Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 45
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 55-65, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115451

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico electrocardiográfico correcto de la causa de una taquicardia de complejo QRS ancho (TCA) es fundamental, ya que tanto el manejo, como el pronóstico del paciente, es diferente según su etiología, y define el estudio que debemos realizar. Numerosos criterios y algoritmos han sido descritos para diferenciar el origen de estas taquicardias. Sin embargo, muchos de estos son complejos y difíciles de aplicar para el médico menos experimentado. Esto es particularmente importante en los servicios de emergencia, donde se necesita una definición rápida que permita un manejo agudo apropiado. En la presente revisión analizamos los diferentes mecanismos de las TCA y los principales criterios diagnósticos en el ECG, reforzando, especialmente, aquellos de aplicación rápida y de alto rendimiento diagnóstico.


The correct electrocardiographic diagnosis of the cause of a wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT) is essential since both management and prognosis of the patient. The correct electrocardiographic diagnosis of the cause of a wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT) is essential since both management and prognosis is different according to its etiology and defines the study that we should perform. Numerous criteria and algorithms have been described to differentiate the origin of these tachycardias. However, many of these are complex and difficult to apply to the less experienced doctor. This is particularly important in emergency rooms, where a rapid definition is needed to allow proper therapy. In this review we analyze the different mechanisms of WCT and the main EKG diagnostic criteria, emphasizing those which can be applied rapidly and have high diagnostic value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Algorithms , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/physiopathology , Pre-Excitation Syndromes , Bundle-Branch Block , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(4): 284-289, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887940

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is well known to reduce mortality in selected patients with heart failure (HF). Objective: To investigate whether monitored episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) might predict future HF hospitalizations in ICD recipients with HF. Methods: We examined 104 ICD recipients (mean age: 60 ± 10.1 years, 80.8 % male) with HF who were referred to our outpatient clinic for device follow-up. After device interrogation, patients were divided into NSVT positive and negative groups. The primary endpoint was the rate of hospitalization within the next 6 months after initial ICD evaluation. Results: Device evaluation demonstrated at least one episode of monitored NSVT in 50 out of 104 patients. As expected, no device therapy (shock or anti-tachycardia) was needed for such episodes. At 6 months, 24 patients were hospitalized due to acute decompensated HF. Hospitalization rate was significantly lower in the NSVT negative as compared with positive groups (38% versus 62%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.166 ; 95% CI 0.056 to 0.492; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Monitored NSVT bouts in ICD recordings may serve as a predictor of future HF hospitalizations in ICD recipients with HF suggesting optimization of therapeutic modalities in these patients along with a close supervision in the clinical setting.


Resumo Fundamentos: A terapia de cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável (CDI) é bem conhecida por reduzir a mortalidade em pacientes selecionados com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Objetivo: Investigar se os episódios monitorados de taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (TVNS) poderiam prever futuras hospitalizações por IC em receptores de CDI com IC. Métodos: Examinamos 104 receptores da CDI (idade média: 60 ± 10,1 anos, 80,8% do sexo masculino) com IC que foram encaminhados para o nosso ambulatório para acompanhamento do dispositivo. Após a interrogação do dispositivo, os pacientes foram divididos em grupos positivo e negativo de TVNS. O desfecho primário foi a taxa de hospitalização nos próximos 6 meses após a avaliação inicial do CID. Resultados: A avaliação do dispositivo demonstrou pelo menos um episódio de TVNS monitorado em 50 dos 104 pacientes. Como esperado, não foi necessária terapia de dispositivo (choque ou anti-taquicardia) para tais episódios. Aos 6 meses, 24 pacientes foram hospitalizados por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada aguda. A taxa de hospitalização foi significativamente menor na TVNS negativa em relação ao grupo positivo (38% contra 62%; Razão de risco ajustada [RR] 0,166; IC 95%: 0,056 a 0,492; p = 0,01). Conclusões: Os episódios de TVNS monitorados em gravações de CDI podem servir como preditores de hospitalizações futuras por insuficiência cardíaca em receptores CDI com IC sugerindo otimização de modalidades terapêuticas nesses pacientes, além de uma estreita supervisão no cenário clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Monitoring, Physiologic
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 246-254, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838703

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. Objectives: To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. Methods: 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. Results: 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p<0.05) and indexed left atrial volume ≥ 72 mL/m2 (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.63 - 7.52; p<0.05) were the only variables that remained as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: The presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and indexed left atrial volume > 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years.


Resumo Fundamento: Fatores prognósticos são bastante estudados na insuficiência cardíaca (IC), mas ainda não possuem um papel estabelecido na IC grave de etiologia chagásica. Objetivo: Identificar a associação de fatores clínicos e laboratoriais com o prognóstico da IC grave de etiologia chagásica, bem como a associação desses fatores com a taxa de mortalidade e a sobrevida em um seguimento de 7,5 anos. Métodos: 60 pacientes portadores de IC grave de etiologia chagásica foram avaliados com relação às seguintes variáveis: idade, pressão arterial, fração de ejeção, sódio plasmático, creatinina, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos, taquicardia ventricular não sustentada, largura do QRS, volume do átrio esquerdo indexado e classe funcional. Resultados: 53 (88,3%) pacientes foram a óbito durante o período de seguimento e 7 (11,7%) permaneceram vivos. A probabilidade de sobrevida geral acumulada foi de aproximadamente 11%. Taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (HR = 2,11; IC 95%: 1,04 - 4,31; p<0,05) e volume do átrio esquerdo indexado ≥ 72 ml/m2 (HR = 3,51; IC 95%: 1,63 - 7,52; p<0,05) foram as únicas variáveis que permaneceram como preditores independentes de mortalidade. Conclusão: A presença de taquicardia ventricular não sustentada ao Holter e o volume do átrio esquerdo indexado > 72 ml/m2 são preditores independentes de mortalidade na IC chagásica grave, com probabilidade de sobrevida acumulada de apenas 11% em 7,5 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/mortality , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Prognosis , Sodium/blood , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiac Volume/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Age Factors , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Creatinine/blood , Walk Test , Heart Failure/physiopathology
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 122-128, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease. Objectives: To assess DSE safety in Chagas disease patients with clinical suspicion of CAD, as well as the incidence of arrhythmias and adverse events during the exam. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients referred for DSE from May/2012 to February/2015. This study assessed 205 consecutive patients with Chagas disease suspected of having CAD. All of them had their serology for Chagas disease confirmed. Results: Their mean age was 64±10 years and most patients were females (65.4%). No patient had significant adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, asystole, stroke, cardiac rupture and death. Regarding arrhythmias, ventricular extrasystoles occurred in 48% of patients, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3%. Conclusion: DSE proved to be safe in this population of Chagas disease patients, in which no potentially life-threatening outcome was found.


Resumo Fundamento: Até poucas décadas atrás, os pacientes chagásicos eram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais, com baixo perfil de risco para doença obstrutiva coronária. Com a crescente urbanização, passaram a ter os mesmos fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica que indivíduos não infectados. O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina (EED) é uma importante ferramenta no diagnóstico de coronariopatia. É referido, porém, como um método potencialmente arritmogênico, mas seguro, em pacientes coronarianos não chagásicos. Entretanto, há insegurança na prática clínica de indicá-lo no paciente chagásico, devido ao potencial arritmogênico já intrínseco nesta cardiopatia. Objetivos: Analisar a segurança do EED em uma população de chagásicos com suspeita clínica de coronariopatia. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de um banco de dados de pacientes encaminhados para a realização do EED entre maio/2012 e fevereiro/2015. Avaliou-se pacientes consecutivos portadores de doença de Chagas e com suspeita de coronariopatia. Confirmou-se a sorologia para doença de Chagas em todos os pacientes. Resultados: A média etária dos 205 pacientes analisados foi de 64 ± 10 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (65,4%). Nenhum paciente apresentou eventos adversos significativos, como infarto agudo do miocárdio, fibrilação ventricular, assistolia, acidente vascular encefálico, ruptura cardíaca ou morte. Quanto às arritmias, extrassístoles ventriculares frequentes ocorreram em 48% dos pacientes, taquicardia ventricular não sustentada em 7,3%, bigeminismo em 4,4%, taquicardia supraventricular e taquicardia ventricular sustentada em 1% e fibrilação atrial em 0,5%. Conclusão: O EED mostrou ser um exame seguro nessa população de pacientes chagásicos, onde nenhum desfecho grave foi encontrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Reference Values , Blood Pressure/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Echocardiography, Stress/adverse effects , Heart Rate/physiology
7.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 29(4): f:161-l:163, out.-dez. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831752

ABSTRACT

As arritmias ventriculares em portadores de cardiomiopatia isquêmica estão diretamente relacionadas ao aumento da morbimortalidade, sendo sua recorrência associada a pior prognóstico. A despeito da otimização do tratamento medicamentoso, muitos são os pacientes refratários, e, nesse contexto, a ablação por adiofrequência torna-se uma importante alternativa terapêutica diante da refratariedade ao tratamento convencional. O mapeamento eletroanatômico permite visualização das áreas de fibrose e dos istmos de condução, aumentando as taxas de sucesso desse procedimento


Ventricular arrhythmias in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients are directly related to increased morbidity and mortality, and recurrence is associated to a worse prognosis. Despite the optimization of drug therapy, many patients are refractory to conventional therapy and in this context, radiofrequency ablation becomes an important therapeutic alternative. Electroanatomic mapping allows the visualization of fibrosis and isthmus conduction areas, increasing the success rates of this procedure


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Death, Sudden/prevention & control , Drug Therapy/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology
8.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.931-954.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971576
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(6): 566-572, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The association between periatrial adiposity and atrial arrhythmias has been shown in previous studies. However, there are not enough available data on the association between epicardial fat tissue (EFT) thickness and parameters of ventricular repolarization. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association of EFT thickness with indices of ventricular repolarization by using T-peak to T-end (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: The present study included 50 patients whose EFT thickness ≥ 9 mm (group 1) and 40 control subjects with EFT thickness < 9 mm (group 2). Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed in all participants. QT parameters, Tp-e intervals and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Results: QTd (41.1 ± 2.5 vs 38.6 ± 3.2, p < 0.001) and corrected QTd (46.7 ± 4.7 vs 43.7 ± 4, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in group 1 when compared to group 2. The Tp-e interval (76.5 ± 6.3, 70.3 ± 6.8, p < 0.001), cTp-e interval (83.1 ± 4.3 vs. 76±4.9, p < 0.001), Tp-e/QT (0.20 ± 0.02 vs. 0.2 ± 0.02, p < 0.001) and Tp-e/QTc ratios (0.2 ± 0.01 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, p < 0.001) were increased in group 1 in comparison to group 2. Significant positive correlations were found between EFT thickness and Tp-e interval (r = 0.548, p < 0.001), cTp-e interval (r = 0.259, p = 0.01), and Tp-e/QT (r = 0.662, p < 0.001) and Tp-e/QTc ratios (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study shows that Tp-e and cTp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were increased in subjects with increased EFT, which may suggest an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia.


Resumo Fundamento: A associação entre a adiposidade periatrial e arritmias atriais foi demonstrada em estudos anteriores. No entanto, não há dados disponíveis suficientes sobre a associação entre a espessura do tecido adiposo epicárdico (TAE) e parâmetros de repolarização ventricular. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a associação da espessura do TAE com índices de repolarização ventricular usando o intervalo Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) e a relação Tp-e/QT. Métodos: O presente estudo incluiu 50 pacientes com espessura do TAE ≥ 9 mm (grupo 1) e 40 indivíduos do grupo controle cuja espessura do TAE era < 9 mm (grupo 2). O exame ecocardiográfico transtorácico foi realizado em todos os participantes. Os parâmetros QT, os intervalos Tp-e e a relação Tp-e/QT foram medidos a partir do eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações. Resultados: QTd (41,1 ± 2,5 vs. 38,6 ± 3,2, p < 0,001) e QTd corrigido (46,7 ± 4,7 vs 43,7 ± 4, p = 0,002) foram significativamente maiores no grupo 1 quando comparados com o grupo 2. O intervalo Tp-e (76,5 ± 6,3, 70,3 ± 6,8, p < 0,001), intervalo cTp-e (83,1 ± 4,3 vs. 76 ± 4,9, p < 0,001), as relações Tp-e/QT (0,20 ± 0,02 vs. 0,02 ± 0,2, p < 0,001) e Tp-e/QTc (0,2 ± 0,01 vs. 0,18 ± 0,01, p < 0,001) estavam aumentados no grupo 1 em comparação ao grupo 2. Correlações positivas significativas foram encontrados entre a espessura do TAE e o intervalo Tp-e (r = 0,548, p < 0,001), intervalo cTp-e (r = 0,259, p = 0,01), e as relações Tp-e/QT (r = 0,662, p < 0,001) e Tp-e/QTc (r = 0,560, p < 0,001). Conclusão: O presente estudo mostra que os intervalos Tp-e e cTp-e, e as relações Tp-e/QT e Tp-e/QTc estavam elevados nos indivíduos com TAE aumentado, o que pode sugerir um maior risco de arritmia ventricular.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Pericardium/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Organ Size , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 175-180, mar-apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746226

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA) and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD) patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5) years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2) years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48%) than in the control group (23.7%) during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 460-467, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-732174

ABSTRACT

Background: The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective: Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods: Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with ...


Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos pacientes com ângulo anormal foi quatro vezes maior [odds ratio (OR) 4; intervalo de confiança ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Ventricular Fibrillation/physiopathology , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Chagas Disease/complications , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(5): 456-464, 10/06/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711090

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Pacientes com doença de Chagas com alteração segmentar apresentam pior prognóstico independentemente da fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda. A ressonância magnética cardíaca é atualmente o melhor método para detecção de alteração segmentar e para avaliação de fibrose miocárdica. Objetivo: Quantificar a fibrose, por meio do realce tardio, pela ressonância magnética cardíaca, em pacientes com doença de Chagas com fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda preservada ou minimamente comprometida (> 45%) e detectar padrões de dependência entre fibrose, alteração segmentar e fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda na presença de arritmia ventricular. Métodos: Foram realizados eletrocardiograma, teste ergométrico, Holter e ressonância magnética cardíaca em 61 pacientes, separados em três grupos: (1) eletrocardiograma normal e ressonância magnética cardíaca sem alteração segmentar; (2) eletrocardiograma alterado e ressonância magnética cardíaca sem alteração segmentar; e (3) ressonância magnética cardíaca com alteração segmentar independentemente de alteração no eletrocardiograma. Resultados: O número de pacientes com arritmia ventricular em relação ao número total de pacientes em cada grupo, a porcentagem de fibrose e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda foram, respectivamente: no primeiro grupo, 4/26, 0,74% e 74,34%; no segundo grupo, 4/16, 3,96% e 68,5%; e no terceiro grupo, 11/19, 14,07% e 55,59%. Arritmia ventricular foi encontrada em 31,1% dos pacientes. Aqueles com e sem arritmia ventricular apresentaram fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda média de 59,87% ...


Background: Patients with Chagas disease and segmental wall motion abnormality (SWMA) have worse prognosis independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the best method to detect SWMA and to assess fibrosis. Objective: To quantify fibrosis by using late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function (> 45%), and to detect patterns of dependence between fibrosis, SWMA and LVEF in the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test, Holter and CMR were carried out in 61 patients, who were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (2) abnormal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (3) CMR with SWMA independently of electrocardiogram. Results: The number of patients with ventricular arrhythmia in relation to the total of patients, the percentage of fibrosis, and the LVEF were, respectively: Group 1, 4/26, 0.74% and 74.34%; Group 2, 4/16, 3.96% and 68.5%; and Group 3, 11/19, 14.07% and 55.59%. Ventricular arrhythmia was found in 31.1% of the patients. Those with and without ventricular arrhythmia had mean LVEF of 59.87% and 70.18%, respectively, and fibrosis percentage of 11.03% and 3.01%, respectively. Of the variables SWMA, groups, age, LVEF and fibrosis, only the latter was significant for the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, with a cutoff point of 11.78% for fibrosis mass (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Even in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function, electrical instability can be present. Regarding the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, fibrosis is the most important variable, its amount being proportional to the complexity of the groups. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Body Mass Index , Chagas Disease/pathology , Electrocardiography , Exercise Test , Fibrosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Tachycardia, Ventricular/pathology
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 83(2): 104-111, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702995

ABSTRACT

Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) currently has an important role in the treatment of incessant ventricular tachycardia and reduction of the number of episodes of recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Conventional mapping techniques require ongoing tachycardia and haemodynamic stability during the procedure. However, in many patients with scar-related ventricular tachycardia, non-inducibility of clinical tachycardia, poor induction reproducibility, haemodynamic instability, and multiple ventricular tachycardias with frequent spontaneous changes of morphology, preclude tachycardia mapping. To overcome these limitations, new strategies for mapping and ablation in sinus rhythm (SR) - substrate mapping strategies - have been developed and are currently used by many centres. This review summarizes the progresses recently achieved in the ablative treatment of ventricular tachycardia using a substrate mapping approach in patients with structural heart disease.


La ablación de la taquicardia ventricular está adquiriendo gran importancia en el tratamiento de la taquicardia ventricular incesante así como en la reducción y prevención de episodios en pacientes con taquicardia ventricular monomorfa sostenida. El abordaje convencional requiere la inducción de la taquicardia ventricular y la tolerancia de la misma durante el procedimento. Sin embargo, en muchos pacientes con taquicardia ventricular, en contexto de un infarto previo, no es factible la inducción de la taquicardia clínica, la inducción presenta baja reproducibilidad, la taquicardia se acompaña de inestabilidad hemodinámica o se presentan múltiples morfologías con variaciones espontáneas de una morfología a otra que dificultan el mapeo durante la taquicardia. Para superar a estas limitaciones, se han desarrollado las técnicas de mapeo y ablación de sustrato en ritmo sinusal, que actualmente se llevan a cabo en muchos centros. Esta revisión se centra en los avances realizados en los últimos años en el campo de la ablación de sustrato de la taquicardia ventricular en el paciente con cardiopatía estructural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheter Ablation , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/surgery , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Remission Induction , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 83(1): 40-44, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-685352

ABSTRACT

Mujer de 55 años trasladada al hospital luego de recuperarse de un episodio presincopal. El electrocardiograma mostró bradicardia sinusal con intervalo QT corregido de 840 mseg. Pocos minutos después la paciente presenta episodio de taquicardia ventricular polimórfica y posterior paro cardiorrespiratorio que requirió maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar avanzada que fueron efectivas. A la semana presentó cefalea intensa y convulsiones con movimientos de descerebración. La tomografía axial computarizada de cerebro mostró hemorragia subaracnoidea con hipertensión intracraneal que requirió craniectomía descompresiva. Durante la internación todos los electrocardiogramas evidenciaron el QT corregido prolongado, pero la paciente no presentó un nuevo evento arrítmico. La paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente requiriendo fármacos vasoactivos en dosis máximas. Falleció a los 13 días de su admisión.


A 55-yr-old woman was taken to the hospital after recovering from a presyncopal episode. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with QTc interval of 840 msec. Few minutes later, the patient developed a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and subsequent cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A week later she presented with severe headache, seizures and decerebrate movements. Cranial computed tomography scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracranial hypertension requiring decompressive craniectomy. On the follow- up the electrocardiograms always showed prolonged QTc interval, without any new arrhythmic event. The patient's clinical course was unfavorable and required maximum dose of vasoactive drugs. She died 13 days after admission.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Electrocardiography , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(3): 255-258, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657513

ABSTRACT

Durante el embarazo aumentan el metabolismo basal, el consumo de O2, la frecuencia cardíaca, el volumen sistólico, el volumen minuto y la volemia y disminuyen la tensión arterial y la resistencia periférica. Diferentes estudios han demostrado que durante este período la posibilidad de que ocurra una arritmia cardíaca o se produzca la exacerbación de una arritmia preexistente es mayor. No obstante, en su enorme mayoría carecen de importancia pronóstica tanto para la madre como para el feto. La taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho es una arritmia poco frecuente y su aparición se ha correlacionado con el aumento del tono adrenérgico. Se presentan los casos de dos pacientes que mostraron en el curso de la gestación reiterados episodios de taquicardia ventricular del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho. Se analiza la asociación del embarazo con la ocurrencia de trastornos del ritmo cardíaco.


During pregnancy, there is an increase in metabolism, oxygen consumption, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood volume and a decrease in blood pressure and peripheral resistance. Studies have shown that during this period the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is not uncommon. Fortunately, malignant arrhythmias are rare. Herein we report two young patients who presented with symptomatic right ventricular outflow tachycardia during pregnancy that required antiarrhythmic therapy. Possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/classification , Ventricular Function, Right
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 279-288, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154817

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that Purkinje potential and their preferential conduction to the left ventricle (LV) posteroseptum during sinus rhythm (SR) are part of reentrant circuits of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) and reentry anchors to papillary muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 patients with ILVT (11 men, mean age 31.5+/-11.1 years), we compared Purkinje potential and preferential conduction during SR with VT by non-contact mapping (NCM). If clear Purkinje potential(SR) was observed in the LV posteroseptum and the earliest activation site (EA) of preferential conduction at SR (EASR) was well matched with that of VT (EAVT), EASR was targeted for radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Also, the anatomical locations of successful ablation sites were evaluated by echocardiography in five additional patients. RESULTS: 1) All induced VTs exhibited clear Purkinje potential(VT) and preferential conduction in the LV posteroseptum. The Purkinje potential(VT) and EAVT was within 5.8+/-8.2 mm of EASR. However, the breakout sites of VT were separated by 30.2+/-12.6 mm from EAVT to the apical side. 2) Purkinje potential(SR) demonstrated a reversed polarity to Purkinje potential(VT), and the interval of Purkinje potential(SR)-QRS was longer than the interval of Purkinje potential(VT)-QRS (p<0.02) 3) RFCA targeting EASR eliminated VT in all patients without recurrence within 23.3+/-7.5 months, and the successful ablation site was discovered at the base of papillary muscle in the five additional (100%) patients. CONCLUSION: NCM-guided localization of EASR with Purkinje potential(SR) matches well with EAVT with Purkinje potential(VT) and provides an effective target for RFCA, potentially at the base of papillary muscle in patients with ILVT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Catheter Ablation , Electrophysiology , Female , Humans , Male , Purkinje Fibers/physiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Young Adult
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 96(2): 114-120, fev. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-579621

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A complexidade dos circuitos reentrantes relacionados às taquicardias ventriculares diminui os índices de sucesso dos procedimentos de ablação por radiofrequência. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o mapeamento epicárdico com múltiplos eletrodos realizado simultaneamente com o mapeamento endocárdico auxilia na ablação da taquicardia ventricular (TV) sustentada em pacientes com cardiopatia não isquêmica. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis pacientes com TV sustentada recorrente, sendo 22 (84,6 por cento) com cardiopatia chagásica crônica, dois (7,7 por cento) com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática e dois (7,7 por cento) portadores de displasia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, foram submetidos a mapeamento epicárdico com dois ou três microcateteres, com 8 eletrodos cada, simultaneamente ao mapeamento endocárdico convencional. Utilizou-se cateter com ponta de 4 mm para ablação com radiofrequência (RF) realizada durante a TV induzida. RESULTADOS: Das 33 TVs induzidas, 25 foram mapeadas e 20 tiveram sua origem definida. Onze com origem epicárdica e 9 endocárdica. A estimulação ventricular programada não induziu TV sustentada em 11 (42,0 por cento) dos 26 pacientes após a ablação. Eventos como recorrência da TV e morte ocorreram em 10,0 por cento dos pacientes submetidos à ablação com sucesso, e em 59,0 por cento dos insucessos, em seguimento ambulatorial médio de 357 ± 208 dias. CONCLUSÃO: Circuitos subepicárdicos são frequentes em pacientes com cardiopatia não isquêmica. O mapeamento epicárdico com múltiplos cateteres realizado simultaneamente com o mapeamento endocárdico contribui para a identificação destes circuitos em um mesmo procedimento.


BACKGROUND: The complexity of reentrant circuits related to ventricular tachycardias decreases the success rate of radiofrequency ablation procedures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the epicardial mapping with multiple electrodes carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping helps in ablation procedures of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic heart disease. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with recurrent sustained VT, of which 22 (84.6 percent) presenting chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, 2 (7.7 percent) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 2 with right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia (RVAD), were submitted to epicardial mapping with two or three microcatheters, with 8 electrodes each, simultaneously to the conventional endocardial mapping. A catheter with a 4-mm tip was used for the ablation by radiofrequency (RF) carried out during the induced VT. RESULTS: Of the 33 induced VT, 25 were mapped and 20 had their origin defined. Eleven had epicardial and 9 had endocardial origin. The programmed ventricular stimulation did not induce sustained VT in 11 (42.0 percent) of the 26 patients after the ablation. Events such as VT recurrence and death occurred in 10.0 percent of the patients submitted to successful ablation and in 59.0 percent of the unsuccessful cases, during a mean ambulatory follow-up of 357 ± 208 days. CONCLUSION: Subepicardial circuits are frequent in patients with nonischemic heart disease. The epicardial mapping with multiple catheters carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping contributes to the identification of these circuits in a same procedure.


FUNDAMENTO: La complejidad de los circuitos reentrantes relacionados a las taquicardias ventriculares disminuye los índices de éxito de los procedimientos de ablación por radiofrecuencia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si el mapeo epicárdico con múltiples electrodos realizado simultáneamente con el mapeo endocárdico ayuda en la ablación de la taquicardia ventricular (TV) sostenida en pacientes con cardiopatía no isquémica. MÉTODOS: Veinte y seis pacientes con TV sostenida recurrente, siendo 22 (84,6 por ciento) con cardiopatía chagásica crónica, dos (7,7 por ciento) con cardiomiopatía dilatada idiopática y dos (7,7 por ciento) portadores de displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho, fueron sometidos a mapeo epicárdico con dos o tres microcatéteres, con 8 electrodos cada uno, simultáneamente al mapeo endocárdico convencional. Se utilizó catéter con punta de 4 mm para ablación con radiofrecuencia (RF) realizada durante la TV inducida. RESULTADOS: De las 33 TVs inducidas, 25 fueron mapeadas y 20 tuvieron su origen definido. Once con origen epicárdica y 9 endocárdica. La estimulación ventricular programada no indujo TV sostenida en 11 (42,0 por ciento) de los 26 pacientes después de la ablación. Eventos como recurrencia de la TV y muerte ocurrieron en 10,0 por ciento de los pacientes sometidos a la ablación con éxito, y en 59,0 por ciento de los fracasos, en control ambulatorio medio de 357 ± 208 días. CONCLUSIÓN: Circuitos subepicárdicos son frecuentes en pacientes con cardiopatía no isquémica. El mapeo epicárdico con múltiples catéteres realizado simultáneamente con el mapeo endocárdico contribuye a la identificación de estos circuitos en un mismo procedimiento.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Endocardium/pathology , Epicardial Mapping/methods , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Catheter Ablation/methods , Epidemiologic Methods , Tachycardia, Ventricular/surgery
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL