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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3485-3497, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981499

ABSTRACT

In order to establish the standardized processing technology of the hot water washing of Euodiae Fructus, this study, based on the traditional processing method of hot water washing of Euodiae Fructus recorded in ancient works and modern processing specifications of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces, took the yield of decoction pieces and the content of main components as the indicators and optimized the processing conditions by orthogonal test based on the results of single factor investigation. At the same time, electronic tongue technology was used to analyze the change law of the taste index of Euodiae Fructus during the hot water washing. The results of the single factor investigation showed that the content of the main components in Euodiae Fructus showed some regular changes during the processing. Specifically, the content of chlorogenic acid, hyperin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, and dehydroevodiamine decreased significantly, with average decreases of-23.75%,-27.80%,-14.04%,-14.03%, and-13.11%, respectively. The content of limonin increased significantly with an average increase of 19.83%. The content of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, evocarpine, and dihydroevocarpine showed fluctuating changes and generally increased, with average variation amplitudes of 0.54%,-3.78%, 2.69%, and 5.13%, respectively. The orthogonal test results showed that the optimum processing parameters for the hot water washing of Euodiae Fructus were as follows: washing time of 2 min, the solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶10 g·mL~(-1), washing temperature of 80 ℃, washing once, and drying at 50 ℃. After the hot water washing processing, the average yield of Euodiae Fructus pieces was 94.80%. The content of limonin, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine was higher than those of raw pro-ducts, and the average transfer rates were 102.56%, 103.15%, and 105.16%, respectively. The content of dehydroevodiamine was lower than that of the raw products, and the average transfer rate was 83.04%. The results of taste analysis showed that the hot water washing could significantly reduce the salty, astringent, and bitter tastes of Euodiae Fructus. This study revealed the influence of the hot water washing on the content of main components and taste of Euodiae Fructus, and the processing technology of the hot water was-hing of Euodiae Fructus established in this study was stable, feasible, and suitable for industrial production, which laid a foundation for clarifying its processing principle and improving the quality standard and clinical application value of decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Taste , Limonins , Technology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
2.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Univ. Antioq ; 34(1): 31-36, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394660

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fibrolipoma, a benign soft tissue adipose tumor, is a histological variant of lipoma. Clinically, it presents as a painless slow-growing mass, indistinguishable from other benign soft tissue tumors. In the oral cavity, it is mainly encountered in the buccal mucosa. Involvement of the palate is very rare; it accounts for around 7-14% of all oral fibrolipomas. In this article, we describe a case of fibrolipoma in the hard palate of a 70-year-old female, who presented with an asymptomatic pedunculated mass, characterized by a normal-colored and smooth surface, which have been present for 20 years. The lesion was excised, and histopathological study revealed a fibrolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 17 cases occurring in the palate have been reported in the literature. Since fibrolipoma presents clinical similarities with other benign soft tissue neoplasms, a thorough clinical examination and histopathological analysis are essential for obtaining diagnosis.


Resumen El fibrolipoma es una neoplasia benigna de tejido adiposo, variante histológica del lipoma. Clínicamente se presenta como una tumoración de crecimiento lento, asintomática, indistinguible de otras neoplasias benignas de tejidos blandos. En cavidad oral se presenta principalmente en la mucosa yugal. El paladar es un sitio infrecuente, comprende del 7 al 14% de todos los fibrolipomas. En este reporte, describimos un caso de fibrolipoma de paladar duro en una mujer de 70 años de edad, que presentó una tumoración pediculada, asintomática, de superficie lisa, del mismo color de la mucosa adyacente, con un tiempo de evolución de 20 años. La lesión fue extirpada, y el estudio histopatológico reveló un fibrolipoma. En nuestro conocimiento, se han reportado en la literatura únicamente 17 casos de fibrolipoma de paladar. Siendo que el fibrolipoma presenta similitud clínica con otras neoplasias benignas de tejidos blandos, un examen clínico detallado, así como el estudio histopatológico son esenciales en la obtención del diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Lipoma , Mouth , Taste
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-8, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393172

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactic fermentations are a catabolic process in which biochemical transformations of different organic products occur. Sugars are mainly converted into organic acids, increasing viscosity, acid taste, aroma, and flavor. Lactic acid bacteria provide probiotic characteristics if they reach counts of 106 CFU*g-1 (Colony Forming Units) in the final product, which can generate wellness for consumers. Objective: This research aimed to compare the lactic fermentation process in three substrates using two commercial cultures. Methods: Whole milk (control), aqueous extract of oats flakes, and an aqueous extract of a mixture of oats flakes with mashua pulp were used. The whole milk was heated, and the aqueous extracts were prepared. All samples were divided into two parts, keeping the temperature at 42°C, and then inoculated with Yomix y Choozit. Each the fermentation lasted 6 hours at 42°C. Fermentation samples were taken each hour, and pH, titratable acidity. and Brix degrees were determined. Results: Total lactic acid bacteria were counted at the end of each fermentation. The final product was evaluated with sensory analysis. As expected, there was an increase in titratable acidity, and a decreased pH and Brix degrees. It was observed that the dairy product showed the most significant changes. Fermentations performed with Yomix presented a higher count of lactic bacteria. Conclusion: It is possible to carry out lactic fermentation using substrates that do not contain milk, requiring higher initial soluble solids and a longer incubation time


Antecedentes: Las fermentaciones lácticas son un proceso catabólico en el que ocurren transformaciones bioquímicas de diferentes productos orgánicos. En ellas, los azúcares son convertidos principalmente en ácidos orgánicos, generando adicionalmente el aumento de viscosidad, sabor ácido, aromas y sabores en los productos finales. Adicionalmente, aportan características probióticas, ya que son realizadas por bacterias lácticas, que, si alcanzan recuentos de 106 UFC*g-1 (Unidades formadoras de colonias) en el producto final, generan bienestar para los consumidores. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el proceso de fermentación láctica en tres sustratos utilizando dos cultivos comerciales. Métodos: Se utilizó leche entera (control), extracto acuoso de hojuelas de avena y un extracto acuoso de mezcla de hojuelas de avena con pulpa de cubios. Se llevó a cabo el calentamiento de la leche entera, y la preparación de los sustratos de avena y cubios. Dichas muestras se dividieron en dos partes, manteniendo la temperatura a 42°C. Cada una de las muestras fue inoculada con Yomix y Choozit. Cada fermentación duró 6 horas manteniendo una temperatura de 42°C. Durante cada hora se tomaron muestras, a las cuales se evaluó el pH, acidez titulable y grados brix. En los productos finales se realizó el recuento de bacterias lácticas y se realizó una evaluación sensorial. Resultados: A lo largo de la fermentación se presentó el aumento de la acidez titulable, y disminución del pH y los grados Brix. Se observó que el producto a base de leche mostró los cambios más significativos. En el caso de los productos obtenidos usando Yomix, presentaron mayor recuento de bacterias lácticas al ser comparados con aquellos en los que se usó el cultivo 1. Conclusión: Es posible realizar la fermentación láctica usando sustratos que no contengan leche, los cuales requieren mayores sólidos solubles iníciales y un mayor tiempo de incubación


Subject(s)
Avena , Milk , Fermentation , Food Technology/methods , Taste , Viscosity
4.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 66(1): 01022105, 20220101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425013

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O conhecimento de alterações gustativas pode contribuir para prevenção de doenças nutricionais, além de melhora significativa na qualidade de vida. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo geral verificar as alterações de paladar percebidas por pessoas que fazem uso de psicofármacos atendidas em serviço de saúde pública especializado em saúde mental. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico observacional transversal com 18 pessoas com diagnóstico de transtornos mentais em tratamento no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial em Tubarão/ SC. Uma Escala Likert com cinco níveis foi utilizada para avaliar a autopercepção do paladar, enquanto a percepção do paladar foi verificada utilizando os quatro sabores básicos do paladar: salgado, doce, azedo e amargo em três diferentes concentrações: fraca, média e forte. Os resultados foram analisados de forma descritiva, inferência estatística e teste qui-quadrado, considerando-se p<0,05. Resultados: A média de idade foi 42,8 anos (EP ± 3,22), com média de utilização dos psicofármacos de 11,28 meses (EP ± 2,27). Associação entre as variáveis substâncias e psicofármacos foi estatisticamente significativa entre azedo, nas três concentrações, e amargo na concentração forte com Citalopram (p= 0,001 e 0, 0034). O sabor doce foi o mais facilmente observado pelos participantes que faziam uso da Risperidona, onde somente a solução na concentração fraca apresentou resultado estaticamente significativo (p= 0,026). Conclusão: Este estudo-piloto verificou a presença de alterações no paladar de pessoas que fazem uso de psicofármacos, evidenciando assim o papel no odontólogo no diagnóstico e contribuindo para melhora da qualidade de vida.


Introduction: The understanding of alterations in taste could contribute to preventing nutritional diseases and to significant improvements in quality of life. Therefore, this study aimed to verify alterations in taste perceived by people who used psychotropic drugs and were seen in a public health unit specialized in mental health. Methods: This is an epidemiologic, observational, cross-sectional study performed with 18 people diagnosed with mental disorders and followed up by the Psychosocial Care Center in Tubarão, Santa Catarina. A 5-point Likert scale was used for assessing self-perceived taste perception, while taste perception was verified using the four basic flavors (salty, sweet, sour, and bitter) in three different concentrations: mild, medium, and strong. The results were analyzed in a descriptive manner, through statistical inference, and a chi-squared test considering p<0.05. Results: The mean age of patients was 42.8 years (standard error [SE] ± 3.22), with a mean duration of treatment with psychotropic drugs of 11.28 months (SE ± 2.27). Statistically significant associations were observed for the sour flavor in all three concentrations and the strong bitter flavor with citalopram (p= 0.001 and 0.0034). The sweet flavor was more easily perceived by participants who used risperidone, and only the mild concentration presented a statistically significant result (p= 0.026). Conclusion: This pilot study verified alterations in the taste perception of people using psychotropic drugs, thus highlighting the role of dental professionals in the diagnosis and contributing to the patients' quality of life.


Subject(s)
Taste , Mental Health
5.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 289-294, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936210

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the taste function of healthy Chinese adults with the reliable whole-mouth taste test, and to analyze the correlation of taste function with age and gender. Methods: The clinical data of 584 participants reporting the normal sense of smell and taste from March 2019 to January 2020 in the Physical Examination Center of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed in the study, including 297 males and 287 females, aging (46.9±16.6) years. The subjects were divided into youth group (19-35 years old), middle aged group (36-50 years old), middle-elderly aged group (51-65 years old) and elderly group (66-80 years old). The taste test involved 5 tastants (sour, sweet, salty, umami and bitter) and 7 concentrations. The perception and recognition scores of five tastes were obtained through the whole-mouth taste test. SPSS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The intra-class correlation coefficients of the whole-mouth taste test were 0.751 to 0.828, which showed high test-retest reliability. The total score of perception and recognition of five tastes showed the significant negative correlation with age (r value was -0.49 and -0.44, respectively, both P<0.001). Compared with the other two groups, taste function of middle-elderly aged and elderly group decreased significantly (all P<0.001). There was no significant difference in total perception scores and total recognition scores between youth and middle aged group (all P>0.05). The perception scores and recognition scores of sour, salty, umami, bitter and total scores in females were higher than those in males (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in perception scores and recognition scores for sweet between them (P value was 0.584 and 0.223, respectively). Conclusions: The taste function is significantly negatively correlated with age. Except the sweet, females are more sensitive to the sour, salty, umami and bitter tastes than males.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Face , Mouth , Reproducibility of Results , Smell , Taste
6.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 29-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936169

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the changes of olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function in patients with upper respiratory tract post-viral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD), and to explore the correlation of chemosensory function. Methods: The clinical data of 42 patients with PVOD who visited to the Olfactory and Taste Center of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January to December of 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 20 males and 22 females, aging (48.86±11.47) years (x¯). Twenty subjects in normal control group were selected according to the sex ratio of PVOD patients. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory tests were performed on the subjects, including threshold test (T), discrimination test (D) and identification test (I), and the sum of the above three test scores was the TDI value. At the same time, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs) and taste function test were performed. According to the taste function test, the patients were divided into normal gustation (NG) group and gustatory dysfunction (GD) group. The results of olfaction, taste and intranasal trigeminal nerve function tests were compared among different groups, and the correlation analysis was carried out. SPSS statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: GD was present in 14 (33.3%) of 42 PVOD patients with a course of PVOD of 5 (3, 6) months (M (Q1, Q3)). The gustatory function of patients with PVOD was related to gender (r=0.565, P<0.001), smoking status (r=-0.512, P=0.001), duration (r=-0.357, P=0.020) and olfactory function (all P<0.05). The olfactory function of GD group was worse than that of NG group, and the differences of TDI value and T value between the two groups were statistically significant (10.25±4.58 vs 13.35±3.61, 1.54±0.66 vs 2.10±0.88, t value was 2.40 and 2.10 respectively, both P<0.05). The amplitudes of oERPs and tERPs were significantly lower in GD group than those in NG group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: In patients with PVOD, the subjective and objective olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function were decreased, and there was a correlation, suggesting that there was a synergistic effect between the chemosensory functions of PVOD patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Nose , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Smell , Taste
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 358-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927977

ABSTRACT

Taste is an important factor affecting the medicinal properties of oral preparations and patient compliance with medication, and also an important evaluation index for oral preparation design and clinical application. How to characterize the taste objectively, accurately, simply, and efficiently is a bottleneck problem that restricts the taste design, development, and utilization of oral preparations. At present, the commonly used taste assessment methods for oral preparations are traditional human taste panel, electronic tongue, animal preference test, in vitro release study, and electrophysiological test. The traditional human taste panel is the first choice for taste evaluation, but it is limited by poor subjectivity and reproducibility. Therefore, despite some limitations, the other four taste assessment methods have been applied in the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary methods. This study reviewed the detection principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of the above methods to provide references for the taste correction research and taste assessment of oral preparations, improve patient compliance and the competitiveness of oral preparation products in the industry, and promote the development of oral preparation technologies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Administration, Oral , Electronic Nose , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Taste
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 303-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927713

ABSTRACT

Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea with strong flavor, which is widely favored by consumers because of its floral and fruity aroma as well as fresh and mellow taste. During the processing of oolong tea, withering is the first indispensable process for improving flavor formation. However, the molecular mechanism that affects the flavor formation of oolong tea during withering remains unclear. Transcriptome sequencing was used to analyze the difference among the fresh leaves, indoor-withered leaves and solar-withered leaves of oolong tea. A total of 10 793 differentially expressed genes were identified from the three samples. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in flavonoid synthesis, terpenoid synthesis, plant hormone signal transduction and spliceosome pathways. Subsequently, twelve differentially expressed genes and four differential splicing genes were identified from the four enrichment pathways for fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis. The results showed that the expression patterns of the selected genes during withering were consistent with the results in the transcriptome datasets. Further analysis revealed that the transcriptional inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes, the transcriptional enhancement of terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes, as well as the jasmonic acid signal transduction and the alternative splicing mechanism jointly contributed to the flavor formation of high floral and fruity aroma and low bitterness in solar-withered leaves. The results may facilitate better understanding the molecular mechanisms of solar-withering treatment in flavor formation of oolong tea.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Taste , Tea , Transcriptome/genetics
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19175, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374572

ABSTRACT

Abstract he aim of this work was to develop an oral solution of captopril at 5 mg/mL preservative-free. Two formulations were prepared, one containing sweetener (formulation 1) and the other without this excipient (formulation 2). The results found of validation parameters from analytical method performed by HPLC for captopril were, linearity 0.9998, the limit of detection 15.71 µg/mL, the limit of quantification 47.60 µg/mL, repeatability 1.05%, intermediate precision 2.42%, accuracy intraday 101,53%, accuracy inter-day 99.85%. Moreover, the results found for captopril disulfide were, linearity 0.9999, limit of detection 0.65 µg/mL, limit of quantification 1.96 µg/mL, repeatability 2.28%, intermediate precision 1.51%, accuracy intraday 101.36%, accuracy inter-day 100.29%. The appearance of formulations was clear and colorless, pH measures were 3.12 and 3.04, dosage of captopril and captopril disulfide were 99.45% and 99.82%, 0.24% and 0.12% for formulation 1 and formulation 2, respectively. The stability study demonstrated that the concentration of captopril and captopril disulfide in the formulations was > 90% and below 3%, respectively. The in vivo palatability study in animals and humans showed that Formulation 1 containing the sweetener had better acceptance. Thus, the sweetener was able to improve the unpleasant taste of the formulation


Subject(s)
Pediatrics/classification , Captopril/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Drug Stability , Preservatives, Pharmaceutical/pharmacology , Sweetening Agents , Taste , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Evaluation
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 789-794, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346898

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have a high risk of contagiousness, as they usually progress with asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms. Disorder in taste and/or smell has rarely been reported in pediatric cases. In our study, early diagnosis and isolation measures were emphasized by evaluating the clinical, laboratory, and radiological imaging findings of pediatric COVID-19 cases presenting with symptoms of taste and/or smell disorder. METHODS: Seven cases aged 0-18 years were included in the study. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test was performed for the seven cases presented with taste and/or smell disorders. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiological imaging of all the cases were evaluated on the day of admission and on the fifth day. RESULTS: Seven (5.7%) of 122 pediatric COVID-19 cases had disorder in taste and/or smell. In two cases, pneumonia findings were detected in thorax computed tomography imaging. It was observed that all the patients fully recovered at the latest on the 21st day. In the cranial diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of a case, diffusion restriction was detected in the corpus callosum splenium. CONCLUSION: Although less common than adults, children with COVID-19 may also have taste and smell disorders, and this may be accompanied by central nervous system imaging findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Taste , Taste Disorders , SARS-CoV-2
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6410-6416, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921800

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the flavor and taste change rules of Sophora Flavescentis Radix processed using the ancient classical method documented in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun). The Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces and the corresponding test samples in each processing stage were first prepared based on the processing method for Sophora Flavescentis Radix recorded in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun). Then the flavors and tastes of Sophora Flavescentis Radix test samples undergoing the soaking in rice-washed water, washing with clean water, and steaming for different time were compared with the electronic nose and tongue. The results showed that in the preparation of Sophora Flavescentis Radix with the ancient method, such processes as soaking in rice-washed water and washing with clean water had no significant influences on the flavor, which, however, was weakened by steaming. In terms of the taste, soaking with rice-washed water enhanced the bitter taste of Sophora Flavescentis Radix, which remained unchanged after being washed with the clean water. The steaming would also diminish the bitter taste, making it taste similar to the original Sophora Flavescentis Radix medicinal materials. During the steaming for six to eight hours, the flavor did not vary significantly over time, while the bitter taste was first weakened and then intensified. The bitter taste of Sophora Flavescentis Radix steamed for six hours was similar to that steamed for eight hours. In addition, the differences in flavor and taste between Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces processed by the ancient method in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun)and those by the modern method in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that the flavor of Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces prepared by the ancient method was weaker than that by the modern method, whereas the bitter taste showed the opposite trend. The exploration on the flavor and taste change rules of Sophora Flavescentis Radix in its preparation by the ancient classical method and the differences in flavor and taste between Sophora Flavescentis Radix decoction pieces prepared by ancient and modern methods will lay a foundation for further elucidation of the scientific connotation of the ancient processing method and the medication principles of Sophora Flavescentis Radix in both ancient and modern times.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electronic Nose , Plant Roots , Sophora , Taste
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6289-6293, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921787

ABSTRACT

The ripe dried fruit of citron(Citrus medica) is one of the important sources of Chinese herb Citri Fructus. At the same time, it is also grown for edible and ornamental uses. There are many species and abundant genetic variation. To clarify the intraspecific variation and resource distribution of citron, this study investigated the variation in 11 citron fruits, basically covering the main species in China, including Xiaoguo citron(C. medica var. ethrog), Goucheng(C. medica var. yunnanensis), Muli citron(C.medica var. muliensis), Dehong citron(C.medica×Citrus spp.), Fuzhou citron(C.medica×C.grandis?), Mawu(C.medica×C.grandis?), Cangyuan citron, Binchuan citron, Sweet citron, Big citron, and Small citron. The natural communities of citron were proved to be mainly distributed in the southwestern and western Yunnan and southeastern Tibet of China, with Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Chongqing, Hubei, and Zhejiang identified as the main production areas. Citron has also been widely grown in India, the Mediterranean region, and the Caribbean coast countries. The field investigation revealed the large-scale intraspecific variation of citron fruits. Most of the fruits are oval-like or sphere-like in shape. The fruits are green when raw and yellow when ripe, with oil cell dots on the skin, stripe-likes running from top to bottom, and bulge at the top. Usually, in the smaller citron fruits, the pulp and juice vesicles are better developed and the central columella is tighter. By contrast, the juice vesicles and central columella in larger fruits became more vacant, with carpels visible, and the apex segregation and development of the carpels is one of the reasons for variation. These variations should be given top priority in the future variety selection and breeding, and the quality differences of different citron species and their mechanisms should be further studied. In particular, variety selection and classification management according to their medicinal or edible purposes will provide scientific and technological supports for the orderly, safe, and effective production of citron products consumed as food and medicine.


Subject(s)
China , Citrus , Fruit , Taste , Tibet
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6035-6044, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921761

ABSTRACT

Due to the complex source and different physical and chemical properties of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) powder, there are many common pharmaceutical problems in its preparation, such as large particle size difference, poor mixing uniformity, and poor compliance with oral intake, which has directly affected the quality of solid preparations as well as their clinical efficacy and safety. This study observed the property of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder and extract its pharmaceutical defects. It was found that realgar and calcined Borax in Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder were heavy in texture and toxic, and they were easy to be isolated, indicating the potential safety hazard. At the same time, Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex were the main sources of its bitterness. Therefore, based on the idea of "drug-excipients unity", the particle design technology was used to prepare core/shell-type composite particles with bitter medicines as the core and mineral medicines as shell. Both infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated the formation of composite particles, and the taste of these composite particles were improved. Compared with the physical mixtures, the composite particles exhibited significantly decreased RSD values in the content uniformity of berberine hydrochloride, arsenic disulfide, and sodium tetraborate and appearance uniformity. The introduction of particle design technology solved the problem of uneven dispersion of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder, thus ensuring its uniform dispersion, stability, and control and improving the quality of the original preparation. This has provided a scientific basis for the quality control of TCM powder.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Particle Size , Powders , Taste
14.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 469-474, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To identify the alternative splicing isoform of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2, and investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) local injection on T1R2 alternative splicing and the function of sweet taste receptor as one of the bacterial virulence factors.@*METHODS@#After mouse taste bud tissue isolation was conducted, RNA extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the splicing isoform of T1R2. Heterologous expression experiments @*RESULTS@#T1R2 splicing isoform T1R2_Δe3p formed sweet taste receptors with T1R3, which could not be activated by sweet taste stimuli and significantly downregulated the function of canonical T1R2/T1R3. Local LPS injection significantly increased the expression ratio of T1R2_Δe3p in mouse taste buds.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPS stimulation affects the alternative splicing of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2 and significantly upregulates the expression of non-functional isoform T1R2_Δe3p, suggesting that T1R2 alternative splicing regulation may be one of the mechanisms by which microbial infection affects host taste perception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alternative Splicing , Lipopolysaccharides , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste , Taste Buds
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 333-339, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878978

ABSTRACT

Single herbs and Chinese patent medicine preparations often have bad taste, such as bitterness and astringency, which is one of the key factors affecting patients' medication compliance, and would affect the therapeutic effect and restrict the extensive application in clinical practice. Therefore, how to make use of taste masking techniques to improve the bad taste of traditional Chinese medicines has become an important project. Through the collection and summarization of Chinese and foreign journals and papers in recent years, this paper discussed the generation mechanism of bitter taste, the new methods of masking bitter taste and the evaluation me-thods of bitter taste, in order to provide references for the taste masking of Chinese patent medicines preparations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astringents , China , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/pharmacology , Taste
16.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200038, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339722

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a percepção e discriminação olfativa e gustativa e a autopercepção do olfato e paladar em pessoas com Doença de Parkinson, comparando-as com indivíduos hígidos. Método Estudo observacional, analítico, transversal e quantitativo. Verificou-se a percepção e a discriminação olfativa e gustativa em indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson, comparados a um grupo controle, pareado por sexo e idade, por meio dos Testes de Percepção Olfativa e de Tiras Gustativas, respectivamente, após limpeza nasal e escovação oral. A autopercepção foi avaliada pela Escala Visual Analógica antes e após os testes específicos de percepção e discriminação. Resultados Foram incluídos indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 35 com Doença de Parkinson e 20 designados ao grupo controle, pareados pela média de idade. A autopercepção olfativa do grupo com Doença de Parkinson melhorou após o teste olfativo. Não houve diferença na autopercepção gustativa no grupo Doença de Parkinson antes e após o teste gustativo. No teste de avaliação da percepção olfativa, o grupo Doença de Parkinson discriminou menos essências que o grupo controle. Ambos os grupos apresentaram semelhante percepção e discriminação gustativa. Conclusão A percepção olfativa das pessoas com Doença de Parkinson foi menor, comparativamente ao grupo de indivíduos hígidos e a autopercepção da eficácia olfativa melhorou após o teste, em ambos os grupos. Quanto ao paladar, não houve diferença na percepção e discriminação entre os grupos, o sabor azedo foi o mais identificado e houve melhora na autopercepção da eficácia gustativa somente no grupo sem a doença de Parkinson, após o teste.


ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the olfactory and gustatory perception and discrimination and self-perception of smell and taste in people with Parkinson's disease, comparing them with healthy nodes. Methods Observational, analytical, cross-sectional, and quantitative study. Olfactory and gustatory perception and discrimination were verified following Parkinson's disease, compared to a control group, matched by sex and age, using the Olfactory Perception and Taste Strips Tests, respectively, after nasal cleaning and oral brushing. Self-perception was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale before and after specific tests of perception and discrimination. Results We included individuals of both sexes, 35 with Parkinson's Disease and 20 assigned to the control group, matched for mean age. The olfactory self-perception of the group with Parkinson's disease improved after the olfactory test. There was no difference in taste self-perception in the Parkinson's disease group before and after the taste test. In the olfactory perception assessment test, the Parkinson's disease group discriminated fewer essences than the control group. Both groups have similar generation and taste discrimination. Conclusion The olfactory perception of people with Parkinson's disease was lower, compared to the group of healthy desires, and the self-perception of olfactory efficacy improved after the test, in both groups. As for taste, there was no difference in perception and discrimination between groups, the sour taste was the most identified and there was an improvement in self-perception of taste efficiency in the group without Parkinson's disease after the test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease , Olfactory Perception , Olfaction Disorders , Smell , Taste , Cross-Sectional Studies , Taste Perception
17.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-11994, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147150

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tratamento antineoplásico pode causar efeitos colaterais que prejudicam a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a percepção do paladar de pacientes em tratamento oncológico, relacioná-la com as variáveis pessoais e clínicas e compará-la com a percepção do paladar de indivíduos sadios. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 50 indivíduos em tratamento oncológico e outros 50 indivíduos do grupo controle. Para avaliar a percepção do paladar, os participantes receberam amostras de alimentos e foram questionados quanto aos sabores doce, amargo, salgado e azedo. A intensidade do sabor foi avaliada por meio de uma escala de 1 a 5. Resultados: Os pacientes em tratamento oncológico perceberam os sabores dos seguintes alimentos de maneira mais acentuada: doce de leite (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), goiabada (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), suco de limão (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), suco de maracujá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) e café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Já os alimentos: biscoito de polvilho, iogurte natural, rúcula e chicória foram percebidos com menor intensidade quando comparados ao grupo controle. Entre as quatro categorias de sabor avaliadas, os alimentos do grupo salgado foram os que menos se diferenciaram quanto à percepção do paladar e os alimentos azedos e amargos foram percebidos de forma mais distinta entre os grupos. Conclusão: O presente estudo é pioneiro em avaliar a percepção do paladar utilizando alimentos, ao invés de soluções padronizadas; e, por meio dessa técnica, identificaram-se diferenças significativas na intensidade da percepção do paladar dos indivíduos em tratamento oncológico.


Introduction: Antineoplastic treatment can cause side effects that impair the patients' food intake and nutritional status. Objective: To evaluate the taste perception in patients undergoing cancer treatment, to relate it to personal and clinical variables and to compare with taste perception in healthy individuals. Method: Cross-sectional study with 50 individuals undergoing cancer treatment and another 50 individuals in the control group. To assess taste perception, participants received food samples and were asked about sweet, bitter, salty and sour flavors. The intensity of the flavor was assessed using a scale from 1 to 5. Results: Patients undergoing cancer treatment perceived the flavors of the following foods more strongly: dulce de leche (4.48±1.0 vs. 3.78±0.9; p<0.05), guava (4.10±1.0 vs. 3.52±0.9; p<0.05), lemon juice (4.42±0.9 vs. 2.86±1.0; p<0.05), passion fruit juice (3.76±1.2 vs. 2.56±1.0; p<0.05) and coffee (4.42±0.8 vs. 3.14±0.9; p<0.05). The foods: cassava starch, natural yogurt, arugula and chicory were perceived with less intensity when compared to the control group. Among the four flavor categories evaluated, the foods in the salty group were the ones that least differed in terms of the taste perception and sour and bitter foods were perceived more distinctly between the groups. Conclusion: The present study is pioneer in evaluating the taste perception using food, instead of standardized solutions, and through this technique, significant differences were identified in the intensity of taste perception of individuals undergoing cancer treatment.


Introducción: El tratamiento antineoplásico puede causar efectos secundarios que perjudican la ingesta de alimentos y el estado nutricional de los pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la percepción del gusto en pacientes sometidos a tratamiento contra el cáncer, relacionarlo con variables personales y clínicas y compararlo con la percepción del gusto en individuos sanos. Método: Este es un estudio transversal con 50 individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer y otros 50 individuos en el grupo de control. Para evaluar la percepción del sabor, los participantes recibieron las muestras de alimentos y se les preguntó sobre los sabores dulces, amargos, salados y agrios. La intensidad del sabor se evaluó usando una escala del 1 al 5. Resultados: Los pacientes en tratamiento contra el cáncer percibieron los sabores de los siguientes alimentos con más fuerza: dulce de leche (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), guayaba (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), jugo de limón (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), jugo de maracuyá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) y café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Los alimentos: galletas de almidón, yogur, rúcula y achicoria se percibieron con menos intensidad en comparación con el grupo de control. Entre los sabores, los alimentos salados fueron los que menos diferían y los alimentos amargos y amargos se percibieron más claramente entre los grupos. Conclusión: El presente estudio es pionero en evaluar la percepción del gusto utilizando alimentos, en lugar de soluciones estandarizadas, y identificó diferencias significativas en la intensidad de la percepción del gusto en individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Taste , Neoplasms , Dysgeusia , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200512, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153288

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Chips from orange-fleshed sweet potato have a good acceptability. Drying process showed retention of carotenoids total content. Chips from drying or frying process showed high resistant starch content.


Abstract There is currently a great demand for industrialized products with functional properties, together with the increase in consumption of roots and sweet potato products. Sweet potatoes have a high content of resistant starch, while only the orange-fleshed roots also have a high content of carotenoids. Due to these, this work aimed to produce orange-fleshed sweet potato chips, by two processes: drying oven and immersion frying. The chips were evaluated for the content of resistant starch and carotenoids in nature and chips sweet potatoes, and evaluations of the physical attributes and sensory analysis of the chips. The drying process retained a greater content of total carotenoids. Fried chips can be considered high resistant starch content, even with a decrease in the content after this processing; they also showed more intense coloring and pleasant texture. There was a statistical difference between the varieties only regarding the content of carotenoids and resistant starch. Thereby, it can be concluded that the chips of both processing have good technological and functional qualities, and that the frying process presented best hardness which led to greater acceptability and purchase intention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Starch/analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Carotenoids/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Taste/physiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Handling
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1602-1608, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143629

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence based on a systematic review of the literature (PRISMA) to systematize information on smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The studies were selected through combinations based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, and BIREME databases were used. The search encompassed articles published from January 2010 to May 2020, with no restriction of language or localization. RESULTS: A total of 665 retrieved articles had the potential for inclusion. Of these, two answered the research question, which was to verify the smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results found in this review demonstrated that there likely is an association between self-reported smell and taste dysfunctions and COVID-19 infection in such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 565-569, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098288

ABSTRACT

Although various neuropsychochemical theories have been established about why breastfeeding mothers feel hedonic sensation, the underlying neural mechanism has not been adequately clarified. We aimed to investigate if there is hedonic sensation-initiated taste-bud like structures stimulated by sugars in the milk-secreting lactiferous ducts of mammary glands of breastfeeding female rats. In this study, twenty-two female rats were chosen which six of the virgin (n=6), six of pregnant (n=6) and ten of breastfeeding (n=10). We examined lactiferous ducts/nipples of mammary glands of all animals. They were sacrificed following intracardiac formalin injection, and their breast tissues were removed with covering tissues and fixed with 10 % of formalin solution. After current histological procedures, the tissues were examined by light microscope to assess taste-bud like structures, and their numerical densities were calculated by using stereological methods. Results were analyzed statistically. Taste-buds like structures with neuron-like appendages at the apical ends were discovered in lactiferous ducts. The taste rosea numbers were estimated as 3±1/mm3 in virgins, 167±27/mm3 in pregnant and 375±63/mm3 in breastfeeding animals. The taste rosea numbers were greater in breastfeeding rats than those of virgins and pregnant rats. They named as taste rosea resembling flower bucket which has not been mentioned in the literature so far.


Existen varias teorías neuropsicoquímicas, referente a la sensación hedónica que sienten las mujeres al amamantar, y el mecanismo neural subyacente. No obstante, estas aún no se aclaran adecuadamente. El objetivo de este estudio, fue investigar si existen estructuras hedónicas iniciadas por la sensación gustativa estimuladas por los azúcares en los conductos mamarios secretores de leche, de las glándulas mamarias de las ratas durante el período de lactancia. En este estudio, se eligieron 22 ratas hembras, seis de estas no preñadas como grupo control, seis preñadas y diez en período de lactancia. Examinamos los conductos lactíferos / pezones de las glándulas mamarias de los tres grupos. Los animales fueron sacrificados por medio de inyección intracardíaca de formalina. El tejido mamario se fijó en solución de formalina al 10 %. La muestras histólogicas fueron examinadas a través microscopía óptica con la finalidad de evaluar estructuras con características morfológicas similares a las papilas gustativas. Su densidad de número se calculó utilizando métodos estereológicos. Los resultados fueron analizados estadísticamente. En los conductos mamarios se observaron dos estructuras con con características morfológicas tipo papilas gustativas con apéndices neuronales en los extremos apicales. Los números se estimaron en 3±1/mm3 en el grupo control, 167±27/mm3 en gestantes y 375±63/mm3 en animales lactantes. El número de estructuras características morfológicas similares a las papilas gustativas fue mayor en las ratas amamantando que en el grupo control y que en las ratas preñadas. Conocido como sabor rosea debido a que se asemeja a un ramo de flores, lo que hasta ahora no se ha mencionado en la literatura.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Taste , Breast/anatomy & histology , Breast Feeding , Pleasure , Breast/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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