Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 95
Filter
1.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 339-349, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA),cognitive screening is complicated by both cultural and educational factors, and the existing normative values may not be applicable. The Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen is a low-literacy measure with good diagnostic accuracy for dementia. Objective: The aim of this study is to report normative values for IDEA and other simple measures [i.e., categorical verbal fluency, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) 10-word list] in representative community-dwelling older adults in SSA. Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years resident in 12 representative villages in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and individuals aged ≥65 years resident within three communities in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria underwent cognitive screening. The normative data were generated by the categories of age, sex, and education. Results: A total of 3,011 people in Tanzania (i.e., 57.3% females and 26.4% uneducated) and 1,117 in Nigeria (i.e., 60.3% females and 64.5% uneducated) were screened. Individuals with higher age, lower education, and female gender obtained lower scores. The 50th decile values for IDEA were 13 (60-64 years) vs. 8/9 (above 85 years), 10-11 uneducated vs. 13 primary educated, and 11/12 in females vs. 13 in males. The normative values for 10-word list delayed recall and categorical verbal fluency varied with education [i.e., delayed recall mean 2.8 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] uneducated vs. 4.2 (SD 1.2) secondary educated; verbal fluency mean 9.2 (SD 4.8) uneducated vs. 12.2 (SD 4.3) secondary educated], substantially lower than published high-income country values. Conclusions: The cut-off values for commonly used cognitive screening items should be adjusted to suit local normative values, particularly where there are lower levels of education.


RESUMO Na África Subsaariana (ASS), a triagem cognitiva é complicada por fatores culturais e educacionais, além dos valores normativos existentes poderem não ser aplicáveis. O rastreio cognitivo Identification of Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) é uma medida para níveis baixos de alfabetização com boa acurácia diagnóstica para demência. Objetivo: Relatar os valores normativos para a IDEA e outras medidas simples (fluência verbal categórica, a lista de 10 palavras do Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) em idosos residentes na comunidade, representativos da ASS. Métodos: Indivíduos com idade ≥60 residentes em 12 comunidades representativas em Kilimanjaro, Tanzânia e indivíduos com idade ≥65 anos residentes em três comunidades na área governamental de Akinyele, Estado de Oyo, Nigéria, foram submetidos à triagem cognitiva. Os dados normativos foram gerados por faixas etárias, sexo e escolaridade. Resultados: Um total de 3.011 pessoas na Tanzânia (57,3% mulheres, 26,4% sem educação) e 1.117 na Nigéria (60,3% mulheres, 64,5% sem educação) foram examinadas. Os indivíduos com idade mais alta, menor escolaridade e mulheres obtiveram escores mais baixos. Os valores do percentil 50 para a IDEA foram 13 (60-64 anos) vs. 8/9 (85+ anos), 10-11 para analfabetos vs. 13 com educação primária e 11/12 em mulheres vs. 13 em homens. Os valores normativos para a evocação tardia da lista de 10 palavras e a fluência verbal categórica variaram com a educação (evocação tardia 2,8 (SD 1,7) para os sem educação, vs. 4,2 (SD 1,2) para com educação secundária; fluência verbal 9,2 (DP 4,8) para os sem educação vs. 12,2 (SD 4.3) para os com ensino médio, substancialmente inferior aos valores publicados em países de alta renda. Conclusões: Os valores de corte para testes de triagem cognitiva comumente usados devem ser ajustados para se adequar aos valores normativos locais, particularmente em níveis baixos de educação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Cognition , Education , Tanzania , Africa South of the Sahara , Nigeria
2.
African Journal of Health Sciences ; 34(4): 451-463, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1337579

ABSTRACT

Every year more than 20 million neonates worldwide are born with low birth weight (LBW) per year. Ninety-five percent of LBW births occur in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine Immediate Seven Day Outcomes and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight Neonates at Referral Hospitals in Mwanza City. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a hospital based observational prospective cohort study of neonates with LBW whom were followed up for seven days in the neonatal wards at referral hospitals in Mwanza city. Maternal social-demographic, newborns clinical data and vitality outcomes were collected. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized and presented in tables or bar charts. Any p-value of < 0.05, at 95% confidence interval was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS Total of 200 neonates with median age of 0.8 days at baseline were enrolled. Amongst 148 (74 %) had prolonged hospitalization; due to sickness 88 (59%), and 60 (40%) due to poor weight gain. Whereas, the remaining 42 (21%) were discharged and 10 (5%) died within seven days. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with family income (p-value= <0.001) and place of delivery (p-value = <0.001). African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 34, Issue No.4, July- August 2021 452 Neonatal death was associated with family income (p-value =0.035) and birth weight (p-value = 0.019). Early discharge associated with gestational age at first antenatal visit, family income, mode of delivery, APGAR score at one minute, time interval between delivery and admission and timing of medication initiation. CONCLUSION LBW neonates are at high risk of death and prolonged hospitalization due to sickness or due to poor weight gain. Associated factors of these outcomes were family income, place of delivery, birth weight, gestation age during first antenatal visit, mode of delivered and low APGAR score.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy Outcome , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Tanzania , Infant, Low Birth Weight
3.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268661

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the current COVID-19 pandemic has occasioned the increased adoption of telemedicine. This study reports the uptake and trend of a new teleconsultation service in a Tanzanian hospital. Methods: this is a retrospective observational study that profiled requests for teleconsultations and uptake of the service between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Results: two hundred and eighteen telephone inquiries were received over the 3 months. One hundred and sixteen (53.2%) individuals followed through with the teleconsultations. Paediatric (38.8%) and Internal medicine (32.8%) were the subspecialties with the highest number of teleconsultations. In a frame of 3 months, teleconsultation uptake was highest in May and lowest in June. Conclusion: there was a steady rise and a rapid fall in requests and uptake of teleconsultation services over the period under evaluation. Lack of insurance coverage for teleconsultations was a significant barrier. We propose a re-education and reiteration of the benefits of telemedicine to all stakeholders. This is important for the current era and beyond


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Tanzania , Telemedicine , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
South Sudan med. j ; 13(3): 86-89, 2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272133

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries.Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with neonatal sepsis among hospitalized new-borns at Ruvuma, southern Tanzania.Methods: A facility-based retrospective study was conducted at Songea Regional Referral hospital in Ruvuma, during August-October, 2018. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographic, obstetric and clinical information from medical case files of patients. Neonatal sepsis was diagnosed clinically. Data were analysed using SPSS version 24.0. Chi square test was used to assess relationship between outcome and exposure variables. Multivariate logistic regression was used to measure association after controlling for confounders, and P-values of <0.05 were statistically significant.Results: Medical case files of 263 neonates were reviewed. Of these, 131(49.8%) had sepsis. Factors associated with neonatal sepsis were prematurity (AOR=2.2; 95%CI. 1.3 ­ 3.6, p=0.002), age of more than a week (AOR=2.2; 95%CI. 1.0 ­ 4.6, p=0.04), intravenous cannulation after birth (AOR=6.3; 95%CI. 2.1 ­ 19.0, p=0.002), and resuscitation with nasal oxygen prongs (AOR=1.7; 95%CI. 1.1 ­ 2.9, p=0.02).Conclusions: Neonatal sepsis is relatively common among neonates in Ruvuma and is associated with maternal and health services related factors. The findings underscore the importance of routine assessment and close monitoring of neonates


Subject(s)
Child, Hospitalized , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/mortality , Risk Factors , Tanzania
5.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258606

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The World Health Organization's (WHO) Basic Emergency Care Course (BEC) is a five day, inperson course covering basic assessment and life-saving interventions. We developed two novel adjuncts for the WHO BEC: a suite of clinical cases (BEC-Cases) to simulate patient care and a mobile phone application (BECApp) for reference. The purpose was to determine whether the use of these educational adjuncts in a flipped classroom approach improves knowledge acquisition and retention among healthcare workers in a low-resource setting. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cohort study from October 2017 through February 2018 at two district hospitals in the Pwani Region of Tanzania. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact t-tests, and Wilcoxon ranked-sum tests were used to examine whether the use of these adjuncts resulted in improved learner knowledge. Participants were enrolled based on location into two arms; Arm 1 received the BEC course and Arm 2 received the BEC-Cases and BEC-App in addition to the BEC course. Both Arms were tested before and after the BEC course, as well as a 7-month follow-up exam. All participants were invited to focus groups on the course and adjuncts. Results: A total of 24 participants were included, 12 (50%) of whom were followed to completion. Mean pre-test scores in Arm 1 (50%) were similar to Arm 2 (53%) (p=0.52). Both arms had improved test scores after the BEC Course Arm 1 (74%) and Arm 2 (87%), (p=0.03). At 7-month follow-up, though with significant participant loss to follow up, Arm 1 had a mean follow-up exam score of 66%, and Arm 2, 74%. Discussion: Implementation of flipped classroom educational adjuncts for the WHO BEC course is feasible and may improve healthcare worker learning in low resource settings. Our focus- group feedback suggest that the course and adjuncts are user friendly and culturally appropriate


Subject(s)
Educational Status , Emergency Medical Services/education , Point-of-Care Testing , Tanzania , World Health Organization
6.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258620

ABSTRACT

Background:Appropriate referrals of injured patients could improve clinical outcomes and management ofhealthcare resources. To gain insights for system development, we interrogated the current situation by assessingburden, patient demography, causes of injury, trauma mortality and the care-process.Methods:We used an observational, cross-sectional study design and convenience sampling to review patientcharts from 3 major hospitals and the death registry in Tanzania.Results:Injury constitutes 9­13% of the Emergency Centre census. Inpatient trauma-deaths were 8%; however,the trauma death registryfigures exceeded the'inpatient deaths'and recorded up to 16%. Most patients arrivethrough a hospital referral system (82%) and use a hospital transport network (76%). Only 8% of the traumaadmissions possessed National Health Insurance. Road traffic collision (RTC) (69%), assault (20%) and falls (9%)were the leading causes of injury. The care process revealed a normal primary-survey rate of 73­90%.Deficiencies in recording were in the assessment of: Airway and breathing (67%), circulation (40%) and dis-ability (80%). Most patients had non-operative management (42­57%) or surgery for wound care or skeletalinjuries (43%). Laparotomies were performed in 26%, while craniotomy and chest drain-insertion were eachperformed in 10%.Conclusion:The burden of trauma is high, and the leading causes are: RTC, assault, and falls. Deaths recorded inthe death registries outweigh in-hospital deaths for up to twofold. There are challenges in the care process,funding and recording. We found a functional hospital referral-network, transport system, and death registry


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Global Health , Quality of Health Care , Tanzania , Wounds and Injuries
7.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 98(8): 530-538, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259950

ABSTRACT

Objective. To determine the proportion of essential and non-essential antimicrobial medicines that are registered on the drug registers in Kenya, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania.Methods We categorized all antimicrobials on the national drug registers and essential medicines lists of the three countries using the British National Formulary. We also categorized all antibiotics according to the World Health Organization access, watch and reserve (AWaRe) classification. We calculated the proportions of essential and non-essential antimicrobials that were registered by antimicrobial class and AWaRe classification. Findings In 2018, Kenya had 2105 registered antimicrobials, Uganda had 1563 and the United Republic of Tanzania had 1327. Of these medicines, 1353 (64.3%) were non-essential in Kenya, 798 (51.1%) in Uganda and 706 (53.2%) in the United Republic of Tanzania. Kenya had 160 antimicrobials on its national essential medicines lists, Uganda had 187 and the United Republic of Tanzania had 182; of these, 33 (20.7%), 50 (26.7%) and 52 (28.6%) were not registered, respectively. High proportions of antimycobacterial and antiparasitic medicines were not registered. Of essential access antibiotics, 14.3% (4/28) were not registered in Kenya, 8.6% (3/35) in Uganda and 20.5% (8/39) in the United Republic of Tanzania, nor were 25.0% (3/12) of watch antibiotics in Kenya, 14.3% (2/14) in Uganda and 19.1% (4/21) in the United Republic of Tanzania. Conclusion Suboptimal registration of essential antimicrobials and over-registration of non-essential antimicrobials may encourage inappropriate use, especially since non-essential antimicrobials do not appear on national treatment guidelines. Countries should prioritize registration of the antimicrobial medicines on their essential medicines lists


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Drugs, Essential , Kenya , Tanzania , Uganda
8.
South Sudan med. j ; 12(1): 5-8, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272105

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions occur at any age. An increasing occurrence has made these tumours a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Objective: To determine the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment modalities of orofacial tumours and tumourlike lesions in children at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods: Children aged below 18 years with orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and clinically examined. The data were analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value of < 0.05. Results: 121 children aged 4 days to 17 years (mean= 8.56 years ±5.5 SD), 52.1 % being male, participated in the study. The age groups 0-5 years (38%) and 11-15 years (28.1%) were most affected- p-value 0.38. The majority (86%) of the lesions were benign; haemangioma was the most (16.4%) common benign tumour. Dentigerous cyst was the most (7.8%) frequent tumour-like lesion observed, while Burkitt's lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma were the most common malignant lesions. Swelling was the most common clinical feature in all tumours and tumour-like lesions and surgery was the most common treatment. Conclusion: Benign orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions were the types most commonly seen among children in Tanzania


Subject(s)
Child , Neoplasms/mortality , Tanzania
9.
South Sudan med. j ; 12(4): 121-123, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272121

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Tanzania and poses a risk when women give birth.Objective: To determine the association between FGM and perineal injury among women in labour in DodomaMethods: A matched case-control study of 364 randomly selected consenting women in labour was conducted in Dodoma Region between January 2017 and June 2018. Controls (no perineal injury) were matched to the cases (with perineal injury) based on maternal age at a ratio 2:1 making a sample of 243 controls and 121 cases. FGM and perineal injury was directly observed during labour using WHO guidelines. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 20 for Window (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Frequency tables were generated and bivariate analyses were conducted. The association between FGM and perineal injury was determined using chi-squared statistics.Results: Of the 364 women were investigated 40.4% (n=147) were circumcised and 59.6% (n=217) were not. There was a significant association between FGM and perineal injury (p=0.001).Conclusion: The FGM rate was high. FGM (total and Type II) was significantly associated with perineal injury


Subject(s)
Circumcision, Female , Labor, Obstetric , Tanzania , Women
10.
South Sudan med. j ; 12(4): 128-130, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272123

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is variation in the size, shape and position of tympanic membrane perforations; the degree of conductive hearing loss depends on the size and position of perforation.Objective: To determine the pattern and causes of tympanic membrane perforation at a private health facility in TanzaniaMethod: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in the ENT clinic at Ekenywa Specialised Hospital was conducted from January to May 2019. Ears were examined thoroughly by an Otorhinolaryngologist. Data were analysed using SPSS Version 21Results: Two hundred and fifty patients were examined and 50 (20%) were found to have tympanic membrane perforations. Thirty (60%) were new patients while twenty (40%) were under review. Most 35(70%) were males. Central perforation predominated in 30 (60%), followed by subtotal in 10 (20%), total in 8 (16%) and marginal perforations in 2 (4%). The left ear was more affected in (60%) than the right ear. Bilateral perforations accounted for 5 (10%) of cases. Chronic suppurative otitis media was found in 35 (70%); other causes were acute suppurative otitis media in 13 (26%) and trauma in 2 (4%) patientsConclusions: The clinical picture depicted in this study is similar to that found elsewhere. There is a need for prompt diagnosis of tympanic membrane perforation. Proper education on ear care in patients with perforated tympanic membrane is of paramount importance


Subject(s)
Causality , Health Facilities , Patients , Tanzania , Tympanic Membrane Perforation
11.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258522

ABSTRACT

Zanzibar is part of the United Republic of Tanzania with high levels of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women's awareness on obstetric danger signs and early seeking of medical care is the first intervention in reduction of maternal deaths. This study explored awareness of danger signs among women of reproductive age in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. A community-based qualitative study using focus group discussions among women of reproductive age was conducted to explore awareness of danger signs between March and April 2016. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The study found that women were aware of danger signs during pregnancy but not during the post-delivery period. The mentioned danger signs during pregnancy included vaginal bleeding, fits, swelling of the legs and leaking of vagina fluid. Some women still believed that danger signs during pregnancy and post-delivery period were due to witchcraft leading to consultations with traditional healers and hence delays in seeking skilled medical care. In this context of misconceptions and cultural beliefs there should be investment in health education on danger signs to the community in general with involvement of traditional birth attendants and traditional healers who might play a role in advising and referring women with danger signs to the health facilities for care


Subject(s)
Awareness , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Tanzania , Women
12.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258542

ABSTRACT

The Saving Mothers Project was conducted from September 2015 to March 2017 in Bunda and Tarime Districts, Mara Region, Tanzania. The purpose of this project was to train community health workers (CHWs) to use mobile phones applications to register and educate pregnant women about safe deliveries and encourage them to access skilled health care providers for antenatal care and delivery, and to provide nurses and CHWs with clean birth kits with misoprostol to distribute to women. The birth kits were for use in case women could not access the health facility, or if the health facility was lacking supplies at the time of delivery. The overall goal of the study was to reduce the maternal mortality rate by increasing women's access to health services where possible, and to clean supplies when a non-facility birth was unavoidable. This paper reports on a mixed methods evaluation of the project including a survey of over two thousand four hundred women, and focus groups with women, community health workers, and nurses participating in the project. The results of the survey and focus groups demonstrate a high degree of satisfaction with the birth kits and misoprostol and an increase in facility birth rates where the project was implemented. Differences between the two districts illustrate that policy maker support is key to successful implementation


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Parturition , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Schools, Nursery/mortality , Tanzania
13.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258710

ABSTRACT

Introduction The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial and growing. Much remains to be learned about the relative burden of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, and stroke on emergency departments and hospital admissions.Methods A retrospective chart review of admissions from September 2017 through March 2018 was conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care center in northern Tanzania. Stroke admission volume was compared to previously published data from the same hospital and adjusted for population growth. Results Of 2418 adult admissions, heart failure and stroke were the two most common admission diagnoses, accounting for 294 (12.2%) and 204 (8.4%) admissions, respectively.ACS was uncommon, accounting for 9 (0.3%) admissions. Of patients admitted for heart failure, uncontrolled hypertension was the most commonly identified etiology of heart failure, cited in 124 (42.2%) cases. Ischemic heart disease was cited as the etiology in only 1 (0.3%) case. Adjusting for population growth, the annual volume of stroke admissions increased 70-fold in 43 years, from 2.9 admissions per 100,000 population in 1974 to 202.2 admissions per 100,000 in 2017.Conclusions :The burden of heart failure and stroke on hospital admissions in Tanzania is substantial, and the volume of stroke admissions is rising precipitously. ACS is a rare diagnosis, and the distribution of cardiovascular disease phenotypes in Tanzania differs from what has been observed outside of Africa. Further research is needed to ascertain the reasons for these differences


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Failure , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Tanzania
14.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 97(3): 200-212, 2019.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259938

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess adoption of World Health Organization (WHO) guidance into national policies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to monitor implementation of guidelines at facility level in rural Malawi, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania. Methods : We summarized national PMTCT policies and WHO guidance for 15 indicators across the cascades of maternal and infant care over 2013­2016. Two survey rounds were conducted (2013­2015 and 2015­2016) in 46 health facilities serving five health and demographic surveillance system populations. We administered structured questionnaires to facility managers to describe service delivery. We report the proportions of facilities implementing each indicator and the frequency and durations of stock-outs of supplies, by site and survey round.Findings In all countries, national policies influencing the maternal and infant PMTCT cascade of care aligned with WHO guidelines by 2016; most inter-country policy variations concerned linkage to routine HIV care. The proportion of facilities delivering post-test counselling, same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, antenatal care and ART provision in the same building, and Option B+ increased or remained at 100% in all sites. Progress in implementing policies on infant diagnosis and treatment varied across sites. Stock-outs of HIV test kits or antiretroviral drugs in the past year declined overall, but were reported by at least one facility per site in both rounds. Conclusion Progress has been made in implementing PMTCT policy in these settings. However, persistent gaps across the infant cascade of care and supply-chain challenges, risk undermining infant HIV elimination goals


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/legislation & jurisprudence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Malawi , Pregnant Women , South Africa , Tanzania
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758903

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most important livestock diseases in East Africa with outbreaks reported annually that cause severe economic losses. It is possible to control disease using vaccination, but antigenic matching of the vaccine to circulating strains is critical. To determine the relationship between foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in districts along the Uganda and Tanzanian border between 2016 and 2017 and currently used vaccines, phylogenetic analysis of the full VP1 virus sequences was carried out on samples collected from both sides of the border. A total of 43 clinical samples were collected from animals exhibiting signs of FMD and VP1 sequences generated from 11 of them. Eight out of the 11 sequences obtained belonged to serotype O and three belonged to serotype A. The serotype O sequences obtained showed limited nucleotide divergence (average of 4.9%) and belonged to topotype East Africa-2, whereas the most common O-type vaccine strain used in the region (O/KEN/77/78) belonged to East Africa-1. The serotype A viruses belonged to topotype Africa-G1 (average nucleotide divergence 7.4%), as did vaccine strain K5/1980. However, vaccine strain K35/1980 belonged to Africa G VII with an average sequence divergence of 20.5% from the study sequences. The genetic distances between current vaccine strains and circulating field strains underscores the crucial need for regular vaccine matching and the importance of collaborative efforts for better control of FMD along this border area.


Subject(s)
Africa , Africa, Eastern , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Livestock , Serogroup , Tanzania , Uganda , Vaccination , Vaccines
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763017

ABSTRACT

β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by α-, and γ-secretase at plasma membrane producing soluble ectodomain fragment (sAPPα). Alternatively, following endocytosis, APP is cleaved by β-, and γ-secretase at early endosomes generating β-amyloid (Aβ), the main culprit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, APP endocytosis is critical for Aβ production. Recently, we reported that Monsonia angustifolia, the indigenous vegetables consumed in Tanzania, improved cognitive function and decreased Aβ production. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, on Aβ production. We found that justicidin A reduced endocytosis of APP, increasing sAPPα level, while decreasing Aβ level in HeLa cells overexpressing human APP with the Swedish mutation. The effect of justicidin A on Aβ production was blocked by endocytosis inhibitors, indicating that the decreased APP endocytosis by justicidin A is the underlying mechanism. Thus, justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, may be a novel agent for AD treatment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cell Membrane , Cognition , Endocytosis , Endosomes , HeLa Cells , Humans , Tanzania , Vegetables
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786638

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Hyaenidae , Intestines , Male , NADH Dehydrogenase , Panthera , Spirometra , Tanzania , Vagina
18.
Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology ; 10(11): 387-394, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264470

ABSTRACT

Malaria is one among four main infectious diseases leading in death for the under-five children in Africa. This study aim to determine prevalence of malaria and social demographic factors related with children under-five in Tanzania. The study used cross section data extracted from Tanzania demographic health survey collected from 2015 to 2016. A sample of 9,322 under five children with malaria rapid diagnostic test results was obtained from 10,899 households. Complimentary log-log model was used to determine factors associated with malaria among children under five years. The study reveals that malaria prevalence increases with increase in age, varies with place and zone of residence, being highest to the rural areas compared to urban. Complementary log-log model estimates has also indicated that Western zone was having a highest mean occurrence of children with malaria compared to all other zones whereas Zanzibar (Adjusted Parameter estimates = -4.521, CI: -5.92,-3.13) was having a lowest mean occurrence compared to Western zone and all other zones. The risk of malaria among under-five children was positively related with family wealth index. The results show that malaria decreases with an increase in wealth. Other explanatory variables which include; child sex, mother's age, marital status and education level, as well as mosquito net ownership were not statistically significant associated with malaria at 5% level. Therefore children's age, place of residence, zone of residence and wealth index are significant predictors of malaria in Tanzania. Particular emphasis on education and interventions across the groups need to be prioritized for continued improvements in targeting high prevalent areas to reduce malaria risks, especially to the children under-five years


Subject(s)
Infant , Malaria , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Nets , Tanzania
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742259

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed with morphological and molecular analysis (cox1 and nad1 mitochondrial genes) to identify the proglottids of spirometrid tapeworm found in the stool of an African lion, Panthera leo, in the Serengeti plain of Tanzania. A strand of tapeworm strobila, about 75 cm in length, was obtained in the stool of a male African lion in the Serengeti National Park (34° 50′ E, 02° 30′ S), Tanzania, in February 2012. The morphological features of the adult worm examined exhibited 3 uterine coils with a bow tie appearance and adopted a diagonal direction in the second turn. The posterior uterine coils are larger than terminal uterine ball and the feature of uteri are swirling rather than spirally coiling. The sequence difference between the Spirometra species (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) was 9.4% while those of S. decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679) differed by 2.1% in the cox1 and nad1 genes. Phylogenetic tree topologies generated using the 2 analytic methods were identical and presented high level of confidence values for the 3 major branches of the 3 Spirometra species in the cox1 gene. The morphological and molecular findings obtained in this study were nearly coincided with those of S. ranarum. Therefore, we can know for the first time that the African lion, Panthera leo, is to the definitive host of this tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cestoda , Humans , Lions , Male , Panthera , Parks, Recreational , Spirometra , Tanzania , Trees , Uterus
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742244

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to disclose the prevalence rate of tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from cattle and wild animals in Tanzania in 2012. Ticks were collected from slaughtered cattle and dead wild animals from November 5 to December 23, 2012 and identified. PCR for detecting Anaplasmataceae, Piroplamidae, Rickettsiaceae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella spp. were done. Among those tested, Rickettsiaceae, Piroplasmidae, and Anaplasmataceae, were detected in ticks from the 2 regions. Rickettsiaceae represented the major tick-borne pathogens of the 2 regions. Ticks from animals in Maswa were associated with a higher pathogen detection rate compared to that in ticks from Iringa. In addition, a higher pathogen detection rate was observed in ticks infesting cattle than in ticks infesting wild animals. All examined ticks of the genus Amblyomma were infected with diverse pathogens. Ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were infected with 1 or 2 pathogens. Collectively, this study provides important information regarding differences in pathogen status among various regions, hosts, and tick species in Tanzania. Results in this study will affect the programs to prevent tick-borne diseases (TBD) of humans and livestock in Tanzania.


Subject(s)
Anaplasmataceae , Animals , Animals, Wild , Borrelia , Cattle , Coxiella , Humans , Livestock , Piroplasmida , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsiaceae , Tanzania , Tick-Borne Diseases , Ticks
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL