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Rev. Fac. Odontol. Univ. Antioq ; 34(1): 31-36, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394660


Abstract Fibrolipoma, a benign soft tissue adipose tumor, is a histological variant of lipoma. Clinically, it presents as a painless slow-growing mass, indistinguishable from other benign soft tissue tumors. In the oral cavity, it is mainly encountered in the buccal mucosa. Involvement of the palate is very rare; it accounts for around 7-14% of all oral fibrolipomas. In this article, we describe a case of fibrolipoma in the hard palate of a 70-year-old female, who presented with an asymptomatic pedunculated mass, characterized by a normal-colored and smooth surface, which have been present for 20 years. The lesion was excised, and histopathological study revealed a fibrolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 17 cases occurring in the palate have been reported in the literature. Since fibrolipoma presents clinical similarities with other benign soft tissue neoplasms, a thorough clinical examination and histopathological analysis are essential for obtaining diagnosis.

Resumen El fibrolipoma es una neoplasia benigna de tejido adiposo, variante histológica del lipoma. Clínicamente se presenta como una tumoración de crecimiento lento, asintomática, indistinguible de otras neoplasias benignas de tejidos blandos. En cavidad oral se presenta principalmente en la mucosa yugal. El paladar es un sitio infrecuente, comprende del 7 al 14% de todos los fibrolipomas. En este reporte, describimos un caso de fibrolipoma de paladar duro en una mujer de 70 años de edad, que presentó una tumoración pediculada, asintomática, de superficie lisa, del mismo color de la mucosa adyacente, con un tiempo de evolución de 20 años. La lesión fue extirpada, y el estudio histopatológico reveló un fibrolipoma. En nuestro conocimiento, se han reportado en la literatura únicamente 17 casos de fibrolipoma de paladar. Siendo que el fibrolipoma presenta similitud clínica con otras neoplasias benignas de tejidos blandos, un examen clínico detallado, así como el estudio histopatológico son esenciales en la obtención del diagnóstico.

Lipoma , Mouth , Taste
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-8, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393172


Background: Lactic fermentations are a catabolic process in which biochemical transformations of different organic products occur. Sugars are mainly converted into organic acids, increasing viscosity, acid taste, aroma, and flavor. Lactic acid bacteria provide probiotic characteristics if they reach counts of 106 CFU*g-1 (Colony Forming Units) in the final product, which can generate wellness for consumers. Objective: This research aimed to compare the lactic fermentation process in three substrates using two commercial cultures. Methods: Whole milk (control), aqueous extract of oats flakes, and an aqueous extract of a mixture of oats flakes with mashua pulp were used. The whole milk was heated, and the aqueous extracts were prepared. All samples were divided into two parts, keeping the temperature at 42°C, and then inoculated with Yomix y Choozit. Each the fermentation lasted 6 hours at 42°C. Fermentation samples were taken each hour, and pH, titratable acidity. and Brix degrees were determined. Results: Total lactic acid bacteria were counted at the end of each fermentation. The final product was evaluated with sensory analysis. As expected, there was an increase in titratable acidity, and a decreased pH and Brix degrees. It was observed that the dairy product showed the most significant changes. Fermentations performed with Yomix presented a higher count of lactic bacteria. Conclusion: It is possible to carry out lactic fermentation using substrates that do not contain milk, requiring higher initial soluble solids and a longer incubation time

Antecedentes: Las fermentaciones lácticas son un proceso catabólico en el que ocurren transformaciones bioquímicas de diferentes productos orgánicos. En ellas, los azúcares son convertidos principalmente en ácidos orgánicos, generando adicionalmente el aumento de viscosidad, sabor ácido, aromas y sabores en los productos finales. Adicionalmente, aportan características probióticas, ya que son realizadas por bacterias lácticas, que, si alcanzan recuentos de 106 UFC*g-1 (Unidades formadoras de colonias) en el producto final, generan bienestar para los consumidores. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el proceso de fermentación láctica en tres sustratos utilizando dos cultivos comerciales. Métodos: Se utilizó leche entera (control), extracto acuoso de hojuelas de avena y un extracto acuoso de mezcla de hojuelas de avena con pulpa de cubios. Se llevó a cabo el calentamiento de la leche entera, y la preparación de los sustratos de avena y cubios. Dichas muestras se dividieron en dos partes, manteniendo la temperatura a 42°C. Cada una de las muestras fue inoculada con Yomix y Choozit. Cada fermentación duró 6 horas manteniendo una temperatura de 42°C. Durante cada hora se tomaron muestras, a las cuales se evaluó el pH, acidez titulable y grados brix. En los productos finales se realizó el recuento de bacterias lácticas y se realizó una evaluación sensorial. Resultados: A lo largo de la fermentación se presentó el aumento de la acidez titulable, y disminución del pH y los grados Brix. Se observó que el producto a base de leche mostró los cambios más significativos. En el caso de los productos obtenidos usando Yomix, presentaron mayor recuento de bacterias lácticas al ser comparados con aquellos en los que se usó el cultivo 1. Conclusión: Es posible realizar la fermentación láctica usando sustratos que no contengan leche, los cuales requieren mayores sólidos solubles iníciales y un mayor tiempo de incubación

Avena , Milk , Fermentation , Food Technology/methods , Taste , Viscosity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936210


Objective: To assess the taste function of healthy Chinese adults with the reliable whole-mouth taste test, and to analyze the correlation of taste function with age and gender. Methods: The clinical data of 584 participants reporting the normal sense of smell and taste from March 2019 to January 2020 in the Physical Examination Center of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed in the study, including 297 males and 287 females, aging (46.9±16.6) years. The subjects were divided into youth group (19-35 years old), middle aged group (36-50 years old), middle-elderly aged group (51-65 years old) and elderly group (66-80 years old). The taste test involved 5 tastants (sour, sweet, salty, umami and bitter) and 7 concentrations. The perception and recognition scores of five tastes were obtained through the whole-mouth taste test. SPSS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The intra-class correlation coefficients of the whole-mouth taste test were 0.751 to 0.828, which showed high test-retest reliability. The total score of perception and recognition of five tastes showed the significant negative correlation with age (r value was -0.49 and -0.44, respectively, both P<0.001). Compared with the other two groups, taste function of middle-elderly aged and elderly group decreased significantly (all P<0.001). There was no significant difference in total perception scores and total recognition scores between youth and middle aged group (all P>0.05). The perception scores and recognition scores of sour, salty, umami, bitter and total scores in females were higher than those in males (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in perception scores and recognition scores for sweet between them (P value was 0.584 and 0.223, respectively). Conclusions: The taste function is significantly negatively correlated with age. Except the sweet, females are more sensitive to the sour, salty, umami and bitter tastes than males.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth , Reproducibility of Results , Smell , Taste , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927977


Taste is an important factor affecting the medicinal properties of oral preparations and patient compliance with medication, and also an important evaluation index for oral preparation design and clinical application. How to characterize the taste objectively, accurately, simply, and efficiently is a bottleneck problem that restricts the taste design, development, and utilization of oral preparations. At present, the commonly used taste assessment methods for oral preparations are traditional human taste panel, electronic tongue, animal preference test, in vitro release study, and electrophysiological test. The traditional human taste panel is the first choice for taste evaluation, but it is limited by poor subjectivity and reproducibility. Therefore, despite some limitations, the other four taste assessment methods have been applied in the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary methods. This study reviewed the detection principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of the above methods to provide references for the taste correction research and taste assessment of oral preparations, improve patient compliance and the competitiveness of oral preparation products in the industry, and promote the development of oral preparation technologies.

Administration, Oral , Animals , Electronic Nose , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Taste
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 303-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927713


Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea with strong flavor, which is widely favored by consumers because of its floral and fruity aroma as well as fresh and mellow taste. During the processing of oolong tea, withering is the first indispensable process for improving flavor formation. However, the molecular mechanism that affects the flavor formation of oolong tea during withering remains unclear. Transcriptome sequencing was used to analyze the difference among the fresh leaves, indoor-withered leaves and solar-withered leaves of oolong tea. A total of 10 793 differentially expressed genes were identified from the three samples. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in flavonoid synthesis, terpenoid synthesis, plant hormone signal transduction and spliceosome pathways. Subsequently, twelve differentially expressed genes and four differential splicing genes were identified from the four enrichment pathways for fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis. The results showed that the expression patterns of the selected genes during withering were consistent with the results in the transcriptome datasets. Further analysis revealed that the transcriptional inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes, the transcriptional enhancement of terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes, as well as the jasmonic acid signal transduction and the alternative splicing mechanism jointly contributed to the flavor formation of high floral and fruity aroma and low bitterness in solar-withered leaves. The results may facilitate better understanding the molecular mechanisms of solar-withering treatment in flavor formation of oolong tea.

Camellia sinensis/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Taste , Tea , Transcriptome/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949068


There are many kinds of pharmaceutical preparations for children in China, which are generally divided into oral solid preparations and oral liquid preparations. Solid preparations, such as microtablets, pellets, dispersible tablets, and fine granules, have become the development trend of pediatric drugs. Liquid preparations mainly include syrup, suspension, oral solution, and drops. The poor taste and the treatment of drugs in children of different ages are the key factors affecting the efficacy, safety, and compliance of pediatric drugs. To reduce the risk caused by the fluctuation of blood concentration and improve the oral compliance of pediatric drugs, it is urgent to develop new techniques for granulation and flavor maskingto improve the poor taste of solid preparations. For liquid pre-parations with poor taste, the flavor correction technique should be used. This paper summarized the new pharmaceutical techniques for granulation and flavor masking, and it was found that sustained/controlled-releasegranules, fine granules, and chewing solid mini-tablets became the mainstream of oral solid preparations for children. Generally, multiparticle preparation, coating, microencapsulation, and other granulating techniques were involved in these preparations. Granulation and flavor masking are closely related and synergetic. Flavor masking techniques mask the bitter taste of Chinese medicine from four aspects, including confusing the brain taste, changing the compounds, reducing the exposure of bitter molecules to bitter receptors in the mouth, and numbing the taste cells to increase the threshold of bitter perception. At present, the main drugs for children on the market mainly inhibit the oral release of bitter drugs.

Child , Humans , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Administration, Oral , Tablets , Taste , China
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949037


Taste is one of the important factors in the design of oral drug preparations. Polyphenols are the secondary metabolites produced in the growth process of Chinese medicine with a variety of physiological activities. However, astringency perceived from polyphenols tastes uncomfortable. As one of the true taste of Chinese medicine, astringency with drying, rough, and wrinkled sensation, seriously affects the texture of Chinese medicine and the compliance of patients. Due to the universality of polyphenolic astringency in Chinese medicine and the weakness of modern research, this study systematically reviewed and summarized the latest research on the mechanism of polyphenolic astringency, the astringency evaluation method, and the astringency-mitigation technology. Through comprehensively analyzing the quantification methods, such as sensory evaluation, animal preference evaluation, chemical evaluation, bionic evaluation, and polyphenol-protein interaction evaluation, the direction of overall astringency assessment with "unified dimension" was proposed. Since the characteristics of Chinese medicine and the mechanism of polyphenolic astringency did not reach a consensus, this study proposed the idea of astringency mitigation suitable for Chinese medicine. This study is intended to deepen the understanding of astringency associated with Chinese medicine, and establish a real and objective astringency evaluation method for Chinese medicine, thus promoting the technique of astringency mitigation of polyphenolic Chinese medicine preparations from trial and error to science.

Animals , Astringents , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Taste , Polyphenols , Sensation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949035


Three kinds of excipients were selected to investigate the anti-bitterness effect on the extremely bitter characteristics of Andrographis Herba decoction, and the optimal combined anti-bitterness formula was obtained. The preparation principle of different excipients was clarified by virtual screening and experimental verification to explore the advantages of the three kinds of excipients in the combined anti-bitterness effect. Sensory evaluation showed that mPEG_(2000)-PLLA_(2000), γ-cyclodextrin(γ-CD), and aspartame all had good anti-bitterness effect, which reduced the bitterness intensity of Andrographis Herba decoction by 0.5, 6, and 3 points, respectively. The anti-bitterness effect was superior when 0.15% mPEG_(2000)-PLLA_(2000), 1.60% γ-CD, and 0.04% aspartame were combined, and the taste score of the Andrographis Herba decoction decreased from 8 points(severe bitterness) to 1 point(almost no bitterness). Quantum chemistry calculations showed that mPEG_(2000)-PLLA_(2000) reduced the electrostatic potential of bitter groups, which spontaneously combined with it and formed a physical barrier, hindering the binding of bitter components to receptors. The interaction between γ-CD and bitter components was studied. It was found that the surface area and free energy of γ-CD decreased and the dipole moment increased, indicating that γ-CD included bitter components and self-assembled to form supramolecules. Molecular docking showed that hydroxy at position 14 and carbonyl at position 16 of andrographolide, and hydroxy at position 3 and 4, carbonyl at position 14, and five-membered lactone ring of dehydrated andrographolide were possibly the main bitter groups. The binding free energies of aspartame to bitter receptors TAS2 R10, TAS2 R14, and TAS2 R46 were-3.21,-1.55, and-2.52 kcal·mol~(-1), respectively, indicating that aspartame competed to inhibit the binding of bitter groups to bitter receptors. The results of content determination showed that the free amounts of andrographolide and dehydrated andrographolide in Andrographis Herba decoction were 0.23% and 0.28% respectively, while after adding flavor masking excipients, the dissociation amount of andrographolide and dehydrated andrographolide in the decoction decreased to 0.13% and 0.20%, respectively. The above results show that mPEG_(2000)-PLLA_(2000) involves some bitter components into it through micellar self-assembly to reconcile the entrance bitterness, and γ-CD includes the remaining bitter components in the real solution to control the main bitter taste. Aspartame further competes to inhibit the combination of bitter components and bitter receptors, and improves the taste to be sweet. Multi-excipients combined with anti-bitterness strategy significantly reduces the free concentration of bitter substances in Andrographis Herba decoction, and optimizes the taste of the decoction.

Andrographis , Taste , Aspartame , Excipients , Molecular Docking Simulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936169


Objective: To observe the changes of olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function in patients with upper respiratory tract post-viral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD), and to explore the correlation of chemosensory function. Methods: The clinical data of 42 patients with PVOD who visited to the Olfactory and Taste Center of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January to December of 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 20 males and 22 females, aging (48.86±11.47) years (x¯). Twenty subjects in normal control group were selected according to the sex ratio of PVOD patients. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory tests were performed on the subjects, including threshold test (T), discrimination test (D) and identification test (I), and the sum of the above three test scores was the TDI value. At the same time, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs) and taste function test were performed. According to the taste function test, the patients were divided into normal gustation (NG) group and gustatory dysfunction (GD) group. The results of olfaction, taste and intranasal trigeminal nerve function tests were compared among different groups, and the correlation analysis was carried out. SPSS statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: GD was present in 14 (33.3%) of 42 PVOD patients with a course of PVOD of 5 (3, 6) months (M (Q1, Q3)). The gustatory function of patients with PVOD was related to gender (r=0.565, P<0.001), smoking status (r=-0.512, P=0.001), duration (r=-0.357, P=0.020) and olfactory function (all P<0.05). The olfactory function of GD group was worse than that of NG group, and the differences of TDI value and T value between the two groups were statistically significant (10.25±4.58 vs 13.35±3.61, 1.54±0.66 vs 2.10±0.88, t value was 2.40 and 2.10 respectively, both P<0.05). The amplitudes of oERPs and tERPs were significantly lower in GD group than those in NG group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: In patients with PVOD, the subjective and objective olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function were decreased, and there was a correlation, suggesting that there was a synergistic effect between the chemosensory functions of PVOD patients.

Female , Humans , Male , Nose , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Smell , Taste
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19175, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374572


Abstract he aim of this work was to develop an oral solution of captopril at 5 mg/mL preservative-free. Two formulations were prepared, one containing sweetener (formulation 1) and the other without this excipient (formulation 2). The results found of validation parameters from analytical method performed by HPLC for captopril were, linearity 0.9998, the limit of detection 15.71 µg/mL, the limit of quantification 47.60 µg/mL, repeatability 1.05%, intermediate precision 2.42%, accuracy intraday 101,53%, accuracy inter-day 99.85%. Moreover, the results found for captopril disulfide were, linearity 0.9999, limit of detection 0.65 µg/mL, limit of quantification 1.96 µg/mL, repeatability 2.28%, intermediate precision 1.51%, accuracy intraday 101.36%, accuracy inter-day 100.29%. The appearance of formulations was clear and colorless, pH measures were 3.12 and 3.04, dosage of captopril and captopril disulfide were 99.45% and 99.82%, 0.24% and 0.12% for formulation 1 and formulation 2, respectively. The stability study demonstrated that the concentration of captopril and captopril disulfide in the formulations was > 90% and below 3%, respectively. The in vivo palatability study in animals and humans showed that Formulation 1 containing the sweetener had better acceptance. Thus, the sweetener was able to improve the unpleasant taste of the formulation

Pediatrics/classification , Captopril/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Drug Stability , Preservatives, Pharmaceutical/pharmacology , Sweetening Agents , Taste , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Evaluation
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 789-794, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346898


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have a high risk of contagiousness, as they usually progress with asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms. Disorder in taste and/or smell has rarely been reported in pediatric cases. In our study, early diagnosis and isolation measures were emphasized by evaluating the clinical, laboratory, and radiological imaging findings of pediatric COVID-19 cases presenting with symptoms of taste and/or smell disorder. METHODS: Seven cases aged 0-18 years were included in the study. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test was performed for the seven cases presented with taste and/or smell disorders. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiological imaging of all the cases were evaluated on the day of admission and on the fifth day. RESULTS: Seven (5.7%) of 122 pediatric COVID-19 cases had disorder in taste and/or smell. In two cases, pneumonia findings were detected in thorax computed tomography imaging. It was observed that all the patients fully recovered at the latest on the 21st day. In the cranial diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of a case, diffusion restriction was detected in the corpus callosum splenium. CONCLUSION: Although less common than adults, children with COVID-19 may also have taste and smell disorders, and this may be accompanied by central nervous system imaging findings.

Humans , Child , Adult , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Taste , Taste Disorders , SARS-CoV-2
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878978


Single herbs and Chinese patent medicine preparations often have bad taste, such as bitterness and astringency, which is one of the key factors affecting patients' medication compliance, and would affect the therapeutic effect and restrict the extensive application in clinical practice. Therefore, how to make use of taste masking techniques to improve the bad taste of traditional Chinese medicines has become an important project. Through the collection and summarization of Chinese and foreign journals and papers in recent years, this paper discussed the generation mechanism of bitter taste, the new methods of masking bitter taste and the evaluation me-thods of bitter taste, in order to provide references for the taste masking of Chinese patent medicines preparations.

Astringents , China , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/pharmacology , Taste
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887761


OBJECTIVES@#To identify the alternative splicing isoform of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2, and investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) local injection on T1R2 alternative splicing and the function of sweet taste receptor as one of the bacterial virulence factors.@*METHODS@#After mouse taste bud tissue isolation was conducted, RNA extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the splicing isoform of T1R2. Heterologous expression experiments @*RESULTS@#T1R2 splicing isoform T1R2_Δe3p formed sweet taste receptors with T1R3, which could not be activated by sweet taste stimuli and significantly downregulated the function of canonical T1R2/T1R3. Local LPS injection significantly increased the expression ratio of T1R2_Δe3p in mouse taste buds.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPS stimulation affects the alternative splicing of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2 and significantly upregulates the expression of non-functional isoform T1R2_Δe3p, suggesting that T1R2 alternative splicing regulation may be one of the mechanisms by which microbial infection affects host taste perception.

Alternative Splicing , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste , Taste Buds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921800


This study was designed to investigate the flavor and taste change rules of Sophora Flavescentis Radix processed using the ancient classical method documented in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun). The Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces and the corresponding test samples in each processing stage were first prepared based on the processing method for Sophora Flavescentis Radix recorded in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun). Then the flavors and tastes of Sophora Flavescentis Radix test samples undergoing the soaking in rice-washed water, washing with clean water, and steaming for different time were compared with the electronic nose and tongue. The results showed that in the preparation of Sophora Flavescentis Radix with the ancient method, such processes as soaking in rice-washed water and washing with clean water had no significant influences on the flavor, which, however, was weakened by steaming. In terms of the taste, soaking with rice-washed water enhanced the bitter taste of Sophora Flavescentis Radix, which remained unchanged after being washed with the clean water. The steaming would also diminish the bitter taste, making it taste similar to the original Sophora Flavescentis Radix medicinal materials. During the steaming for six to eight hours, the flavor did not vary significantly over time, while the bitter taste was first weakened and then intensified. The bitter taste of Sophora Flavescentis Radix steamed for six hours was similar to that steamed for eight hours. In addition, the differences in flavor and taste between Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces processed by the ancient method in Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun)and those by the modern method in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that the flavor of Sophora Flavescentis Radix pieces prepared by the ancient method was weaker than that by the modern method, whereas the bitter taste showed the opposite trend. The exploration on the flavor and taste change rules of Sophora Flavescentis Radix in its preparation by the ancient classical method and the differences in flavor and taste between Sophora Flavescentis Radix decoction pieces prepared by ancient and modern methods will lay a foundation for further elucidation of the scientific connotation of the ancient processing method and the medication principles of Sophora Flavescentis Radix in both ancient and modern times.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electronic Nose , Plant Roots , Sophora , Taste
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921787


The ripe dried fruit of citron(Citrus medica) is one of the important sources of Chinese herb Citri Fructus. At the same time, it is also grown for edible and ornamental uses. There are many species and abundant genetic variation. To clarify the intraspecific variation and resource distribution of citron, this study investigated the variation in 11 citron fruits, basically covering the main species in China, including Xiaoguo citron(C. medica var. ethrog), Goucheng(C. medica var. yunnanensis), Muli citron(C.medica var. muliensis), Dehong citron(C.medica×Citrus spp.), Fuzhou citron(C.medica×C.grandis?), Mawu(C.medica×C.grandis?), Cangyuan citron, Binchuan citron, Sweet citron, Big citron, and Small citron. The natural communities of citron were proved to be mainly distributed in the southwestern and western Yunnan and southeastern Tibet of China, with Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Chongqing, Hubei, and Zhejiang identified as the main production areas. Citron has also been widely grown in India, the Mediterranean region, and the Caribbean coast countries. The field investigation revealed the large-scale intraspecific variation of citron fruits. Most of the fruits are oval-like or sphere-like in shape. The fruits are green when raw and yellow when ripe, with oil cell dots on the skin, stripe-likes running from top to bottom, and bulge at the top. Usually, in the smaller citron fruits, the pulp and juice vesicles are better developed and the central columella is tighter. By contrast, the juice vesicles and central columella in larger fruits became more vacant, with carpels visible, and the apex segregation and development of the carpels is one of the reasons for variation. These variations should be given top priority in the future variety selection and breeding, and the quality differences of different citron species and their mechanisms should be further studied. In particular, variety selection and classification management according to their medicinal or edible purposes will provide scientific and technological supports for the orderly, safe, and effective production of citron products consumed as food and medicine.

China , Citrus , Fruit , Taste , Tibet
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921761


Due to the complex source and different physical and chemical properties of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) powder, there are many common pharmaceutical problems in its preparation, such as large particle size difference, poor mixing uniformity, and poor compliance with oral intake, which has directly affected the quality of solid preparations as well as their clinical efficacy and safety. This study observed the property of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder and extract its pharmaceutical defects. It was found that realgar and calcined Borax in Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder were heavy in texture and toxic, and they were easy to be isolated, indicating the potential safety hazard. At the same time, Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex were the main sources of its bitterness. Therefore, based on the idea of "drug-excipients unity", the particle design technology was used to prepare core/shell-type composite particles with bitter medicines as the core and mineral medicines as shell. Both infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated the formation of composite particles, and the taste of these composite particles were improved. Compared with the physical mixtures, the composite particles exhibited significantly decreased RSD values in the content uniformity of berberine hydrochloride, arsenic disulfide, and sodium tetraborate and appearance uniformity. The introduction of particle design technology solved the problem of uneven dispersion of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder, thus ensuring its uniform dispersion, stability, and control and improving the quality of the original preparation. This has provided a scientific basis for the quality control of TCM powder.

China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Particle Size , Powders , Taste
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200512, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153288


HIGHLIGHTS Chips from orange-fleshed sweet potato have a good acceptability. Drying process showed retention of carotenoids total content. Chips from drying or frying process showed high resistant starch content.

Abstract There is currently a great demand for industrialized products with functional properties, together with the increase in consumption of roots and sweet potato products. Sweet potatoes have a high content of resistant starch, while only the orange-fleshed roots also have a high content of carotenoids. Due to these, this work aimed to produce orange-fleshed sweet potato chips, by two processes: drying oven and immersion frying. The chips were evaluated for the content of resistant starch and carotenoids in nature and chips sweet potatoes, and evaluations of the physical attributes and sensory analysis of the chips. The drying process retained a greater content of total carotenoids. Fried chips can be considered high resistant starch content, even with a decrease in the content after this processing; they also showed more intense coloring and pleasant texture. There was a statistical difference between the varieties only regarding the content of carotenoids and resistant starch. Thereby, it can be concluded that the chips of both processing have good technological and functional qualities, and that the frying process presented best hardness which led to greater acceptability and purchase intention.

Humans , Starch/analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Carotenoids/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Taste/physiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Handling
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-11994, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147150


Introdução: O tratamento antineoplásico pode causar efeitos colaterais que prejudicam a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a percepção do paladar de pacientes em tratamento oncológico, relacioná-la com as variáveis pessoais e clínicas e compará-la com a percepção do paladar de indivíduos sadios. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 50 indivíduos em tratamento oncológico e outros 50 indivíduos do grupo controle. Para avaliar a percepção do paladar, os participantes receberam amostras de alimentos e foram questionados quanto aos sabores doce, amargo, salgado e azedo. A intensidade do sabor foi avaliada por meio de uma escala de 1 a 5. Resultados: Os pacientes em tratamento oncológico perceberam os sabores dos seguintes alimentos de maneira mais acentuada: doce de leite (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), goiabada (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), suco de limão (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), suco de maracujá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) e café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Já os alimentos: biscoito de polvilho, iogurte natural, rúcula e chicória foram percebidos com menor intensidade quando comparados ao grupo controle. Entre as quatro categorias de sabor avaliadas, os alimentos do grupo salgado foram os que menos se diferenciaram quanto à percepção do paladar e os alimentos azedos e amargos foram percebidos de forma mais distinta entre os grupos. Conclusão: O presente estudo é pioneiro em avaliar a percepção do paladar utilizando alimentos, ao invés de soluções padronizadas; e, por meio dessa técnica, identificaram-se diferenças significativas na intensidade da percepção do paladar dos indivíduos em tratamento oncológico.

Introduction: Antineoplastic treatment can cause side effects that impair the patients' food intake and nutritional status. Objective: To evaluate the taste perception in patients undergoing cancer treatment, to relate it to personal and clinical variables and to compare with taste perception in healthy individuals. Method: Cross-sectional study with 50 individuals undergoing cancer treatment and another 50 individuals in the control group. To assess taste perception, participants received food samples and were asked about sweet, bitter, salty and sour flavors. The intensity of the flavor was assessed using a scale from 1 to 5. Results: Patients undergoing cancer treatment perceived the flavors of the following foods more strongly: dulce de leche (4.48±1.0 vs. 3.78±0.9; p<0.05), guava (4.10±1.0 vs. 3.52±0.9; p<0.05), lemon juice (4.42±0.9 vs. 2.86±1.0; p<0.05), passion fruit juice (3.76±1.2 vs. 2.56±1.0; p<0.05) and coffee (4.42±0.8 vs. 3.14±0.9; p<0.05). The foods: cassava starch, natural yogurt, arugula and chicory were perceived with less intensity when compared to the control group. Among the four flavor categories evaluated, the foods in the salty group were the ones that least differed in terms of the taste perception and sour and bitter foods were perceived more distinctly between the groups. Conclusion: The present study is pioneer in evaluating the taste perception using food, instead of standardized solutions, and through this technique, significant differences were identified in the intensity of taste perception of individuals undergoing cancer treatment.

Introducción: El tratamiento antineoplásico puede causar efectos secundarios que perjudican la ingesta de alimentos y el estado nutricional de los pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la percepción del gusto en pacientes sometidos a tratamiento contra el cáncer, relacionarlo con variables personales y clínicas y compararlo con la percepción del gusto en individuos sanos. Método: Este es un estudio transversal con 50 individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer y otros 50 individuos en el grupo de control. Para evaluar la percepción del sabor, los participantes recibieron las muestras de alimentos y se les preguntó sobre los sabores dulces, amargos, salados y agrios. La intensidad del sabor se evaluó usando una escala del 1 al 5. Resultados: Los pacientes en tratamiento contra el cáncer percibieron los sabores de los siguientes alimentos con más fuerza: dulce de leche (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), guayaba (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), jugo de limón (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), jugo de maracuyá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) y café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Los alimentos: galletas de almidón, yogur, rúcula y achicoria se percibieron con menos intensidad en comparación con el grupo de control. Entre los sabores, los alimentos salados fueron los que menos diferían y los alimentos amargos y amargos se percibieron más claramente entre los grupos. Conclusión: El presente estudio es pionero en evaluar la percepción del gusto utilizando alimentos, en lugar de soluciones estandarizadas, y identificó diferencias significativas en la intensidad de la percepción del gusto en individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Taste , Neoplasms , Dysgeusia , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200038, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339722


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a percepção e discriminação olfativa e gustativa e a autopercepção do olfato e paladar em pessoas com Doença de Parkinson, comparando-as com indivíduos hígidos. Método Estudo observacional, analítico, transversal e quantitativo. Verificou-se a percepção e a discriminação olfativa e gustativa em indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson, comparados a um grupo controle, pareado por sexo e idade, por meio dos Testes de Percepção Olfativa e de Tiras Gustativas, respectivamente, após limpeza nasal e escovação oral. A autopercepção foi avaliada pela Escala Visual Analógica antes e após os testes específicos de percepção e discriminação. Resultados Foram incluídos indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 35 com Doença de Parkinson e 20 designados ao grupo controle, pareados pela média de idade. A autopercepção olfativa do grupo com Doença de Parkinson melhorou após o teste olfativo. Não houve diferença na autopercepção gustativa no grupo Doença de Parkinson antes e após o teste gustativo. No teste de avaliação da percepção olfativa, o grupo Doença de Parkinson discriminou menos essências que o grupo controle. Ambos os grupos apresentaram semelhante percepção e discriminação gustativa. Conclusão A percepção olfativa das pessoas com Doença de Parkinson foi menor, comparativamente ao grupo de indivíduos hígidos e a autopercepção da eficácia olfativa melhorou após o teste, em ambos os grupos. Quanto ao paladar, não houve diferença na percepção e discriminação entre os grupos, o sabor azedo foi o mais identificado e houve melhora na autopercepção da eficácia gustativa somente no grupo sem a doença de Parkinson, após o teste.

ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the olfactory and gustatory perception and discrimination and self-perception of smell and taste in people with Parkinson's disease, comparing them with healthy nodes. Methods Observational, analytical, cross-sectional, and quantitative study. Olfactory and gustatory perception and discrimination were verified following Parkinson's disease, compared to a control group, matched by sex and age, using the Olfactory Perception and Taste Strips Tests, respectively, after nasal cleaning and oral brushing. Self-perception was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale before and after specific tests of perception and discrimination. Results We included individuals of both sexes, 35 with Parkinson's Disease and 20 assigned to the control group, matched for mean age. The olfactory self-perception of the group with Parkinson's disease improved after the olfactory test. There was no difference in taste self-perception in the Parkinson's disease group before and after the taste test. In the olfactory perception assessment test, the Parkinson's disease group discriminated fewer essences than the control group. Both groups have similar generation and taste discrimination. Conclusion The olfactory perception of people with Parkinson's disease was lower, compared to the group of healthy desires, and the self-perception of olfactory efficacy improved after the test, in both groups. As for taste, there was no difference in perception and discrimination between groups, the sour taste was the most identified and there was an improvement in self-perception of taste efficiency in the group without Parkinson's disease after the test.

Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease , Olfactory Perception , Olfaction Disorders , Smell , Taste , Cross-Sectional Studies , Taste Perception
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1602-1608, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143629


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence based on a systematic review of the literature (PRISMA) to systematize information on smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The studies were selected through combinations based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, and BIREME databases were used. The search encompassed articles published from January 2010 to May 2020, with no restriction of language or localization. RESULTS: A total of 665 retrieved articles had the potential for inclusion. Of these, two answered the research question, which was to verify the smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results found in this review demonstrated that there likely is an association between self-reported smell and taste dysfunctions and COVID-19 infection in such patients.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus