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1.
Rev. venez. oncol ; 33(1): 46-59, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147479

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama Triple Negativo es un subtipo molecular que se caracteriza por ausencia de expresión de receptores de estrógeno, progesterona y proteína HER2. Representa el 10 % a 15 % de todos los subtipos de cáncer de mama con impacto en el pronóstico y en las líneas de tratamiento; siendo negativo para receptores hormonales y HER2, la terapéutica hormonal y anti-HER2 no cuentan para su manejo. Aún no se dispone de productos dirigidos a blancos específicos para esta categoría.(AU)


The Triple Negative breast cancer is a molecular subtype characterized by no expression of the estrogen, the progesterone and the HER2 protein receptors. They represents 10 % to 15 % of all the breast cancer subtypes with an impact on the prognosis and in the treatment lines; is negative for the hormone receptors and for the HER2, hormonal and the anti-HER2 therapeutics do not count for the management of them. The products targeting specific to this category are not yet available(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biomarkers, Tumor , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mammography , Drug Therapy , Medical Oncology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1471-1476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Taxanes are an essential class of antineoplastic agents used to treat various cancers and are a fundamental cause of hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, other adverse events, such as bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy, can lead to chemotherapy discontinuation. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of taxanes in the real world.@*METHODS@#Taxane-associated adverse events were identified by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms and analyzed and compared by mining the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System pharmacovigilance database from January 2004 to December 2019. Reported adverse events, such as hypersensitivity reaction, bone marrow toxicity, and peripheral neuropathy, were analyzed with the following signal detection algorithms: reporting odds ratio (ROR), proportional reporting ratio (PRR), multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS), Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN), and logistic regression methods. Adverse outcome events and death outcome rates were compared between different taxane groups using Pearson's χ2 test, whereas significance was determined at P < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI).@*RESULTS@#A total of 966 reports of hypersensitivity reactions, 1109 reports of bone marrow toxicity, and 1374 reports of peripheral neuropathy were analyzed. Compared with paclitaxel and docetaxel, bone marrow toxicity following the use of nab-paclitaxel had the highest ROR of 6.45 (95% two-sided CI, 6.05-6.88), PRR of 5.66, (χ2 = 4342.98), information component of 2.50 (95% one-sided CI = 2.34), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 5.64 (95% one-sided CI = 5.34). Peripheral neuropathy following the use of nab-paclitaxel showed a higher ROR of 12.78 (95% two-sided CI, 11.55-14.14), PRR of 12.16 (χ2 = 4060.88), information component of 3.59 (95% one-sided CI = 3.25), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 12.07 (95% one-sided CI = 11.09).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results showed that bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy were the major adverse events induced by taxanes. Nab-paclitaxel exhibited the highest potential for taxane-associated adverse events. Further research in the future is warranted to explain taxane-associated adverse effects in real-world circumstances.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Bayes Theorem , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Taxoids/adverse effects , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096529

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es una de las patologías más frecuentes a nivel mundial y en el Ecuador ocupa un sitio importante dentro de la mortalidad; en pacientes con tumores de estadios avanzados la quimioterapia neodyuvante es el procedimiento indicado para lograr una reducción tumoral satisfactoria. El objetivo fue determinar la respuesta clínica y patológica en pacientes con cáncer de mama tratadas con quimioterapia neoadyuvante según cada subtipo molecular, atendidos en el hospital "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" en el período 2015 a 2017. Se hizo uso de un diseño no experimental, transversal de tipo correlacional. Pacientes con cáncer de mama que recibieron neoadyuvancia, en su mayoría con quimioterapia basada en antraciclinas y taxanos. Se clasificó a las pacientes por sus subtipos moleculares, los mismos se obtuvieron en base a las características inmunohistoquímicas de los reportes de patología que constan en el sistema AS-400. Se comprobó la respuesta clínica al tratamiento usando los Criterios RECIST 1.1. Como resultado los 171 pacientes fueron analizados. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue 55 13 años de edad; el 25% fueron luminal B (HER+), 24% luminal B (HER-), 22% triple negativo, 18% HER2+ y 12% luminal A; el 52% de las pacientes tuvieron estadio III de la enfermedad; el 75% (129) de las pacientes fue realizada una mastectomía radical modificada. Se pudo concluir que la respuesta patológica completa en pacientes con tratamiento neoadyuvante se relaciona con los subtipos moleculares y esto es estadísticamente significativo. Además, se evidenció las mayores tasas de respuesta patológica completa en los grupos moleculares de HER2+ y triple negativo.


Breast cancer is one of the most frequent pathologies worldwide and in Ecuador it occupies an important place in mortality. In patients with advanced stage tumors, the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is the indicated procedure to achieve a satisfactory tumor reduction. The aim was to determine the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to each molecular subtype, treated at the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" hospital in the period 2015 to 2017. We used a non-experimental, crosssectional type design. Patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant, mostly with chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and taxanes. The patients were classified by their molecular subtypes, they were obtained based on the immunohistochemical characteristics of the pathology reports that appear in the AS-400 system. The clinical response to treatment was checked using the RECIST 1.1 Criteria. As a result, a sum of 171 patients were analyzed. The average age of the patients was 55 + 13 years old; 25% were luminal B (Her +), 24% luminal B (Her-), 22% triple negative, 18% Her2 + and 12% luminal A; 52% of the patients had stage III of the disease; 75% (129) of the patients underwent a modified radical mastectomy. As a conclusion, the complete pathological response in patients with neoadjuvant treatment is related to molecular subtypes and this is statistically significant. Also, the highest rates of complete pathological response in the molecular groups of Her2 + and triple negative were evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/classification , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination
4.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 65(4)20191216.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048663

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A síndrome mão-pé é uma reação adversa experimentada por vários pacientes em tratamento para o câncer e fator preditor de morbidade e mortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar as evidências científicas relacionadas à identificação, prevenção e tratamento da síndrome mão-pé induzida por agentes quimioterápicos, identificar os principais sinais e sintomas que possibilitam o reconhecimento da síndrome e, ainda, discutir a ocorrência de onicomicoses no contexto da síndrome mão-pé. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática na MEDLINE/PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde e Scopus, incluindo literatura cinzenta e busca manual. Os 29 estudos incluídos na revisão foram analisados e classificados segundo a hierarquia dos níveis de evidência Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) e a confiabilidade entre os examinadores (coeficiente Kappa) foi calculada. Resultados: Foram identificados estudos que demonstraram eficácia na prevenção da síndrome mão-pé com o uso da crioterapia e hidroterapia. Evidenciaram-se resultados satisfatórios com o uso do creme de ureia na prevenção e tratamento, e o uso de piridoxina não apresentou resultados conclusivos. Foram encontrados mecanismos para identificação da síndrome e para classificação dos agentes indutores. O grupo dos taxanos predominou entre os medicamentos indutores da síndrome mão-pé. Conclusão: Existem evidências consistentes, porém não contemplam todos os fármacos indutores da síndrome e não exploram outras manifestações relacionadas às onicólises e onicomicoses. O estudo apresentou resultados que poderão auxiliar os prescritores na identificação da síndrome mão-pé, além de alternativas para prevenção e tratamento. Contudo, vale destacar a necessidade de pesquisas futuras para elucidar a etiologia e protocolos de tratamento.


Introduction: Hand-foot syndrome is an adverse reaction experienced by many cancer patients and a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Objective:To evaluate the scientific evidence related to the identification, prevention and treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced hand-foot syndrome, to identify the main signs and symptoms that enable the recognition of the syndrome, and to discuss the occurrence of onychomycosis in the context of the hand-foot syndrome. Method: This is a systematic review at MEDLINE/PubMed, Virtual Health Library and Scopus, including gray literature and manual search. The 29 studies included in the review were analyzed and graded according to the hierarchy of evidence levels Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) and reliability among examiners (Kappa coefficient) was calculated. Results:It were identified studies that demonstrated efficacy in preventing hand-foot syndrome using cryotherapy and hydrotherapy. Satisfactory results were evidenced with the use of urea cream for prevention and treatment, and the use of pyridoxine showed inconclusive results. Mechanisms for identification of the syndrome and classification of inducing agents were found. The taxane group predominated among hand-foot syndrome inducing drugs. Conclusion: There are consistent evidences but do not include all drugs inducing the syndrome and do not explore other manifestations related to onycholysis and onychomycosis. The study presented results that may help prescribers to identify hand-foot syndrome, as well as alternatives for prevention and treatment. However, it is worth highlighting the need for future studies to elucidate the etiology and treatment protocols.


Introducción: El síndrome de pies y manos es una reacción adversa experimentada por muchos pacientes con cáncer y un predictor de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la evidencia científica relacionada con la identificación, prevención y tratamiento del síndrome de pies y manos inducido por quimioterapia, identificar los principales signos y síntomas que permiten el reconocimiento del síndrome y analizar la aparición de onicomicosis en el contexto del síndrome mano-pie. Método:Esta es una revisión sistemática en MEDLINE/PubMed, Virtual Health Library y Scopus, que incluye literatura gris y búsqueda manual. Los 29 estudios incluidos en la revisión se analizaron y clasificaron de acuerdo con la jerarquía de los niveles de evidencia Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados: Identificamos estudios que demostraron eficacia en la prevención del síndrome mano-pie usando crioterapia e hidroterapia. También mostraron resultados satisfactorios con el uso de crema de urea en la prevención y el tratamiento, y el uso de piridoxina no mostró resultados concluyentes. Se encontraron mecanismos para la identificación del síndrome y la clasificación de los agentes inductores. El grupo de taxanos predominó entre los fármacos inductores del síndrome mano-pie. Conclusión: Existe evidencia consistente pero no incluye todas las drogas que inducen el síndrome y no explora otras manifestaciones relacionadas con la onicólisis y la onicomicosis. El estudio presentó resultados que pueden ayudar a los prescriptores a identificar el síndrome de manos y pies, así como alternativas para la prevención y el tratamiento. Sin embargo, vale la pena destacar la necesidad de futuras investigaciones para dilucidar la etiología y los protocolos de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hand-Foot Syndrome/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/therapy , Taxoids/adverse effects , Onycholysis/diagnosis , Onycholysis/therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/diagnosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763128

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to develop and validate an individualized prediction model for automated detection of acquired taxane resistance (ATR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Penalized regression, combinedwith an individualized pathway score algorithm,was applied to construct a predictive model using publically available genomic cohorts of ATR and intrinsic taxane resistance (ITR). To develop a model with enhanced generalizability, we merged multiple ATR studies then updated the learning parameter via robust cross-study validation. RESULTS: For internal cross-study validation, the ATR model produced a perfect performance with an overall area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 1.000 with an area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 1.000, a Brier score of 0.007, a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The model showed an excellent performance on two independent blind ATR cohorts (overall AUROC of 0.940, AUPRC of 0.940, a Brier score of 0.127). When we applied our algorithm to two large-scale pharmacogenomic resources for ITR, the Cancer Genome Project (CGP) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), an overall ITR cross-study AUROC was 0.70, which is a far better accuracy than an almost random level reported by previous studies. Furthermore, this model had a high transferability on blind ATR cohorts with an AUROC of 0.69, suggesting that general predictive features may be at work across both ITR and ATR. CONCLUSION: We successfully constructed a multi-study–derived personalized prediction model for ATR with excellent accuracy, generalizability, and transferability.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cohort Studies , Drug Resistance , Genome , Humans , Learning , Machine Learning , Methods , Paclitaxel , Sensitivity and Specificity , Taxoids
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773100

ABSTRACT

Docetaxel-loaded nanomicelles were prepared in this study to improve the solubility and tumor targeting effect of docetaxel(DTX),and further evaluate their anticancer effects in vitro. PBAE-DTX nanomicelles were prepared by film-hydration method with amphiphilic block copolymer polyethyleneglycol methoxy-polylactide(PELA) and pH sensitive triblock copolymer polyethyleneglycol methoxy-polylactide-poly-β-aminoester(PBAE) were used respectively to prepare PELA-DTX nanomicelles and PBAE-DTX nanomicelles. The nanomicelles were characterized by physicochemical properties and the activity of mice Lewis lung cancer cells was studied. The results of particle size measurement showed that the blank micelles and drug-loaded micelles had similar particle sizes, ranging from 10 to 100 nm. The particle size of PBAE micelles was changed under weak acidic conditions, with good pH response. The encapsulation efficiency of the above two types of DTX-loaded nanomicelles determined by HPLC was(93.8±1.70)% and(87.2±4.10)%, and the drug loading amount was(5.3±0.10)% and(4.9±0.05)%,respectively. Furthermore,the DTX micelles also showed significant inhibitory effects on Lewis lung cancer cells by MTT assay, and pH-sensitive PBAE-DTX showed better cytotoxicity. The results of flow cytometry indicated that,the apoptosis rate of lung cancer Lewis cells was(20.72±1.47)%,(29.71±2.38)%,and(40.91±1.90)%(P<0.05) at 48 h after treatment in DTX,PELA-DTX,and PBAE-DTX groups. The results showed that different docetaxel preparations could promote the apoptosis of Lewis cells, and PBAE-DTX had stronger apoptotic-promoting effect. The pH-sensitive DTX-loaded micelles are promising candidates in developing stimuli triggered drug delivery systems in acidic tumor micro-environments with improved inhibitory effects of tumor growth on Lewis lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Docetaxel , Pharmacology , Drug Carriers , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Mice , Micelles , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Taxoids
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1109-1116, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771817

ABSTRACT

The discovery of hydroxylases in the anticancer drug taxol biosynthesis pathway is a hotspot and difficulty in current research. In this study, a new hydroxylase gene TcCYP725A22 (GenBank accession number: MF448646.1) was used to construct a sub-cellular localization vector pCAMIBA1303-TcCYP725A22-EGFP to get the transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Laser confocal microscopy revealed that the protein encoded by this gene was localized in the cell membrane. Furthermore, the recombinant plant expression plasmid pBI121-TcCYP725A22 was constructed. After transient transformation to the Taxus chinensis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, qRT-PCR and LC-MS were utilized to analyze the effects of TcCYP725A22 overexpression on the synthesis of taxol. The results showed that, in the TcCYP725A22 overexpressed cell line, expression levels of most defined hydroxylase genes for taxol biosynthesis were increased, and the yield of taxanes were also increased. It was concluded that the hydroxylase gene TcCYP725A22 is likely involved in the biosynthetic pathway of taxol.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Paclitaxel , Taxoids , Taxus
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018011, Apr.-May 2018. ilus graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905587

ABSTRACT

At a time when the population shows increasing longevity, entities such as cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more frequently connected. In the United States, approximately 6% of the patients on hemodialysis have cancer. The challenge to manage oncologic patients with CKD in a hemodialytic program represents a great shortage of available information on the choice of the best drug, timing, dosage adjustments, dialysis method, and treatment safety. We present the case of a patient with prostate cancer and terminal CKD in hemodialysis, and the treatment sequence after the development of resistance to hormonal blockade therapy, which included docetaxel, enzalutamide, and radium-223.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Dialysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Phenylthiohydantoin/administration & dosage , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/complications , Radium/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Taxoids/administration & dosage
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6650, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889040

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we successfully developed a docetaxel (DTX) and thalidomide (TDD) co-delivery system based on low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified silica nanoparticles (LDL/SLN/DTX/TDD). By employing the tumor homing property of LDL and the drug-loading capability of silica nanoparticles, the prepared LDL/SLN/DTX/TDD was expected to locate and specifically deliver the loaded drugs (DTX and TDD) to achieve effective chemotherapy of liver cancer. In vitro analysis revealed that nano-sized LDL/SLN/DTX/TDD with decent drug loading capabilities was able to increase the delivery efficiency by targeting the low density lipoprotein receptors, which were overexpressed on HepG2 human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line, which exerted better cytotoxicity than unmodified silica nanoparticles and free drugs. In vivo imaging and anti-cancer assays also confirmed the preferable tumor-homing and synergetic anti-cancer effects of LDL/SLN/DTX/TDD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Silicon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Taxoids/administration & dosage , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Drug Synergism , Nanoparticles , Hep G2 Cells , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1226-1237, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717745

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Eribulin is approved for advanced breast cancers refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes. Efficacy according to sensitivity to previous therapies has been poorly explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Safety data were collected prospectively and we retrospectively collected efficacy data from the five French centres that participated in the Eribulin E7389-G000-398 expanded access program. Our main objectives were exploration of safety and analysis of eribulin efficacy (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]) according to sensitivity to the last microtubule-inhibiting agent administered. RESULTS: Median eribulin treatment duration was 3.3 months for the 250 patients included in this prospective single-arm study. Two hundreds and thirty-nine patients (95.6%) experienced an adverse event (AE) related to treatment including 129 (51.6%) with grade ≥ 3 AEs. The most frequently observed toxicities were cytopenias (59.6% of included patients), gastro-intestinal disorders (59.2%), and asthenia (56.4%). The most frequent grade 3-4 AE was neutropenia (37.2% with 4.8% febrile neutropenia). Median PFS and OS were 4.6 and 11.8 months, respectively. Patients classified as responders to the last microtubule-inhibiting therapy had a longer OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.94; p=0.017), and tended to display a better PFS (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.04; p=0.086). OS improvement was still significant in multivariate analysis (adjusted HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.79; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: This work based on a prospective study suggests that identification of patients likely to be more sensitive to eribulin could be based on their previous response to microtubules inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Asthenia , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Microtubules , Multivariate Analysis , Neutropenia , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Taxoids
12.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 4-4, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autophagy plays a crucial role in chemotherapy resistance of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hence, autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), an essential molecule involved in autophagy regulation, is presumably associated with recurrence of TNBC. This study was aimed to investigate the potential influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG5 on the disease-free survival (DFS) of early-stage TNBC patients treated with anthracycline- and/or taxane-based chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#We genotyped ATG5 SNP rs473543 in a cohort of 316 TNBC patients treated with anthracycline- and/or taxane-based chemotherapy using the sequenom's MassARRAY system. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to analyze the association between ATG5 rs473543 genotypes and the clinical outcome of TNBC patients.@*RESULTS@#Three genotypes, AA, GA, and GG, were detected in the rs473543 of ATG5 gene. The distribution of ATG5 rs473543 genotypes was significantly different between patients with and without recurrence (P = 0.024). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients carrying A allele of ATG5 rs473543 had an increased risk of recurrence and shorter DFS compared with those carrying the variant genotype GG in rs473543 (P = 0.034). In addition, after adjusting for clinical factors, multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that the AA/GA genotype of rs473543 was an independent predictor for DFS (hazard risk [HR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.87; P = 0.034). In addition, DFS was shorter in node-negative patients with the presence of A allele (AA/GA) than in those with the absence of A allele (P = 0.027).@*CONCLUSION@#ATG5 rs473543 genotypes may serve as a potential marker for predicting recurrence of early-stage TNBC patients who received anthracycline-and/or taxane-based regimens as adjuvant chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anthracyclines , Autophagy-Related Protein 5 , Genetics , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Taxoids , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788038

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiotoxicity is a serious late complication of breast cancer treatment. Individual treatment risk of specific drugs has been investigated. However, studies on the evaluation of the composite risk of chemotherapeutic agents are limited.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of breast cancer patients who received adjuvant treatment and had available serial echocardiography results. Patients were assigned to subgroups based on chemotherapy containing anthracyclines (A), anthracyclines and taxanes (A+T), and radiotherapy (RT). The development of cardiac disease and serial ejection fraction (EF) were reviewed. EF decline up to 10% from baseline was considered grade 1 cardiotoxicity and EF decline >20% or absolute value < 50% was considered grade 2 cardiotoxicity. The most recent medical records and echocardiography results over 1 year of chemotherapy completion were also reviewed. Late cardiotoxicity was defined as a lack of recovery of EF decline or aggravated EF decline from baseline.RESULTS: In total, 123 patients were evaluated. A small reduction in EF was observed after chemotherapy in both chemotherapy groups. There were no significant differences between groups A and A+T in EF decline following chemotherapy. We could not find any differences in composite risk between the chemotherapy groups and the RT group during follow-up. Late cardiotoxicity was seen in 15.45% of patients. During follow-up, three patients were diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy.CONCLUSION: There was no significant composite risk elevation following adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. However, late cardiotoxicity was considerable and further research in this direction is necessary.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Cardiotoxicity , Drug Therapy , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases , Humans , Medical Records , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Taxoids
14.
Brasília; CONITEC; dez. 2017.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-908691

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: O câncer de mama é o câncer mais incidente nas mulheres no mundo e sua incidência tem crescido devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida, urbanização e adoção de determinados estilos de vida, como modificações na dieta e na atividade física. O câncer de mama tem seu comportamento e tratamento definidos pela localização, idade de apresentação e estadiamento. Os fatores de risco levam em consideração critérios histopatológicos, biológicos e, mais recentemente, moleculares e genéticos. As implicações prognósticas desse câncer têm relação com o status de receptores - estrogênio, progesterona e o Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico do Tipo 2 (HER2). De 15 a 20% dos casos de câncer de mama apresentam superexpressão da proteína HER2, codificada pelo gene ERBB2, que é a condição de pior prognóstico, já que confere à célula tumoral comportamento agressivo com aumento do crescimento e proliferação, maior capacidade invasiva e de metastatização. A sobrevida média após o diagnóstico deste tipo de câncer varia de 18 a 24 meses, mas pode ser 50% menor para pacientes com superexpressão de HER2. A definição de câncer de mama metastático inclui a presença da doença que acomete outros sítios além da mama, da parede torácica e das cadeias regionais de drenagem linfática. A sua disseminação pode ocorrer através da via linfática, sanguínea ou por extensão direta do tumor. Em mulheres com câncer de mama metastático HER2-positivo, o tratamento objetiva a melhora da qualidade de vida e o prolongamento da sobrevida, usando terapias que incluem quimioterapia (QT), hormonioterapia, além de medicações alvo. TECNOLOGIA: Pertuzumabe associado ao trastuzumabe em quimioterapia. INDICAÇÃO: Câncer de mama metastático HER2+ PERGUNTA: O uso de pertuzumabe associado ao trastuzumabe e à quimioterapia já oferecida pelo SUS é eficaz, seguro e custo-efetivo para a primeira linha de tratamento de pacientes com câncer de mama metastático HER2+ comparado às terapias atualmente disponíveis no SUS? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Apenas um ensaio clínico de fase III publicado avaliou o uso do pertuzumabe associado ao trastuzumabe e docetaxel para o tratamento de pacientes com câncer de mama metastático HER2+. O estudo indica que a associação possibilita uma sobrevida global (SG) de 56,5 meses e que a introdução do pertuzumabe ao tratamento feito com trastuzumabe e docetaxel possibilita um aumento de SG de 15,7 meses. O perfil de segurança apresenta-se similar ao da associação de docetaxel e trastuzumabe. O uso de trastuzumabe + QT foi associado a uma melhora na SG em relação à QT sozinha. Estudos que utilizaram taxanos (docetaxel ou paclitaxel) como QT associados ou não ao trastuzumabe também demonstram melhora na SG com a associação do trastuzumabe. O perfil de efeitos adversos do trastuzumabe preocupa pelo aumento no risco de eventos cardíacos graves. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Ambos os demandantes apresentaram dados de razão de custoefetividade incremental que, quando utilizados com um horizonte temporal adequado, de aproximadamente 10 anos, indicam que a associação pertuzumabe, trastuzumabe e docetaxel não é custo-efetiva para o tratamento de pacientes no SUS, mesmo quando utilizado o limiar muito elevado de três vezes o PIB per capita proposto (SBOC: R$ 343.151,78 /ano de vida extra no cenário-base e R$ 150.124,40 /ano de vida extra para a avaliação adotando os descontos negociados com o fabricante; Roche: R$ 260.440,00 /ano de vida extra num horizonte temporal de 10 anos). IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Ambos os demandantes apresentaram valores de impacto orçamentário para a introdução do medicamento no SUS; variando de 534 milhões de reais no estudo da SBOC para 885 milhões no estudo da Roche em cinco anos. O estudo da Roche, no entanto, calcula um cenário alternativo no qual o impacto orçamentário, descontando os custos relacionados à judicialização da saúde, seria de 201 milhões de reais em cinco anos. EXPERIÊNCIA INTERNACIONAL: O National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) e o Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) da França recomendam o uso do pertuzumabe em combinação com o trastuzumabe e docetaxel para pacientes com câncer de mama HER2-positivo metastático. O Pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (PCO) do Canadá recomenda o financiamento do pertuzumabe associado ao trastuzumabe e taxano, desde que os preços dos medicamentos fossem ajustados a um limiar de custo-efetividade aceitável. Já o Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) da Escócia e o National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics (NCP) da Irlanda não recomendam o uso do pertuzumabe. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: A associação do pertuzumabe ao trastuzumabe e docetaxel para o tratamento de mulheres com câncer de mama metastático HER2+ com IHQ 3+ ou FISH+ foi considerada eficaz e segura. As avaliações econômicas indicam que o medicamento não é custo-efetivo quando comparado à quimioterapia no Brasil. A análise de impacto orçamentário indica a necessidade de investimentos de altos valores. O alto preço de venda do pertuzumabe é o principal parâmetro que influencia desfavoravelmente a relação de custo-efetividade da associação. A negociação de preços com o fabricante poderia ser uma alternativa no sentido de possibilitar o acesso ao medicamento pelos pacientes do SUS. Nenhum dos demandantes incluiu nas suas análises uma avaliação de custo de oportunidade. Essa avaliação é de extrema importância, pois poderia indicar qual o melhor emprego dos investimentos financeiros em vistas aos benefícios para a população, a incorporação da nova tecnologia terapêutica ou ações alternativas como, por exemplo, a melhora do diagnóstico precoce do câncer de mama. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Na discussão entre os membros do Plenário foram considerados os seguintes pontos: a maioria dos pacientes no principal estudo apresentado era virgem de tratamento com trastuzumabe; o perfil dos pacientes incluídos no estudo é diferente do perfil dos pacientes na vida real; a incorporação do pertuzumabe não se mostrou custo-efetiva e com grande impacto orçamentário ao sistema de saúde. Assim, os membros do Plenário da CONITEC, em sua 53ª reunião ordinária recomendaram que a matéria fosse enviada à Consulta Pública com manifestação preliminar não favorável à incorporação do pertuzumabe associado ao trastuzumabe e docetaxel no tratamento do câncer de mama HER2-positivo metastático em primeira linha de tratamento. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Na consulta pública do relatório de recomendação inicial do pertuzumabe foram recebidas 208 contribuições técnico-científicas e 427 contribuições de experiência ou opinião, sendo a maioria discordante da recomendação inicial da CONITEC. O demandante apresentou análise estratificada do estudo pivotal do pertuzumabe, mostrando os resultados separadamente para as pacientes com metástases visceral e não visceral; as pacientes com metástase visceral representaram 80% do total da população do estudo e tiveram mediana de sobrevida de 20,8 meses. Além disso, o demandante apresentou sua proposta de transferência de tecnologia para a produção do pertuzumabe no Brasil, aceita pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os membros do Plenário discutiram que as pacientes que mais se beneficiariam da incorporação do pertuzumabe seriam as pacientes com metástases viscerais, que apresentam doença mais grave e que, portanto o medicamento deveria ser incorporado para esse subgrupo de pacientes. O Plenário da CONITEC entendeu que houve argumentação suficiente para retificar sua recomendação inicial, desde que haja negociação de preço com a empresa fabricante do medicamento e propôs que o preço máximo permitido para a incorporação do pertuzumabe fosse baseado no valor terapêutico pago pela adição do trastuzumabe à terapia padrão. DELIBERAÇÃO FINAL: Os membros da CONITEC deliberaram por recomendar a incorporação no SUS do pertuzumabe para tratamento do câncer de mama HER2-positivo metastático em primeira linha de tratamento, conforme estabelecido pelas Diretrizes Diagnósticas e Terapêuticas do Ministério da Saúde e condicionado à negociação de preço. DECISÃO: Incorporado pertuzumabe no tratamento do câncer de mama HER2-positivo metastático em primeira linha de tratamento, segundo Portaria SCTIE/MS nº 57, de 4 de dezembro de 2017. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Combinations , Health Evaluation/economics , Neoplasm Metastasis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 349-354, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891394

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of chemohormonal therapy in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive and non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer. Methods An analytical decision model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of chemohormonal therapy versus androgen deprivation therapy alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer and patients with non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer. The cost-effectiveness in metastatic patients with a high-volume disease was assessed separately. The model used data from randomized clinical trials and drug acquisition costs in Brazil. In addition, the costs of post-progression therapies have been included in this model. The benefits to health are expressed as the quality-adjusted life-years, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Results Chemohormonal therapy may be associated with improved quality-adjusted life-years for all patient. The improvement was more than six times greater for patients with high-volume metastatic disease. In these patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were up to 74% lower than the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of patients with non-metastatic disease. Conclusion Chemohormonal therapy has been more cost-effective in patients with high-volume metastatic disease.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a relação custo-efetividade da adição de quimioterapia hormonal em pacientes com câncer de próstata metastático sensível a hormônio ou localizado de alto risco. Métodos Um modelo de decisão analítico foi desenvolvido para determinar o custo-efetividade da adição de quimioterapia versus a monoterapia de privação de andrógeno para pacientes com câncer de próstata metastático hormônio-sensível e pacientes de alto risco com câncer de próstata não metastático. O custo-efetividade em pacientes metastáticos com um alto volume da doença foi verificado isoladamente. Os dados do modelo foram obtidos de ensaios clínicos randomizados utilizando custos de aquisição de medicamentos no Brasil. Os custos de terapias pós-progressão também foram incluídos no modelo. Os efeitos foram expressos em anos de vida ajustados por qualidade, e foram calculadas as razões de custo-efetividade incremental. Resultados A adição de quimioterapia levou a um ganho de anos de vida ajustados por qualidade para todos os doentes. Este incremento foi seis vezes maior para os pacientes com doença metastática de alto volume. Nestes pacientes, as taxas do custo incremental por anos de vida ajustados por qualidade foram até 74% mais baixos do que o aumento das taxas dos pacientes com doença não metastática. Conclusão A adição de quimioterapia foi mais custo-efetiva para pacientes com doença metastática de alto volume.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Taxoids/administration & dosage , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics , Treatment Outcome , Docetaxel
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 61-65
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185741

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone pretreatment regimen with different doses in the prevention of docetaxel-induced hypersensitivity reaction [HSR]. One hundred and sixty-two patients who had malignant tumors as determined by histology and/or cytology and received docetaxel treatments at least 2 cycles, were randomized into two groups. There were 90 patients in the study group and 72 patients in the control group. In the study group, patients received 4.5mg of oral dexamethasone once a day. Patients in the control group received 8 mg of dexamethasone twice a day. All patients received dexamethasone for 3 days, from the day before docetaxel treatment to the day after docetaxel treatment. The endpoints were hypersensitivity reaction [HSR] and other adverse effects, which were determined according to common terminology criteria for adverse event v3.0 [CTCAE 3.0]. In the study group, 10 patients had HSRs [11.1%]. While in the control group, 7 patients had HSRs [9.7%], and the main clinical symptoms of HSR were rash [3.1%], fever/chill [2.5%], angioedema [1.9%], chest discomfort [1.9%] and hypotension [0.6%]. There was no statistically significant difference between these two groups [P=0.774]. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of adverse effect between patients in the study group and in the control group. Those adverse effects included neutropenia, decreased hemoglobin, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and fluid retention. Since no significant difference in the HSR incidence between these two groups has been found, 4.5mg of dexamethasone [qd] is as efficient and safe as 8mg [bid]


Subject(s)
Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Taxoids/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , China
17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 922-927, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812855

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).@*METHODS@#A total of 54 CRPC patients were randomly divided into a control and a trial group, all treated by endocrine therapy (oral Bicalutamide at 50 mg per d plus subcutaneous injection of Goserelin at 3.6 mg once every 4 wk) and chemotherapy (intravenous injection of Docetaxel at 75 mg/m2 once every 3 wk plus oral Prednisone at 5 mg bid), while the latter group by Fuyang Huayu Prescription (a Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM] prescription for tonifying yang and dispersing blood stasis) in addition, for a course of 24 weeks. Comparisons were made between the two groups of patients in the level of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Karnofsky physical condition scores, function assessment of cancer therapy-prostate (FACT-P) scores, and TCM symptoms scores before and after 12 or 24 weeks of treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the baseline, the serum PSA level was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment both in the control ([25.9 ± 39.3] vs [20.0 ± 21.1] μg/L, P 0.05). At 24 weeks, however, the PSA levels in the control and trial groups were slightly increased to (23.1 ± 28.4) and (19.6 ± 23.5) μg/L, respectively, with no statistically significant differences in between (P >0.05). Karnofsky, FACT-P and TCM symptoms scores were all markedly improved in the trial group after 12 weeks of treatment (P 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TCM Fuyang Huayu Prescription combined with endocrine therapy and chemotherapy is effective for CRPC.


Subject(s)
Anilides , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Docetaxel , Drug Administration Schedule , Goserelin , Humans , Male , Nitriles , Prednisone , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Blood , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Blood , Drug Therapy , Taxoids , Tosyl Compounds , Treatment Outcome
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 302-308, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812769

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effect of the AXL expression on the chemosensitivity of prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells to docetaxel and possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Using Western blot, we examined the expressions of the AXL protein, p-AXL and Gas6 in the docetaxel-resistant PC-3 (PC-3-DR) and DU145 (DU145-DR) cells stimulated with gradually increased concentrations of docetaxel. We transfected the PC-3 and DU145 cells with negative NC ShRNA and AXL-ShRNA, respectively, which were confirmed to be effective, detected the proliferation, apoptosis and cycle distribution of the cells by CCK8, MTT and flow cytometry after treated with the AXL-inhibitor MP470 and/or docetaxel, and determined the expression of the ABCB1 protein in the PC-3-DR and DU145-DR cells after intervention with the AXL-inhibitor R428 and/or docetaxel.@*RESULTS@#The expression of the AXL protein in the PC-3 and DU145 cells was significantly increased after docetaxel treatment (P <0.05). The expressions AXL and p-AXL were remarkably higher (P <0.05) while that of Gas6 markedly lower (P <0.05) in the PC-3 and DU145 than in the PC-3-DR and DU145-DR cells. The inhibitory effect of docetaxel on the proliferation and its enhancing effect on the apoptosis of the PC-3 and DU145 cells were significantly decreased at 48 hours after AXL transfection (P <0.05). MP470 obviously suppressed the growth and promoted the apoptosis of the PC-3-DR and DU145-DR cells, with a higher percentage of the cells in the G2/M phase when combined with docetaxel than used alone (P <0.05). R428 markedly reduced the expression of ABCB1 in the PC-3-DR and DU145-DR cells, even more significantly in combination with docetaxel than used alone (P <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The elevated expression of AXL enhances the docetaxel-resistance of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells and AXL intervention improves their chemosensitivity to docetaxel, which may be associated with the increased cell apoptosis in the G2/M phase and decreased expression of ABCB1.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Docetaxel , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Pyrimidines , Pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Taxoids , Pharmacology
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of anticancer agents are known to induce many adverse reactions in the skin. Related cutaneous adverse drug reactions influence the morbidity, mortality, and anti-cancer regimen of the patients. A multidisciplinary approach to cancer management has been emphasized. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative anticancer agents and frequency of adverse reactions in the skin. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who consulted at the Dermatology Department of Busan Paik Hospital and Haeundae Paik Hospital from January 2013 to February 2015. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients were enrolled. Among the 45 patients treated with antimetabolite analogs (30 cytarabine, 7 gemcitabine, 3 methotrexate, 2 fludarabine, 2 doxifluridine, and 1 decitabine), exanthematous drug eruption (49.1%) was the most common reaction, followed by hand-foot syndrome (28.3%). Among the 35 patients treated with fluorouracil (22 5-fluorouracil and 13 capecitabine), hand-foot syndrome (47.2%) was the most common, followed by acneiform eruption (25.0%). Among the 24 patients treated with epidermal grow factor receptor inhibitors (10 erlotinib, 10 cetuximab, and 4 gefitinib), acneiform eruption (54.8%) was the most common, followed by xerosis (19.4%). Among the 11 patients treated with anthracyclines (9 doxorubicin, 1 daunorubicin, and 1 idarubicin), acneiform eruption (45.5%) was the most common, followed by hand-foot syndrome (36.4%). Among the 7 patients treated with taxanes (4 docetaxel and 3 paclitaxel), hand-foot syndrome (42.8%) was the most common. Among the 6 patients treated with angiogenesis-inducing inhibitors (3 sorafenib, 2 pazopanib, and 1 sunitinib), hand-foot skin reaction (66.7%) was the most common. Only 2 patients (1.4%) changed treatments due to intolerable skin reactions. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the various skin reactions of anticancer agents and predict their clinical course effectively.


Subject(s)
Acneiform Eruptions , Anthracyclines , Antineoplastic Agents , Cetuximab , Cytarabine , Daunorubicin , Dermatology , Doxorubicin , Drug Eruptions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Fluorouracil , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Humans , Medical Records , Methotrexate , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Taxoids
20.
Acta paul. enferm ; 29(4): 397-404, ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-827737

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Descrever a frequência, características, localização, intensidade da dor em pacientes com câncer de mama em uso do quimioterápico Docetaxel. Métodos Estudo longitudinal realizado com 17 mulheres com câncer de mama em tratamento com Docetaxel. As pacientes foram avaliadas durante três ciclos da quimioterapia quanto à dor, utilizando-se os instrumentos Questionário McGill de Dor (Br-MPQ) e Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Utilizou-se a correlação de Spearman e o teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados Houve aumento na média da dor em todas as variáveis do BPI. Quando comparados os valores do Pain Rating Index (PRI) total foram verificados respectivamente 0,20; 0,33 e 0,24 na primeira, segunda e terceira avaliações, sendo encontrada correlação entre a intensidade da dor e a interferência em todas as atividades do cotidiano no BPI na segunda avaliação. Conclusão Houve aumento na ocorrência da dor, comprometendo as atividades diárias de vida das mulheres participantes.


Abstract Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, location, pain intensity in breast cancer patients using the chemotherapy medication Docetaxel. Methods Longitudinal study involving 17 women with breast cancer under treatment using Docetaxel. The patients’ pain was assessed during three chemotherapy cycles, using the tools McGill Pain Questionnaire (Br-MPQ) and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Spearman’s correlation and the Mann-Whitney test were used. Results The mean pain score increased in all variables of the BPI. When comparing the total coefficients on the Pain Assessment Index, 0.20; 0.33 and 0.24 were found in the first, second and third assessment, showing a correlation between the pain intensity and the interference in all daily activities on the BPI for the second assessment. Conclusion The occurrence of pain increased, compromising the participating women’s activities of daily living.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain/chemically induced , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Taxoids/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies
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