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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18630, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364418

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present investigation was to design, optimize and characterize the gastro retentive floating levofloxacin tablets and perform in-vivo evaluation using radiographic imaging. The floating tablets were prepared by using polymers i.e hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K4M) and carbopol-940 individually and in combination by nonaquous granulation method. All the Formulations were evaluated for swelling index (S.I), floating behavior and in-vitro drug release kinetics. The compatibility study of levofloxacin with other polymers was investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD. Results from FTIR and DSC revealed no chemical interaction amongst the formulation components. The optimized formulation (F11) showed floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) swelling index (S.I) of 60 sec, >16h and approximately 75 %, respectively. Moreover, F11 showed zero order levofloxacin release in simulated gastric fluid over the period of 6 h. X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of levofloxacin floating tablets in rabbits for more than 4 hours. In conclusion the optimized formulation (F11) can be used for the sustained delivery of levofloxacin for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Peptic Ulcer/classification , Tablets/pharmacology , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Process Optimization/analysis , Levofloxacin/analysis , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922775

ABSTRACT

Oral mucositis (OM) caused by cancer therapy is the most common adverse reaction in the radiotherapy of head and neck tumors. In severe cases, it can lead to the interruption of treatment, which affects the control of the disease and the quality of life. Shuanghua Baihe Tablet (SBT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, which is administerd to treat OM in China. It has been clinically effective for more than 30 years, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. With the development of multiple omics, it is possible to explore the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. Based on transcriptomics and metabolomics, we explored the underlying mechanism of SBT in the treatment of OM. An OM model of rats was established by 5-FU induction, and SBT was orally administered at dosages of 0.75 and 3 g·kg


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolome , Quality of Life , Rats , Stomatitis , Tablets , Transcriptome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921817

ABSTRACT

Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules are composed of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix, Dendrobii Caulis, Astragali Radix, Scrophulariae Radix, and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and are effective in promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, supplementing Qi, and nourishing Yin. It is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. With 40 years of clinical application, it has accumulated substantial research data and application experience. Its good clinical efficacy and pharmacoeconomic benefits in improving the clinical symptoms of peripheral vascular diseases have been confirmed by relevant research. Meanwhile, this drug has also been recommended by many expert consensus, guidelines, and teaching materials, serving as one of the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines in clinical practice. To further improve the understanding of the drug among clinicians and properly guide its clinical medication, the China Association of Chinese Medicine took the lead and organized experts to jointly formulate this expert consensus. Based on the questionnaire survey of clinicians and the systematic review of research literature on Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules with clinical problems in the PICO framework, the consensus, combined with expert experience, concludes recommendations or consensus suggestions by GRADE system with the optimal evidence available through the nominal group technique. This consensus defines the indications, usage, dosage, course of treatment, medication time, combined medication, and precautions of Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, and explains the safety of its clinical application. It is recommended for clinicians and pharmacists in the peripheral vascular department(vascular surgery), traditional Chinese medicine surgery(general surgery), and endocrinology department of hospitals at all levels in China.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Consensus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Tablets
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921681

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of Jinqi Jiangtang Tablets(JQJT) on pancreatic β cell dysfunction based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. TCMSP platform was used to retrieve the chemical components and targets of the three Chinese herbal medicines of JQJT. The genes were converted to gene symbol by the UniProt, and its intersection with targets related to pancreatic β cell function in GeneCards and CTD databases was obtained. The drugs, active components and common targets were imported into Cytoscape 3.8.2 to plot the drug-component-target network. The main effective components and targets were obtained by software analysis. The drug targets and targets related to pancreatic β cell function were imported separately into the STRING platform for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) networks. The two PPI networks were merged by Cytoscape 3.8.2 and the key targets were obtained by plug-in CytoNCA. The targets obtained from drug-component-target network and PPI networks were imported into DAVID for GO analysis and KEGG enrichment analysis. AutoDock was used to carry out molecular docking of main active components and core targets and Pymol was used to plot the molecular docking diagram. The results showed that there were 371 active components and 203 targets related to JQJT and 2 523 targets related to pancreatic β cell damage, covering 136 common targets. The results revealed core targets(such as PTGS2, PTGS1, NOS2, ESR1 and RXRA) and effective key components(such as quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, β-carotene and β-sitosterol). KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that apoptosis, inflammation, and other signaling pathways were mainly involved. Molecular docking results showed that the main active components could spontaneously bind to the targets. This study preliminarily revealed the mechanism of JQJT in improving pancreatic β cell damage through multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway, and provided a theoretical basis for JQJT in the treatment of pancreatic β cell dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tablets , Technology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921635

ABSTRACT

In this paper, co-processed lactose SuperTab 40 LL was selected as fillers to study the preparation of musk sustained-release mini-tablets in the Xihuang multiple-unit drug release system. Musk sustained-release tablets containing different proportions of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC were prepared under various pressures, and then the compressibility and compactibility of these prescriptions were evaluated by Walker, Heckel and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. In addition, the fluidity of the prescriptions was evaluated by parameters of Kawakita equation. There was a comprehensive analysis of the effect of SuperTab 40 LL on musk sustained-release mini-tablets combined with the appearance of SuperTab 40 LL and their tensile strength. The results shown that SuperTab 40 LL had better compression process through the Heckel equation, and the direct compression process of drug powders with excipients can be analyzed by the Kawakita and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. As a new type of co-processed lactose, SuperTab 40 LL had a good fluidity and compactibility. SuperTab 40 LL may undergo particle crushing and plastic deformation during the compression process, which increased the contact area and bonding sites between the particles, and aggregated and shaped the mixed powder easy. Moreover, MCC showed a synergistic effect, and the combined application with SuperTab 40 ll could effectively improve the fluidity and compressibility of the musk sustained-release powder. When the ratio of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC was 2∶1, musk sustained-release mini-tablets had a high drug loading capacity and good compactibility in line with the design objectives.


Subject(s)
Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Compounding , Excipients , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Tablets
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921634

ABSTRACT

The high shear wet granulation(HSWG) process of Chinese medicine has a complicated mechanism. There are many influencing factors that contribute to this process. In order to summarize the manufacturability of different kinds of materials in HSWG, this paper constructed a material library composed of 11 materials, including 4 Chinese medicine extracts and 7 pharmaceutical excipients. Each material was described by 22 physical parameters. Several binders were employed, and their density, viscosity and surface tension were characterized. Combining empirical constraints and the principle of randomization, 21 designed experiments and 8 verification experiments were arranged. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to establish a process model in prediction of the median granule size based on properties of raw materials and binders, and process parameters. The surface tension and density of binders, as well as the maximum pore saturation were identified as key variables. In the latent variable space of the HSWG process model, all materials could be divided into three categories, namely the Chinese medicine extracts, the diluents and the disintegrants. The granulation of Chinese medicine extracts required low viscosity and low amount of binder, and the resulted granule sizes were small. The diluent powders occupied a large physical space, and could be made into granules with different granule sizes by adjusting the properties of binders. The disintegrants tended to be made into large granules under the condition of aqueous binder. The combination use of material database and multivariate modeling method is conducive to innovate the knowledge discovery of the wet granulation process of Chinese medicine, and provides a basis for the formulation and process design based on material attributes.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of horizontal penetration needling combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets, simple horizontal penetration needling and simple rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets for migraine without aura in acute stage.@*METHODS@#A total of 99 patients with migraine without aura in acute stage were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group, an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 33 cases in each one. In the acupuncture group, horizontal penetration needling was applied once at Hanyan (GB 4) to Xuanli(GB 6), Shenting (GV 24) to Yintang (GV 29), Baihui (GV 20) to Qianding (GV 21), etc. for 2 h. In the western medication group, oral rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets for 10 mg were given once. In the acupuncture plus medication group, treatment of acupuncture combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets were given, the application was the same as the acupuncture group and the western medication group. Before treatment and 0.5, 2, 24 h after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was observed, the remission rate and the disappearance rate of migraine of 2, 24 h after treatment were compared in the 3 groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the VAS scores of each time point after treatment were decreased in the 3 groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Horizontal penetration needling combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets have significant therapeutic effect on rapid analgesia and continuous analgesia for migraine without aura in acute stage, its effect is superior to simple horizontal penetration needling and simple rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Migraine without Aura , Tablets , Treatment Outcome , Triazoles , Tryptamines
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888159

ABSTRACT

Wangbi Tablets are widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis and other diseases at pre-sent. Long-term clinical application and research have shown that this drug has a good effect in reducing the pain of related diseases and improving symptoms. Due to the lack of guidance in the instructions and currently no relevant norms to guide the clinical application of Wangbi Tablets, in order to further improve clinicians' understanding of the drug and fully tap the clinical advantages of the drug, the Professional Committee of Orthopedics and Traumatology Drug Research of China Association of Chinese Medicine organized experts in the fields of rheumatism, orthopedics, pharmacy and methodology in Chinese and western medicine to develop expert consensus on Chinese patent medicines in accordance with the relevant requirements of the consensus methodology. Based on full consideration of clinical research evidence and expert experience, the clinical issues were summarized in the consensus, and for those clinical problems supported by evidences, the internationally recognized recommendation evaluation and formulation method GRADE was used to evaluate the evidence and form recommendations; for those clinical issues not supported by evidences, a consensus was reached through the nominal group method to form consensus recommendations. The consensus adopted a concise and clear format to form re-commendations or reach consensus suggestions on the medication regimen, medication characteristics, intervention timing, usage and dosage, course of use and safety issues for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and knee osteoarthritis with Wangbi Tablets. It is suggested that its application will better improve the efficacy of Wangbi Tablets in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and knee osteoarthritis, at the same time provide a reference for clinicians to use Wangbi Tablets in a standardized, reasonable and safe manner.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Consensus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy , Tablets
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888071

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the statistical distribution characteristics of coating film thickness, so as to present a new method for determining coating endpoint based on 3σ criterion and logic regression. Firstly, the spectrum and thickness of 4 batch samples were collected. Secondly, the spectral range of normal products was obtained by 3σ criterion, with the spectral feature NI as the number of test spectrum in the above range. Then, the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression was built according to the best condition in K-fold cross-validation and the determined threshold of qualified rate in the coating endpoint. Finally, the qualified rate of test set samples at different time points was calculated by the above model, and the above change trend and the threshold value were combined to determine the coating endpoint. The results of KS analysis showed the distribution of thickness of the qualified products followed the normal distribution(P=0.081>0.05). The accuracy of the coating endpoint determination was as high as 100% by the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression when the determined threshold of qualified rate was 90%. Therefore, the 3σ criterion was feasible to the research of coating eligibility. This paper reveals certain random phenomena in the coating process, and the method features a high accuracy, quick analysis and a good interpretability, which provides a reference for online detection and qualify evaluation in future.


Subject(s)
Endpoint Determination , Logic , Research Design , Tablets
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879192

ABSTRACT

The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in China has become a major public health problem, and the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease is in urgent need. For the reality of integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the Chinese health care system, we can consider the service ability of traditional Chinese medicine. Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet is a kind of Chinese patent medicine commonly used in the treatment of recovery stage of ischemic stroke and angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. Based on the data of hospitalized patients covered by national urban basic medical insurance of China Medical Insurance Research Association in 2013, this study evaluated the treatment cost and detailed composition of the cost for the patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease treated by Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets. At the same time, the differences in disease burden and direct medical expenses among Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group, Western medicine group and another commonly used Chinese patent medicine group were analyzed. Among the three groups of patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease, the hospitalization rates caused by various causes(44.4% and 29.6%) and diseases(20.8% and 5.2%) in Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group were the lowest(all P<0.01), and the number of hospitalization times in half a year was highest in the common Chinese patent medicine group(all P<0.01). In patients with cerebral infarction, the median annual total outpatient expenses were 7 476.8, 7 601.8, 15 650.1 yuan respectively in Western medicine group, Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group and the common Chinese patent medicine group(P<0.01), and the median hospitalization expenses were 11 620.2, 14 988.9, 13 325.6 yuan respectively(P=0.058). In patients with coronary heart disease, the total outpatient expenses of the three groups were 6 831.4, 10 228.6, 13 132.4 yuan respectively(P<0.01), and the total hospitalization expenses were 13 354.7, 14 911.5, 15 725.3 yuan respectively(P=0.134). The results showed that in patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease, the hospitalization rate was lowest in Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group, beneficial to the turnover of hospital beds and full use of hospital medical resources. The total annual outpatient cost of Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group was lower than that of common Chinese patent medicine group, beneficial to reduce the burden of disease.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , China , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Cost of Illness , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Tablets
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879069

ABSTRACT

Spatial distribution uniformity is the critical quality attribute(CQA) of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets, a variety of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation of the spatial distribution uniformity of active pharmaceutical ingredients(APIs) in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets is important in ensuring their stable and controllable quality. In this study, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to construct the spatial distribution map of API concentration based on three prediction models, further to realize the visualization research on the spatial distribution uniformity of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets. The region of interest(ROI) was selected from each Ginkgo Leaves Tablet, with length and width of 50 pixels, and a total of 2 500 pixels. Each pixel had 288 spectral channels, and the number of content prediction data could reach 1×10~5 for a single sample. The results of the three models showed that the Partial Least Squares(PLS) model had the highest prediction accuracy, with calibration set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.987, prediction set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.942, root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) of 0.160%, and root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.588%. The classical least-squares(CLS) model had a greater prediction error, with the RMSEP of 0.867%. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Square(MCR-ALS) model showed the worst predictive ability among the three models, and it couldn't realize content prediction. Based on the prediction results of PLS and CLS models, the spatial distribution map of APIs concentration was obtained through three-dimensional data reconstruction. Furthermore, histogram method was used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of API. The data showed that the spatial distribution of APIs in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets was relatively uniform. The study explored the feasibility of visualization of spatial distribution of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets based on three models. The results showed that PLS model had the highest prediction accuracy, and MCR-ALS model had the lowest prediction accuracy. The research results could provide a new strategy for the visualization method of quality control of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tablets
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879059

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Ginkgo Leaf Tablets(GLT) in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction(ACI). Seven databases both at home and abroad were systematically retrieved from their establishment to March 2020. The data of the included studies were extracted after review and screening. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool, and then the included studies were put into Meta-analysis by RevMan 5.3 to evaluate the total cli-nical efficiency, neurological function score, blood lipids and incidence of adverse reactions in treatment of ACI by GLT. Finally, the GRADE system was adopted to evaluate the evidence quality of each outcome indicator and form recommendations. Ten studies involving 886 participants were included, all of which were of low quality. Meta-analysis results showed that,(1)in terms of the total clinical efficiency, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone(RR_(NDS)=1.20, 95%CI[1.06, 1.36], P=0.005; RR_(NIHSS)=1.35, 95%CI[1.09, 1.69], P=0.007), and there was no statistical difference between GLT+Xuesaitong Injection+Wes-tern medicine and Xuesaitong Injection+Western medicine(RR=1.16, 95%CI[1.00, 1.35], P=0.05).(2)In terms of improving neurological function score, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone(MD_(NIHSS[moderate(severe)])=-1.55, 95%CI[-2.22,-0.88], P<0.000 01; MD_(NIHSS(severe))=-7.51, 95%CI[-8.00,-7.02], P<0.000 01; MD_(NDS)=-1.36, 95%CI[-2.39,-0.33], P=0.01), and GLT+Danshen Injection+Western medicine was superior to Danshen Injection+Western medicine(MD_(NDS)=-3.09, 95%CI[-3.84,-2.34], P<0.000 01).(3)In terms of regulating blood lipids, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Wes-tern medicine alone(MD_(TC)=-1.40, 95%CI[-2.13,-0.66], P=0.000 2; MD_(TG)=-1.29, 95%CI[-1.86,-0.73], P<0.000 01; MD_(LDL-C)=-1.48, 95%CI[-2.91,-0.04], P=0.04; MD_(HDL-C)=0.07, 95%CI[0.02, 0.12], P=0.009).(4)In terms of incidence of adverse reactions, there was no statistical difference between GLT+Western medicine and Western medicine alone(RR=0.63, 95%CI[0.30, 1.32], P=0.22). The results of the evaluation showed that the evidence level of each outcome indicator was low, and the recommendation was at weak level. In conclusion, GLT+Western medicine could improve the total clinical efficiency, neurological function score, and blood lipid status, with a low incidence of adverse reactions. However, due to the small amount of included stu-dies, low study quality and low level of evidence, it is expected to carry out clinical studies with standardized design and large sample size in the future to further investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of GLT in the treatment of ACI.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Plant Leaves , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
14.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(1): e20190148, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1039827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify beliefs related to oral antidiabetic use among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Method: This is a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study conducted with 32 participants using oral antidiabetic drugs. Data was collected through an open question tool and analyzed by number of emissions and content. Results: Among the behavioral beliefs, the following stand out: (a) as an advantage, to keep diabetes controlled; and (b) as disadvantages, gastric pain and discomfort, nausea and diarrhea. In the normative beliefs, family stood out as a social referent (children, mother and siblings). As for the control beliefs, taking the tablets with water and the size of the tablets stood out as practicalities and difficulties, respectively, in relation to the oral therapy follow-up. Conclusion and implications for practice: It was possible to identify the beliefs regarding the behavior of taking oral antidiabetics that will contribute to foster educational strategies with the potential to strengthen the positive beliefs and to revert the negative ones, in favor of adherence to drug therapy, glycemic control and quality of life.


Resumen Objetivo: Identificar las creencias relacionadas con el uso de antidiabéticos orales en personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, con base en la Teoría de la Conducta Planificada. Método: Estudio descriptivo, con abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, realizado con 32 participantes en tratamiento con antidiabéticos orales. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de un formulario con preguntas abiertas y se los analizó por la cantidad de emisiones y el contenido. Resultados: Entre las creencias comportamentales se destacan las siguientes: (a) como ventaja, mantener controlada la diabetes; y (b) como desventajas, dolor y malestar gástrico, náusea y diarrea. En las creencias normativas sobresalió la familia como referente social (hijos, madre y hermanos). En cuanto a las creencias de control, tomar los comprimidos con agua y el tamaño de los comprimidos se destacaron como facilidades y dificultades, respectivamente, en relación con el seguimiento de la terapia oral. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: Fue posible identificar las creencias con respecto a la conducta en el uso de antidiabéticos orales que ayudarán a fomentar estrategias educativas con el potencial de fortalecer las creencias positivas y revertir las negativas, en beneficio de la adhesión a la terapia medicamentosa, del control de la glicemia y de la calidad de vida.


Resumo Objetivo: Identificar as crenças relacionadas ao uso de antidiabético oral em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, com base na Theory of Planned Behavior. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem quantiqualitativa, realizado com 32 participantes em uso de antidiabético oral. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário com perguntas abertas e analisados pelo número de emissões e conteúdo. Resultados: Entre as crenças comportamentais, destacam-se: como vantagem, manter o diabetes controlado; e, como desvantagens, dor e desconforto gástrico, enjoo e diarreia. Nas crenças normativas, sobressaiu como referente social a família (filhos, mãe e irmãos). Quanto às crenças de controle, tomar os comprimidos com água e o tamanho dos comprimidos como as facilidades e dificuldades, respectivamente, em relação ao seguimento da terapêutica oral. Conclusão e implicações para prática: Foi possível identificar as crenças frente ao comportamento da tomada do antidiabético oral que contribuirão para fomentar estratégias educativas com poder de fortalecer as positivas e reverter as negativas, em benefício da adesão à terapêutica medicamentosa, ao controle glicêmico e à qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Culture , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Tablets/therapeutic use , Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18540, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285516

ABSTRACT

Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT) is an active S (+) enantiomer of ketoprofen, and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. DT has a short biological half-life and the dosing interval is quite short when there is a need to maintain the desirable effect for longer time periods. Consequently, a controlled release DT tablet was designed for oral administration aiming to minimize the number of doses and the possible side effects. Calculations of the parameters for controlled release DT tablets were shown clearly. Controlled release matrix-type tablet formulations were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (low and high viscosity), Eudragit RS and Carbopol, and the effects of different polymers on DT release from the tablet formulations were investigated. The dissolution rate profiles were compared and analyzed kinetically. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to predict drug release and a successful model was obtained. Subsequently, an optimum formulation was selected and evaluated in terms of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Although the developed controlled release tablets did not have an initial dose, they were found to be as effective as commercially available tablets on the market. Dissolution and in vivo studies have shown that the prepared tablets were able to release DT for longer time periods, making the tablets more effective, convenient and more tolerable.


Subject(s)
Tablets/analysis , Tromethamine/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Ketoprofen/agonists , Dosage/adverse effects , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18575, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285517

ABSTRACT

Buccal route of administration has many advantages such as improving patient compliance, bypassing the GIT and hepatic first pass effect. The objectives are to formulate mucoadhesive buccal tablet using Mefenamic acid and compatible excipients, and to evaluate the product using quality control tests and in vitro tests. The ingredients were subjected to Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy studies for compatibility test and the results showed no interaction. Two batches of mefenamic buccal tablet were prepared. The tablet thickness and diameter are 3.75 mm and 12 mm respectively. All tablets are within the specification of +/- 5%. The in-house tablet hardness is 6.8-15kg and percent friabilation is not more than 0.8%. The disintegration test showed that all tablets disintegrated within 4 hours. The content uniformity showed that tablets are within the range of 85%-115%. The tablet weight is within the 5% range. The percent swelling is 53.83% to 58.86% and moisture absorption is 14.79% to 15.56%. The surface pH of the tablet is close to the salivary pH, which means that it would not irritate the buccal mucosa. The buccal tablet has a mucoadhesiveness of 0.196 to 0.200. There was no change in pH and size after subjecting it to stability studies in human saliva. Drug release studies showed 80.7% to 83.4% after 3 hours. Even after 3 months of subjecting the tablets to 40 ºC and 75% RH, results are within acceptable range. The results show the potential of the formulation as a mucoadhesive buccal tablet.


Subject(s)
Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Mouthwashes/analysis , Quality Control , Tablets/pharmacology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
17.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(2): 1-9, 20200402.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095547

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A manipulação de antineoplásicos para ajuste de dose, como partição de comprimidos, é comum no tratamento de leucemias agudas de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivo: Identificar a frequência e descrever a prática da partição domiciliar de comprimidos antineoplásicos utilizados no tratamento oral de crianças e adolescentes com leucemias agudas na fase de manutenção. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo, realizado em um hospital pertencente à rede de saúde pública do Distrito Federal com assistência especializada em pediatria. Foram incluídos no estudo crianças e adolescentes entre 1 e 18 anos, diagnosticados com leucemias agudas e em fase de manutenção do tratamento no período de estudo. Foi aplicado um questionário semiestruturado ao responsável principal pela administração dos medicamentos quimioterápicos via oral, podendo ser o cuidador ou a própria criança/adolescente. Foram coletadas variáveis sociodemográficas dos pacientes e cuidadores e variáveis sobre a prática de partição de medicamentos antineoplásicos no domicílio. Resultados: Todos os 48 entrevistados no período do estudo relataram ter partido comprimidos antineoplásicos ao longo do tratamento de leucemias agudas, sendo estes mercaptopurina (n=45 [93,75%]) e tioguanina (n=3 [6,25%]). Conclusão: A partição de comprimidos antineoplásicos foi uma prática unânime em virtude da necessidade referida de ajuste de dose individual para o tratamento de leucemias agudas de crianças e adolescentes, considerando a indisponibilidade de formulações adequadas. Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de a partição ser uniformizada e realizada de maneira a minimizar os riscos e a garantir a segurança para as crianças e adolescentes e seus cuidadores.


Introduction: Antineoplastic drug manipulation for dose adjustment, such as tablet splitting, is standard in acute leukemia treatment for children and adolescents. Objective: To identify the frequency and describe the practice of household splitting of antineoplastic tablet for oral treatment of children and adolescents with acute leukemias in the maintenance phase. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study performed in a public health system hospital from Distrito Federal (Brazil) with specialized pediatric assistance. Children and teenagers between 1 and 18 years old, diagnosed with acute leukemia and in treatment maintenance phase during the study period were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the main responsible for administering oral chemotherapy drugs, which could be the caregiver or the child/adolescent themselves. Sociodemographic variables of patients and caregivers and variables on the practice of splitting antineoplastic drugs at home were collected. Results: All 48 interviewees in the study period reported having split antineoplastic tablets during the treatment for acute leukemias, such as mercaptopurine (n = 45 [93.75%]) and thioguanine (n = 3 [6.25%]). Conclusion: The splitting of antineoplastic tablets was a unanimous practice due to the reported need to adjust the individual dose for acute leukemia treatment in children and adolescents, considering the unavailability of adequate formulations. The results reinforce the need for splitting to be standardized and performed in a way that minimizes risks and ensures safety for patients and their caregivers


Introducción: La manipulación de fármacos antineoplásicos para el ajuste de dosis, como las particiones de comprimidos, es frecuente en el tratamiento de las leucemias agudas en niños y jóvenes. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia y describir la práctica de la división domiciliaria de medicamentos antineoplásicos utilizados en el tratamiento oral de niños y adolescentes con leucemias agudas en la fase de mantenimiento. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivo realizado en un hospital de la red de salud pública del Distrito Federal (Brasil) con asistencia especializada en pediatría. El estudio incluyó a niños y jóvenes de entre 1 y 18 años de edad diagnosticados con leucemia aguda y en fase de mantenimiento del tratamiento en el período del estudio. Se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado a la persona principal responsable de la administración de fármacos quimioterapéuticos por vía oral, que puede ser el cuidador o el propio niño/joven. Fueron colectadas variables sociodemográficas de los pacientes y cuidadores y variables sobre la práctica de la división de los medicamentos antineoplásicos en domicílios. Resultados: Los 48 entrevistados en el período de estudio informaron haber roto las pastillas antineoplásicas durante el tratamiento de la leucemia aguda, siendo éstas mercaptopurina (n=45 [93,75%]) y tioguanina (n=3 [6,25%]). Conclusión: La partición de comprimidos antineoplásicos fue una práctica unánime debido a la necesidad mencionada de ajustar la dosis individual para el tratamiento de las leucemias agudas de niños y adolescentes, considerando la falta de formulaciones apropiadas. Los resultados refuerzan la necesidad de estandarizar y realizar la partición para minimizar los riesgos y garantizar la seguridad de los niños, jóvenes y sus cuidadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tablets/administration & dosage , Leukemia/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Tablets/adverse effects , Thioguanine/administration & dosage , Thioguanine/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Caregivers , Medication Therapy Management , Mercaptopurine/administration & dosage , Mercaptopurine/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878859

ABSTRACT

In response to no national standard for Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a market survey was carried out, and 17 batches of gypenosides extract and 29 batches of Gypenosides Tablets on the market were collected. With gypenoside A as an index, the TLC qualitative identification and HPLC quantitative evaluation method of gypenosides extract and tablets was established. Based on the determination results of 17 batches of gypenosides extract and 29 batches of Gypenosides Tablets, the quality standards of gypenosides extract and tablets were formulated respectively, so as to give suggestions for improving the quality standards of gypenosides extract and tablets. Compared with the existing ministerial standards, the qualitative identification and quantitative detection of specific components were added, in order to provide scientific basis and suggestions for the revision of the quality standard of gypenosides extract and tablet preparation.


Subject(s)
Gynostemma , Plant Extracts , Reference Standards , Tablets
19.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 93-98, abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008055

ABSTRACT

La metformina es un fármaco de primera elección, solo o combinado, en el tratamiento inicial de pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, cuya prevalencia a nivel nacional es de 8,0% en hombres y 8,3% en mujeres, con un gasto anual de 283 USD/persona. El estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad fisicoquímica y precio de comprimidos de 850 mg de metformina comercializados en nuestro país. Se analizaron medicamentos de producción nacional e importada, conteniendo 850 mg de metformina HCl, tomando como referencia la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos (USP 38). Para evaluar la calidad de los productos se realizaron ensayos físicos químicos, además de los perfiles de disolución según el medio propuesto por la USP 38. Los resultados obtenidos se encontraron dentro de las especificaciones de valoración, entre 96% y 101% de metformina y los perfiles de disolución entre 70% y 90% de la cantidad declarada en 20 minutos, con una eficiencia de disolución (EF) entre 58% y 93%, mostrando que no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,41). La variación de precios encontrados fue entre 3,6 USD y 8,4 USD. Los productos analizados pueden ser intercambiables en cuanto a la calidad y los perfiles de disolución in vitro, siendo una herramienta para demostrar intercambiabilidad de productos farmacéuticos, buscando el precio más accesible en el mercado nacional y facilitando el tratamiento adecuado sobre todo para la población de escasos recursos manteniendo la calidad y eficacia del mismo(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Price , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Paraguay , Tablets , Dissolution , Hypoglycemic Agents/analysis , Metformin/analysis
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 93 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049803

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve por finalidade desenvolver uma metodologia de dissolução discriminativa para avaliar comprimidos contendo diferentes polimorfos de atorvastatina cálcica (ATR). Este trabalho é conformado por quatro capítulos, no qual o primeiro apresenta uma breve revisão de literatura sobre as características dos polimorfos da ATR, abordando-se informações mais relevantes sobre o ATR em relação ao polimorfismo e sua influência na biodisponibilidade. No segundo capítulo, apresenta-se a importância da caracterização dos polimorfismos e suas implicações para a ATR. As amostras de ATR foram identificadas por difração raio X e análise térmica e, posteriormente, demonstrou-se as diferenças entre quatro amostras comercializadas no mercado brasileiro relacionadas ao hábito cristalino, tamanho de partícula e solubilidade. No terceiro capítulo, demonstra-se o desenvolvimento do método de dissolução discriminativo para comprimidos contendo duas formas polimórficas da ATR. Para tanto, avaliou-se a solubilidade destas pelo método do equilíbrio e determinou-se as condições experimentais mais adequadas para o ensaio de dissolução por intermédio de planejamento fatorial completo do tipo 23, sendo as variáveis independentes o meio de dissolução, a velocidade de agitação e as formas polimórficas (I e VIII). Os resultados obtidos foram tratados estatisticamente através da análise de variância, dos gráficos de Pareto e de superfície de resposta. Concluiu-se que a velocidade de agitação e o meio de dissolução impactam os resultados, afetando a dissolução das formulações com os polimorfos avaliados. Assim, as condições selecionadas foram: 750 mL de meio água a 65 rpm. Após o desenvolvimento do método, este foi comparado com o da Food and Drug Administration (FDA) para comprimidos de atorvastatina cálcica. Ao final dos ensaios, o método desenvolvido mostrou-se adequado para apontar diferenças entre os polimorfos da ATR. No quarto capítulo, o método desenvolvido foi utilizado para avaliar o perfil de dissolução de comprimidos comercializados em três países sul-americanos: Brasil, Peru e Bolívia. As porcentagens de fármaco dissolvidas e a Eficiência de Dissolução foram as variáveis estudadas e, posteriormente, tratadas estatisticamente através da análise de componentes principais, sendo possível comparar o perfil de dissolução de dessete formulações. Dessa forma, foi possível concluir que cinco formulações avaliadas (BR1, BR2 PE6, BR7 e BO3) possuíam a forma polimórfica VIII, enquanto duas formulações (BR5 e PE2) continham a forma polimórfica I. As demais, possivelmente, apresentam misturas ou outras formas polimórficas


This present study was aimed at developing a discriminative dissolution methodology to evaluate tablets containing different calcium atorvastatin (ATR) polymorphs. This paper consists of four chapters. The first chapter presents a brief literature review of the characteristics of ATR polymorphs, and addresses more relevant information about ATR in relation to polymorphism and its influence on bioavailability. The second chapter presents the importance of the characterization of polymorphs and their implications for ATR. The ATR samples were identified by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Subsequently, the differences among the four samples marketed in the Brazilian market with relation to crystalline habit, particle size and solubility were demonstrated. The third chapter demonstrates the development of the discriminative dissolution method for tablets containing two polymorphic forms of ATR. For this, their solubilities were evaluated by the equilibrium method and the most suitable experimental conditions for the dissolution test were determined by means of complete factorial design of type 23, and the independent variables were the dissolution medium, the stirring speed and polymorphic forms (I and VIII). The results obtained were statistically treated through analysis of variance, Pareto and response surface graphs. It was concluded that the stirring speed and the dissolution medium influenced the results, affecting the dissolution of the formulations with the evaluated polymorphs. Thus, the selected condition was 750 mL of water at 65 rpm. Following the development of the method, it was compared with that of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for atorvastatin calcium tablets. At the end of the tests, the developed method was adequate to point out differences between the ATR polymorphs. In the fourth chapter, the developed method was used to evaluate the dissolution profile of tablets marketed in three South American countries: Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Dissolved drug percentages and Dissolution Efficiency were the studied variables and statistically treated by principal component analysis. Through this method, it was possible to compare the dissolution profile of seventeen formulations. Thus, it was possible to conclude that five formulations evaluated (BR1, BR2, PE6, PE7 e BO3) had the polymorphic form VIII, while two formulations (BR5 e PE2) contained the polymorphic form I. The others possibly have mixtures or other forms polymorphic


Subject(s)
Peru/ethnology , Tablets/analysis , Bolivia/ethnology , Brazil/ethnology , Dissolution/methods , Atorvastatin/analysis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Pharmaceutical Trade
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