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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 1010-1015, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350021

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) está associada a manifestações clínicas cardiovasculares, incluindo a ocorrência de arritmias cardíacas. Objetivos: Avaliar a incidência de arritmias cardíacas (taquiarritmia atrial, bradiarritmia e taquicardia ventricular sustentada) e de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) em uma coorte de pacientes internados com COVID-19 em hospital universitário terciário. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo realizado por meio de revisão dos registros de prontuário médico. Para comparação entre os grupos, foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo valor de P < 0,05. Resultados: Foram incluídos 241 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de COVID-19 (idade média, 57,8 ± 15,0 anos; 51,5% homens; 80,5% de raça branca) e 35,3% com necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VM). A mortalidade geral foi de 26,6%, sendo de 58,8% entre aqueles em VM. Arritmias cardíacas ocorreram em 8,7% dos pacientes, sendo a mais comum taquiarritmia atrial (76,2%). Pacientes com arritmias apresentaram maior mortalidade, 52,4% versus 24,1% (p=0,005). Em análise multivariada, apenas a presença de insuficiência cardíaca foi associada a maior risco de arritmias ( hazard ratio , 11,9; IC 95%: 3,6-39,5; p<0,001). Durante a internação, 3,3% dos pacientes foram atendidos em PCR, com predomínio de ritmos não chocáveis. Todos os atendidos em PCR evoluíram com óbito durante a internação. Conclusão: A incidência de arritmias cardíacas em pacientes internados com COVID-19 em hospital terciário brasileiro foi de 8,7%, sendo a mais comum taquiarritmias atrial. A presença de insuficiência cardíaca foi associada a maior risco de arritmias. Pacientes com COVID-19 atendidos em PCR apresentam elevada mortalidade.


Abstract Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with cardiovascular clinical manifestations, including cardiac arrhythmias. Objective: To assess the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias (atrial tachyarrhythmia, bradyarrhythmia, and sustained ventricular tachycardia) and cardiac arrest (CA) in a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary university-affiliated hospital. Methods: Cohort study with retrospective analysis of electronic medical records. For comparison between groups, a value of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: We included 241 consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age, 57.8 ± 15.0 years; 51.5% men; 80.5% white), 35.3% of whom received invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). The overall mortality was 26.6%, being 58.8% among those on MV. Cardiac arrhythmias were identified in 8.7% of the patients, the most common being atrial tachyarrhythmia (76.2%). Patients with arrhythmias had higher mortality (52.4% versus 24.1%, p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, only the presence of heart failure (HF) was associated with a higher risk of arrhythmias (hazard ratio, 11.9; 95% CI: 3.6-39.5; p <0.001). During hospitalization, 3.3% of the patients experienced CA, with a predominance of non-shockable rhythms. All patients experiencing CA died during hospitalization. Conclusions: The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients admitted with COVID-19 to a Brazilian tertiary hospital was 8.7%, and atrial tachyarrhythmia was the most common. Presence of HF was associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias. Patients with COVID-19 experiencing CA have high mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(1): 13-18, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Brugada syndrome (SBr) is an arrhythmic condition characterized by ST-T segment abnormalities in the right precordial leads associated with a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Local data regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with a typical electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern undergoing electrophysiological study are scarce. Objective: To evaluate patients with an ECG pattern suggestive of SBr referred for electrophysiological evaluation in a specialized center. Methods: Cohort study of patients referred for electrophysiological study because of an ECG pattern compatible with SBr between January 1998 and March 2017. Results: Of the 5506 procedures, 35 (0.64%) were for SBr investigation, 25 of which (71.42%) were performed in men. The mean age was 43.89 ± 13.1 years. The ECG patterns were as follows: type I, 22 (62.85%); type II, 12 (34.30%); and type III, 1 (2.85%). Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were asymptomatic, 6 (17.14%) had palpitations, 5 (14.3%) had syncope, and 3 (8.6%) had a family history of sudden death. Electrophysiological study induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 16 cases (45.7%), the mean ventricular refractory period being 228 ± 36 ms. Ajmaline / procainamide was used in 11 cases (31.4%), changing the ECG pattern to type I in 7 (63.6%). Sixteen cases (45.7%) received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In a mean 5-year follow-up, 1 of the 16 patients (6.25%) with ICD had appropriate therapy for ventricular fibrillation. There was no death. Other arrhythmias occurred in 4 (11.4%) cases. Conclusions: Most patients are men, and a type I ECG pattern is the main indication for electrophysiological study. Class IA drugs have a high ECG conversion rate. The ICD event rate was 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Resumo Fundamento: Síndrome de Brugada (SBr) é uma condição arrítmica definida por anormalidades do segmento ST-T em derivações V1-V3 associada a risco elevado de arritmias ventriculares e morte súbita. Dados locais quanto às características clínicas dos pacientes com padrão eletrocardiográfico (ECG) típico avaliados por estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF) são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes com padrão ECG sugestivo de SBr encaminhados para EEF em um centro especializado. Métodos: Estudo de coorte de casos encaminhados para EEF por padrão ECG compatível com SBr, entre janeiro de 1998 e março de 2017. Resultados: Dos 5506 procedimentos, 35 (0,64%) foram para investigação de SBr. Vinte e cinco (71,42%) eram homens. Idade média 43,89 ± 13,1 anos. Apresentação ECG foi tipo I em 22 casos (62,85%), tipo II em 12 (34,30%) e tipo III em 1 (2,85%). Vinte e três (65,7%) eram assintomáticos, 6 (17,14%) apresentavam palpitações, 5 (14,3%) síncope, 3 (8,6%) história familiar de morte súbita. Estudo eletrofisiológico induziu taquiarritmias ventriculares em 16 casos (45,7%), sendo o período refratário ventricular médio de 228 ± 36 ms. Utilizou-se ajmalina/procainamida em 11 casos (31,4%), sendo o padrão ECG transformado em tipo I em 7 (63,6%). Dezesseis casos (45,7%) receberam cardiodes fibrilador (CDI). Em seguimento médio de 5 anos, 1 dos 16 pacientes (6,25%) com CDI teve terapia apropriada para fibrilação ventricular. Nenhuma morte foi registrada. Outras arritmias ocorreram em 4 (11,4%) casos. Conclusões: Homens são maioria, sendo o padrão ECG tipo I a principal indicação de EEF. Droga classe IA possui alta taxa de conversão do padrão ECG. A taxa de eventos no CDI foi de 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Defibrillators, Implantable , Brugada Syndrome/surgery , Time Factors , Cohort Studies , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Electrocardiography , Electrophysiology , Brugada Syndrome/complications , Brugada Syndrome/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(5): 412-417, May 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950150

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sudden cardiac death is the most frequent death mechanism in Chagas disease, responsible for 55% to 65% of the deaths of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). The most often involved electrophysiological mechanisms are ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has a beneficial role in preventing sudden death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias, and, thus the correct identification of patients at risk is required. The association of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) with the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias has been assessed in different heart diseases. The role of MTWA is mostly unknown in patients with CCC. Objectives: To evaluate the association between MTWA and the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CCC. Method: This is a case-control study including patients with CCC and ICD, with history of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (case group), and patients with CCC and no history of those arrhythmias (control group). The MTWA test results were classified as negative and non-negative (positive and indeterminate). The significance level adopted was a = 0.05. Results: We recruited 96 patients, 45 cases (46.8%) and 51 controls (53.1%). The MTWA test was non-negative in 36/45 cases (80%) and 15/51 controls (29.4%) [OR = 9.60 (95%CI: 3.41 - 27.93)]. After adjustment for known confounding factors in a logistic regression model, the non-negative result continued to be associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias [OR = 5.17 (95%CI: 1.05 - 25.51)]. Conclusion: Patients with CCC and history of malignant ventricular arrhythmias more often have a non-negative MTWA test as compared to patients with no history of arrhythmia.


Resumo Fundamento: A morte súbita cardíaca é o mecanismo de morte mais comum na doença de Chagas, responsável pelo óbito de 55% a 65% dos pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC). Os mecanismos mais frequentemente envolvidos são as taquiarritmias ventriculares. O cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável (CDI) apresenta impacto na redução da mortalidade por arritmias ventriculares e faz-se necessária a correta identificação de pacientes sob risco. A associação de microalternância de onda T (MTWA) com o aparecimento de arritmias ventriculares foi avaliada em diferentes cardiopatias através de um teste. O papel da MTWA na identificação de pacientes sob risco na CCC permanece incerto. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre MTWA e a ocorrência de arritmias ventriculares malignas na CCC. Método: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle, que incluiu pacientes com CCC em uso de CDI, com história prévia de arritmias ventriculares malignas (casos) ou sem história prévia (controles). Os resultados do teste foram classificados em negativo e não negativo (positivo e indeterminado). O nível de significância foi a = 0,05. Resultado: Foram recrutados 96 pacientes, 45 no grupo caso (46,8%) e 51 no grupo controle (53,1%). O teste de MTWA apresentou resultado não negativo em 36/45 pacientes no grupo caso (80%) e 15/51 no grupo controle (29,4%), OR = 9,60 (IC95%: 3,41 - 27,93). Após ajuste para fatores de confusão num modelo de regressão logística, o resultado não negativo continuou associado à presença de arritmias ventriculares malignas, com OR = 5,17 (IC95%: 1,05 - 25,51). Conclusão: Na CCC, pacientes com história de arritmia ventricular maligna apresentam maior frequência de teste de MTWA não negativo quando comparados a pacientes sem ocorrência prévia de arritmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Disease/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electrocardiography
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 239-243, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899591

ABSTRACT

Abstracts: A 48-year-old woman was brought to the emergency room with ventricular tachycardia that was eventually terminated by cardioversion. Clinical and neurologic evaluation, including electromyography were highly suggestive of type I Myotonic Dystrophy and genetical studies confirmed the diagnosis. A discussion about the diagnostic procedures and management of the disease, especially the associated ventricular tachycardia, is included.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Electrocardiography , Myotonic Dystrophy/complications , Myotonic Dystrophy/diagnosis , Electric Countershock , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Defibrillators, Implantable , Myotonic Dystrophy/therapy
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(3): 386-390, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899516

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A granulomatose com poliangiíte é um raro distúrbio inflamatório sistêmico que se caracteriza por vasculite de pequenas artérias, arteríolas e capilares, associada a lesões granulomatosas necrotizantes. Este artigo relata o caso de uma paciente com diagnóstico prévio de granulomatose com poliangiíte, admitida à unidade de terapia intensiva com quadro de crises convulsivas e instabilidade hemodinâmica em razão de bloqueio atrioventricular completo. Estas manifestações se associaram a múltiplos episódios de taquicardia ventricular sustentada; não havia alterações estruturais cardíacas, nem se detectaram distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos. Na unidade de terapia intensiva, a paciente foi submetida à implantação de marca-passo provisório, imunossupressão com uso de corticosteroides e terapia imunobiológica, resultando em melhora hemodinâmica completa. Distúrbios graves da condução cardíaca em pacientes com granulomatose com poliangiíte são raros, mas associam-se à grande morbidade. O reconhecimento precoce e o uso de intervenções específicas são capazes de prevenir a ocorrência de desfechos desfavoráveis, especialmente na unidade de terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by vasculitis of the small arteries, the arterioles and the capillaries together with necrotizing granulomatous lesions. This case reports on a young female patient, previously diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with seizures and hemodynamic instability due to a complete atrioventricular heart block. The event was associated with multiple episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia without any structural heart changes or electrolyte disturbances. In the intensive care unit, the patient was fitted with a provisory pacemaker, followed by immunosuppression with corticosteroids and immunobiological therapy, resulting in a total hemodynamic improvement. Severe conduction disorders in patients presenting granulomatosis with polyangiitis are rare but can contribute to increased morbidity. Early detection and specific intervention can prevent unfavorable outcomes, specifically in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Pacemaker, Artificial , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Atrioventricular Block/therapy , Cardiac Conduction System Disease/etiology , Cardiac Conduction System Disease/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(7): 941-944, jul. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902567

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of hypopituitarism are usually chronic and nonspecific, but rarely the disease can have acute and life threatening manifestations. We report a 53 years old female with a pituitary adenoma that was admitted to our hospital because of syncope. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval. Frequent runs of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were noted on telemetry. The patient had a history of severe acute headaches in the previous days and laboratory tests revealed severe secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and a decrease in pituitary hormones. A magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed changes in the size and contrast enhancement of the adenoma. A diagnosis of hypopituitarism secondary to pituitary apoplexy was made and treatment with hydrocortisone and, subsequently, levothyroxine was started. Hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism should be considered as unusual causes for reversible cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Adenoma/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Hypopituitarism/complications , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Electrocardiography
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 122-128, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease. Objectives: To assess DSE safety in Chagas disease patients with clinical suspicion of CAD, as well as the incidence of arrhythmias and adverse events during the exam. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients referred for DSE from May/2012 to February/2015. This study assessed 205 consecutive patients with Chagas disease suspected of having CAD. All of them had their serology for Chagas disease confirmed. Results: Their mean age was 64±10 years and most patients were females (65.4%). No patient had significant adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, asystole, stroke, cardiac rupture and death. Regarding arrhythmias, ventricular extrasystoles occurred in 48% of patients, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3%. Conclusion: DSE proved to be safe in this population of Chagas disease patients, in which no potentially life-threatening outcome was found.


Resumo Fundamento: Até poucas décadas atrás, os pacientes chagásicos eram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais, com baixo perfil de risco para doença obstrutiva coronária. Com a crescente urbanização, passaram a ter os mesmos fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica que indivíduos não infectados. O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina (EED) é uma importante ferramenta no diagnóstico de coronariopatia. É referido, porém, como um método potencialmente arritmogênico, mas seguro, em pacientes coronarianos não chagásicos. Entretanto, há insegurança na prática clínica de indicá-lo no paciente chagásico, devido ao potencial arritmogênico já intrínseco nesta cardiopatia. Objetivos: Analisar a segurança do EED em uma população de chagásicos com suspeita clínica de coronariopatia. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de um banco de dados de pacientes encaminhados para a realização do EED entre maio/2012 e fevereiro/2015. Avaliou-se pacientes consecutivos portadores de doença de Chagas e com suspeita de coronariopatia. Confirmou-se a sorologia para doença de Chagas em todos os pacientes. Resultados: A média etária dos 205 pacientes analisados foi de 64 ± 10 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (65,4%). Nenhum paciente apresentou eventos adversos significativos, como infarto agudo do miocárdio, fibrilação ventricular, assistolia, acidente vascular encefálico, ruptura cardíaca ou morte. Quanto às arritmias, extrassístoles ventriculares frequentes ocorreram em 48% dos pacientes, taquicardia ventricular não sustentada em 7,3%, bigeminismo em 4,4%, taquicardia supraventricular e taquicardia ventricular sustentada em 1% e fibrilação atrial em 0,5%. Conclusão: O EED mostrou ser um exame seguro nessa população de pacientes chagásicos, onde nenhum desfecho grave foi encontrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Reference Values , Blood Pressure/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Echocardiography, Stress/adverse effects , Heart Rate/physiology
11.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.931-954.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971576
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73249

ABSTRACT

Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Electrocardiography , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mushroom Poisoning/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(4): 200-206, out.-dez.2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-789231

ABSTRACT

As taquicardias ventriculares são as arritmias cardíacas com maior potencial de instabilidade clínica e mortalidade cardíaca. Embora possam ocorrer no contexto de pacientes sem cardiopatia estrutural demonstrável, quase sempre ocorrem em coração estruturalmente alterado, com substrato anatômico para reentradas. As alterações cardíacas podem ser isquêmicas e não isquêmica. A distinção entre as etiologias é importante por terem diferentes mecanismos e origens de taquicardia ventricular, que irá determinar a escolha do tratamento adequado das arritmias ventriculares e prevenção de morte súbita. Os principais objetivos no manejo destes pacientes são: a reversão imediata da taquicardia, a prevençãode recorrências e a redução da mortalidade cardiovascular. Atualmente os fármacos com eficácia e perfil de segurança mais utilizados para tratamento de taquicardia ventricular em pacientes com cardiopatia estrutural são os betabloqueadores, amiodarona e sotalol. Com exceção dos betabloqueadores, os antiarrítmicos não possuem a eficácia em manejo primário ou na prevenção de morte súbita demonstrada em estudos clínicos randomizados atuais de forma consistente. Em portadores de cardiodesfibrilador implantável, os antiarrítmicos podem atuar na supressão das taquicardias ventriculares não sustentadas e sustentadas, na lentificação das taquicardias ventriculares com intuito de facilitar a reversão por antitachycardia pacing e prevenir sincopes, além de controlas as taquicardias supraventriculares. Devido aos efeitos colaterais e potencial efeito pró-arrítmico, devem ser utilizados com precaução e com controle adequado...


Ventricular tachycardia is the cardiac arrhythmia with the most potential to result in clinical instability and cardiac mortality. Although it can occur in patients without structural heart disease, it tends to occur where there is underlying heart disease, with anatomical substrate for reentry. It can be subdivided into ischemic and non-ischemic. This is an important distinction, because the mechanisms and origins of ventricular tachycardia may differ between the two, which will determine the choice of treatment for the ventricular arrhythmia and help prevent sudden death. The objective in clinical management of these patients includes: immediate reversal of tachycardia, prevention of relapses, and reducing cardiovascular mortality. The beta-blockers amiodarone and sotalol are currently the most commonly used antiarrhythmic agents, with the best efficacy and safety profile for treating ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. With the exception of beta-blockers, currently available antiarrhythmic drugs have not been shown, in randomized clinical trials, to be effective in the primary management of patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias or in the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Inpatients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, the potential beneficial effects of antiarrhythmic drugs may be the suppression of non-sustained and sustained ventricular tachycardias, slowing of ventricular tachycardia rate to facilitate pace termination or prevent syncope, and control of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Due to potential adverse effects of antiarrhythmic drugs and the risk of proarrhythmia, close monitoring of the patient is recommended...


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Ischemia , Patients , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Drug Therapy/methods , Sotalol/adverse effects , Sotalol/therapeutic use , Heart Ventricles
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 175-180, mar-apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746226

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA) and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD) patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5) years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2) years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48%) than in the control group (23.7%) during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(1): 55-59, Jan-Fev/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733009

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In patients with acromegaly, cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death; sudden death has been associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In other patients with life-threatening malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias, surgical placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has proved highly effective in reducing sudden death rates. CASE REPORT: The present article reports the case of a 50-year-old male acromegalic patient who presented symptoms of syncope induced by ventricular tachycardia. An ICD was surgically implanted and a pituitary adenoma, which was responsible for the acromegaly, was completely removed in the same procedure. The surgery was successful and the ventricular arrhythmias were effectively terminated. During six months of follow-up, no documented arrhythmic episodes occurred. CONCLUSION: In patients with acromegaly, malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmia might be effectively controlled by implantation of an ICD and surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma. .


CONTEXTO: As complicações cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte em pacientes com acromegalia, e a morte súbita tem sido associada a taquiarritmias ventriculares. Em outros pacientes com risco de vida por taquiarritmias ventriculares malignas, a aplicação cirúrgica de um cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável (CDI) provou ser altamente eficaz na redução das taxas de morte súbita. RELATO DE CASO: O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente acromegálico de 50 anos de idade e do sexo masculino, que apresentava sintomas de síncope induzida por taquicardia ventricular. Foi implantado cirurgicamente nesse paciente um CDI e na mesma intervenção cirúrgica foi completamente removido um adenoma hipofisário responsável pela acromegalia. A cirurgia foi bem-sucedida e o paciente deixou de sofrer de arritmias ventriculares. Durante seis meses de acompanhamento, não se documentaram, nesse paciente, episódios arrítmicos. CONCLUSÃO: A taquiarritmia ventricular maligna pode ser efetivamente controlada em pacientes com acromegalia pela implantação de um CDI combinado com a remoção cirúrgica do adenoma hipofisário. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acromegaly/complications , Adenoma/complications , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Adenoma/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Syncope/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162099

ABSTRACT

In 1992 a new syndrome was described consisting of syncopal episodes or sudden death in patients with a structurally normal heart and an electrocardiogram characteristic of right bundle branch block with ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. It has been shown to be associated with mutations in the gene (SCN5A) that encodes for the sodium ion channel in cardiac myocyte. Over 160 mutations of gene SCN5A have been identifi ed. Th e incidence of the disease is diffi cult to estimate, but it causes sudden deaths of 5 per 10,000 inhabitants per year and involved much more frequently in people of Asian ancestry. Diagnosis can be easily made by means of genetic analysis and ECG. Recent data suggest that loss of the action potential dome in the right ventricular epicardium underlies ST segment elevation seen in this syndrome. Right ventricular epicardium is preferentially aff ected because of the predominance of transient outward current in this tissue. Antiarrhythmic drugs like amiodarone and beta-blockers do not prevent death in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals. Th ough Implantation of an automatic cardioverter–defi brillator is the only recently proven eff ective therapy; Quinidine has been found to decrease Ventricular fi brillation and could prove to be a secured option of implantable cardioverter–defi brillator. However, researcher set focus on gene therapy that may off er an enduring cure in future years. Th e purpose of this brief review is to record the past highlights that have brought us to our present understanding of Brugada syndrome.


Subject(s)
Asians , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Brugada Syndrome/complications , Brugada Syndrome/diagnosis , Brugada Syndrome/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Humans , Tachycardia, Ventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 460-467, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-732174

ABSTRACT

Background: The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective: Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods: Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with ...


Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos pacientes com ângulo anormal foi quatro vezes maior [odds ratio (OR) 4; intervalo de confiança ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Ventricular Fibrillation/physiopathology , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Chagas Disease/complications , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology
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