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1.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373277

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Entre os cânceres de mama, aproximadamente 75% das mulheres são receptores hormonais positivos, sendo estas mais propensas a responderem à hormonioterapia com anastrozol e tamoxifeno. Apesar de eficazes, apresentam taxas significativas de não adesão. Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão à terapia hormonal adjuvante com tamoxifeno e anastrozol em pacientes atendidos nos Ambulatórios da Mastologia e de Quimioterapia do Hospital São Paulo entre os anos de 2019 e 2020. Método: Estudo transversal com 102 mulheres, realizado entre os meses de setembro de 2019 e março de 2020. A adesão à terapia hormonal adjuvante foi avaliada utilizando-se as escalas Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4) e Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale of 12 items (ARMS-12). Resultados: A média de idade foi de 61,5 anos (59,3-63,6). Entre as pacientes, 27,7% faziam uso de tamoxifeno e 72,3% de anastrozol. Relataram desconforto em relação ao uso do medicamento 84,4%, sendo as ondas de calor (42,2%) e as dores articulares (55,9%) os mais frequentes. A escala de ARMS>12 foi pontuada por 79,2%; cerca de 90% das mulheres pontuaram a MMAS-4 até dois pontos, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os tipos de hormônios utilizados para escalas de adesão (p=0,815 e p=0,489). Conclusão: A adesão à hormonioterapia observada foi relativamente baixa, independentemente da endocrinoterapia, podendo essas pacientes estarem em risco de inadequação quanto à resposta clínica


Introduction: Among breast cancers, approximately 75% of women are hormone receptors-positive, and these are more likely to respond to hormone therapy with anastrozole and tamoxifen. Although effective, they have significant rates of non-adherence. Objective: To evaluate adherence to adjuvant hormone therapy with tamoxifen and anastrozole in patients consulted at the Mastology and Chemotherapy Outpatient Clinic of Hospital São Paulo between 2019 and 2020. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 102 women between September 2019 and March 2020. Adherence to hormone therapy was evaluated using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4) and Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale of 12 items (ARMS-12). Results: The mean age was 61.5 years (59.3-63.6). Among the patients, 27.7% used tamoxifen and 72.3%, anastrozole. 84.4% of them reported discomfort in using the medication, the most frequent were hot flashes (42.2%) and joint pain (55.9%). 79.2% scored the ARMS>12 scale, about 90% of the women scored MMAS-4 up to 2 points, but there was no significant difference between the types of hormones used for adhesion scales (p=0.815 to p=0.489). Conclusion: Adherence to hormone therapy was relatively low, regardless of the hormone used, and these patients may be at risk of inadequate clinical response


Introducción: Entre los cánceres de mama, aproximadamente el 75% de las mujeres son receptores hormonales positivos, y estas son más propensas a responder a la terapia hormonal con anastrozol y tamoxifeno. Aunque son eficaces, tienen tasas significativas de no adherencia. Objetivo: Evaluar la adhesión a la terapia hormonal adyuvante con tamoxifeno y anastrozol en pacientes atendidas en las Clínicas Ambulatorias de Mastología y Quimioterapia del Hospital São Paulo entre 2019 y 2020. Método: Este es un estudio transversal realizado con 102 mujeres entre septiembre de 2019 y marzo de 2020. La terapia hormonal adjunta se evaluó utilizando las escalas Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4) e Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale of 12 items (ARMS-12). Resultados: La edad media fue de 61,5 años (59,3-63,6). Entre las pacientes, el 27,7% utilizaron tamoxifeno y el 72,3% anastrozol. El 84,4% de ellas reportaron molestias en relación con el uso del medicamento, siendo los más frecuentes los sofocos (42,2%) y el dolor articular (55,9%). 79,2% puntuaron la escala ARMS>12, alrededor del 90% de las mujeres obtuvieron MMAS-4 hasta dos puntos, pero no hubo diferencia significativa entre los tipos de hormonas utilizadas para escalas de adhesión (p=0,815 a p=0,489). Conclusión: La adherencia de la terapia hormonal observada fue relativamente baja, independientemente de la hormona utilizada, y estas mujeres pueden estar en riesgo de respuesta clínica inadecuada


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence , Anastrozole/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 499-513, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254342

ABSTRACT

La ginecomastia, definida como el crecimiento del tejido glandular mamario en los hombres, aparece desde la etapa neonatal hasta la senil, puede ser unilateral o bilateral, y es de causa multifactorial, incluyendo aquellos pacientes asociados al uso de medicamentos, donde predomina un desbalance en la relación testosterona­estrógeno. Relativamente, la idiopática es la más frecuente. La mayoría involucionan espontáneamente, las neonatales por perdida del influjo transplacentario en las primeras semanas, y las puberales entre 12 a 24 meses. Se presenta como un aumento del tamaño mamario, asintomático o con hipersensibilidad por inflamación durante el crecimiento del tejido fibroglandular mamario, con una repercusión psicológica enorme, sobre todo en la etapa de la adolescencia. El estudio y manejo es interdisciplinario y se ofrece de acuerdo con las condiciones y la etiología. Aquellos pacientes púberes en quienes no involuciona reciben tratamientos médicos, o tratamientos quirúrgicos cuando falla la terapéutica o hay presión social, e incluso radioterapia en casos donde desarrollan ginecomastia con hipersensibilidad al tratamiento hormonal del cáncer de próstata


Gynecomastia, defined as the growth of breast glandular tissue in men, appears from the neonatal to senile stage, can be unilateral or bilateral, and is of multifactorial cause, including those patients associated with the use of medications, where an imbalance in the testosterone ­ estrogen ratio. Relatively, idiopathic is the most common. Most regress spontaneously, neonatals due to loss of transplacental influx in the first weeks, and pubertal ones between 12 to 24 months. It presents as an increase in breast size, asymptomatic or with hypersensitivity due to inflammation during the growth of the mammary fibroglandular tissue, with an enormous psychological repercussion, especially in adolescence. The study and management is interdisciplinary and offered according to conditions and etiology. Those pubertal patients in whom it does not regress receive medical treatments, or surgical treatments when therapy fails or there is social pressure, and even radiotherapy in cases where they develop gynecomastia with hypersensitivity to hormonal treatment of prostate cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , General Surgery , Gynecomastia , Tamoxifen , Mastectomy, Simple , Mastectomy, Subcutaneous , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 185-189, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251295

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of the present study was to analyze the reasons that led to hormone therapies (HTs) regimen changes in women with breast cancer. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study from a single-institution Brazilian cancer center with patient records diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and January 2017. Results From 1,555 women who were in treatment with HT, 213 (13.7%) women had HT switched, either tamoxifen to anastrozole or vice-versa. Most women included in the present study who switched HT were > 50 years old, postmenopausal, Caucasian, and had at least one comorbidity. From the group with therapy change, 'disease progression' was reason of change in 124 (58.2%) cases, and in 65 (30.5%) patients, 'presence of side effects' was the reason. From those women who suffered with side effects, 24 (36.9%) had comorbidities. Conclusion The present study demonstrated a low rate of HT switch of tamoxifen to anastrozole. Among the reasons for changing therapy, the most common was disease progression, which includes cancer recurrence, metastasis or increased tumor. Side effects were second; furthermore, age and comorbidities are risk factors for side effects.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os motivos que levaram às mudanças no esquema hormonioterápico (HT) em mulheres com câncer de mama. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo realizado no Hospital da Mulher de Campinas e consequente pesquisa de prontuários de mulheres diagnosticados com câncer de mama entre janeiro de 2012 e janeiro de 2017. Resultados De 1.555 mulheres em tratamento com HT, 213 (13,7%) mulheres tiveram HT alterado, tamoxifeno para anastrozol ou vice-versa. A maioria das mulheres incluídas no presente estudo que tiveram mudança de HT tinha > 50 anos, estava na pós-menopausa, era caucasiana e tinha pelo menos uma comorbidade. Os principais motivos de troca de HT foram devido a 'progressão da doença', ocorrendo em 124 (58,2%) casos e a 'presença de efeitos colaterais' (n = 65; 30,5%). Das mulheres que sofreram efeitos colaterais, 24 (36,9%) apresentaram comorbidades. Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou uma baixa taxa na alteração de tamoxifeno para anastrozol. Entre as razõesmais comuns para alterar a HT estava a progressão da doença, que inclui recorrência do câncer, metástase ou aumento do tumor. Os efeitos colaterais foram a segunda causa e, além disso, a idade e as comorbidades foram fatores de risco para efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Patient Participation , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Anastrozole/administration & dosage , Anastrozole/analogs & derivatives , Anastrozole/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 46-51, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282398

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar lesões endometriais de pacientes com câncer de mama em tratamento com Tamoxifeno® presentes nas histeroscopias e relacioná-las com a dose de medicamento utilizada, tempo de terapêutica, presença de lesões endometriais prévias e estado de pré ou pós menopausa. Método: estudo retrospectivo, transversal e analítico. Dados analisados pelo teste qui quadrado, p<0,05. Resultados: dentre as 75 histeroscopias analisadas, 12 eram normais (16%) e 63 apresentaram alteração endometrial (84%). Dentre os achados das histeroscopias, 49 foram pólipos endometriais (67.12%), 7 foram pólipos endocervicais (9.58%), 11 foram hiperplasia simples sem atipias (15.06%), 1 foi hiperplasia complexa sem atipias (1.36%), 1 foi hiperplasia complexa com atipias (1.36%), 2 foram leiomiomas (2.73%) e 2 foram adenocarcinoma endometrioide (2.73%). Conclusão: O Tamoxifeno® predispõe o aparecimento de lesões endometriais, que podem ser malignas. Nesse estudo, a incidência dessas lesões foi expressivamente maior do que os valores encontrados na literatura


Objective: To analyze the endometrial lesions in hysteroscopies of patients with breast cancer undergoing treatment with Tamoxifeno® and to relate them to the dose of medication used, time of therapy, presence of previous endometrial lesions and pre or postmenopausal status. Method: retrospective, cross-sectional and analytical study. Data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, p <0.05. Results: Among the 75 hysteroscopies analyzed, 12 were normal (16%) and 63 presented endometrial alteration (84%). Among the hysteroscopic findings, 49 were endometrial polyps (67.12%), 7 were endocervical polyps (9.58%), 11 were simple hyperplasia without atypias (15.06%), 1 was complex hyperplasia without atypias (1.36%), 1 was complex hyperplasia with atypia (1.36%), 2 were leiomyomas (2.73%) and 2 were endometrioid adenocarcinoma (2.73%). Conclusion: Tamoxifen predisposes the appearance of endometrial lesions, which may be malignant. In this study, the incidence of these lesions was significantly higher than the values found in the literature


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen , Therapeutics , Breast Neoplasms , Hysteroscopy , Carcinoma, Endometrioid
6.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e177, sept.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156396

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Mc Cune-Albright (SMA) es una rara entidad asociada con la displasia fibrosa poliostótica, con la presencia de manchas de color café con leche y también con la hiperfunción endocrina. La alteración hormonal más frecuente es la pubertad precoz. El SMA se debe a mutaciones activadoras del gen GNAS1. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de una paciente con síndrome de Mc Cune-Albright con una pubertad precoz. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la historia clínica como fuente primaria y fueron incorporados todos los elementos clínicos, bioquímicos, imagenológicos y genéticos que conformaron la valoración integral de la paciente. Presentación de caso: Se presenta un caso poco frecuente de síndrome de Mc Cune-Albright en una niña de siete años de edad con mamas Tanner II-III, sangrado vaginal, vello axilar y pubiano escaso, manchas café con leche y lesiones óseas. Lleva tratamiento con tamoxifeno, lo que ha logrado mantener frenada la progresión del desarrollo puberal. Conclusiones: Aunque esta entidad es de carácter benigno y la prevalencia es extremadamente baja, el inicio puberal precoz y el compromiso de la talla final pueden producir impacto psicológico en la calidad de vida y en el desarrollo normal del individuo(AU)


Introduction: Mc Cune-Albright syndrome (SMA, by its acronym in Spanish) is a rare entity associated with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, with the presence of brown spots with milk and also with endocrine hyperfunction. The most common hormonal alteration is precocious puberty. SMA is caused by GNAS1 gene´s activator mutations. Objective: Describe the clinical characteristics of a patient with Mc Cune-Albright syndrome with precocious puberty. Methods: A review of the medical history was carried out as a primary source and all the clinical, biochemical, imaging and genetic elements that made up the comprehensive assessment of the patient were incorporated. Case presentation: A rare case of Mc Cune-Albright syndrome occurs in a seven-year-old girl with Tanner II-III breasts, vaginal bleeding, axillary and pubic hair, brown spots with milk and bone lesions. She is treated with tamoxifen, which has managed to keep the progression of pubertal development slow. Conclusions: Although this entity is benign in nature and the prevalence is extremely low, early pubertal onset and the compromise of the final size can have a psychological impact on the quality of life and normal development of the individual(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic/diagnostic imaging , Medical Records
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(11): 726-730, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of the present study is to observe the frequency and severity of urinary symptoms in women with breast cancer (BC) being treated with oral hormone therapy, associating them to drug adherence. Methods: The participants were interviewed once from June to October 2016. The evaluation of urinary symptoms was performed by two questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder Module (ICIQ-OAB). Adherence was evaluated by the Morisky-Green method. Statistical analysis was performed by the Mann-Whitney test, linear regression, and Spearman correlation. Results: Fifty-eight women were interviewed: 42 treated with tamoxifen and 16 with aromatase inhibitor. Twenty-seven women (46.5%) presented urinary incontinence symptoms and 15 (25.8%) presented stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Fourteen (24.1%) women had symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). There was no statistical difference in symptoms between both treatments and duration of treatments. Higher scores in the ICIQ-SF questionnaire were associated with low/medium adherence and advanced age. Higher scores in the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire were associated with low/medium adherence. Conclusion: The present study showed a high prevalence of urinary symptoms, such as urinary incontinence and OAB, associated with low/medium adherence and older age in women with BC being treated with oral hormone therapy. Health professionals should be alert to these symptoms since it could influence life quality and adherence to treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi observar a frequência e a gravidade dos sintomas urinários em mulheres com câncer de mama em uso de terapia hormonal oral, associando estes com a adesão ao tratamento. Métodos: As pacientes foram entrevistadas uma única vez, entre junho e outubro de 2016. A avaliação dos sintomas urinários foi realizada por dois questionários: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF, na sigla em inglês) e o Questionário Sobre Bexiga Hiperativa (ICIQ-OAB, na sigla em inglês). A adesão foi avaliada pelo método Morisky-Green. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Mann-Whitney, regressão linear e correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Foram entrevistadas 58 mulheres: 42 tratadas com tamoxifeno e 16 com inibidor de aromatase. Vinte e sete mulheres (46,5%) apresentaram sintomas de incontinência urinária (IU) e 15 (25,8%) apresentaram incontinência urinária por estresse (IUS). Quatorze (24,1%) das mulheres tinham sintomas de bexiga hiperativa. Não houve diferença estatística nos sintomas entre os tratamentos e a duração dos tratamentos. Os escores mais elevados no questionário ICIQ-SF estiveram associados à baixa/média adesão e à idade avançada. Os escores mais elevados no questionário da ICIQ-OAB foram associados à baixa/média adesão. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou alta prevalência de sintomas urinários, como IU e bexiga hiperativa, associadas à baixa/média adesão e à idade mais avançada em mulheres com câncer de mama em tratamento com hormonioterapia oral. Os profissionais de saúde devem estar atentos a esses sintomas, pois eles podem influenciar a qualidade de vida e a adesão ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Portugal/epidemiology , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Urinary Incontinence/chemically induced , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Administration, Oral , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Aromatase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/chemically induced , Anastrozole/administration & dosage , Anastrozole/adverse effects , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 352-357, mayo.-ago. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN El cáncer de mama es el tipo de cáncer que se diagnostica con mayor frecuencia en mujeres y la segunda causa más común de muerte por cáncer en este género. Dentro de las indicaciones de tratamiento, se encuentran: cirugía, radioterapia, quimioterapia y terapia endocrina. Esta última se basa en el uso de tamoxifeno, cuyo uso de forma prolongada puede producir efectos secundarios como sequedad vaginal, ardor, irritación, picazón, disuria, incontinencia urinaria, entre otros OBJETIVO Caracterizar la incontinencia urinaria en mujeres premenopáusicas con cáncer de mama en tratamiento con tamoxifeno por 5 años en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer MATERIAL Y MÉTODO Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se incluyeron mujeres diagnosticadas con cáncer de mama inscritas y tratadas en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Se aplicó cuestionario ICIQ ­SF a la población de estudio con el fin de caracterizar la presencia de incontinencia urinaria. Además, se calculó la proporción entre mujeres con incontinencia urinaria y nuliparidad/mujeres con incontinencia urinaria y paridad RESULTADOS Se evaluaron 15 pacientes. 93,33% presentaron incontinencia urinaria. El promedio de edad de mujeres con incontinencia urinaria fue de 51,21 (± 4,74) años. La razón de mujeres con nuliparidad/con paridad fue de 4:15 CONCLUSIÓN 99,33% de las pacientes presentaron incontinencia urinaria. Los resultados entregados en este estudio deben ser considerados como un elemento que contribuya a detectar la magnitud del problema en la población inscrita y tratada en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.


BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the type of cancer diagnosed most frequently in women, and the second most common cause of death from cancer in this gender. Within the indications of treatment, they are: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. The last is based on the use of tamoxifen, whose prolonged use can produce side effects such as vaginal dryness, burning, irritation, itching, dysuria, urinary incontinence, among others OBJECTIVE To characterize urinary incontinence in pre-menopausal women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen for 5 years at the Instituto Nacional del Cáncer MATERIAL AND METHOD Descriptive cross-sectional study. We included women diagnosed with breast cancer enrolled and treated at the Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. The ICIQ -SF questionnaire was applied to the study population to characterize the presence of urinary incontinence. In addition, the proportion between women with urinary incontinence and nulliparity / women with urinary incontinence and parity was calculated RESULTS 93,33% presented urinary incontinence. The average age of women with urinary incontinence was 51,21 (± 4,74) years. The ratio of women with nulliparity / with parity was 4:15 CONCLUSION 99,33% of the patients presented urinary incontinence. The results delivered in this study should be considered as one element that helps to detect the magnitude of this problem in the population registered and treated in the Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Keywords:


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Urinary Incontinence/chemically induced , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Premenopause , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Parity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Actual. osteol ; 16(1): 67-76, Ene - abr. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140042

ABSTRACT

La displasia fibrosa (DF) es una enfermedad infrecuente del hueso, no hereditaria, producida por una mutación activadora del gen GNAS, responsable de codificar la unidad a-estimuladora de la proteína G (Gsa). La presentación clínica de la enfermedad es muy variada, pues adopta desde formas asintomáticas hasta otras marcadamente sintomáticas. En los últimos años, el análisis exhaustivo de bases de datos de pacientes con DF ha permitido conocer más sobre su historia natural. En este artículo se revisa la información actualmente disponible sobre algunos aspectos que ayudarán al mejor enfoque clínico del paciente, como son: la utilidad clínica de los marcadores óseos, los factores pronósticos para el desarrollo de fracturas, la DF como condición predisponente para el desarrollo de tumores específicos, nuevas perspectivas sobre la fisiopatología del dolor óseo y nuevas estrategias terapéuticas. Un mayor conocimiento sobre la historia natural de esta enfermedad finalmente redundará en la mejor calidad de vida de los pacientes con DF. (AU)


Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is an infrequent, non-hereditary bone disease caused by a somatic mutation of the GNAS gene, responsible for encoding the a-subunit of the G-protein (Gsa). The clinical presentation of the disease varies greatly, with some patients being asymptomatic and others markedly symptomatic. The exhaustive analysis of the database from patients with FD has allowed to learn more about the natural history of this disease. This article reviews the current information available on the clinical utility of bone markers, the prognostic factors for the occurrence of fractures, the evidence supporting as a predisposing condition for the development of specific tumors, new perspectives on the pathophysiology of bone pain, and emerging therapeutic strategies. A greater understanding of the natural history of this disease will allow to make better medical decisions, which will ultimately contribute to improve FD patients' quality of life. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/etiology , Quality of Life , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Musculoskeletal Pain/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/diagnosis , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/physiopathology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/therapy , Denosumab/administration & dosage , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Narcotics/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(1): 86-93, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179208

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A terapia antineoplásica oral apresenta vantagens comparada a outras terapias para o tratamento do câncer, por ser administrada em domicílio, de forma simples e rápida, no entanto, essa terapia aumenta a responsabilidade do paciente em relação ao seu tratamento e a adesão é fundamental para a sua eficácia. Evidenciam-se poucos estudos referente ao acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico na terapia antineoplásica oral, nesses contexto, o presente estudo busca avaliar a adesão ao tratamento com tamoxifeno em mulheres com câncer de mama, antes e após acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo clínico randomizado e quantitativo. A coleta de dados foi realizada durante seis meses. A randomização aleatória dividiu-se em Grupo Controle e Grupo Acompanhamento, sendo o acompanhamento subdividido: Antes e Após o Acompanhamento. O Grupo acompanhamento recebeu mensalmente intervenções farmacêuticas individuais. A adesão foi avaliada pelo Brief Medication Questionnair e Problemas Relacionados aos Medicamentos quanto Necessidade, Efetividade e Segurança. Resultados: Após acompanhamento farmacêutico observou-se diferença entre os grupos Grupo Acompanhamento e Grupo Controle quanto à prática de atividade física (p=0,043), adesão ao tratamento (p=0,006), redução de efeitos adversos (p=0,003) e doenças associadas (p=0,002). Os Problemas Relacionados a Medicamentos mais frequentes foram de segurança e adesão, para os quais foram realizadas 54 intervenções farmacêuticas. As reações adversas descritas pelas pacientes acometiam principalmente sistema genital e trato gastrintestinal. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se que o acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico contribuiu efetivamente na adesão ao tratamento com tamoxifeno e as intervenções farmacêuticas realizadas contribuíram para prevenção e redução dos problemas associados a farmacoterapia.(AU)


Background and objectives: Oral antineoplastic therapy has advantages compared to other therapies for the treatment of cancer, because it is administered at home, in a simple and fast, however, this therapy increases the responsibility of the patient regarding its treatment and adherence is critical to its effectiveness. There are few studies on pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in oral antineoplastic therapy. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate to adherence with tamoxifen in women with breast cancer, before and after of pharmaceutical care. Methods: It is a randomized and quantitative clinical study. Data collection was performed during six months. Random randomization was divided into Control Group and Monitoring Group. The follow-up was subdivided: Before and After Monitoring. The Monitoring Group received monthly individual pharmaceutical interventions. Adherence was assessed by the Brief Medication Questionnaire and Drug Related Problems as Need, Effectiveness, and Safety. Results: There was a significant difference between the follow-up group and control group regarding physical activity (p = 0.043), adherence to treatment (p = 0.006), reduction of adverse effects (p = 0.003) and associated diseases (p = 0.002). The most frequent drug-related problems were safety and adherence, for which 54 pharmaceutical interventions were performed. The adverse reactions described by the patients mainly affected the genital system and the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: It was evidence the pharmaceutical care effectively contributed to the adherence to tamoxifen treatment and the performed pharmaceutical interventions contributed to the prevention and reduction of the problems associated with phamacoterapy.(AU)


Justificación y objetivo: La terapia antineoplásica oral presenta ventajas comparadas a otras terapias para el tratamiento del cáncer, por ser administrada a domicilio, de forma simple y rápida, sin embargo, esta terapia aumenta la responsabilidad del paciente en relación a su tratamiento y la adhesión es fundamental para su eficacia. Se evidencian pocos estudios referentes al seguimiento farmacoterapéutico en la terapia antineoplásica oral, en ese contexto, el presente estudio busca evaluar la adhesión al tratamiento con tamoxifeno en mujeres con cáncer de mama, antes y después de seguimento farmacoterapéutico. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio clínico aleatorizado y cuantitativo. La recolección de datos se realizó durante seis meses. La aleatorización aleatoria se dividió en Grupo Control y Grupo Seguimiento, siendo el acompañamiento subdividido: Antes y Después del Acompañamiento. El Grupo de seguimiento recibió mensualmente intervenciones farmacéuticas individuales. La adhesión fue evaluada por el Brief Medication Questionnair y los problemas relacionados con los medicamentos como la necesidad, la eficacia y la seguridad. Resultados: Después del seguimiento farmacéutico se observó diferencia entre los grupos Grupo Acompañamiento y Grupo Control en cuanto a la práctica de actividad física (p = 0,043), adhesión al tratamiento (p = 0,006), reducción de efectos adversos (p = 0,003) y enfermidades asociadas (p = 0,003) p = 0,002). Los problemas relacionados con los medicamentos más frecuentes fueron de seguridad y adhesión, para los que se realizaron 54 intervenciones farmacéuticas. Las reacciones adversas descritas por las pacientes acometieron principalmente sistema genital y tracto gastrointestinal. Conclusión: Se evidenció que el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico contribuyó efectivamente a la adherencia al tratamiento con tamoxifeno y las intervenciones farmacéuticas realizadas contribuyeron a la prevención y reducción de los problemas asociados con la farmacoterapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen , Breast Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal , Drug Therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Pharmaceutical Services
11.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 34-38, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102292

ABSTRACT

Las mujeres han sido tratadas por décadas con testosterona intentando aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas con riesgos y beneficios inciertos. En la mayoría de los países, la testosterona se prescribe "off-label", de modo que las mujeres están utilizando compuestos y dosis ideadas para tratamientos en hombres. En este sentido, varias sociedades médicas de distintos continentes adoptaron recientemente por consenso una toma de posición sobre los beneficios y potenciales riesgos de la terapia con testosterona en la mujer, explorar las áreas de incertidumbre e identificar prácticas de prescripción con potencial de causar daño. Las recomendaciones con respecto a los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia con testosterona se basan en los resultados de ensayos clínicos controlados con placebo de al menos 12 semanas de duración. A continuación se comentan las recomendaciones. (AU)


There are currently no clear established indications for testosterone replacement therapy for women. Nonetheless, clinicians have been treating women with testosterone to alleviate a variety of symptoms for decades with uncertainty regarding its benefits and risks. In most countries, testosterone therapy is prescribed off-label, which means that women are using testosterone formulations or compounds approved for men with a modified dose for women. Due to these issues, there was a need for a global Consensus Position Statement on testosterone therapy for women based on the available evidence from placebo randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This Position Statement was developed to inform health care professionals about the benefits and potential risks of testosterone therapy intended for women. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clear guidance as to which women might benefit from testosterone therapy; to identify symptoms, signs, and certain conditions for which the evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone; to explore areas of uncertainty, and to identify any prescribing practices that have the potential to cause harm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Postmenopause/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Placebos/administration & dosage , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/analysis , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/adverse effects , Postmenopause/physiology , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Cholinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/etiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/therapy , Danazol/adverse effects , Consensus , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Off-Label Use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens/physiology , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Narcotics/adverse effects
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 64-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endometrial polyps are common in postmenopausal women, and the effect of tamoxifen use (a risk factor for endometrial polyps) on their pathogenesis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of hormone receptors and markers for proliferation/apoptosis (Ki-67 and Bcl-2) in endometrial polyps in postmenopausal users and nonusers of tamoxifen. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in a tertiary-level academic hospital. METHODS: 46 women (14 tamoxifen users and 32 nonusers) with postmenopausal bleeding underwent hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps. Polyp samples were immunohistochemically assessed for detection of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and estrogen and progesterone receptors. RESULTS: Analysis on the glandular component of the polyps revealed progesterone receptor expression in the polyps of 96.9% of the nonusers of tamoxifen, and 92.3% of the tamoxifen users (P = 0.499). All polyps in nonusers and 92.3% of those in users were also positive for estrogen receptors (P = 0.295). Ki-67 was expressed in 75% of the polyps in the tamoxifen users and 82.8% of those in the nonusers. All endometrial polyps expressed Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical analysis on endometrial polyps demonstrated that, although tamoxifen is considered to be a risk factor for endometrial polyps, there were no significant differences in the expression of hormone receptors between users and nonusers of tamoxifen. There were no between-group differences in Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression, and all patients displayed inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2, thus supporting the theory that polyps develop due to inhibition of apoptosis, and not through cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Postmenopause , Endometrium , Polyps , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estrogen Antagonists/adverse effects
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphorylated ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (pS6K1) is a major downstream regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Recent studies have addressed the role of S6K1 in adipogenesis. pS6K1 may affect the outcome of estrogen depletion therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer due to its association with adipogenesis and increased local estrogen levels. This study aimed to investigate the potential of pS6K1 as a predictive marker of adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy outcome in postmenopausal or ovarian function-suppressed patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer.METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed in postmenopausal or ovarian function-suppressed patients with estrogen receptor-positive and node-positive primary breast cancer. pS6K1 expression status was scored on a scale from 0 (negative) to 3+ (positive) based on immunohistochemical analysis.RESULTS: A total of 428 patients were eligible. The median follow-up duration was 44 months (range, 1–90). In patients with positive pS6K1 expression, AIs significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared to selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (5 year-DFS: 83.5% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.016). However, there was no benefit of AIs on DFS in the pS6K1 negative group (5 year-DFS 87.6% vs. 91.4%, p = 0.630). On multivariate analysis, AI therapy remained a significant predictor for DFS in the pS6K1 positive group (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.16–0.96; p = 0.041). pS6K1 was more effective in predicting the benefit of AI therapy in patients with ages < 50 (p = 0.021) compared to those with ages ≥ 50 (p = 0.188).CONCLUSION: pS6K1 expression may predict AI therapy outcomes and serve as a potential predictive marker for adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal and ovarian function-suppressed patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. AIs may be more effective in patients with pS6K1 positive tumors, while SERM could be considered an alternative option for patients with pS6K1 negative tumors.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Aromatase Inhibitors , Aromatase , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Sirolimus , Tamoxifen
14.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 38(137): 38-52, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116958

ABSTRACT

Introducción Las pacientes con Carcinoma Ductal in Situ de mama (cdis) tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar carcinoma invasor. Aquellas con receptores hormonales positivos se beneficiarían con hormonoterapia. El largo período de tratamiento y los efectos adversos asociados al mismo hacen dificultosa la adherencia. Objetivos El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adherencia a la hormonoterapia en pacientes operadas por Carcinoma Ductal in Situ en el Hospital Universitario Austral. Material y método Es un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de Carcinoma Ductal in Situ que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Universitario Austral en el período comprendido entre el 24 de julio de 2000 y el 5 de julio de 2017. Los datos fueron recopilados a través de una encuesta. Resultados Se obtuvieron 100 encuestas. La adherencia fue del 82%. La misma no se modificó según edad, conocimiento de riesgos y beneficios del tratamiento, tipo y número de cirugías, radioterapia y número de consultas. Las reacciones adversas a la medicación fueron la causa más frecuente de abandono al tratamiento. Conclusiones El tratamiento multidisciplinario podría asegurar un óptimo nivel de adherencia


Introduction Patients with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the breast (dcis) have a higher risk of developing invasive carcinoma. Those with hormone receptor-positive would benefit from hormonal therapy. The long period of treatment and the associated adverse events make adherence difficult. Objectives The aim of this study is to analyze the adherence of hormonal therapy in operated patients with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ at Hospital Universitario Austral. Materials and method It is an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ who underwent surgery at Hospital Universitario Austral in the period between 07/24/2000 and 07/05/2017 were included. The data was collected through a survey. Results 100 surveys were obtained. The adherence was 82%. It was not modified according to age, knowledge of risks and benefits of the treatment, type and number of surgeries, radiotherapy and number of consultations. Adverse events were the most frequent cause of discontinue of treatment. Conclusions Multidisciplinary treatment could ensure an optimal level of adherence


Subject(s)
Tamoxifen , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) increases the incidence of uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (uMMMTs). We examine clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of SERM-associated uMMMTs (S-uMMMTs) and discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. METHODS: Among 28,104 patients with breast cancer, clinicopathologic features and incidence of uMMMT were compared between patients who underwent SERM treatment and those who did not. Of 92 uMMMT cases that occurred during the same period, incidence, dose, and duration of SERM treatment, as well as overall survival rate, were compared for patients with breast cancer who underwent SERM treatment and those who did not (S-uMMMT vs NS-uMMMT) and for patients without breast cancer (de novo-uMMMT). Histopathological findings and immunophenotypes for myogenin, desmin, p53, WT-1, estrogen receptor (ER) α, ERβ, progesterone receptor, and GATA-3 were compared between S-uMMMT and de novo-uMMMT. RESULTS: The incidence of S-uMMMT was significantly higher than that of NS-uMMMT (6.35-fold). All patients with SERM were postmenopausal and received daily 20–40 mg SERM. Cumulative SERM dose ranged from 21.9 to 73.0 g (mean, 46.0) over 39–192 months (mean, 107). Clinicopathologic features, such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and overall survival, were not significantly different between patients with S-uMMMT and NS-uMMMT or between patients with S-uMMMT and de novo-uMMMT. All 11 S-uMMMT cases available for immunostaining exhibited strong overexpression/null expression of p53 protein and significantly increased ERβ expression in carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. CONCLUSIONS: SERM therapy seemingly increases risk of S-uMMMT development; however, clinicopathologic features were similar in all uMMMTs from different backgrounds. p53 mutation and increased ERβ expression might be involved in the etiology of S-uMMMT.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Desmin , Estrogens , Gynecology , Humans , Incidence , Myogenin , Obstetrics , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Survival Rate , Tamoxifen
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 387-398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The extension of endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for recurrence-free survivors of breast cancer improves survival; however, the issue on how to clinically identify appropriate candidates remains controversial. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for breast-cancer-specific mortality in patients who have had 5 years of tamoxifen treatment and categorize subgroups based on the risk of death using combinations of these prognostic factors to assist in the clinical decision to perform further endocrine therapy. METHODS: In total, 3,158 patients with breast cancer were enrolled. Breast cancer-specific survival rates after 5 years of tamoxifen treatment were calculated, and associated prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS: An age extreme at diagnosis (i.e., 2 cm, and positive lymphovascular invasion were robust independent prognostic factors for late breast cancer-specific death in tamoxifen-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.162, 1.739, and 1.993; p = 0.001, 0.047, and 0.011, respectively). Lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor negativity had borderline significance in this regard (HR = 1.741 and 1.638, p = 0.099 and 0.061). The study patients were classified into four groups according to the number of prognostic indicators, i.e., low, intermediate, high, and extremely high risk. The additional 5- and 10-year cumulative risks of breast cancer-specific death were 0.8% and 1.5% in the low-risk group, 0.9% and 3.9% in the intermediate-risk group, 1.3% and 7.3% in the high-risk group, and 4.8% and 13.8% in the extremely high-risk group, respectively. CONCLUSION: This new risk stratification system for late mortality in breast cancer can be used to identify the right candidates for extended endocrine therapy after 5 years of tamoxifen treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Survival Rate , Survivors , Tamoxifen
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 237-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignancies globally, and millions of women worldwide are diagnosed with BC every year. Up to 70% of BC patients are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive. Numerous studies have shown that tamoxifen has a significant therapeutic effect on both primary and metastatic ER-positive BC patients. Although tamoxifen is currently one of the most successful therapeutic agents for BC, a significant proportion of patients will eventually become resistant to tamoxifen, leading to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Knowledge about the development of tamoxifen resistance in BC patients is still limited. METHODS: We applied a loss-and-gain method to study the biological functional role of cell division cycle associated 8 (CDCA8) in tamoxifen resistance in BC cells. RESULTS: We found that CDCA8 was significantly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant BC cells. Knockdown of CDCA8 expression significantly inhibited the proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant BC cells and reduced their resistance to tamoxifen. In contrast, overexpression of CDCA8 promoted the growth of tamoxifen-sensitive BC cells and induced their resistance to tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: In this study, we reported that CDCA8 is a key regulator of tamoxifen resistance in BC, suggesting that CDCA8 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for BC treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Tamoxifen
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the combination effect of endoxifen and emodin on estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cell lines and to explain the mechanism of the combination effect. METHODS: We conducted this study on MCF-7 (ER+/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2]−), T47D (ER+/HER2−), ZR-75-1 (ER+/HER2+), and BT474 (ER+/HER2+) cell lines, which confirmed combination effect of endoxifen and emodin. Optimal concentrations for combination were determined to study the effects on proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. Analysis of the combination effect was carried out in the CompuSyn software. The combination of downstream mechanisms, and combined effects of other similar compounds were tested on the MCF-7 and ZR 75-1 cell lines. Protein expression was confirmed by western blot. RESULTS: The combination of endoxifen and emodin had antagonistic effects on MCF-7 and ZR-75-1cell lines (combination index > 1). We validated the antagonistic effect in T47D and BT474 cell lines. During the combined treatment, the results showed elevated amounts of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK). Analysis of drug interactions showed antagonistic effect between endoxifen and chemical compounds similar to emodin, such as chrysophanol or rhein, in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. CONCLUSION: Addition of emodin attenuated tamoxifen's treatment effect via cyclin D1 and pERK up-regulation in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Line , Cyclin D1 , Drug Interactions , Emodin , Epidermal Growth Factor , Estrogens , Phosphotransferases , Phytoestrogens , Tamoxifen , Therapeutic Uses , Up-Regulation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To uncover gynecologic conditions with similar transvaginal sonographic findings of thick uterine endometrium with honeycomb appearance in pre-and postmenopausal women.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of patients with endometrial tissue biopsy from January 2010 to December 2016. We also collected office flexible hysteroscopic findings and surgical pathologic results. We analyzed data from 393 patients with confirmed endometrial pathology. Among these patients, 69 had transvaginal ultrasonographic images with thick uterine endometrium and honeycomb or “Swiss cheese” appearance.RESULTS: We found gynecologic conditions such as submucosal leiomyoma with degeneration, endometrial polyp, pseudocystic endometrial change associated with tamoxifen use, progesterone associated endometrial change, pyometra, retained placenta, and uterine synechiae manifested with similar thick endometrium with “Swiss cheese” appearance in transvaginal sonographic images. The most common diagnosis in postmenopausal women was atrophic endometritis, followed by endometrial cancer and endometrial polyps. The most common diagnosis in premenopausal women was abnormal uterine bleeding without pathologic conditions.CONCLUSIONS: Sonographic findings of thick uterine endometrium with “Swiss cheese” appearance need to be considered together with a thorough review of the patient's history and chief complaint before making a tentative diagnosis due to the various conditions sharing the feature.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometritis , Endometrium , Female , Gynatresia , Humans , Hyperplasia , Leiomyoma , Menopause , Pathology , Placenta, Retained , Polyps , Progesterone , Pyometra , Retrospective Studies , Tamoxifen , Ultrasonography , Uterine Hemorrhage
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