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1.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248717

ABSTRACT

El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.


The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.


A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3031-3038, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT High toxicity of the preservatives most frequently used in wood treatment and the resulting risks of handling pose a threat to small producers and to the environment. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the preservative effect of tannic extract on biodeterioration of Acacia mearnsii wood. For this purpose, untreated and preserved specimens, some with tannin extract and some with a preservative mixture based on CCB (Chromated Copper Borate), were submitted to accelerated rotting trials with the fungus that causes white rot (Pycnoporus sanguineus) for 16 weeks. The evaluations were made with a basis on weight loss and chemical components analysis, and they showed that the natural resistance of Acacia wood is moderate when exposed to the white rot fungus. The tannin concentrations showed similar effects to those of the CBB mixture in all evaluations, i.e., they significantly increased the biological resistance of the material, which started to be classified as very resistant to the fungus. Overall, the results suggest that tannin can be considered as a potential natural preservative product.


Subject(s)
Tannins/pharmacology , Wood/drug effects , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Acacia/microbiology , Pycnoporus/drug effects , Pycnoporus/physiology
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2423-2432, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL). Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Bark/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 511-520, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:

Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.

Materials and Methods:

To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed). The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.

Results:

The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.

Conclusion:

The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Oxalate/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sargassum/chemistry , Tannins/pharmacology , Urolithiasis/prevention & control , Calcium Oxalate/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Crystallization , Kidney/drug effects , Magnesium/analysis , Models, Animal , Oxalates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 881-885, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729897

ABSTRACT

A metodologia para doseamento de taninos através de difusão radial desenvolvido por Hagerman (1987) vem sendo utilizada em laboratórios de fitoterápicos devido, principalmente, à sua simplicidade de execução, rapidez e baixo custo; contudo, não há relato na literatura sobre a submissão desta metodologia a um estudo de validação. Baseando-se neste fato, o presente estudo visou validar a metodologia de Difusão Radial para o doseamento de taninos. Todos os parâmetros obrigatórios exigidos pela ANVISA foram avaliados. O método foi considerado linear e com alta sensibilidade de quantificação (27,72 µg/poço). Mostrou-se também robusto e com recuperação aceitável (85,96%). Os resultados obtidos para repetibilidade (intra-corrida) e precisão intermediária (inter-corridas), certificaram a precisão do método, obtendo-se valores entre 1,89 e 7,03%. Para a exatidão, valores entre 100,47 e 105,26% foram obtidos, os quais se encontram dentro dos limites preconizados pela ANVISA. O método foi considerado preciso, exato e reprodutível, além de ser de fácil execução e de baixo custo.


The method to determine tannins by radial diffusion developed by Hagerman (1987) has been explicitly used in herbal laboratories mainly because of its simplicity to implement, speed and low cost; yet, there are no reports in the literature on the submission of this method to a validation study. Based on this fact, this study sought to validate the method of Radial Diffusion in the tannin determination. All mandatory parameters required by ANVISA were evaluated. The method was considered linear and with high sensitivity quantitation (27.72 µg / well). It also showed robust and acceptable recovery (85.96%). The results obtained for repeatability (within-run) and intermediate precision (inter-run) certified the accuracy of the method, obtaining values between 1.89 and 7.03%. For accuracy, values between 100.47 and 105.26% were obtained, which is within the limits recommended by ANVISA. Thus, the method was considered as precise, accurate and reproducible, and is easy to perform and inexpensive.


Subject(s)
Analytical Methods/methods , Diffusion , Tannins/pharmacology , Validation Study
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(1): 127-134, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703733

ABSTRACT

Na medicina natural pouco se sabe sobre a importância curativa da maior parte das espécies pertencentes à Bromeliaceae. Tal fato evidencia a necessidade da realização de investigações para a comprovação de possíveis potenciais fitoterápicos em espécies dessa família. Guzmania lingulata é caracterizada como sendo uma das espécies de bromélia mais comercializada e conhecida popularmente, a qual é amplamente propagada no Brasil. O presente trabalho objetivou a caracterização anatômica e a identificação de classes de metabólitos secundários presentes em G. lingulata, por meio de análises anatômicas, histoquímicas e químicas. As folhas foram fixadas em FAA 50 e transferidas para etanol 50%. Para o estudo anatômico, secções transversais da porção mediana das lâminas foliares foram obtidas à mão livre e submetidas ao processo de dupla coloração com safranina e azul de astra, sendo, logo após, montadas em gelatina glicerinada. Para a triagem das classes de metabólitos secundários foram coletadas 10 folhas frescas que passaram pelo processo de maceração em solução hidroalcoólica 70% por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. O filtrado resultante da filtração a vácuo foi evaporado sob vácuo a temperatura de 50ºC até a remoção total do etanol, sendo obtido desta forma o extrato bruto hidroalcoólico a frio (EBHF). Os resultados das secções histológicas permitiram a caracterização anatômico-foliar baseada na qualidade das secções manuais obtidas. Os testes em relação às classes de metabólitos secundários revelaram a presença de antocianinas e taninos e ausência de flavonóides e saponinas. Esses resultados estimulam a realização de estudos mais aprofundados para identificar e quantificar os compostos dessas e de outras classes de metabólitos.


In natural medicine, little is known about the healing importance of most of the species belonging to the family Bromeliaceae. Such a fact points tothe need to perform investigations toprovethe possible phytotherapic potentials in species of the family. Guzmania lingulata is characterized as one of the most popular well-known and commercialized species of bromeliads, being widely spread in Brazil. This work aimed at the anatomic characterization and identification of classes of the secondary metabolites present in G. lingulata, by anatomic, histochemical and chemical analysis of the leaves. The leaves were fixed in FAA 50 and, afterwards, transferred to 50% ethanol. For the anatomic study, transverse sections of the middleproportion of the leafblades were obtained by hand and exposed to the process of double coloration with safranin and astra blue, being, right after that, mounted on glycerin jelly. For the sorting of the classes of secondary metabolites, 10 fresh leaves were collected and then put through the maceration process in 70% hydroalcoholic solution for 7 days, at room temperature. The resulting filtered solution from the vacuum filtration was evaporated under vacuum at 40ºC until the complete removal of the ethanol, obtaining, this way, the cold crude hydroalcoholic extract (EBHF). The results ofhistological sectionsallowed the anatomical characterization based onthe quality ofthe manual sectionsobtained. The testsin relationto the classes of secondary metabolitesrevealed the presence ofanthocyanins andtannins andabsence of flavonoids and saponins. These results encourage the completionoffurther studies to identify and quantify the compounds of these and other classes of metabolites.


Subject(s)
Bromeliaceae/classification , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Dehydration , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology
8.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 38(3): 245-255, dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712166

ABSTRACT

Products composed of cereal mixes and other ingredients such as guarana, gelatin and cocoa powders; yeast; and soybean, flaxseed and sesame extracts have presented increased sales while receiving ever-growing criticism. Amongst the ingredients that could compose this cereal mix, most are of vegetable origin, wholegrain and not thermally processed. Therefore, they may present anti-nutritional factors, which are recognized to harm the bioavailability of nutrients, such as proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of these products, sold in the municipality of Uberaba, Brazil. The protein digestibility, tannins and trypsin inhibitors of the 14 samples were assessed. All samples showed trypsin inhibition activity and tannins. These results suggest that those products present low potential for nutrient utilization, especially with regards to proteins.


Productos compuestos por mezclas de cereales y otros ingredientes, como guaraná en polvo, gelatina en polvo, cacao en polvo, levadura de cerveza, extracto de soja, linaza y ajonjolí, presentan creciente comercialización, al mismo tiempo que aumentan los cuestionamientos al respecto. Estos productos están compuestos de variados ingredientes, la mayoría de origen vegetal, integral y sin procesamiento térmico previo, y podrían presentar antinutricionales, reconocidamente capaces de perjudicar la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes, tales como las proteínas. Este estudio evaluó la calidad proteica de productos listos para el consumo, compuestos por mezclas de cereales y otros componentes, comercializados en la ciudad de Uberaba-MG, determinando sus niveles antinutricionales y su digestibilidad proteica in vitro. Todas las muestras analizadas presentaron inhibición en la actividad de tripsina y de taninos. Las muestras presentaron muy claramente bajos valores de digestibilidad proteica in vitro. Los resultados sugieren que estos productos presentan bajo potencial de utilización de sus nutrientes, muy especialmente con respecto a sus proteínas.


Misturas de cereais e outros ingredientes, como guaraná em pó, gelatina em pó, cacau em pó, levedo de cerveja, extrato de soja, linhaça e gergelim, vêm apresentando crescente comercialização, concomitantemente com crescentes questionamentos a seu respeito. Dentre os ingredientes variados que podem compor estes produtos, a maioria é de origem vegetal, integral e sem processamento térmico prévio, e poderiam apresentar antinutricionais, reconhecidamente capazes de prejudicar a biodisponibilidade de nutrientes, como proteínas. Este trabalho buscou avaliar a qualidade proteica de produtos prontos para o consumo, compostos por misturas de cereais e outros componentes, comercializados no município de Uberaba-MG, determinando seus teores de antinutricionais e sua digestibilidade proteica in vitro. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram atividade de inibição de tripsina e teores de taninos, e baixa digestibilidade in vitro.


Subject(s)
Edible Grain/classification , Nutritive Value , Protease Inhibitors/analysis , Tannins/pharmacology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(2): 155-160, Apr.-June 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604698

ABSTRACT

Tanniferous plants represent a promising alternative for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. This experiment evaluated the effects of extracts from the leaf and stem of Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa tenuiflora on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus in vitro and verified the role of tannins in this process. Third-stage larvae of H. contortus were incubated with extracts for 3 hours and were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. The extracts were tested at 300 µg.mL-1 and accompanied by controls: phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). The larval exsheathment was evaluated for 60 minutes, and the results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). The six extracts blocked larval exsheathment. After PVPP addition, a tannin inhibitor, the exsheathment percentage was similar to the PBS (p > 0.05), except for L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora leaf extracts. However, pre-incubation with PVPP of these two extracts significantly changed larval exsheathment when compared to the non-treated extracts (p < 0.05). These results suggest that A. colubrina, L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora could be useful in gastrointestinal nematode control and that tannins are probably the main compounds involved in the observed effects. However, in vivo and toxicological studies should be conducted.


Plantas taniníferas representam uma promissora alternativa de controle dos nematóides gastrintestinais de pequenos ruminantes. Esse experimento avaliou in vitro os efeitos dos extratos das folhas e caules de Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala e Mimosa tenuiflora sobre o desembainhamento larvar de Haemonchus contortus e verificou o papel dos taninos nesse processo. Larvas de terceiro estádio de H. contortus foram incubadas com 300 µg.mL-1 de extrato por 3 horas e expostas a uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio. O ensaio foi acompanhado por controles: solução salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS) e polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP). O desembainhamento larvar foi avaliado durante 60 minutos e os resultados submetidos ao teste Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05). Os seis extratos bloquearam o desembainhamento larvar. Após adição de PVPP, um inibidor de taninos, o percentual de desembainhamento foi similar ao PBS (p > 0,05), exceto nos extratos das folhas de L. leucocephala e M. tenuiflora. Entretanto, a pré-incubação desses dois extratos com PVPP alterou significativamente o desembainhamento quando comparado com extratos não-tratados (p < 0,05). Esses resultados sugerem que A. colubrina, L. leucocephala e M. tenuiflora podem ser úteis no controle de nematóides gastrintestinais e que os taninos são provavelmente os principais compostos envolvidos nos efeitos. Contudo, estudos toxicológicos e in vivo são necessários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Haemonchus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 194-200, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3 por cento e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.


INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1 percent uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3 percent uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Insecticides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Tannins/pharmacology , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/ultrastructure , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines , Larva/drug effects , Larva/ultrastructure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Tannins/isolation & purification
11.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2009; 30 (2): 191-195
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-92621

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of resveratrol and tannic acid on apoptosis, and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer [Bak] and fas associated death domain [FADD] proteins in the CaCo-2 cell line. In the present study, resveratrol and tannic acid were administrated in the CaCo-2 cell line at doses of 25, 50, and 100 uM. The CaCo-2 cells were grown and cultured in the Medical Biology Department, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey in 2007. The effects of these agents on apoptotic index were determined by Apop Taq peroxidase kit and their effects on the ratios of Bak and FADD proteins by the immunohistochemical staining method at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Stained and non-stained cells in 30 separate areas of the 3 separate chamber slides, prepared for each group, were counted. The percentage of apoptosis, and Bak and FADD proteins was calculated with the control. Mean +/- standard error values were calculated for the 3 experiments. Apoptotic index, Bak protein percentage ratio, and FADD protein percentage ratio values in all groups that received tannic acid and resveratrol increased when compared within the groups. This increase was found to be time and dose independent in all parameters. Cells undergo apoptosis in 2 pathways [mitochondrial and death receptor] in resveratrol and tannic acid induced CaCo-2 cells


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Tannins/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein , Stilbenes/pharmacology
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Apr; 45(4): 353-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59175

ABSTRACT

Tannic acid is a glucoside (penta-m-digallolyl-glucose), which exhibits a wide variety of physiological functions. Around neutral pH, 0.4 mM tannic acid produced 84% inhibition of rat brush border sucrase activity, but 35-40% enzyme inhibition was observed in the rabbit intestine at 0.08 mM concentration. In the mice, 74-77% enzyme inhibition was observed at 0.05 mM concentration of tannic acid. The observed inhibition was reversible in rat intestine. Tannic acid (0.2 mM) also inhibited lactase (18% in adult and 71% in suckling animals), maltase (76%) and trehalase (88%) activities in rat intestine. pH versus activity curves showed that 0.2 mM tannic acid inhibited enzyme activity in rat by 91% at pH 5.5 which was reduced to 14% at pH 8.5 compared to the respective controls. In the rabbit 18-60% enzyme inhibition was noticed below pH 7.0, however at pH 8.5, it was of the order of 38%. Kinetic analysis revealed that tannic acid is a competitive inhibitor of rat brush border sucrase at pH 6.8. Effect of tannic acid together with various -SH group reacting reagents revealed that the enzyme inhibition is additive in nature, suggesting the distinct nature of binding sites on the enzyme for these compounds. The results suggest that tannic acid is a potent inhibitor of intestinal brush border disaccharidases, and could modulate the intestinal functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disaccharidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Intestines/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microvilli/drug effects , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tannins/pharmacology
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Sep; 38(9): 945-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55860

ABSTRACT

Effect of active tannoid principles of E. officinalis, comprising of emblicanin A (37%), emblicanin B (33%), punigluconin (12%) and pedunculagin (14%), was investigated on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia (TD) induced by once daily administration of haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, ip) for 28 days. Involuntary orofacial movements (chewing movements, buccal tremors and tongue protusion) were assessed as TD parameters. The tannoid principles of E. officinalis (EOT) were administered concomitantly with haloperidol in the doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, po, for 28 days. Sodium valproate (200 mg/kg, po), a Gaba-mimetic agent, and vitamin E (400 mg/kg, po), an antioxidant, were used as the standard drugs and administered for the same period. EOT induced a dose-related inhibition of all the three TD parameters assessed, as did vitamin E. The effect of sodium valproate remained statistically insignificant. The results suggest that EOT exerts a prophylactive effect against neuroleptic-induced TD which is likely to be due to its earlier reported antioxidant effects in rat brain areas, including striatum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/prevention & control , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Haloperidol/pharmacology , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tannins/pharmacology , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology
14.
Rev. ciênc. farm ; 17: 139-45, 1996. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-198464

ABSTRACT

Säo descritas as principais características morfo-histológicas e químicas da espécie Schirus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira), com vistas ao seu reconhecimento laboratorial como droga. As folhas e as cascas revelaram-se ricas em taninos e em óleo essencial. Saponinas ocorrem restritas às cascas. A composiçäo fenólica das cascas é diferente da composiçäo fenólica das folhas


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology
15.
Rev. ciênc. farm ; 10: 101-6, 1988.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-167842

ABSTRACT

Com o nome de barbatimäo säo conhecidas várias plantas taníferas pertencentes às Leguminosas. Entre elas, destaca-se Stryphnodendron barbadetiman (Vellozo) Martius, espécie nativa do Brasil, que ocorre, principalmente, nos campos cerrados. Empregando-se o método de Linde e Teufer, modificado por WASICKI (18), verificam-se, na casca dessa espécie, cerca de 25 a 30 por cento de tanino. Em funçäo do alto teor desse princípio, constataram-se, experimentalmente, a atividade cicatrizante de decocto da casca referida espécie. Para a verificaçäo dessa propriedade, foram utilizados camundongos depilados no dorso em áreas delimitadas, onde se praticaram incisöes. Os animais foram separados, ao acaso, em dois grupos: I-controle; II-pincelados nas lesöes com o decocto da casca a 1 por cento. O processo cicatricial evoluiu mais rapidamente nos animais tratados com o decocto, acima mencionado


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Wound Healing , Skin/injuries , Stryphnodendron barbatimam , Tannins/pharmacology
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