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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878978


Single herbs and Chinese patent medicine preparations often have bad taste, such as bitterness and astringency, which is one of the key factors affecting patients' medication compliance, and would affect the therapeutic effect and restrict the extensive application in clinical practice. Therefore, how to make use of taste masking techniques to improve the bad taste of traditional Chinese medicines has become an important project. Through the collection and summarization of Chinese and foreign journals and papers in recent years, this paper discussed the generation mechanism of bitter taste, the new methods of masking bitter taste and the evaluation me-thods of bitter taste, in order to provide references for the taste masking of Chinese patent medicines preparations.

Astringents , China , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/pharmacology , Taste
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200512, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153288


HIGHLIGHTS Chips from orange-fleshed sweet potato have a good acceptability. Drying process showed retention of carotenoids total content. Chips from drying or frying process showed high resistant starch content.

Abstract There is currently a great demand for industrialized products with functional properties, together with the increase in consumption of roots and sweet potato products. Sweet potatoes have a high content of resistant starch, while only the orange-fleshed roots also have a high content of carotenoids. Due to these, this work aimed to produce orange-fleshed sweet potato chips, by two processes: drying oven and immersion frying. The chips were evaluated for the content of resistant starch and carotenoids in nature and chips sweet potatoes, and evaluations of the physical attributes and sensory analysis of the chips. The drying process retained a greater content of total carotenoids. Fried chips can be considered high resistant starch content, even with a decrease in the content after this processing; they also showed more intense coloring and pleasant texture. There was a statistical difference between the varieties only regarding the content of carotenoids and resistant starch. Thereby, it can be concluded that the chips of both processing have good technological and functional qualities, and that the frying process presented best hardness which led to greater acceptability and purchase intention.

Humans , Starch/analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Carotenoids/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Taste/physiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Handling
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-11994, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147150


Introdução: O tratamento antineoplásico pode causar efeitos colaterais que prejudicam a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a percepção do paladar de pacientes em tratamento oncológico, relacioná-la com as variáveis pessoais e clínicas e compará-la com a percepção do paladar de indivíduos sadios. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 50 indivíduos em tratamento oncológico e outros 50 indivíduos do grupo controle. Para avaliar a percepção do paladar, os participantes receberam amostras de alimentos e foram questionados quanto aos sabores doce, amargo, salgado e azedo. A intensidade do sabor foi avaliada por meio de uma escala de 1 a 5. Resultados: Os pacientes em tratamento oncológico perceberam os sabores dos seguintes alimentos de maneira mais acentuada: doce de leite (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), goiabada (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), suco de limão (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), suco de maracujá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) e café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Já os alimentos: biscoito de polvilho, iogurte natural, rúcula e chicória foram percebidos com menor intensidade quando comparados ao grupo controle. Entre as quatro categorias de sabor avaliadas, os alimentos do grupo salgado foram os que menos se diferenciaram quanto à percepção do paladar e os alimentos azedos e amargos foram percebidos de forma mais distinta entre os grupos. Conclusão: O presente estudo é pioneiro em avaliar a percepção do paladar utilizando alimentos, ao invés de soluções padronizadas; e, por meio dessa técnica, identificaram-se diferenças significativas na intensidade da percepção do paladar dos indivíduos em tratamento oncológico.

Introduction: Antineoplastic treatment can cause side effects that impair the patients' food intake and nutritional status. Objective: To evaluate the taste perception in patients undergoing cancer treatment, to relate it to personal and clinical variables and to compare with taste perception in healthy individuals. Method: Cross-sectional study with 50 individuals undergoing cancer treatment and another 50 individuals in the control group. To assess taste perception, participants received food samples and were asked about sweet, bitter, salty and sour flavors. The intensity of the flavor was assessed using a scale from 1 to 5. Results: Patients undergoing cancer treatment perceived the flavors of the following foods more strongly: dulce de leche (4.48±1.0 vs. 3.78±0.9; p<0.05), guava (4.10±1.0 vs. 3.52±0.9; p<0.05), lemon juice (4.42±0.9 vs. 2.86±1.0; p<0.05), passion fruit juice (3.76±1.2 vs. 2.56±1.0; p<0.05) and coffee (4.42±0.8 vs. 3.14±0.9; p<0.05). The foods: cassava starch, natural yogurt, arugula and chicory were perceived with less intensity when compared to the control group. Among the four flavor categories evaluated, the foods in the salty group were the ones that least differed in terms of the taste perception and sour and bitter foods were perceived more distinctly between the groups. Conclusion: The present study is pioneer in evaluating the taste perception using food, instead of standardized solutions, and through this technique, significant differences were identified in the intensity of taste perception of individuals undergoing cancer treatment.

Introducción: El tratamiento antineoplásico puede causar efectos secundarios que perjudican la ingesta de alimentos y el estado nutricional de los pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la percepción del gusto en pacientes sometidos a tratamiento contra el cáncer, relacionarlo con variables personales y clínicas y compararlo con la percepción del gusto en individuos sanos. Método: Este es un estudio transversal con 50 individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer y otros 50 individuos en el grupo de control. Para evaluar la percepción del sabor, los participantes recibieron las muestras de alimentos y se les preguntó sobre los sabores dulces, amargos, salados y agrios. La intensidad del sabor se evaluó usando una escala del 1 al 5. Resultados: Los pacientes en tratamiento contra el cáncer percibieron los sabores de los siguientes alimentos con más fuerza: dulce de leche (4,48±1,0 vs. 3,78±0,9; p<0,05), guayaba (4,10±1,0 vs. 3,52±0,9; p<0,05), jugo de limón (4,42±0,9 vs. 2,86±1,0; p<0,05), jugo de maracuyá (3,76±1,2 vs. 2,56±1,0; p<0,05) y café (4,42±0,8 vs. 3,14±0,9; p<0,05). Los alimentos: galletas de almidón, yogur, rúcula y achicoria se percibieron con menos intensidad en comparación con el grupo de control. Entre los sabores, los alimentos salados fueron los que menos diferían y los alimentos amargos y amargos se percibieron más claramente entre los grupos. Conclusión: El presente estudio es pionero en evaluar la percepción del gusto utilizando alimentos, en lugar de soluciones estandarizadas, y identificó diferencias significativas en la intensidad de la percepción del gusto en individuos en tratamiento contra el cáncer.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Taste , Neoplasms , Dysgeusia , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1602-1608, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143629


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence based on a systematic review of the literature (PRISMA) to systematize information on smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The studies were selected through combinations based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, and BIREME databases were used. The search encompassed articles published from January 2010 to May 2020, with no restriction of language or localization. RESULTS: A total of 665 retrieved articles had the potential for inclusion. Of these, two answered the research question, which was to verify the smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results found in this review demonstrated that there likely is an association between self-reported smell and taste dysfunctions and COVID-19 infection in such patients.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 411-422, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126139


RESUMEN Se estableció la caracterización de salchichas secas tipo cabanossi con carne de llama, cerdo y muestras comerciales mediante un análisis proximal (contenidos de grasa: 18,6 a 29,6% y proteína: 19,4 a 36,2%), color (C*: 15,8 a 33,7), actividad de agua (0,770 a 0,960), pH (5,2 a 6,5) y propiedades mecánicas como dureza (47,8 a 124 N) y masticabilidad (9,4 a 33,2 N). Se obtuvieron 19 descriptores a partir de la opinión de 83 consumidores; luego, se empleó el método CATA (Check-all-that-apply) para describir las características sensoriales del cabanossi empleando 55 consumidores. Se evidenció que el cabanossi con carne de llama presentó el menor contenido de grasa total y ácidos grasos saturados, y mayor contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en comparación a las otras muestras. Los descriptores más utilizados fueron: olor característico/embutido, sabor a especias/condimentos, picante y sensación residual picante. Los consumidores indicaron como atributos relevantes para la aceptabilidad al color rojo claro, blando/suave, masticable y picante. La utilización de carne de llama constituye una alternativa en el desarrollo de nuevos productos cárnicos basados sobre las características presentadas.

ABSTRACT The chemical and physical characterization of cabanossi-type dry sausages made with lama meat, pork and commercial samples were performed. Remarkable differences were found in terms of fat (18.6 to 29.6%), color (15.8 to 33.7), water activity (0.770 to 0.960), pH (5.6 to 6.5), hardness (47.8 to 124 N) and chewiness (9.4 to 33.2 N). Nineteen descriptive terms based on the opinions of 83 consumers were used. Then, 55 consumers used the CATA (Check-all-that-apply) method to describe the sensory traits of cabanossi . Sausage from lama meat had the lowest total fat and saturated fatty acid content, and the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content in comparison to the other samples. The most utilized sensory terms were: characteristic odor/smell of sausage, spicy flavor and spicy after taste. For sensory acceptability, consumers selected light red color, soft/tender, chewable and spicy as the most relevant traits. The application of lama meat represents an alternative to new meat products developed based on the characteristics studied.

Animals , Meat Products/analysis , Swine , Taste , Camelids, New World , Proteins/analysis , Fats/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 390-395, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126136


The aim of this research was to characterize a fermented yogurt-type milk drink that was elaborated from whey with the addition of aloe vera crystals and granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss). Four formulations for characterization were obtained: F1 (control), F2 (5% aloe vera and 15% granadilla), F3 (10% aloe vera and 10% granadilla) and F4 (15% aloe vera and 5% granadilla). Next, a sensory evaluation through a hedonic test was conducted to choose the formulation with the highest acceptance. After the best formulation was chosen, a bromatological and syneresis characterization was performed. The F4 sample had the best results in the sensory evaluation. Compared to the F1 sample, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in all parameters except in total carbohydrates was observed for the bromatological analysis. In the percentage of syneresis, at the end of the 15 days, F4 presented a lower value in this parameter with respect to the control sample. It could be determined that the higher percentage of aloe vera and the lower percentage of granadilla had a big influence on the parameters evaluated, where it presented the best results compared to the other samples evaluated.

El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar una bebida láctea fermentada tipo yogur que se elaboró a partir de lactosuero con la adición de cristales de aloe vera y granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss). Se obtuvieron cuatro formulaciones para la caracterización: F1 (control), F2 (5% de aloe vera y 15% de granadilla), F3 (10% de aloe vera y 10% de granadilla) y F4 (15% de aloe vera y 5% de granadilla). A continuación, se realizó una evaluación sensorial mediante una prueba hedónica para elegir la formulación de mayor aceptación. Una vez elegida la mejor formulación, se realizó una caracterización bromatológica y de sinéresis. La muestra F4 obtuvo los mejores resultados en la evaluación sensorial. En comparación con la muestra F1, se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) en todos los parámetros, excepto en los carbohidratos totales. En el porcentaje de sinéresis, al final de los 15 días, F4 presentó un valor inferior en este parámetro con respecto a la muestra de control. Se pudo determinar que el mayor porcentaje de aloe vera y el menor porcentaje de granadilla influyeron mucho en los parámetros evaluados, en los que presentó los mejores resultados en comparación con las otras muestras evaluadas.

Passiflora , Milk , Aloe , Food Analysis , Fermented Foods and Beverages , Taste , Whey
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 372-380, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126134


ABSTRACT This study describes the development of mixed flour added of maca for gluten-free bread (GFB) employing a Simplex Centroid Design. Four pseudo-components were evaluated in order to improve the GFB specific volume and texture profile analysis: maca (MC; 0.25 to 0.75), potato starch (PS; 0.25 to 0.75), sweet manioc flour (SEM; 0 to 0.25), and sour manioc flour (SOM; 0 to 0.25). The best GFB formulation - by desirability results - was evaluated regarding physio-chemical, microbiological aspects, and sensory acceptance. The responses specific volume and hardness were adjusted with a special cubic model (R2= 0.973 and 0.913), while cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness was adjusted with a linear model. The significant contribution of maca into GFB dough was evident in the models, and the desirability results indicated an appropriate mixed flour composed by MC (0.25), PS (0.5), and SEM (0.25). The GFB elaborated with this mixed flour generated a product well accepted (acceptability index higher than 73.9%) for attributes of aroma, colour, texture, flavour, and overall acceptance. The values of physio-chemical parameters obtained in the present article was in the range described for GFB in the literature. In addition, the processing method applied allowed for obtaining a GFB that was microbiologically stable.

RESUMEN Este estudio describe el desarrollo de la harina mezclada (MF) agregada de maca para la elaboración de pan sin gluten (GFB) empleando un Diseño Centroide Simplex. Se evaluaron cuatro pseudo-componentes para mejorar el volumen específico y el perfil de textura de GFB: maca (MC; 0,25 a 0,75), almidón de patata (PS; 0,25 a 0,75), harina de yuca dulce (SEM; 0 a 0,25), y harina de yuca agrio (SOM; 0 a 0,25). La mejor formulación de GFB - por la deseabilidad - se evaluó en relación con los aspectos fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos, y sensoriales. El volumen específico y la dureza se ajustaron a un modelo cúbico especial (R2= 0,975 y 0,913). La cohesión, elasticidad y masticabilidad se ajustaron a un modelo lineal. La contribución de la maca a la masa de GFB fue evidente en los modelos, y los resultados indican una MF apropiada compuesta por MC (0,25), PS (0.5) y SEM (0,25). El GFB elaborado con esta MF genera un producto aceptado (índice de aceptabilidad mayor que 73,9%) para aroma, color, textura, sabor y aceptación general. Los parámetros físico-químicos obtenidos estaban en el rango descrito para GFB en la literatura y GFB se mostró microbiológicamente estable.

Bread/analysis , Celiac Disease , Lepidium , Diet, Gluten-Free , Taste , Solanum tuberosum , Bread/microbiology , Manihot
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 565-569, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098288


Although various neuropsychochemical theories have been established about why breastfeeding mothers feel hedonic sensation, the underlying neural mechanism has not been adequately clarified. We aimed to investigate if there is hedonic sensation-initiated taste-bud like structures stimulated by sugars in the milk-secreting lactiferous ducts of mammary glands of breastfeeding female rats. In this study, twenty-two female rats were chosen which six of the virgin (n=6), six of pregnant (n=6) and ten of breastfeeding (n=10). We examined lactiferous ducts/nipples of mammary glands of all animals. They were sacrificed following intracardiac formalin injection, and their breast tissues were removed with covering tissues and fixed with 10 % of formalin solution. After current histological procedures, the tissues were examined by light microscope to assess taste-bud like structures, and their numerical densities were calculated by using stereological methods. Results were analyzed statistically. Taste-buds like structures with neuron-like appendages at the apical ends were discovered in lactiferous ducts. The taste rosea numbers were estimated as 3±1/mm3 in virgins, 167±27/mm3 in pregnant and 375±63/mm3 in breastfeeding animals. The taste rosea numbers were greater in breastfeeding rats than those of virgins and pregnant rats. They named as taste rosea resembling flower bucket which has not been mentioned in the literature so far.

Existen varias teorías neuropsicoquímicas, referente a la sensación hedónica que sienten las mujeres al amamantar, y el mecanismo neural subyacente. No obstante, estas aún no se aclaran adecuadamente. El objetivo de este estudio, fue investigar si existen estructuras hedónicas iniciadas por la sensación gustativa estimuladas por los azúcares en los conductos mamarios secretores de leche, de las glándulas mamarias de las ratas durante el período de lactancia. En este estudio, se eligieron 22 ratas hembras, seis de estas no preñadas como grupo control, seis preñadas y diez en período de lactancia. Examinamos los conductos lactíferos / pezones de las glándulas mamarias de los tres grupos. Los animales fueron sacrificados por medio de inyección intracardíaca de formalina. El tejido mamario se fijó en solución de formalina al 10 %. La muestras histólogicas fueron examinadas a través microscopía óptica con la finalidad de evaluar estructuras con características morfológicas similares a las papilas gustativas. Su densidad de número se calculó utilizando métodos estereológicos. Los resultados fueron analizados estadísticamente. En los conductos mamarios se observaron dos estructuras con con características morfológicas tipo papilas gustativas con apéndices neuronales en los extremos apicales. Los números se estimaron en 3±1/mm3 en el grupo control, 167±27/mm3 en gestantes y 375±63/mm3 en animales lactantes. El número de estructuras características morfológicas similares a las papilas gustativas fue mayor en las ratas amamantando que en el grupo control y que en las ratas preñadas. Conocido como sabor rosea debido a que se asemeja a un ramo de flores, lo que hasta ahora no se ha mencionado en la literatura.

Animals , Female , Rats , Taste , Breast/anatomy & histology , Breast Feeding , Pleasure , Breast/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.

RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.

Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 231-237, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115493


El uso de microondas está muy extendido a nivel doméstico gracias a su rapidez y facilidad de uso. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar el efecto de cocción de hamburguesas de distintos tipos de carne, en microondas y en horno convencional, sobre la pérdida de peso y estabilidad oxidativa. Además, determinar si existen diferencias desde el punto de vista sensorial aplicando una prueba triangular, comparando 2 productos presentados en tríos, uno que corresponde a hamburguesa cocida en microondas y otro a hamburguesa cocida en horno convencional. Se adquirieron hamburguesas de pollo, pavo, cerdo y vacuno en el comercio, se cocinaron en horno convencional y en microondas. Se calculó pérdida por cocción, se evaluó la rancidez y diferencias sensoriales entre hamburguesas del mismo tipo de carne, cocidas en distinto tipo de horno. La pérdida por cocción fue menor en hamburguesas cocidas en microondas. La acidez e índice de peróxido aumentaron en las muestras cocidas en ambos tipos de hornos respecto a hamburguesas crudas. La acidez fue mayor en hamburguesas cocidas en horno convencional, y el índice de peróxido fue mayor en hamburguesas cocidas en microondas, llegando a 10,6 meq O2/kg. En el análisis sensorial se encontraron diferencias significativas (p<0,05) entre las hamburguesas cocidas en horno convencional y en microondas. Resulta mejor opción cocinar hamburguesas en horno convencional, ya que el índice de peróxidos es menor que al cocinar en microondas; dentro del tipo de hamburguesas, son más estables las de vacuno y cerdo frente a la oxidación.

The use of microwaves is very widespread at the domestic level thanks to its speed and ease of use. The aim of this study was to compare cooking loss, rancidity and sensory differences for hamburger patties cooked in conventional versus microwave ovens. We also determined sensorial differences with the triangular test, comparing two products presented in threesomes, one that corresponded to a patty cooked in the microwave and the other in a conventional oven. Chicken, turkey, pork and beef patties were purchased commercially, cooked in a conventional oven and in microwaves. Cooking loss was calculated, rancidity and sensory differences were evaluated between patties of the same type of meat and cooked in the different oven types. Cooking loss was lower in patties cooked in microwaves compared to those cooked in conventional ovens. For both oven types, acidity and peroxide index increased with respect to raw ones. Acidity was higher in hamburgers cooked in conventional ovens and the peroxide index was higher in burgers cooked in microwaves, reaching 10.6 meq O2/kg. In sensory analysis, significant differences were found (p<0.05) between patties cooked in a conventional oven and in microwaves. It is a better option to cook patties in a conventional oven, because the peroxide index is smaller than in microwaves; and within types of patties, beef and pork are more stable against oxidation.

Furnaces , Cooking/methods , Meat Products/analysis , Microwaves , Peroxides/analysis , Taste , Acidity
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 190-199, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115488


ABSTRACT This study aimed to develop and assess the physicochemical, sensory parameters, and shelf life estimation of multicomponent snack bars based on tapioca flour, Brazil nut, and açaí or cupuassu pulp. The physicochemical composition of açaí- and cupuassu-flavored snack bars had, respectively, 0.92 and 0.99% ash, 19.22 and 17.02% lipids, 3.02 and 3.03% protein, 1.06 and 1.69% fiber, and 448 and 436 kcal/100 g energy value. The shear stress test showed the consumer needs to bite more strongly to break the açaí-flavored bar. The opposite was observed in the hardness test, in which the bite compression force during mastication was greater for the cupuassu-flavored bar. The bars had water activity below 0.6, which denotes microbiological stability. The sensory analysis ranked the bars between "liked slightly" and "liked very much," which was confirmed by the acceptability index above 75% for all attributes assessed. According to the results a significant increase in water activity over storage was observed suggest the packaging used in the tests did not present a satisfactory barrier to water vapor permeability. Only water activity was used to estimate shelf life, which was determined as 58 days and 49 days for the açaí- and cupuassu-flavored bars, respectively. Thus, the snack bars represent an alternative for athletes as well as individuals with celiac disease since they are gluten free.

RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y evaluar los parámetros físicos, físico-químicos, microbiológicos, sensoriales y la vida útil en estante de barras a base de harina de tapioca, castaña de Brasil y pulpa de açaí o cupuaçu. En cuanto a la composición físico-química, las barras multicomponentes sabor açaí y cupuaçu presentaron, respectivamente, 0,92 y 0,99% de cenizas, 19,22 y 17,02% de lípidos, 3,02 y 3,03% proteínas, 1,06 y 1,69% de fibras y 448 y 436 kcal/100g de valor energético. La prueba de cizallamiento y dureza mostraron que el consumidor necesita una fuerza de mordida mayor para romper la barra sabor açaí. El comportamiento contrario fue observado en la prueba de dureza donde la fuerza de compresión de la mordida, durante la masticación, fue mayor en la barra sabor cupuaçu. Para el análisis sensorial se observó que las barras evaluadas recibieron notas situadas entre las categorías "me gustó ligeramente" y "me gustó mucho", resultado comprobado por el índice de aceptabilidad con valores superiores al 75% para todos los atributos evaluados. De acuerdo con los resultados, se observó un aumento significativo en la actividad de agua durante el almacenamiento, lo que sugiere que el embalaje utilizado en las pruebas no presentó una barrera satisfactoria para la permeabilidad al vapor de agua. Para la estimación de vida de estante sólo la actividad de agua fue utilizada para los cálculos, siendo el tiempo de vida de estante determinado en 58 días para la barra sabor açaí y 49 días para la barra sabor cupuaçu. Así, las barras multicomponentes elaboradas representam una alternativa para atletas, así como para portadores de la enfermedad celíaca, visto la ausencia de gluten en su composición.

Malvaceae , Bertholletia , Snacks , Euterpe , Flour , Taste , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Food Microbiology , Food Preservation
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099385


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important public health problem. Overweight and high salt intake are risk factors for its development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between salt taste sensitivity threshold (STST) and blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private institution. METHODS: 104 healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were evaluated. Sociodemographic, clinical and dietary data were collected. Nutritional status and BP were assessed using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). STST was assessed using graded saline solutions with sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0.228 to 58.44 g/l. Identification of salty taste in solutions ≥ 3.652 g/l was used as the cutoff point for high STST. RESULTS: Participants with high STST presented higher daily average intakes for energy (2017.4 ± 641.5 versus 1650.5 ± 357.7 kcal/day; P = 0.01) and sodium (3070.2 ± 1195.1 versus 2435.2 ± 963.6 mg/day; P = 0.01) and higher BMI (P = 0.008) and WC (P = 0.002). After adjustment for age, sex, sodium and potassium intake, WC and family history of hypertension, the averages for SBP and DBP in subjects with high STST were higher than in those with normal STST (SBP: 138.2 ± 1.7 versus 119.7 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001; DBP: 81.2 ± 1.9 versus 75.1 ± 1.0 mmHg; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: High STST was associated with elevated blood pressure in healthy adults, regardless of other risk factors for hypertension.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Hypertension , Taste , Sodium Chloride , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2635-2643, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878517


Multi-species solid-state fermentation in a mud pit is one of the typical features of strong-flavor baijiu, in which archaea plays important roles, however, the archaeal community distribution and diversity during fermentation are still lack of research. The biomass, composition and succession of archaea communities in fermented grains and pit mud were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The potential interaction between archaea and bacteria was analyzed by co-occurrence network. Results demonstrate that the average biomass of archaea in pit mud was about 200 times higher than that of fermented grains. There was no significant difference in archaeal community structure between fermented grains and pit mud (r=0.017, P=0.074), but succession patterns between them showed significant correlation (r=0.30, P=0.03). Methanobacterium was the most abundant archaea in fermented grains and pit mud, and other dominant groups included Methanosarcina, Methanocorpusculum, Methanoculleus, and Methanobrevibacter. The co-occurrence network analysis showed that Methanobacterium was positively correlated with most bacteria in fermented grains and pit mud, especially with Hydrogenispora and Caproiciproducens, the dominant bacteria in pit mud. Our results revealed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and potential functions of the archaeal community in the mud pit of strong-flavor baijiu.

Alcoholic Beverages/analysis , Archaea/genetics , Bacteria , Fermentation , Taste
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828046


Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis , Taste , Wine
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828006


Inhibition of bitterness is a significant measure to improve the compliance and clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction. According to the characteristics of TCM decoction, such as high dispersion of bitterness components, multi-component bitterness superposition and strong instantaneous stimulation, the research group put forward a new strategy to inhibit bitterness in the early stage based on the self-assembly characteristics of amphiphilic substances in aqueous solution, in order to reduce the distribution of bitterness components in real solution and achieve the purpose of bitter-masking. It was found that the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic substances was different on the bitter compounds of various structures. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be a certain relationship between the bitter inhibition effect and the substrate structure. In this paper, the interaction between mPEG-PLLA and five bitter alkaloids(bamatine, jatrorrhizine, berberine, epiberberine and coptisine) in Coptidis Rhizoma was studied to explore the effect of substrate structure on the inhibition of bitterness. The sensory test of volunteers was used to determine the bitter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and its main bitter alkaloids. The molecular docking and molecular force field were applied to locate the bitter groups and the bitter-masking parts. The relationship between the bitter strength and the structure was analyzed by the surface electrostatic potential of the bitter alkaloids, and the correlation between the bitter-masking effect and the structural parameters of the bitter components was explored by factor analysis, so as to clarify the structure-activity relationship of mPEG-PLLA in masking the bitterness of coptis alkaloids. It was found that mPEG-PLLA had significant taste masking effect on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and five alkaloids. The masking effect was obviously related to the structure of different alkaloids: the effect increased with the increase of the number of hydrogen donors, rotatable bonds, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity, and decreased with the increase of surface electrostatic potential, electrophilicity and binding energy with bitter receptors. In this study, the influence of alkaloid structure of Coptidis Rhizoma on the butter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA was preliminarily elucidated, providing a scientific basis for better exerting the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic block copolymers.

Alkaloids , Coptis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Structure-Activity Relationship , Taste
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827941


Animal medicines have been called "medicine with affinity to flesh and blood" by doctors of all ages, which always act as an important branch of Chinese medicine. They have various types, extensive sources and long application history, with unique cli-nical effects in anti-coagulation, anti-thrombosis, anti-fatigue, immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-convulsion and so on. Most animal medicines contain proteins, fatty acids, and trimethylamine oxides, which are prone to decomposition and produce substances such as biological amines, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, trimethylamine and ammonia with unpleasant odors. The stench produced by the combination of various odors can easily cause side effects such as nausea and vomiting, which would probably affect the drug compliance and clinical efficacy in patients, and block the development of high-quality animal medicines. At present, we have insufficient understanding on sources and formation mechanism of the stench of animal medicines, lacking development of taste-masking technology. Therefore, the universality, formation, vomiting mechanism, evaluation methods, and masking technology of stench of animal medicines were summarized in this paper, so as to deepen the recognition of stench, provide references for the development of animal medicines deodorization technology, enhance patients' compliance with animal medicines, and promote animal drugs to better serve public health in the new era.

Animals , Fatigue , Humans , Neoplasms , Taste , Technology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e055, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132717


Abstract This study was performed to evaluate the interplay between dental caries, nutritional status, and genetic polymorphisms in TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 (taste receptor, type 1, member 1 and 2) in preschool children and pre-adolescents. We included 525 subjects (306 preschool children and 219 pre-adolescents). Parents/caregivers answered a self-administered questionnaire about their children's systemic health, characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and diet. Clinical examination was performed to evaluate dental caries and nutritional status. Saliva samples were collected for DNA extraction. The genotyping of rs17492553 ( TAS1R1 ), rs3935570, and rs4920566 ( TAS1R2 ) polymorphisms was performed using real-time PCR with Taqman Genotyping Master Mix and SNP assay. Both univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses with robust variance were used for the data analysis. In preschool children, consumption of sweets between meals increased the prevalence of dental caries by 85% (PR c = 1.85; 95%CI 1.39-2.46; p < 0.001), whereas in pre-adolescents, this prevalence increased by 34% (PR a = 1.34; 95%CI 1.11-1.62; p = 0.002), regardless of genetic polymorphisms . Moreover, individuals carrying at least one allele C in rs17492553 presented 23% more prevalence of dental caries (PR a = 1.23; 95%CI 1.02-1.49 p = 0.030). Nutritional status was not associated with dental caries, neither with genetic polymorphisms . Consumption of sweets between meals increased the prevalence of dental caries. In pre-adolescents, rs17492553 genetic polymorphism in TAS1R1 was associated with dental caries.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Polymorphism, Genetic , Nutritional Status/genetics , Dental Caries/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Taste/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , DMF Index , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
REVISA (Online) ; 9(4): 744-753, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145937


Avaliar a sensibilidade gustativa a proteína PTC nos docentes de uma faculdade privada de Goiás, associando esta sensibilidade gustativa à ingestão de alimentos que contém essa substância, hábitos socioculturais e alimentares. Método: A avaliação da sensibilidade ao composto PTC (Feniltiocarbamida) ocorreu junto a 40 docentes de uma faculdade privada do estado de Goiás após administração oral de uma gota da solução de concentração 0,01% do composto, seguida pela aplicação do questionário para avaliar à substância testada. Os dados foram analisados no programa EpiInfo versão Para se verificar a associação entre a sensibilidade gustativa ao PTC e as variáveis dependentes. utilizou-se os testes do qui-quadrado ou o teste exato de Fisher. Resultados: Observou-se que 65% dos docentes recrutados apresentam sensibilidade ao PTC. De 40 participantes, 47,5% eram do sexo feminino e 52,5% do sexo masculino. A população era da faixa etária entre 24 e 62 anos. Após a administração da solução do composto PTC (0,01%), a sensibilidade ao sabor amargo foi a mais relatada. Não houve associação entre a sensibilidade gustativa ao PTC e as variáveis estudadas. Conclusão: A inclusão na dieta de alimentos considerados saudáveis, associados ao sabor amargo, pode também ser influenciada pelo grau de sensibilidade e tolerância à esses alimentos.

To evaluate the taste sensitivity to PTC protein in the teachers of a private college in Goiás, associating this taste sensitivity to the ingestion of foods that contain this substance, sociocultural and eating habits. Method: The sensitivity assessment to the compound PTC (Phenylthiocarbamide) occurred with 40 teachers from a private college in the state of Goiás after oral administration of a drop of the 0.01% concentration solution of the compound, followed by the application of the questionnaire to evaluate the tested substance. The data were fulfilled using the EpiInfo program version To verify an association between taste sensitivity to PTC and as dependent dependents. chi-square tests or Fisher's exact test are used. Results: It was observed that 65% of the recruited professors are sensitive to PTC. Of the 40 participants, 47.5% were female and 52.5% male. The population was between 24 and 62 years old. After administration of the PTC compound solution (0.01%), sensitivity to bitter taste was the most reported. There was no association between taste sensitivity to PTC and the variables studied. Conclusion: The inclusion in the diet of foods considered considered, associated with the bitter taste, can also be influenced by the degree of sensitivity and tolerance to these foods.

Evaluar la sensibilidad gustativa a la proteína PTC en los profesores de un colegio privado de Goiás, asociando esta sensibilidad gustativa a la ingestión de alimentos que contienen esta sustancia, hábitos socioculturales y alimentarios. Método: La evaluación de sensibilidad al compuesto PTC (Feniltiocarbamida) se realizó con 40 profesores de un colegio privado en el estado de Goiás luego de la administración oral de una gota de la solución de concentración al 0.01% del compuesto, seguida de la aplicación del cuestionario para evaluar la sustancia probada. Los datos se cumplieron utilizando el programa EpiInfo versión Verificar una asociación entre la sensibilidad gustativa a PTC y como dependientes dependientes. Se utilizan pruebas de chicuadrado o la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: Se observó que el 65% de los profesores reclutados son sensibles al PTC. De los 40 participantes, el 47,5% eran mujeres y el 52,5% hombres. La población tenía entre 24 y 62 años. Después de la administración de la solución del compuesto PTC (0,01%), la sensibilidad al sabor amargo fue la más notificada. No hubo asociación entre la sensibilidad gustativa al PTC y las variables estudiadas. Conclusión: La inclusión en la dieta de los alimentos considerados considerados, asociados al sabor amargo, también puede estar influenciada por el grado de sensibilidad y tolerancia a estos alimentos.

Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phenylthiourea , Taste , Alcohol Drinking , Faculty , Food , Diet, Healthy , Tobacco Smoking
CoDAS ; 32(6): e20190122, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133552


Abstract: Purpose: The changes in gustatory function resulting from oncological treatment occur mainly after radiotherapy. However, the head and neck tumors, because of the anatomical location of the lesion, can themselves trigger significant changes in the feeding-related functions - including taste. To assess the gustatory function in patients diagnosed with advanced oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study comprised 31 individuals with advanced oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, referred for oncological treatment with radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The "taste strips" test was applied; it consists of inserting solutions with four different concentrations each for salty, sweet, and sour tastes, and three concentrations for the bitter taste, on the tongue. Results: Most of the individuals were diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer. Approximately half of the sample already had taste-related complaints, and more than 80%, swallowing-related complaints. The overall frequency of hypogeusia was 38.7%, in which the bitter taste stood out in its isolated assessment. The association of change in gustatory function proved to be significant in patients in stage T4. Conclusion: The decrease in gustatory function in individuals with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer was evidenced in this study, especially when associated with tumors in stage T4. Regarding feeding, most of them reported complaints of dysphagia, suggesting the importance of the speech-language-hearing assessment and follow-up, even before the oncological treatment, to minimize the risks of dysphagia.

Abstract: Purpose: The changes in gustatory function resulting from oncological treatment occur mainly after radiotherapy. However, the head and neck tumors, because of the anatomical location of the lesion, can themselves trigger significant changes in the feeding-related functions - including taste. To assess the gustatory function in patients diagnosed with advanced oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study comprised 31 individuals with advanced oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, referred for oncological treatment with radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The "taste strips" test was applied; it consists of inserting solutions with four different concentrations each for salty, sweet, and sour tastes, and three concentrations for the bitter taste, on the tongue. Results: Most of the individuals were diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer. Approximately half of the sample already had taste-related complaints, and more than 80%, swallowing-related complaints. The overall frequency of hypogeusia was 38.7%, in which the bitter taste stood out in its isolated assessment. The association of change in gustatory function proved to be significant in patients in stage T4. Conclusion: The decrease in gustatory function in individuals with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer was evidenced in this study, especially when associated with tumors in stage T4. Regarding feeding, most of them reported complaints of dysphagia, suggesting the importance of the speech-language-hearing assessment and follow-up, even before the oncological treatment, to minimize the risks of dysphagia.

Humans , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Taste , Tongue , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777451


The herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis were used commonly in clinical,and most of them are pungent and bitter. In order to study the nature-effect interrelationship of the herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis,the TCMSP platform and Cytoscape 3. 5. 1 platform were used to construct warm-pungent-liver and warm-bitter-liver of the complement and intersection protein interaction network and the target-disease network and the network module was analyzed. As a result,warm-liver target-disease network is associated with diseases such as cancer,hypertension,and depression,which exerts the efficacy of warming Yang and transforming Qi,promoting Qi and activating blood,removing blood stasis and dispersing phlegm. The bitter taste target-disease network is associated with diseases such as myocardial infarction,cancer,inflammation and other diseases,which exerts the efficacy of dissipating the stasis. The pungent taste target-disease network is associated with diseases such as cancer,cardiovascular disease,osteoporosis and other diseases,which exerts the efficacy of invigorating the circulation of blood and eliminating stagnation. The research shows that the medicinal combination of warm-pungent-liver and warm-bitter-liver has the efficacy of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis by regulating different targets in different disease processes.

Blood Circulation , Humans , Liver , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Qi , Research , Taste