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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 11-22, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368344

ABSTRACT

El arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) posee un alto contenido de compuestos fenólicos los cuales han sido estudiados principalmente por su actividad antioxidante, antiobesogénica, antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro sobre la bioaccesibilidad de compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de una formulación nutracéutica de arándano (cápsula), comparado con arándano fresco y polvo. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron extractos metanólicos de muestras de arándano fresco y liofilizado y se determinó su contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y antocianinas totales, así como también actividad antioxidante. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo de simulación de digestión gastrointestinal para evaluar la bioaccesibilidad de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las muestras. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron que la digestión gástrica de arándano en polvo y en cápsula promovió una mayor bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (42% y 40%), flavonoides (52% y 33%) y antocianinas (45% y 40%) comparado con digestos de arándano fresco. Posterior a la digestión intestinal, la bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (63%) y flavonoides (67%) fue mayor en la cápsula de arándano comparada con su contraparte arándano en polvo. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron negativamente la bioaccesibilidad de las antocianinas independientemente del tipo de muestra evaluada. Conclusión. Las condiciones de digestión gástrica promueven una mayor estabilidad de los compuestos fenólicos en arándano en polvo y en cápsula lo que pudiera ser relevante para el mantenimiento de un ambiente antioxidante a este nivel. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron de manera particular a los compuestos fenólicos de arándano fresco y polvo, pero no a la cápsula, lo que puede sugerir que el encapsulamiento protegió de las condiciones alcalinas a los fenoles presentes. Se sugieren estudios posteriores sobre absorción in vitro de los componentes remanentes en intestino y sus posibles efectos sobre biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en modelos in vivo(AU)


Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has a high content of phenolic compounds which have been studied mainly for their antioxidant, antiobesogenic, anti-inflammatory activity, among others. Objetive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of a nutraceutical formulation of blueberry (capsule), compared to fresh and powder blueberry. Materials and methods. Methanolic extracts of fresh and lyophilized blueberry were obtained and determined its total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, as well as antioxidant activity. A gastrointestinal digestion simulation test also was carried out to assess the bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds found in samples. Results. The results showed that gastric digestion of powder and capsule blueberry promoted greater bioaccessibility of phenols (42% and 40%), flavonoids (52% and 33%) and anthocyanins (45% and 40%), compared to fresh blueberry digests. After intestinal digestion, the bioaccessibility of phenols (63%) and flavonoids (67%) was higher in the blueberry capsule compared to its powdered blueberry counterpart. The intestinal digestion conditions negatively affected the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins regardless of the type of sample evaluated. Conclusion. Gastric digestion conditions promote greater stability of phenolic compounds in powdered and capsule blueberries, which could be relevant for the maintenance of an antioxidant environment at this level. The intestinal digestion conditions particularly affected the phenolic compounds of fresh and lyophilized blueberry, but not the capsule, which may suggest that encapsulation protected the phenols present from alkaline conditions. Further studies on in vitro absorption of the remaining components in the intestine and their possible effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in in vivo models are suggested(AU)


Subject(s)
Tannins , Flavonoids , Blueberry Plants , Phenolic Compounds , Gastrointestinal Absorption , In Vitro Techniques , Chronic Disease , Digestion , Freeze Drying
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e214034, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1282553

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare Enterococcus faecalis reduction after antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used with methylene blue, toluidine blue, tannin, and curcumin as photosensitizers, an adjunct to endodontic chemomechanical preparation (CMP) in root canals of human teeth. Methods: A total of 120 single-rooted teeth were divided into 6 groups (n = 20): G1- CMP and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2- CMP and saline solution; G3- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% methylene blue; G4- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% toluidine blue; G5- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% tannin; and G6- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% curcumin. A portable semiconductor laser was used (660 nm, 100 mW, 1.8 J, 180s) in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and a blue LED light-curing (420-480 nm, 1200 mV/cm2 ) in G6. For all groups, a 5 min pre-irradiation time was applied. Samples were collected before (initial collection), immediately after (intermediate collection) and 7 days after CMP (final collection) for colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed (p < 0.05; 95% confidence interval). Results: In between-group comparisons, there was no significant difference observed in the number of CFUs at the initial (p >< 0.001) and final collections (p >< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies.>< 0.05; 95% confidence interval). Results: In between-group comparisons, there was no significant difference observed in the number of CFUs at the initial (p < 0.001) and final collections (p >< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies.>< 0.001) and final collections (p < 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies>< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy , Tannins , Photosensitizing Agents , Curcumin , Endodontics
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 138-144, June 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the ethnopharmacological use of Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularly known as Acapurana, to treat wounds and ulcers, associated with the lack of alternative treatments for intestinal inflammations such as ulcerative colitis (UC), the present work sought to characterize its phytochemical and antioxidant activities, and to evaluate remedial action in experimental colitis with acetic acid. Phytochemical analyzes were performed through qualitative and quantitative colorimetric tests of the main secondary metabolites. In the colitismodel, 24male Wistar rats aged±60 days oldwere used, divided into 4 groups: Control (CO) control+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colitis (CL); and Colitis+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CL+ A50).Measurement of sphincter anal pressure and histological tests of the large intestine, lipoperoxidation (LPO), enzymeactivity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of glutathione (GSH)were performed. For statistical analysis, the oxidative stress (OS) results were expressed as means±standard error, adopting a significance level of p < 0.05. The screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, with high levels of phenolic


Resumo Devido ao uso etnofarmacológico de Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularmente conhecida comoAcapurana, para tratar feridas e úlceras, associado à falta dealternativas de tratamentos para as inflamações intestinais como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), o presente trabalho buscou caracterizar sua constituição fitoquímica, sua atividade antioxidante, e avaliar sua ação reparadora na colite experimental com ácido acético. As análises fitoquímicas foram realizadas por meio de ensaios colorimétricos qualitativos e quantitativos dos principaismetabólitos secundários.Nomodelo de colite, foramutilizados 24 ratos machos Wistar de±60 dias de idade, divididos em 4 grupos: Controle (CO), controle+ extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colite (CL); e Colite+extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia (CL+ A50). Foram realizadas aferições da pressão anal esfincteriana e avaliações histológicas do intestino grosso, lipoperoxidação (LPO), atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (SOD) e níveis da glutationa (GSH). Para a análise estatística, resultados do estresse oxidativo (EO) foram expressos em médias±erro padrão, adotando um nível de significância de p < 0,05. O screening indicou no extrato a presença de flavonoides, saponinas e taninos com altos teores de compostos fenólicos e taninos, relacionando-os a uma elevada capacidade antioxidante. Na análise histológica, o grupo CL apresentou perda das criptas, do edema e do infiltrado inflamatório. O uso do extrato de C. laurifolia reestruturou as criptas, diminuiu o edema e aumentou a pressão anal esfincteriana, com diminuição da LPO, da SOD, e aumento da GSH. Sugere-se que o uso do extrato de C. laurifolia diminui o EO por seu poder antioxidante, conferido pelos compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis/chemically induced , Antioxidants , Tannins , Oxidative Stress , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae
4.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248717

ABSTRACT

El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.


The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.


A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
5.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 26(1): 15-24, Jan.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351545

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. This research aimed to evaluate the inclusion of Cucurbita foetidissima (BG) leaves as a partial or total substitution of alfalfa hay (AH) in beef cattle diets on in vitro methane output, gas kinetics and volatile fatty acids production. Materials and Methods. Five experimental treatments were formulated with the inclusion of BG as alfalfa hay (AH) substitute at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in experimental treatments denominated CON (control), BG25, BG50, BG75 and BG100, respectively. Results. Lignin and organic matter decreased with BG inclusion (p<0.05). However, NDF, CT and TPC increased with higher levels of BG (p<0.05). Maximum gas production diminished with BG inclusion (p<0.05); whereas, microbial protein production, specific gas production rate and latency period were not affected (p>0.05). Methane production decreased linearly with BG inclusion (p<0.05). Nevertheless, CO2 production showed no changes with inclusion of graded levels of BG in the experimental treatments (p>0.05). Additionally, acetate and butyrate were not affected by BG inclusion (p>0.05); although, propionate increased linearly among treatments (p<0.05). Furthermore, inclusion of 75% of BG reduced 31% in vitro methane production without changes in CO2 production, suggesting an inhibition of endogenous methanogenesis. Conclusions. These results promote the inclusion of BG leaves as a potential and environmentally friendly forage source for beef cattle feeding.


RESUMEN Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la inclusión de hojas de Cucurbita foetidissima (BG) como sustituto parcial o total de la alfafa (AH) en la dieta de ganado de engorda sobre la cinética de producción de gas y producción ruminal in vitro de metano y ácidos grasos volátiles. Materiales y Métodos. Se formularon cinco dietas con la inclusión de BG como sustituto de heno de alfalfa a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% en los tratamientos experimentales que se denominaron CON (control), BG25, BG50, BG75 y BG100, respectivamente. Resultados. La lignina y la materia orgánica disminuyeron con la inclusión de BG (p<0.05). La máxima producción de gas disminuyó con la inclusión de BG (p<0.05); mientras que la producción de proteína microbiana, la tasa específica de producción de gas y el tiempo de latencia no mostraron cambios(p>0.05). La producción de metano disminuyó linealmente con la inclusión de BG (p<0.05). No obstante, la producción de CO2 no mostró cambios con la inclusión de BG en los tratamientos (p<0.05). Adicionalmente, el acetato y el butirato no fueron afectados por la inclusión de BG (p>0.05); a pesar de que el propionato se incrementó linealmente (p<0.05). Además, la inclusión de BG en un 75% redujo la producción de metano 31% sin afectar la producción de CO2, lo que sugiere una inhibición de la metanogenesis endógena. Conclusiones. Estos resultados promueven la inclusión de hojas de BG como una fuente de forraje potencial y amigable con el ambiente en la alimentación de ganado de engorda.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tannins , In Vitro Techniques , Cucurbita
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921794

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the newly isolated tannins were sorted after a review of the literature concerning tannins in recent 10 years, and their research progress was summarized in terms of extraction, isolation, pharmacological activity and metabolism. Hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins are the main structural types. Modern research shows that tannins have many pharmacological effects, such as bacteriostasis, antioxidation, antitumor, antivirus and blood glucose reduction, and have broad development prospects. They are usually extracted by water, ethanol and acetone and isolated and purified by macroporous resin and gel column chromatography. The packings commonly adopted for the column chromatography mainly included Sephadex LH-20, Diaion HP-20, MCI-gel CHP-20 and Toyopearl HW-40. Modern analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry(FAB-MS) and circular dichroism(CD) are generally used for the structural identification of tannins. Howe-ver, their isolation, purification and structural identification are still challenging. It is necessary to use a variety of high-throughput screening methods to explore their pharmacological activities and to explore the material basis responsible for their functions through experiments in vivo.


Subject(s)
China , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Proanthocyanidins , Tannins
7.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344678

ABSTRACT

Tannins are a diverse group of plant phenolic compounds. Condensed tannins (CTs) represent a major subgroup of tannins and were extracted from tilia (Tilia L.) flowers and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) leaves. These extracts were examined for their effects on the metabolic profile of chicken caeca. By using in vitro, a nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), which was combined with multivariate statistics, the current study was applied for the first time to investigate how three different CT compositions, procyanidins (PC) and/or prodelphinidins (PD) units influenced the metabolic end-products in caecal contents of chickens. In the presence of tannins, glutamate, leucine, lysine, pyroglutamate, phenylalanine, proline, and sarcosine were significantly decreased. CT extracts significantly influenced the fermentation, increasing the concentrations of some fatty acids such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate whereas. In contrast, lactate decreased between the treatments. This study identified the key structural features of CTs that contain either high molar proportions of PD or PC, which might be useful to improve the efficiency of feed utilization in chickens.(AU)


Taninos são um grupo diversificado de compostos fenólicos derivados de plantas. Os taninos condensados (TCs) representam o maior subgrupo de taninos extraídos das flores de tília (Tilia L) e de folhas negras (acácia-bastarda). Estes extratos foram examinados para a avaliação dos seus efeitos no perfil metabólico do ceco de frangos de corte. Com o emprego da ressonância magnética nuclear in vitro (1H-NMR) combinada com estatística multivariada, o presente trabalho foi aplicado pela primeira vez para investigar como três diferentes composições de TCs, unidades de procianidinas (PC) e/ou prodelfinidinas (PD) influenciariam os produtos metabólicos finais dos conteúdos cecais de frangos de corte. Na presença de taninos, houve um significativo decréscimo de glutamato, leucina, lisina, piroglutamato, fenilalanina, prolina e sarcosina. Os extratos de TCs influenciaram significativamente a fermentação, aumentando as concentrações de alguns ácidos graxos, tais como o acetato, butirato e propionato, enquanto em contraste, houve um decréscimo do lactato entre os tratamentos. Este trabalho identificou aspectos estruturais chave que os TCs contêm, tanto as altas proporções molares de PD como as de PC, as quais podem ser úteis para aumentar a utilização de alimentos em frangos de corte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Tannins/administration & dosage , In Vitro Techniques , Chickens/physiology , Chickens/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Fatty Acids , Fermentation
8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 10-23, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348245

ABSTRACT

Neurolaena lobata es utilizada tradicionalmente en Centroamérica para tratar la mordedura de serpiente, pero su efectividad para contrarrestar el envenenamiento producido por Bothrops asper ha sido poco estudiada. Se evaluó la capacidad del extracto etanólico de sus hojas para inhibir las actividades proteolítica, fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2; evaluada como hemólisis indirecta) y coagulante del veneno in vitro. El material vegetal fue colectado en Izabal, Guatemala, secado, se hicieron extracciones con etanol y se evaluó la presencia de actividades proteolítica, PLA2 y coagulante in-trínsecas en ensayos de concentración-actividad. Los efectos inhibitorios de la actividad proteolítica y PLA2 del veneno se evaluaron después de pre-incubar concentraciones variables del extracto con concentraciones fijas de veneno. La inhibición de la actividad coagulante del veneno no fue evaluada porque el extracto presentó actividad anticoagulante intrínseca dependiente de la concentración. El extracto inhibió completamente las actividades proteolítica (CE50 = 15.7 µg/µl) y PLA2 (CE50 = 32.5 µg/µl) del veneno. El análisis fitoquímico utilizando ensayos macro y semimicrométricos de cromatografía en capa fina, demostró la presencia de flavonoides, cumarinas, saponinas, taninos, sesquiterpenlactonas y aceites esenciales en el extracto. Su efecto sobre las proteínas del veneno se evaluó por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, mostrando cambios en el patrón electroforético atribuidos a la formación de complejos moleculares con los metabo-litos del extracto. Los resultados indican que el extracto podría inhibir los efectos tóxicos del veneno inducidos por las metaloproteinasas dependientes de zinc (SVMPs) y PLA2s, pero podría afectar las alteraciones en la coagulación, coadyuvando en la desfibrinogenación inducida por el veneno.


Neurolaena lobata has been used by traditional healers in Central America to treat snakebite, but its ability to neutralize Bothrops asper envenomations needs to be proved. This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. lobata against proteolytic, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and coagulant activities of the venom in vitro. Leaves were collected in Izabal, Guatemala, dried, extracted with ethanol and concentration-response assays were conducted to detect intrinsic proteolytic, PLA2 (evaluated as indirect hemolysis) and coagulant activities. Assays for anti-proteolytic and anti-PLA2 activities were performed after pre-incubation of several amounts of extract with a fixed concentration of venom. Inhibition assay for the coagulant effect of the venom was not tested because pre-incubation of thrombin with the extract prolonged the clotting time of plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteolytic (EC50 = 15.7 µg/µl) and PLA2 (EC50 = 32.5 µg/µl) activities of the venom resulted completely inhibited by the extract. Phytochemical profiles, determined by micrometric assays and semi microanalysis by thin layer chro-matography, showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, sesquiterpene lactones and essential oils in the extract. SDS-PAGE was used to assess the action of the extract on the venom proteins. Results showed changes in the electrophoretic profile, probably due to the formation of insoluble complexes with plant specialized metabolites. These findings demonstrated that the extract could be able to inhibit toxic effects triggered by zinc-dependent snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) y PLA2s but might aggravate the alterations induced by the venom in coagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Coagulants/analysis , Bothrops , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Snake Bites/therapy , Tannins/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Guatemala , Medicine, Traditional/methods
9.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2306, 20200000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129304

ABSTRACT

Os taninos são compostos fenólicos presentes em plantas, classificados quanto à estrutura química em compostos hidrolisáveis e condensados. Os condensados são adicionados à dieta de ruminantes devido a sua capacidade de formar complexos com proteínas tornando-as não degradáveis no ambiente ruminal. Dessa forma, aumenta o aporte proteico no intestino delgado onde ocorrerá a maior absorção na porção cranial do órgão, o duodeno. A vantagem desse mecanismo é aumentar o aproveitamento da proteína da dieta pelos animais o que influenciará na produtividade e sistema imunológico, entre outros. Os efeitos positivos com a utilização desse composto como aditivo nutricional ainda precisam ser estudados, portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão consiste em demonstrar os resultados, até então conhecidos, da utilização de taninos condensados na dieta de ruminantes.(AU)


Tannins are phenolic compounds present in plants. According to their chemical structure, they can be classified into hydrolysable and condensed compounds. Condensed compounds are added to the ruminant nutrition due to their ability to form complexes with proteins, rendering them as non-degradable in the rumen environment. Thus, it increases the protein supply in the small intestine, where the highest absorption will occur in the duodenum, the cranial portion of the organ. The advantage of this mechanism is the increase of the use of dietary protein by the animals, which will thus influence productivity and the immune system, among others. The positive effects of the use of this compound as a nutritional additive still need to be further investigated, therefore, the purpose of this review is to demonstrate the known results of the use of condensed tannins in the diet of ruminants.(AU)


Los taninos son compuestos fenólicos presentes en plantas, clasificados según la estructura química en compuestos hidrolizables y condensados. Los condensados se agregan a la dieta de rumiantes debido a su capacidad de formar complejos con proteínas, haciéndolas no degradables en el entorno del rumen. Así, aumenta el aporte proteico en el intestino delgado donde habrá mayor absorción en la porción craneal del órgano, el duodeno. La ventaja de ese mecanismo es aumentar el aprovechamiento de la proteína de la dieta por los animales, lo que influirá en la productividad y sistema inmunológico, entre otros. Los efectos positivos con la utilización de ese compuesto, como aditivo nutricional, todavía necesita ser estudiado, el objetivo de esa revisión consiste en demostrar los resultados, hasta ahora conocidos, del uso de taninos condensados en la dieta de rumiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tannins , Ruminants , Dietary Proteins , Proteins , Food Additives
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 993-999, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129706

ABSTRACT

O milho é a principal fonte de energia nas dietas animais. Em algumas regiões brasileiras, sua disponibilidade, principalmente na entressafra, é insuficiente para atender à demanda, fazendo com que seu preço se eleve. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do milho pelo sorgo sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a digestibilidade em coelhos. Foram utilizados 60 animais machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, divididos em três tratamentos: ração base milho (TM); ração base sorgo (TS) e ração base 50% de milho + 50% de sorgo (TMS). No ensaio de desempenho, avaliou-se ganho de peso (GP), consumo de ração (CR), conversão alimentar (CA), coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS), proteína bruta (CDPB), fibra em detergente neutro (CDFDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (CDFDA). Observou-se que o CRM, a CA e o GPM não foram afetados pela substituição do milho pelo sorgo, nos níveis de 50% e 100%. Os resultados de digestibilidade demonstraram maiores CDPB e CDFDN na ração base milho, não havendo diferenças entre os demais parâmetros estudados. O sorgo com baixo teor de tanino pode ser usado nas rações de crescimento de coelhos em níveis de substituição de 50% ou 100% da participação do milho, sem prejuízos para o desempenho zootécnico e a digestibilidade.(AU)


Corn is the main source of energy in animal diets. In some Brazilian regions, its availability, especially in the off-season, may be insufficient to meet demand, which causes prices to increase. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution of maize by sorghum on the performance and digestibility of rabbits. Sixty New Zealand White bucks were used, divided in three treatments, maize base ration (TM); based on grain sorghum ration (TS) and base ration 50% corn + 50% sorghum grain (TMS). In the performance test, weight gain (GP), feed intake (CR) and feed conversion ratio (CA) were evaluated. In the digestibility assay, 21 animals were used. The total dry matter (CDMS), crude protein (CDPB), gross energy (EB), neutral detergent fiber (CDFDN) and acid detergent fiber (CDFDA) coefficients were evaluated. There was no significant difference for any of the performance parameters studied (P > 0.05). The digestibility results showed higher CDPB and CDFDN in the corn diet (P <0.05), with no differences between the other parameters studied. Low tannin sorghum can be used in rabbit growth diets at substitution levels of 50% or 100% of maize participation without impairing zootechnical performance and digestibility.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Tannins , Zea mays , Sorghum , Animal Feed
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 235-239, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ceratobasidium ramicola is a fitopathogenic fungus that harmful and causes various levels of damage on several types of forestry and horticultural crops. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Acacia villosa, Myristica fragrans, Acacia mangium and Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extracts as tannin sources related to the in vitro inhibition of Ceratobasidium ramicola growth. The in vitro inhibition was performed by employing solid potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium to obtain the radial inhibition, while liquid potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium was used to obtain the biomass inhibition. Experimental design was based on in time nested-completely randomized design and statistical analysis was carried out with SAS software version 9.1. The result of radial growth inhibition of Ceratobasidium ramicola showed that tannin extracts of A. mangium and M. Fragrans were not significantly different to each other. Treatment of tannin extracts from A. villosa, M. fragrans, A. mangium and C. Calothyrsus with a concentration of 1% were significantly different with other concentrations and resulted the greatest inhibition values. Tannin extract of A. Mangium at 1% concentration produced the greatest radial inhibition by 33.2%. In most cases, the effective inhibition from tannin extract occurred at the 24h of incubation. The greatest biomass inhibition was produced on 1% tannin extract of A. mangium by 64.3%, while the lowest was produced from 1% tannin extract of M. fragrans by 27.0%.


Resumo Ceratobasidium ramicola é um fungo fitopatogênico prejudicial que causa vários danos em diversas culturas florestais e agrícolas. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o efeito dos extratos de folhas de Acacia villosa, Myristica fragrans, Acacia mangium e Calliandra calothyrsus como fontes de tanino relacionadas à inibição do crescimento in vitro de Ceratobasidium ramicola. A inibição in vitro foi realizada empregando o meio de ágar batata dextrose para obter a inibição radial, enquanto o meio de caldo de batata dextrose líquido foi usado para obter a inibição da biomassa. O projeto experimental foi fundamentado in time. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, e a análise estatística foi realizada com o software SAS, versão 9.1. O resultado da inibição do crescimento radial de Ceratobasidium ramicola mostrou que os extratos de tanino de A. mangium e M. fragrans não diferiram significativamente entre si. Os tratamentos de extratos de tanino de A. villosa, M. fragrans, A. mangium e C. Calothyrsus, utilizando uma concentração de 1%, foram significativamente diferentes em comparação com outras concentrações e resultaram em maiores valores de inibição. O extrato de tanino de A. mangium a 1% de concentração produziu a maior inibição radial, com taxa de 33,2%. Na maioria dos casos, a inibição efetiva do extrato de tanino ocorreu em 24 horas de incubação. A maior inibição de biomassa foi produzida em 1% de extrato de tanino de A. Mangium, com taxa de 64,3%, enquanto a menor foi produzida a partir de 1% de extrato de tanino de M. fragrans, com taxa de 27%.


Subject(s)
Myristica , Acacia , Fabaceae , Tannins , Plant Extracts
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.


RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.


Subject(s)
Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

ABSTRACT

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Subject(s)
Trace Elements/analysis , Vegetables/classification , Tannins/analysis , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Amaranthus/chemistry , Jatropha/chemistry , Malnutrition/prevention & control
14.
Braz. dent. sci ; 22(2): 163-170, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-996318

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed the synthesis and morphological characterization of PCL electrospun fibers containing tara extract. Material and Methods: For this, tara extract synthesis was performed by two different extraction methods: rotary evaporator and extractor soxhlet. Then, two solutions were prepared by dissolving 3g of PCL in 2mL of Acetone. The first solution used 0.4 mL tara extract obtained by RE and the second solution used 0.4 mL tara extract obtained by SE. After the solutions electrospinning, under different parameters, obtaining It was obtained the experimental groups: ChTa 1 nanofibers with RE extract, under 12 Kv; ChTa 2 nanofibers with RE extract, under 15 Kv; ChTa 3 nanofibers with ES extract, under 12Kv and ChTa 4 nanofibers with ES extract, under 15kV. Scanning electron micrographs were performed for morphological analysis. Results: Fiber formation was observed for all parameters. About the fiber diameter: ChTa 1 presented a mean of 0.82 ± 0.36µm, ChTa 2 1.232 ±0471µm, ChTa 3 1.469 ± 0.614µm and ChTa 4 1.017 ± 0.417. Also the beads formation was analyzed: ChTa 1 group presented 8 beads, ChTa 2 presented 5, ChTa 3 presented 30 and ChTa 4 presented 15 beads. Conclusion: It can be concluded that it is possible to obtain an effective synthesis of electrospun membranes of PCL and Caesalpinia spinosa extract, indicating a potential of therapeutic application for lesions such as prosthetic stomatitis. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou a síntese e a caracterização morfológica de fibras eletrofiadas de PCL contendo extrato de tara, caracterizando sua morfologia. Material e Métodos: Para isso, a síntese do extrato de Tara foi realizada por dois diferentes métodos de extração: Evaporador rotativo e Extrator de soxhlet. Em seguida, duas soluções foram preparadas dissolvendo 3g de PCL em 2 mL de acetona. A primeira solução utilizou 0,4 mL de extrato de Tara obtida por ER. A segunda solução utilizou 0,4 mL de extrato de Tara obtida por ES. Após as soluções serem eletrofiadas, sob diferentes parâmetros, obtiveram-se os grupos experimentais: ChTa 1 nanofibras com extrato de RE, sob 12Kv; ChTa 2 nanofibras com extrato de RE, sob 15Kv; ChTa 3 nanofibras com extrato de ES, com menos de 12Kv e nanofibras de ChTa 4 com extrato de ES, sob 15kV. Micrografias eletrônicas de varredura foram realizadas para análise morfológica. Resultados: A formação de fibras foi observada para todos os parâmetros. Quanto ao diâmetro da fibra: ChTa 1 apresentou uma média de 0,82 ± 0,36 µm, o ChTa 2 1,232 ± 0471 µm, o ChTa 3 1,469 ± 0,614 µm e o ChTa 4 1,017 ± 0,417. Também foi analisada a formação dos beads: o grupo ChTa 1 apresentou 8 beads, o ChTa 2 5, o ChTa 3 30 e o ChTa 4 15. Conclusão: Pôde-se concluir que é possível obter uma síntese efetiva de membranas eletrofiadas de extrato de PCL e Caesalpinia spinosa, indicando um potencial de aplicação terapêutica para lesões como a estomatite protética. (AU)


Subject(s)
Tannins , Candidiasis , Nanofibers
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764039

ABSTRACT

Tannic acid (TA) is a water-soluble polyphenol compound found in various herbal plants. We investigated the chemopreventive effects of TA on FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. In an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, TA showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 50 µM. Cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence imaging demonstrated that under low-dose (25 µM) treatment, FaDu cells were arrested in G2/M phase, and as the dose of TA was increased, apoptosis was induced with the increase of cell population at sub-G1 phase. The expressions of various cyclins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK-1 and CDK-2), were down-regulated at low doses of TA, whereas apoptotic effectors such as cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were expressed in a dose-dependent manner in Western blotting. In addition, TA-induced apoptosis of FaDu cells might be mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with the upregulation of p-AKT/p-PKB (phosphorylated protein kinase B) and p-ERK. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that TA is a potential candidate agent for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Cell Cycle , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Tannins , Up-Regulation
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 581-587, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sclerotherapy with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) has a potent effect on internal hemorrhoids. In this retrospective study, we compared the effects of endoscopic ALTA therapy and standard ALTA therapy.METHODS: We investigated patients who underwent treatment for internal hemorrhoids at our institution between 2014 and 2016. They were divided into a standard ALTA group (n=33, treated using proctoscopy) and an endoscopic ALTA group (n=48). We compared the clinical findings between the 2 groups.RESULTS: There were no intergroup differences in background factors. The mean ALTA dose was 21.9±7.2 mL and 17.8±3.4 mL in the standard and endoscopic ALTA groups, respectively (p<0.01). Adverse events occurred in 4 patients (12.1%) from the standard ALTA group and 6 patients (12.5%) from the endoscopic ALTA group. In both groups, the patients reported good satisfaction with the therapeutic effect at 1 month after the procedure. Hemorrhoids recurred in 2 patients (6.3%) from the standard ALTA group and 4 patients (8.3%) from the endoscopic ALTA group.CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic ALTA sclerotherapy is equivalent to standard ALTA therapy in terms of efficacy, adverse events, and recurrence. Therefore, it is a useful non-surgical option for patients with internal hemorrhoids who prefer a less invasive treatment.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Endoscopy , Hemorrhoids , Humans , Potassium , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sclerotherapy , Tannins
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777537

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinones,dianthrones and tannins are the main active ingredients of Rheum tanguticum. In this study the three components were determined by HPLC,and the results were analyzed by multiple comparisons,principal components analysis(PCA)and correspondence analysis(CA). The results showed that the contents of components in different growing areas and types(wild and cultivated) reached a significant level(P<0. 05). Baiyu county,Xiaojin county and Ruoergai county had obvious advantages in the accumulation of catechin hydrate,rhien and sensenoside A respectively. The principal component was different in two growing type and the wild environment was conducive to combined anthraquinones accumulation. For active components,normalized planting was better than retail cultivating. Therefore,the effect on the accumulation of chemical components in Rh. tangusticum,should be taken into full account in the selection of the cultural base of Rh. tanguticum. The standardized cultivating is superior to retail cultivating in terms of the accumulation of active ingredients,and standardized planting is inferior to the wild.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rheum , Chemistry , Tannins
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Eriobotrya japonica leaves have been studied as a raw material for various cosmetic products, little is known about the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities of Eriobotrya japonica leaf ethanol extract (EJEE). METHODS: This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities of EJEE using different in vitro models. In addition, we investigated the potential irritation of EJEE to skin and eye using animal alternative tests. RESULTS: The total content of polyphenols, one of the active constituents of EJEE, was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and found to contain 88.68 mg tannic acid equivalent/g. EJEE showed a concentration-dependent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and a superoxide dismutase-like activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of 0.5% (w/v) EJEE was demonstrated by a reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in RAW 264.7 cells. EJEE also significantly inhibited melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced B16F1 cells. EJEE did not show any irritation in skin and eye in animal alternative test. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the EJEE possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities, while it did not induce toxicity or irritation in neither skin nor eye. Therefore, EJEE can be used as a cosmetic ingredient for skin improvement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Eriobotrya , Ethanol , In Vitro Techniques , Melanocytes , Nitric Oxide , Polyphenols , Skin , Superoxides , Tannins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
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