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In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.377-382, tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352599
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 370-376, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345282


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive drugs have important role in transplant of solid grafts, it aim avoid episodes of acute and chronic rejection and improving graft survival and patient survival. In Brazil, in 2016, liver transplantation was the third most frequent, with 1,880 transplants performed, of which 150 in Rio Grande do Sul. Several studies evaluated the association between variability in blood levels of immunosuppressive tacrolimus and late acute cellular graft rejection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of tacrolimus blood levels with clinical outcomes late acute cellular rejection, death, patient survival and graft survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal study including patients submitted to adult liver transplantation by the Liver Transplantation Group in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital of Porto Alegre, from January 2006 to January 2013, and who used tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy. RESULTS: Of the 127 patients included in the study, the majority were male (70.1%), 52-60 years old (33.9%) at the transplant. The most frequent causes of liver transplantation in this series were hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma (24.4%) and alcohol (15.7%). Thirteen patients had late acute cellular rejection (10.2%); of these, three had two episodes. Regarding severity classification, seven patients had mild late acute cellular rejection. The mean time of rejection after liver transplantation was 14 months (ranging from 8 to 33 months). Overall survival was 8.98 years. Regarding tacrolimus blood levels, 52 patients with a variation ≥2 standard deviations were identified. Of these patients, eight had rejection; however, the association was not significant (P=0.146). A significant association was found between variation ≥2 standard deviations in tacrolimus blood levels and death (P=0.023) and survival (P=0.019). Regarding 5-year follow-up of graft survival, being two standard deviations above increases by 2.26 times the risk of transplanted graft loss, and for each unit of increase of standard deviation of tacrolimus blood levels there is a two-fold increase in the risk of graft loss in 5 years. CONCLUSION: Increased risk of graft loss associated with increased standard deviations of tacrolimus blood levels may indicate the need for more rigorous and prospective monitoring of tacrolimus blood levels.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os imunossupressores desempenham importante papel no transplante de órgãos sólidos, com o objetivo de evitar a rejeição aguda e crônica, aumentando o tempo de sobrevida do órgão e do paciente. No Brasil, em 2016, o transplante de fígado foi o 3° mais frequente, com um número de 1.880 transplantes, sendo 150 realizados no Rio Grande do Sul. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com os desfechos clínicos, rejeição celular aguda tardia, óbito, sobrevida de paciente e enxerto em pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, no qual foram incluídos os pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático adulto pelo grupo de transplante hepático na Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, e que fizeram o uso de tacrolimo como terapia imunossupressora. RESULTADOS: Dos 127 pacientes incluídos no estudo, a maioria era do gênero masculino (70,1%), caucasiana (86,4%), com idade entre 52 e 60 anos (33,9%). As associações de causas mais frequentes para transplante hepático foram vírus da hepatite C, carcinoma hepatocelular (24,4%) e álcool (15,7%). Um total de treze pacientes apresentaram rejeição celular aguda tardia (10,2%); destes, três tiveram dois episódios. O tempo médio de rejeição após o transplante hepático foi de 14 meses, variando de 8 a 33 meses. A sobrevida global foi de 8,98 anos. Em relação aos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo, foram identificados 52 pacientes com uma variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão. Destes pacientes, oito tiveram rejeição, contudo, a associação não foi significativa (P=0,146). Foi encontrada uma associação significativa entre a variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão nos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com óbito (P=0,023) e sobrevida (P=0,019). Em relação ao acompanhamento de sobrevida do enxerto em cinco anos, estar dois desvios-padrão acima aumenta em 2,26 vezes o risco de perda do enxerto transplantado, e a cada unidade de aumento de desvio-padrão dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo há um aumento de duas vezes no risco de perda do enxerto transplantado em 5 anos. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do risco da perda do enxerto associado ao aumento da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo pode indicar a necessidade do acompanhamento mais rigoroso e prospectivo dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Liver Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 429-435, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285101


Abstract Background: Tacrolimus is used to prevent unaesthetic scars due to its action on fibroblast activity and collagen production modulation. Objectives: To evaluate the action pathways, from the histopathological point of view and in cytokine control, of tacrolimus ointment in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. Methods: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of two 1-cm fragments in each ear, including the perichondrium. The right ear received 0.1% and 0.03% tacrolimus in ointment base twice a day in the upper wound and in the lower wound respectively. The left ear, used as the control, was treated with petrolatum. After 30 days, collagen fibers were evaluated using special staining, and immunohistochemistry analyses for smooth muscle actin, TGF-β and VEGF were performed. Results: The wounds treated with 0.1% tacrolimus showed weak labeling and a lower percentage of labeling for smooth muscle actin, a higher proportion of mucin absence, weak staining, fine and organized fibers for Gomori's Trichrome, strong staining and organized fibers for Verhoeff when compared to controls. The wounds treated with 0.03% tacrolimus showed weak labeling for smooth muscle actin, a higher proportion of mucin absence, strong staining for Verhoeff when compared to the controls. There was absence of TGF-β and low VEGF expression. Study limitations: The analysis was performed by a single pathologist. Second-harmonic imaging microscopy was performed in 2 sample areas of the scar. Conclusions: Both drug concentrations were effective in suppressing TGF-β and smooth muscle actin, reducing mucin, improving the quality of collagen fibers, and the density of elastic fibers, but only the higher concentration influenced elastic fiber organization.

Animals , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Ointment Bases , Rabbits , Wound Healing , Tacrolimus , Ear/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 77-81, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248994


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressive drugs after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), in addition to other comorbidities of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the time after use immunosuppressive drugs the patient progresses to SAH, as well as to identify its prevalence and the factors that may be correlated to it. METHODS: A retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted, based on the analysis of medical records of 72 normotensive patients, attended in the transplant unit of a university hospital, between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: It was observed, on average, 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive use, the patients were diagnosed with hypertension, and the prevalence of transplanted patients who evolved to SAH in this study was 59.64% (41 patients). In addition, there was a correlation between serum dosage of tacrolimus and the development of SAH (P=0.0067), which shows that tacrolimus has a significant role in the development of SAH. Finally, it was noticed that the development of post-transplantation hypertension indicates a higher risk of the patient presenting the other parameters of metabolic syndrome, as well as a higher impairment in its renal function (P=0.0061). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the patients evolved to SAH in an average of 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive drug use. We have also found high prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (59.64%) in patients after liver transplantation, who used calcineurin inhibitors, especially when associated with the use of tacrolimus.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O uso de imunossupressores pós-transplante de fígado (TF) está associado ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), além de outras alterações da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVO: Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a partir de quando tempo após o uso do imunossupressor o paciente evolui para HAS, assim como, identificar a sua prevalência e outros fatores que podem estar relacionados, como injuria renal. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, baseado em análise de 72 prontuários de pacientes, atendidos na unidade de transplante de um hospital universitário, que não apresentavam hipertensão arterial prévia, entre período de 2016 a 2019. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que, em média, 9±6,98 meses após uso do imunossupressor, os pacientes foram diagnosticados com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, sendo que a prevalência de pacientes transplantados que evoluíram para HAS, neste estudo, foi de 59,64% (41 pacientes). Além disso, verificou-se uma correlação entre a dosagem sérica de tacrolimus e o desenvolvimento de HAS (P=0,0067), o que evidencia que o tacrolimus tem uma atuação significativa no desenvolvimento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Por fim, percebeu-se que o desenvolvimento de HAS pós-transplante indica um maior risco de paciente apresentar os outros parâmetros da síndrome metabólica, como também maior prejuízo na sua função renal (P=0,0061). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra que os pacientes evoluíram para HAS em média 9±6,98 meses após o início do uso do imunossupressor. Verificou-se também alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (59,64%) em pacientes pós-transplante de fígado, que usavam inibidores de calcineurina, principalmente, quando associado ao uso de tacrolimus.

Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypertension , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879966


To investigate the postoperative serum triglyceride (TG) levels in predicting the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients following allogeneic liver transplantation. One hundred and forty three patients undergoing allogeneic liver transplantation in Shanghai General Hospital from July 2007 to July 2014 were enrolled in this study. The NODM developed in 33 patients after liver transplantation. The curve of dynamic TG levels in the early period after liver transplantation was generated. Independent risk factors of NODM were determined by univariate and multivariant logistic regression analyses. The clinical value of TG in predicting NODM was analyzed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Serum TG levels were gradually rising in the first week and then reached the plateau phase (stable TG, sTG) in patients after surgery. The sTG in NODM group were significantly higher than that in non-NODM group (=-2.31, <0.05). Glucocorticoid therapy (=4.054, <0.01), FK506 drug concentration in the first week after operation (=3.482, <0.05) and sTG (=3.156, <0.05) were independent risk factors of NODM. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC of sTG in predicting NODM was 0.72. TG shows a gradual recovery process in the early period after liver transplantation, and the higher TG level in stable phase may significantly increase the risk of NODM in patients.

China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Triglycerides
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0015, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288631


ABSTRACT The authors present a case of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , a rare skin disease of unknown etiology, which may cause unaesthetic scarring due to its difficult treatment. The histopathological examination of epithelioid granulomas with caseating necrosis, together with the clinical features, are important for diagnosis and early treatment with better results. Despite difficult and unsatisfactory treatment, there are ongoing studies on therapy to improve aesthetic and social impairment. This case report describes an initial misdiagnosis delaying appropriate treatment, and highlights the value of physical examination and clinical judgment for another pathological examination, whenever necessary, aiming at better treatment outcomes in daily practice.

RESUMO Os autores apresentam um caso de lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , uma dermatose rara, de etiologia desconhecida, que pode deixar cicatrizes não estéticas, pela dificuldade de tratamento. O exame histopatológico de granulomas compostos por células epitelioides, com necrose caseosa, e as características clínicas, são importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento precoce, com melhores resultados. Apesar do tratamento difícil e insatisfatório, há estudos em andamento sobre terapias para melhorar o comprometimento estético e social. Este relato de caso descreve um diagnóstico inicial errôneo, que atrasou o tratamento adequado, e destaca o valor do exame físico e raciocínio clínico para solicitar outro exame anatomopatológico, quando necessário, de forma a obter melhores desfechos com o tratamento, na prática diária.

Humans , Female , Adult , Eyelid Diseases/pathology , Eyelid Diseases/drug therapy , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Facial Dermatoses/drug therapy , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Cicatrix , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Rosacea/pathology , Rosacea/drug therapy , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Granuloma/pathology , Granuloma/drug therapy , Lupus Vulgaris/pathology , Lupus Vulgaris/drug therapy , Minocycline/therapeutic use
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 220-231, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353228


El uso de inhibidores de calcineurina, en particular de tacrolimus como terapia inmunosupresora se ha generalizado a nivel mundial, permitiendo mejorar la tasa de sobrevida del injerto y la calidad de vida del paciente trasplantado. Con el acceso a los estudios de farmacogenética, los grupos de trasplante a nivel mundial se han visto motivados a realizar estudios genéticos que permitan interpretar la influencia de polimorfismos de genes como mTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, y FOXP3, sin embargo, los más estudiados en la población trasplantada para optimizar la dosis de tacrolimus y ciclosporina son los polimorfismos del citocromo p450, CYP3A4 y CYP3A5.El objetivo de la presente revisión narrativa es examinar publicaciones recientes que estudien la relación entre el polimorfismo de CYP3A4/5 y el metabolismo de tacrolimus en pacientes trasplantados renales.Se revisó literatura reciente extraída de los sitios NCBI PubMed y en la que se hubiera investigado la influencia de los polimorfismos de CYP3A4/5 en el metabolismo de tacrolimus en trasplantados renales. Se identificó variaciones genéticas de CYP3A4/5 en pacientes trasplantados tratados con tacrolimus que permitirán a los médicos trasplantólogos dosificar de manera precisa el inmunosupresor. El uso de análisis farmacogenéticos permite determinar las variables genéticas del CYP3A4/5, y por lo tanto la toma de decisiones personalizadas en la dosis de inicio y de mantenimiento del inmunosupresor tacrolimus para alcanzar los niveles óptimos y con ello disminuir el riesgo de rechazo, de infecciones asociadas a inmunosupresión, y de toxicidad por el medicamento.

The use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy, has become widespread world-wide, improving the graft's survival rate and the quality of life of the transplanted patient. With access to pharmacogenetic studies, transplant groups worldwide have been motivated to conduct genetic studies to inter-pret the influence of polymorphisms of genes such asmTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, and FOXP3, however the most studied in the transplanted population to optimize the dose of tacrolimus and cyclosporine are those of cytochrome p450,CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The objective of this narrative review is to examine recent publications studying the relationship betweenCYP3A4/5polymorphism, and tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplant patients. Literature extracted from the NCBI PubMed site and, from the past five years, which investigated the influence ofCYP3A4/5polymorphism on tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplants had been reviewed. Genetic variations ofCYP3A4/5 were identified in transplant patients treated with tacrolimus that will allow transplant physicians to dose the immunosuppressant accurately. The use of pharmacogenetic analyses makes it possible to determine the genetic polymorphisms ofCYP3A4/5, and therefore the decision-making cus-tomized at the starting and maintenance dose of the tacrolimus immunosuppressant to achieve optimal levels and thereby reduce the risk of rejection, immunosuppression-associated infections, and drug toxicity.

Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Kidney Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/drug effects , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Prescription Drugs/toxicity , Calcineurin Inhibitors
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6177, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345972


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with complete response of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease to immunosuppressive treatment. Methods A total of 29 patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, were enrolled in this retrospective study, from September 2012 to February 2018. Patients were treated with combined topical dexamethasone solution and topical tacrolimus ointment, combined topical dexamethasone and topical tacrolimus, systemic immunosuppressive medication, and topical dexamethasone only. Results The mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema, and ulcers using dexamethasone and systemic immunosuppressive medication was of 105, 42 and 42 days, respectively (p=0.013).When we associated dexamethasone, tacrolimus and systemic immunosuppressive medication, the mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema and ulcers was of 91,84 and 77 days (p=0.011). When dexamethasone was used alone, the mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema and ulcers was 182, 140, 21 days, respectively (p=0.042). Conclusion Our study shows that lichenoid lesions require more time to heal. Notably, lichenoid lesions tend to respond better to dexamethasone combined with tacrolimus and systemic immunosuppressive medication, whereas erythema and ulcers respond better to dexamethasone combined with systemic immunosuppressive medication and dexamethasone only, respectively.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os pacientes com resposta completa da doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro crônica oral ao tratamento com imunossupressor. Métodos Vinte e nove pacientes submetidos ao transplante alogênico de células tronco hematopoiéticas, com doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro crônica oral, foram incluídos neste estudo retrospectivo, de setembro de 2012 a fevereiro de 2018. Os pacientes foram tratados com dexametasona para bochecho associada ao tacrolimo pomada, dexametasona para bochecho associada ao tacrolimo tópico, tratamento imunossupressor sistêmico, e dexametasona tópica apenas. Resultados O tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenoides, eritema e ulcerações usando dexametasona e imunossupressor sistêmico foi de 105, 42 e 42 dias, respectivamente (p=0,013). Quando a dexametasona estava associada ao tacrolimo e a medicação imunossupressora sistêmica, o tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenóides, eritema e ulcerações foi de 91, 84 e 77 dias (p=0,011). Quando foi utilizada apenas dexametasona, o tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenoides, eritema e ulcerações foi de 182, 140 e 21 dias, respectivamente (p=0,042). Conclusão Nosso estudo mostra que as lesões liquenoides requerem mais tempo para cicatrização completa. É notável que as lesões liquenoides tendem a responder melhor ao tratamento da dexametasona combinada com o tacrolimo e o imunossupressor sistêmico. Já o eritema e as ulcerações respondem melhor à dexametasona combinada com medicação imunossupressora sistêmica, e dexametasona apenas, respectivamente.

Humans , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Mouth Diseases , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Immunosuppressive Agents
Clinics ; 76: e2597, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153997


A combination of immunosuppressants may improve outcomes due to the synergistic effect of their different action mechanisms. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best immunosuppressive protocol after liver transplantation. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eight randomized trials were included. The proportion of patients with at least one adverse event related to the immunosuppression scheme with tacrolimus associated with MMF was 39.9%. The tacrolimus with MMF immunosuppression regimen was superior in preventing acute cellular rejection compared with that of tacrolimus alone (risk difference [RD]=-0.11; p =0.001). The tacrolimus plus MMF regimen showed no difference in the risk of adverse events compared to that of tacrolimus alone (RD=0.7; p=0.66) and cyclosporine plus MMF (RD=-0.7; p=0.37). Patients undergoing liver transplantation who received tacrolimus plus MMF had similar adverse events when compared to patients receiving other evaluated immunosuppressive regimens and had a lower risk of acute rejection than those receiving in the monodrug tacrolimus regimen.

Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunosuppression , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e9369, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153534


Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor, and everolimus (EVL), an mTOR inhibitor, have been used as immunosuppressive (ISS) drugs in post-kidney transplantation therapy. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of EVL vs TAC in the ISS maintenance triple therapy. Ninety-seven kidney transplant patients, who received triple maintenance therapy with TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and methyl prednisone (PRED), were evaluated. After four months of post-kidney transplant therapy, 30 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial, in which 16 patients received TAC+MMF+PRED (cohort 1), and 14 patients switched to EVL+MMF+PRED (cohort 2). The patients were followed-up for 36 months. Two patients from cohort 1 lost their grafts after one year due to non-adherence. Two patients from cohort 2 had intolerance to mTOR inhibitors and were switched back to TAC from EVL. One case (6.25%) in cohort 1 and three cases (21.43%) in cohort 2 of acute T-cell-mediated rejection was observed. Antibody-mediated acute rejection (ABMAR) was observed in four patients (25.0%) in cohort 1, and antibody-mediated chronic rejection (ABMCR) was observed in two patients (12.50%). One patient from cohort 2 lost the graft after 15 months due to polyomavirus infection. The graft survival rate was 87.50% in cohort 1 and 92.86% in cohort 2. This clinical trial showed that the EVL+MMF+PRED triple maintenance therapy was efficacious compared with TAC during 32 months of follow-up. However, further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this regimen for long-term graft survival.

Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Brasília; s.n; 11 ago. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117979


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 5 protocolos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 429-435, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127082


Background The use of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressant in solid organ transplantation is controversial. Most experiences switching to these drugs have short term follow-up periods, analyze only pharmacokinetic issues and do not systematically include either complications or cost analyses. Aim To analyze the costs and benefits of switching our kidney transplant recipients from innovative tacrolimus to a generic version of the drug. Material and Methods Fifty-seven stable transplant recipients were switched from innovative tacrolimus to a generic version of the drug, maintaining the same dose. They were followed for eight months recording all events during such period. Results We observed two infectious episodes, five allograft biopsies were performed and two patients had acute rejections. Conclusions From the payer's perspective, if all the costs associated with the change to generic tacrolimus are considered, savings related to a lower cost of the drug translate in a real financial loss for the public health system. The analysis also showed that frequent switches, even from one generic drug to a cheaper one is an even worse strategy to save money.

Humans , Transplant Recipients , Tacrolimus , Drugs, Generic , Cost Savings , Graft Rejection , Immunosuppressive Agents
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828637


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in the treatment of children with myasthenia gravis (MG).@*METHODS@#A total of 28 children with MG were treated with tacrolimus. MG-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) scale was used to assess clinical outcome and safety after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment.@*RESULTS@#After tacrolimus treatment, the MG-ADL score at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months was lower than that at baseline (P<0.05), and the MG-ADL score showed a gradually decreasing trend. The response rates to tacrolimus treatment at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 59%, 81%, 84%, 88%, and 88% respectively. At 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of treatment, 4, 13, 14, and 15 children respectively were withdrawn from prednisone. No recurrence was observed during treatment. Major adverse reactions/events were asymptomatic reduction in blood magnesium in 5 children and positive urine occult blood in 1 child, which turned negative without special treatment, and tacrolimus was not stopped due to such adverse reactions/events. One child was withdrawn from tacrolimus due to recurrent vomiting. According to CYP3A5 genotypes, all of the patients were divided into two groups: slow metabolic type (n=19) and non-slow metabolic type (fast metabolic type + intermediate type; n=9). The non-slow metabolism group received a higher dose of tacrolimus, but had a lower trough concentration of tacrolimus than the slow metabolism group (P<0.05). The slow metabolism group had a higher response rates to tacrolimus treatment than the non-slow metabolism group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Tacrolimus appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of children with MG and is thus an option for immunosuppressive therapy. CYP3A5 genotyping has a certain guiding significance for determining the dosage of tacrolimus.

Activities of Daily Living , Child , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Myasthenia Gravis , Drug Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Tacrolimus , Therapeutic Uses
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202384, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136578


RESUMO Os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 têm sido apontados enquanto fatores influenciadores na eficácia farmacológica com tacrolimo em pacientes em terapia imunossupressora no pós-transplante hepático. O presente estudo objetiva realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca da influência dos polimorfismos genéticos do citocromo P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) na eficácia terapêutica com tacrolimo em indivíduos pós-transplante hepático. Revisão da literatura. Foi utilizada a combinação dos descritores "tacrolimo", "transplante de fígado", "inibidores do citocromo P-450 CYP3A" e "polimorfismo genético", nas bases de dados: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus e Scielo, sendo avaliados apenas estudos publicados entre 2009 e 2019 em inglês, português ou espanhol. Ao todo foi feita a sumarização de seis estudos, cada um avaliando uma diferente população. Inicialmente, foram abordados os aspectos farmacológicos do tacrolimo, incluindo detalhes sobre sua farmacodinâmica, farmacocinética e toxicidade. Na seção seguinte, foi realizada a avaliação de estudos que tratam da relação entre os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 e a eficácia farmacológica com o tacrolimo, incluindo as especificações étnicas e as limitações gerais dos estudos. Os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 têm apontado para alterações no metabolismo do tacrolimo de acordo com um recorte étnico e populacional, com destaque para os alelos *1 e *3*3, refletindo na necessidade de ajuste de dose ou até mesmo nas taxas de rejeição do órgão.

ABSTRACT Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 have been pointed out as factors that influenciates tacrolimus immunosuppressive efficacy in post liver transplant patients. This study aims to review the literature on the influence of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) genetic polymorphisms of tacrolimus in post-liver transplant patients. This study is a literature review. A combination of the descriptors "tacrolimus", "liver transplant", "cytochrome P-450 CYP3A inhibitors" and "genetic polymorphism" were used in the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Scielo, being evaluated only studies between 2009 and 2019 in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total of six studies, each from a different population were summarized. Initially, the pharmacological aspects of tacrolimus were discussed, including details on its pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicity After that, we analyzed the studies that correlates CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms and tacrolimus efficacy, including the ethnical specifications and the general limittions of the studies. The CYP3A5 polymorphisms have pointed to alterations in the metabolism of tacrolimus according to the ethnic and populational genotype, specially the *1 and *3*3 alleles, reflecting in the need for dose adjustment and also in post liver transplant rejection.

Humans , Liver Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Immunosuppressive Agents
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1551, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152634


ABSTRACT Background: Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressive agents widely used on the postoperative period of the transplants. Aim: To evaluate the influence of the association of them on the abdominal wall healing in rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned in three groups of 12. On the early postoperative period, four of the control group and three of the experimental groups died. The three groups were nominated as follow: control group (GC, n=8); group I (GI, n=11, standard operation, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus); group II (GII, n=10, standard operation, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus). The standard operation consisted of right total nephrectomy and 20 min ischemia of the left kidney followed by reperfusion. Both NaCl 0.9% and the immunosuppressive agents were administered starting on the first postoperative day and continuing daily until the day of death on the 14th day. On the day of their deaths, two strips of the anterior abdominal wall were collected and submitted to breaking strength measurement and histological examination. Results: There were no significant differences in wound infection rates (p=0,175), in the breaking strength measurement and in the histological examination among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of the immunosuppressive agents used in the study associated with renal ischemia and reperfusion does not interfere in the abdominal wall healing of rats.

RESUMO Racional: O tacrolimus e o micofenolato mofetil são imunossupressores amplamente utilizados no pós-operatório dos transplantes de órgãos. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos deles sobre a cicatrização da parede abdominal em ratos. Métodos: Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 12. No pós-operatório imediato, quatro do grupo controle e três do grupo experimentação morreram. Os três grupos receberam as seguintes denominações: grupo controle (GC, n=8); grupo I (GI, n=11, operação-padrão, micofenolato mofetil e tacrolimus); grupo II (GII, n=10, operação-padrão, micofenolato mofetil e tacrolimus). A operação-padrão consistiu de nefrectomia total à direita, isquemia durante 20 min seguida de reperfusão do rim esquerdo. Solução de NaCl 0,9% e micofenolato mofetil + tracolimus foram administradas a partir do 1° dia do pós-operatório e mantidas até o dia do sacrifício dos animais, no 14° dia. Na data do sacrifício, foram retirados dois fragmentos da parede abdominal para análise da resistência à ruptura e exame histológico. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no índice de infecção de ferida operatória (p=0,175), nos valores de resistência de ruptura e nos achados histopatológicos entre os três grupos de animais. Conclusão: Os esquemas de imunossupressão empregados associados ao fenômeno da isquemia-reperfusão renal não induzem fraqueza significativa da cicatriz da parede abdominal em ratos no 14° dia de pós-operatório.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Mycophenolic Acid/pharmacology , Reperfusion , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Ischemia , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage
Clinics ; 75: e1820, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133440


OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to compare the clinical effects of mycophenolate mofetil combined with either tacrolimus or with cyclophosphamide on lupus nephritis (LN) and to analyze their influence on the expression of cystatin C and on transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1). METHODS: A total of 234 patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A, for mycophenolate mofetil combined with tacrolimus (n=117) and group B, for mycophenolate mofetil combined with cyclophosphamide (n=117). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adopted to detect the expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C before and after treatment. RESULTS: The total effectiveness rate in group A was much higher than that in group B. The times of effectiveness and effect validity in group A were much lower than those in group B. The expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C decreased slightly after treatment in the two groups, and those of group A were much lower than those of group B. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus showed better clinical efficacy on LN and was safer than that of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide. Moreover, the drug combination of mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus greatly reduced the expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C.

Humans , Lupus Nephritis/drug therapy , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 576-581, oct 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046621


This work is aimed at studying the problems of timely diagnostics and therapy of various forms of rosacea, identifying the factors that influence the compliance, prognosis, and quality of life of the patients, as well as the stages of combination therapy. The efficiency of rosacea therapy is determined by the timely identification of patients, as well as the clinical variety of the disease. Complex therapy of rosacea includes identification of the precipitating factors, basic skincare, and the use of systemic and local pathogenetic preparations. The "Gold Standard" of topical rosacea therapy is the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal drug called metronidazole. An important role in disease therapy is played by active cooperation between the doctor and the patient. Comprehensiveness, timeliness, and rationality of rosacea therapy are defined not only by the mechanisms of the disease development but also by aggravating factors, the need for basic care and photosensitivity of the patients

Photosensitivity Disorders , Retinoids/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Patient Compliance , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Rosacea/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001151


Abstract BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus, for its activity on modulation of collagen production and fibroblast activity, may have a role in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate macroscopic, microscopic, metabolic, laboratory effects and side effects of the use of topical tacrolimus ointment, in different concentrations, in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. METHODS: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of 2 fragments of 1 cm of each ear, 4 cm apart, down to cartilage. The left ear of the animals was standardized as control and Vaseline applied twice a day. The right ear received tacrolimus ointment, at concentrations of 0.1% on the upper wound and 0.03% on the lower wound, also applied twice a day. Macroscopic, microscopic, laboratory criteria and the animals' weight were evaluated after 30 days of the experiment. RESULTS: Wounds treated with tacrolimus, at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.03%, when compared to control, showed a lower average degree of thickening (p = 0.048 and p <0.001, respectively). The average of scar thickness and lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil concentrations are lower in the treated wounds compared to the control (p <0.001, p=0.022, p=0.007, p=0.044, respectively). The mean concentration of lymphocytes is lower in wounds treated with a higher concentration of the drug (p=0.01). STUDY LIMITATIONS: experiment lasted only 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus at the 2 concentrations evaluated reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and positively altered the macroscopic aspect of the scar in the short term. Its use was shown to be safe, with no evidence of systemic or local adverse effects.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ointments , Urea/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Serum Albumin/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Lymphocyte Count , Creatinine/blood , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ear, External/pathology , Erythema/pathology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 119-123, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989390


ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the compliance, efficacy, and safety of the long-term use of topical tacrolimus for the clinical management of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Methods: The medical records of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis undergoing long-term treatment with 0.03% topical tacrolimus were retrospectively reviewed. The duration of tacrolimus use and the causes for drug discontinuation were used to assess treatment compliance. To assess drug efficacy, the need for and the number of times that topical corticosteroids were used to control symptoms were registered. Side effects related to tacrolimus use were monitored to determine drug safety. Results: The study cohort consisted of 21 patients who met the eligibility criteria. The mean duration of tacrolimus use was 41.3 ± 18.5 months. Fourteen patients (66.7%) continuously used tacrolimus, and three (14.3%) discontinued treatment following complete remission. Four patients (19%) did not use tacrolimus as prescribed or interrupted tacrolimus use on their own: two (9.5%) because of discomfort upon application and two (9.5%) because of the lack of improvement. Ten patients (47.6%) maintained disease control without the use of corticosteroids, whereas 11 (52.4%) required an average of 2.70 ± 1.35 corticosteroid cycles to control symptoms. The only reported side effect was discomfort upon application. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size and study design limitations, these results support the long-term use of topical tacrolimus as an effective and safe option for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, with good compliance of patients to the treatment.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a aderência, a eficácia e segurança do uso prolongado de tacrolimus tópico no controle clínico da ceratoconjuntivite vernal. Métodos: Um estudo retrospectivo foi desenvolvido através da análise de prontuários de pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite vernal em tratamento prolongado com tacrolimus tópico 0,03%. A duração do tempo de uso do ta­crolimus e as causas de descontinuação da medicação foram usadas para avaliar a adesão ao tratamento. Para avaliar a eficácia da droga, a necessidade e o número de vezes em que corticoides tópicos foram utilizados para controlar os sintomas foram registrados. Os efeitos colaterais relacionados ao uso do tacrolimus foram monitorados para determinar a segurança da droga. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes preencheram os critérios de eleição e foram incluídos no estudo. A duração média do uso de tacrolimus foi de 41,3 ± 18,5 meses. Quatorze pacientes (66,7%) usaram continuamente o tacrolimus e 3 (14,3%) descontinuaram o tratamento após a remissão completa. Quatro pacientes (19%) não usaram o tacrolimus conforme prescrito ou interromperam o uso da droga isoladamente: 2 (9,5%) por desconforto na aplicação e 2 (9,5%) pela falta de melhora. Dez pacientes (47,6%) mantiveram a doença sob controle sem o uso de corticoides, enquanto 11 (52,4%) necessitaram em média 2,70 ± 1,35 ciclos corticoides para controle dos sintomas. O único efeito adverso relatado foi desconforto na aplicação. Conclusões: Apesar do pequeno tamanho da amostra e das limitações do desenho do estudo, esses resultados suportam o uso prolongado do tacrolimus tópico como opção eficaz e segura para o tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite vernal, com boa adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Administration, Ophthalmic , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Ointments/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence