding to the affected spinal segments; afterwards, cupping therapy was delivered. The combined treatment was given once daily. In the western medication group, valaciclovir hydrochloride tablet and vitamin B1 tablet were administered orally. The duration of treatment in each group was 10 days. Before each treatment from day 1 to day 10 and on day 11 , the score of symptoms and physical signs was observed in the two groups separately. Before each treatment from day 1 to day 10 and on day 11, 30, 60, the score of visual analogue scale (VAS) and skin lesion indexes were observed in the two groups. On day 60, the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was recorded in the two groups. The levels of Th17 and Treg cells, Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood, as well as serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were detected before and after treatment in the two groups. The clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#From day 6 to day 10 during treatment and on day 11, the scores of symptoms and physical signs in the combined therapy group were lower than those of the western medication group (P<0.05, P<0.01). On day 3, day 6 to day 10 during treatment and day 11, day 30, VAS scores in the combined therapy group were lower than those of the western medication group (P<0.05, P<0.01). On day 60, the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia in the combined therapy group was lower compared with that in the western medication group (P<0.05). The blister arresting time and scabbing time in the combined therapy group were shorter than those of the western medication group (P<0.05). After treatment, the level of Th17, and Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood, as well as the serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were all lower in comparison with those in the western medication group (P<0.05). The curative and remarkably effective rate was 82.5% (33/40) in the combined therapy group, higher than 62.5% (25/40) in the western medication group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The early application of fire needling combined with cupping therapy can effectively treat herpes zoster of acute stage, relieve pain, and reduce the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia, which may be related to reducing the levels of Th17 and Treg cells, and Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood, as well as the serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17 so that the cellular immune balance is modulated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Cupping Therapy , Th17 Cells , Herpes Zoster/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Tablets
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3949-3964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981527

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy(DN) by network Meta-analysis to explore the Chinese patent medicine with optimal efficacy and provide references for preventing renal deterioration and delaying the progression of early DN. Eight databases, including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of early DN. After the literature mee-ting the inclusion criteria was screened, the quality of the literature was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and network Meta-analysis was performed using the BUGSnet package in R 4.2.1. Seventy-two research articles with a sample size of 6 344 cases were included, involving eight Chinese patent medicines and seven outcome indicators. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that(1)in terms of improving urinary albumin excretion rate(UAER), Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment, and Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules + conventional treatment was optimal.(2)In terms of reducing serum crea-tinine(Scr), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(3)In terms of reducing 24-hour urine total protein(24hUTP), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional treatment had equivalent efficacy, and Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment was superior.(4)In terms of improving fasting blood glucose(FBG), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(5)In terms of improving total cholesterol(TC), Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules +conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(6)In terms of reducing triglyceride(TG), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(7)In terms of safety, the occurrence of adverse reactions was reported in seven interventions, but due to the large clinical heterogeneity, the quantitative analysis could not be performed. Overall, Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment alone in the treatment of early DN. The results showed that Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment had good clinical efficacy, and they could significantly reduce renal function indicators such as UAER, Scr, and 24hUTP, and reduce blood sugar and blood lipid, which can provide evidence-based support for the treatment of early DN. However, due to the differences in the quantity and quality of the included research articles, large-sample, multi-center, high-quality studies are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Qi , Network Meta-Analysis , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3650-3663, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981495

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of different Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The relevant randomized controlled trial(RCT) was retrieved from PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed, Wanfang, and VIP with the time interval from database inception to December 2022. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was employed to evaluate the quality of the included RCT, and Stata 15.0 and GEMTC to perform the Bayesian network Meta-analysis. Finally, 51 RCTs were included, involving 9 Chinese patent medicines and 3 591 patients. The results of network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of the total effective rate and the increase in plasma albumin, the top three interventions were Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine, Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing 24-hour urine total protein, the top three interventions were Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine, Shenfukang Capsules +conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing serum creatinine, the top three interventions were Shenfukang Capsules + conventional western medicine, Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine. In terms of safety, Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine had fewer adverse reactions than the control group. The results suggest that Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine can improve the therapeutic effect on idiopathic membranous nephropathy, and differentiated medications can be adopted according to the specific symptoms of patients in clinical treatment. Further validation needs to be carried out in the future with multi-center, large-sample, and high-quality RCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/drug therapy , Bayes Theorem , Capsules , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Tablets
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3633-3649, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981494

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of inflammatory response in diabetic nephropathy(DN) based on network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicines for improving inflammatory response in patients with DN was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, and other databases from database inception to October 2022. All investigators independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. Stata 16.0 software and RevMan 5.4.1 were used to analyze the data of the literature that met the quality standards. Finally, 53 RCTs were included, involving 6 Chinese patent medicines. The total sample size was 4 891 cases, including 2 449 cases in the test group and 2 442 cases in the control group. The network Meta-analysis showed that(1) in terms of reducing TNF-α, the top 3 optimal interventions according to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve(SUCRA) were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine.(2) In terms of reducing hs-CRP, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine.(3) In terms of reducing IL-6, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(4) In terms of reducing UAER, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(5) In terms of reducing Scr, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granules + conventional wes-tern medicine, and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine.(6) In terms of reducing BUN, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine.(7) In terms of improving the clinical total effective rate, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granu-les + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine. The results showed that the combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine could reduce the expression of serum inflammatory factors TNF-α, hs-CRP, and IL-6 and inhibit the inflammatory response. The combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine was superior to western medicine alone in reducing Scr, BUN, and UAER, and improving the total effective rate of treatment. Due to the limitation of the quantity and quality of literature included, the above conclusions need to be validated by more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein , Capsules , Interleukin-6 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3180-3189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981454

ABSTRACT

In this paper, 50 batches of representative traditional Chinese medicine tablets were selected and the disintegration time was examined with the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time and disintegration phenomenon were recorded, and the dissolution behaviors of water-soluble and ultraviolet-absorbent components during the disintegration process of tablets were characterized by self-control method. The results revealed that coating type and raw material type influenced the disintegration time of tablets. It was found that only 4% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets had obvious fragmentation during the disintegration process, while 96% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets showed gradual dissolution or dispersion. Furthermore, according to the disintegration speed, disintegration phenomenon, and whether the cumulative dissolution of measured components was > 90% at complete disintegration, a disintegration behavior classification system(DBCS) was created for the regular-release traditional Chinese medicine tablets. As a result, the disintegration behaviors of 50 batches of traditional Chinese medicine tablets were classified into four categories, i.e. ⅠA_2, ⅠB_1, ⅡB_1, and ⅡB_2. traditional Chinese medicine tablets(Class I) with disintegration time ≤ 30 min were defined to be rapid in disintegration, which can be the objective of optimization or improvement of Chinese herbal extract(semi extract) tablets. Different drug release models were used to fit the dissolution curve of traditional Chinese medicine tablets with gradual dissolution or dispersion phenomenon(i.e. Type B tablets). The results showed that the dissolution curves of water-soluble components in the disintegration process conformed to the zero order kinetics and the Ritger-Peppas model. It could be inferred that the disintegration mechanisms of type B tablets were a combination of dissolution controlled and swelling controlled mechanisms. This study contributes to understanding the disintegration behavior of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, and provides a reference for the design and improvement of disintegration performance of traditional Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Drug Compounding
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1976-1981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981417

ABSTRACT

Fracture is one of the common diseases in the department of orthopaedics and traumatology. Jiegu Qili Tablets(Capsules) are a Chinese patent medicine commonly used to treat fractures in clinical practice, which has been included in the Class A drugs of the catalog of medicines covered by the National Medical Insurance System. However, no consensus or guideline has yet been developed to guide clinicians based on an evidence-based approach in detail, which has severely limited the clinical value of this drug. According to the guiding principle of evidence as the key, consensus as the supplement, and experience as the reference, a consensus was developed in strict accordance with the steps stipulated in the expert consensus on clinical applications of proprietary Chinese medicines. Based on literature review and questionnaire survey, the consensus was a timely summary of the existing clinical evidence on the treatment of fractures with Jiegu Qili Tablets(Capsules), and incorporated the treatment experience of a number of clinical experts. The preparation process took more than a year and the consensus(GS/CACM 293-2021) was officially released by the China Association of Chinese Medicine in September 2021, with the participation of multidisciplinary experts from 27 organizations of Chinese and Western medicine and research institutions. This article introduces the background and objectives of the consensus in detail, and describes the main process of proposal, drafting, expert consensus, and consultation. In particular, 5 consensus recommendations and 12 consensus suggestions are formed with regard to the key issues of indications, treatment timing, dose, duration, and safety in the clinical application of Jiegu Qili Tablets(Capsules) for the treatment of fractures, which guide and standardize the rational use by clinicians and improve the accuracy and safety of drugs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Capsules , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Consensus , Tablets , China
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1908-1915, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981410

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the biological foundation and biomarkers of stable coronary heart disease(CHD) with phlegm and blood stasis(PBS) syndrome based on RNA-seq and network pharmacology. Peripheral blood nucleated cells from five CHD patients with PBS syndrome, five CHD patients with non-PBS syndrome, and five healthy adults were collected for RNA-seq. The specific targets of CHD with PBS syndrome were determined by differential gene expression analysis and Venn diagram analysis. The active ingredients of Danlou Tablets were screened out from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, and the "component-target" prediction was completed through PubChem and SwissTargetPrediction. The "drug-ingredient-target-signaling pathway" network of Danlou Tablets against CHD with PBS syndrome was optimized by Cytoscape software. After the target biomarkers were identified, 90 participants were enrolled for diagnostic tests, and 30 CHD patients with PBS syndrome were included in before-and-after experiment to determine the therapeutic effect of Danlou Tablets on those targets. As revealed by RNA-seq and Venn diagram analysis, 200 specific genes were identified for CHD with PBS syndrome. A total of 1 118 potential therapeutic targets of Danlou Tablets were predicted through network pharmacology. Through integrated analysis of the two gene sets, 13 key targets of Danlou Tablets in the treatment of CHD with PBS syndrome were screened out, including CSF1, AKR1C2, PDGFRB, ARG1, CNR2, ALOX15B, ALDH1A1, CTSL, PLA2G7, LAP3, AKR1C3, IGFBP3, and CA1. They were presumably the biomarkers of CHD with PBS syndrome. The ELISA test further showed that CSF1 was significantly up-regulated in the peripheral blood of CHD patients with PBS syndrome, and was significantly down-regulated after Danlou Tablets intervention. CSF1 may be a biomarker for CHD with PBS syndrome, and it is positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The diagnostic cut-off of CSF1 for CHD with PBS syndrome was 286 pg·mL~(-1).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Network Pharmacology , RNA-Seq , Coronary Disease/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Biomarkers , Syndrome , Tablets , Molecular Docking Simulation
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20349, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Quality is paramount and needs to be maintained throughout the shelf life of pharmaceuticals. The current study aimed to evaluate the quality, potency, and drug-drug interaction in an in vivo animal model by using two drugs, namely, metoprolol and glimepiride. Tablets were selected for their physical characteristics, such as shape, size, and color. Quality control tests, such as weight variation, hardness, friability, and disintegration tests, and invitro drug release studies were performed as per USP. Drug-drug interaction and in vivo studies were carried out according to the standard protocol of the animal ethics committee. Quality control tests of both the tablets were within the specified range. The cumulative release percentages of the drugs were 81.12% and 85.36% for Metoprolol Tartrate and Glimepiride, respectively, in a physiological buffer solution within 1 h. The combination of metoprolol and Glimepiride also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in diabetic animals. However, the blood glucose level increased in the group receiving metoprolol only, but the difference was not significant. The result suggested that the formulations are safe. However, the chronic use of this combination requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose level to improve its efficacy and for the patient's safety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Quality Control , Tablets/classification , Drug Interactions , Metoprolol/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Total Quality Management/statistics & numerical data
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