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Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(6): 394-396, dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530039


Background: Hemolacria or the presence of blood in tears is a rare condition, and there are only a few cases reported in the literature. Hemolacria is associated with multiple underlying diseases, including vicarious menstruation due to extragenital endometriosis. Case report: We present a 26-year-old woman with hemolacria and abdominal pain related to her menstrual cycle. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral ovarian endometriomas. After ruling out other possible causes of hemolacria, a progestin-only treatment was applied, with improvement of the abdominal pain and complete remission of hemolacria. Conclusions: When faced with hemolacria, a thorough anamnesis and physical examination must be performed, sometimes involving more than one specialist to reach a diagnosis. Considering hemolacria is a sign of a subjacent pathology, its treatment should be specific one for the disease in each case.

Antecedentes: La hemolacria o presencia de sangre en las lágrimas es una afección poco frecuente y sólo hay unos pocos casos descritos en la literatura. La hemolacria se asocia a múltiples enfermedades subyacentes, incluida la menstruación vicaria debida a endometriosis extragenital. Caso clínico: Presentamos a una mujer de 26 años con hemolacria y dolor abdominal relacionado con su ciclo menstrual. La paciente fue diagnosticada de endometriomas ováricos bilaterales. Tras descartar otras posibles causas de hemolacria, se aplicó un tratamiento sólo con progestágenos, con mejoría del dolor abdominal y remisión completa de la hemolacria. Conclusiones: Ante una hemolacria se debe realizar una anamnesis y exploración física minuciosa, en la que a veces interviene más de un especialista para llegar al diagnóstico. Teniendo en cuenta que la hemolacria es signo de una patología subyacente, su tratamiento debe ser el específico para la enfermedad en cada caso.

Humans , Female , Adult , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/etiology , Progestins/therapeutic use , Tears , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Hemorrhage , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/drug therapy
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 365-372, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981551


Blood glucose monitoring has become the weakest point in the overall management of diabetes in China. Long-term monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients has become an important means of controlling the development of diabetes and its complications, so that technological innovations in blood glucose testing methods have far-reaching implications for accurate blood glucose testing. This article discusses the basic principles of minimally invasive and non-invasive blood glucose testing assays, including urine glucose assays, tear assays, methods of extravasation of tissue fluid, and optical detection methods, etc., focuses on the advantages of minimally invasive and non-invasive blood glucose testing methods and the latest relevant results, and summarizes the current problems of various testing methods and prospects for future development trends.

Humans , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Tears
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 1005-1014, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007877


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) in the treatment of chronic hordeolum.@*METHODS@#Patients with chronic hordeolum who underwent IPL treatment were enrolled in this study. According to the severity of hordeolum, the patients were treated with IPL 3 to 5 times. Patients' satisfaction and visual analog scale scores for ocular discomfort symptoms before and after treatment were collected. The number, congestion, long diameter, short diameter and area of nodules were also recorded and measured. Finally, eyelid margin signs, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, meibomian gland dropout, tear meniscus height, and corneal fluorescein staining were scored.@*RESULTS@#20 patients were enrolled in this study. The eyelid margins were congestive and swollen, with blunt rounding or irregularity. The meibum was cloudy or toothpaste-like. The meibomian gland expressibility, meibomian gland dropout and tear meniscus height were reduced. The cornea showed scattered fluorescein staining. After treatment, score of visual analog scale, congestion and size of nodules were significantly reduced. Eyelid margin signs, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, tear meniscus height and corneal fluorescein staining scores were improved. Meibomian gland dropout had no significant change. No side effects occurred during treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#IPL is beneficial for the treatment of chronic hordeolum.

Humans , Hordeolum , Meibomian Glands , Tears , Fluoresceins
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1235-1238, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007478


OBJECTIVES@#To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture and sodium hyaluronate eye drop in the treatment of aqueous deficiency dry eye.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients (120 eyes) with aqueous deficiency dry eye were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 1 case dropped out) and a control group (30 cases, 1 case dropped out). In the control group, sodium hyaluronate eye drop were used, one drop at a time, 4 times a day, for 14 consecutive days. In the observation group, acupuncture was applied at bilateral Shangjingming (Extra), Cuanzhu (BL 2), Sizhukong (TE 23), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), and Tongziliao (GB 1) , once a day, treatment for 6 days with the interval of 1 day was required, for 14 consecutive days. The tear meniscus height (TMH), Schirmer Ⅰ test (SⅠT), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), and corneal fluorescein sodium staining (FLS) score were compared between the two groups before and after treatment, and the safety of the treatment of the two groups was observed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those before treatment, after treatment, TMH, SⅠT and NIBUT were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and FLS scores were decreased (P<0.01) in the two groups; the score of OSDI was reduced (P<0.01) in the observation group. After treatment, in the observation group, TMH and SⅠT were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01), and the score of OSDI was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). No adverse reactions and adverse events were observed in the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Acupuncture and sodium hyaluronate eye drop can both effectively treat aqueous deficiency dry eye, acupuncture has obvious advantages in improving TMH and basic tear secretion, and reducing the subjective symptoms of patients. Acupuncture for dry eye is safe.

Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Acupuncture Therapy , Dry Eye Syndromes/therapy , Eye , Tears , Ophthalmic Solutions , Fluorescein
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 22-27, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360076


Abstract Background: Previous studies has shown that dry eye test abnormalities, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), may occur in psoriasis. Objectives: The authors aimed to evaluate the dry eye disease (DED), MGD, in psoriasis patients with meibography which is a current, objective, noninvasive method for patients with meibomian gland diseases, to investigate the relationship between disease severity and ocular involvement. Methods: This study included 50 participants with psoriasis and 50 healthy individuals. All subjects were examined by the same dermatologist and referred for ophthalmological examination including meibomian gland obstruction, lid margin alterations assessment, ocular surface disease index assessment, tear film break-up time test, Schirmer test, corneal conjunctival fluorescein staining assessment. Additionally, upper and lower lids were evaluated for meibomian gland loss with meibography. Results: MGD (28%), meibomian gland loss (MGL) (29.5%), upper meiboscore (0.61 ± 0.81), lower meiboscore (0.46 ± 0.61), DED (22%) were significantly higher in the psoriasis group compared with the control group (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p = 0.027, p = 0.041, p = 0.044, respectively). There was a significant relationship between MGD and psoriasis area severity index (PASI) (p = 0.015, Odds Ratio = 1.211). There was a significant positive relationship between MGL with PASI (p < 0.001, r = 608) and psoriasis duration (p < 0.001, r = 0.547). Study limitations: Smaller study group and inability to detect quality changes of meibum with meibography were limitations of the study. Conclusions: Psoriasis may affect the meibomian gland morphology, may cause structural changes in meibomian glands, and as a result of these may cause MGD and DED. Therefore, ophthalmologists and dermatologists should be aware of this situation and co-evaluate the patients in this respect.

Humans , Psoriasis/complications , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Eyelid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tears , Meibomian Glands/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0044, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387972


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of two different doses of topical cyclosporine A used in addition to artificial tears in the treatment of patients with meibomian dysfunction and secondary dry eye. Methods: Fifty patients aged 18 to 40 years, who presented to our clinic between June 2020 and June 2021 were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups as Group A (topical cyclosporine A 0.05%) and Group B (topical cyclosporine A 0.1%). All the patients underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination, basal Ocular Surface Disease Index measurement, and Schirmer 1 and tear break-up time tests at all visits. Results: The mean age was 32±7.1 years in Group A and 30.7±8.5 years in Group B. In Group A, there were 15 women and ten men, and Group B consisted of 14 women and 11 men. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age and gender distribution (p>0.05). Schirmer 1 and tear break-up time results and Ocular Surface Disease Index score also did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Cyclosporine A 0.05% and 0.1% eye drops were both seen to be effective in managing dry eye disease in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia clínica de duas doses diferentes de ciclosporina A tópica utilizada além da lágrima artificial no tratamento de pacientes com disfunção da glândula tarsal e olho seco secundário. Métodos: No estudo, foram incluídos 50 pacientes com idades entre 18 e 40 anos, que se apresentaram em nossa clínica entre junho de 2020 e junho de 2021. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo A (ciclosporina A 0,05% tópica) e Grupo B (ciclosporina A 0,1% tópica). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico detalhado, medição basal do Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular, e testes de Schirmer 1 e de tempo de ruptura em todas as visitas. Resultados: A idade média foi de 32±7,1 anos no Grupo A e 30,7±8,5 anos no Grupo B. No Grupo A, havia 15 mulheres e dez homens, e o Grupo B consistia de 14 mulheres e 11 homens. Não havia diferença significativa entre os grupos em termos de distribuição por idade e gênero (p>0,05). Os resultados do Schirmer 1 e do tempo de ruptura e do Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular também não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusão: Observou-se que os colírios de ciclosporina A 0,05% e 0,1% são eficazes no tratamento da síndrome do olho seco em pacientes com disfunção da glândula tarsal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Tears/metabolism , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Meibomian Gland Dysfunction/complications
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 11-16, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880414


Dry eye is a common ophthalmic disease caused by eye maladjustment due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), which is often accompanied by symptoms such as increased tear film osmotic pressure and ocular surface inflammation. In the treatment of dry eye patients, dredging gland obstruction caused by meibomian gland secretion is an effective treatment method. Based on electrothermal effect and hyperelasticity of the silicone, an auxiliary treatment instrument for MGD is designed, which can improve the blood circulation of the glands through heat compress and massage to achieve the purpose of dredging the meibomian glands. The therapy device can display the temperature and pressure during the treatment in real time, so that the surgeon can grasp the progress of the treatment in real time. The therapy device constructs a user-oriented interactive interface based on parametric modeling method, which can be customized by 3D printing according to the user's eyeball geometric parameters. The designed therapeutic device was finally tested on New Zealand white rabbits. The experimental results show that the therapeutic device has significant effectiveness and safety, as well as clinical application prospects.

Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Dry Eye Syndromes/therapy , Meibomian Gland Dysfunction , Meibomian Glands , Tears , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0043, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347257


ABSTRACT Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been a major challenge for the international scientific community. Since its inception, studies aiming to describe pathophysiological aspects and clinical manifestations of the disease have been conducted, raising hypotheses and confirming possible associations. One aspect of this scientific medical production is the role of the ocular surface as a means of transmission and clinical presentation of viral syndrome. Objectives: To analyze the role of the ocular surface in transmission, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, by means of a systematic review. Methods: The search was carried out in three databases: Cochrane, PubMed Central Journals and MEDLINE, using the following descriptors: "COVID-19, ophthalmology". The filters last five years and studies on humans resulted in 32 studies; in that 12 were excluded for not meeting the purpose of the study. Results: There are still few published studies on the relation between SARS-CoV-2 and the ocular route. Most studies showed an association between the presence of nonspecific ocular manifestations and infection by the new coronavirus, with limitations in the number of patients analyzed and the methodology adopted. Hypotheses about the pathophysiological role are largely anchored in the association of SARS-CoV and the ocular surface evaluated in the past. Comments: The results found are still not sufficient to confirm the role of the ocular surface in the pathophysiology of the disease. Most of these preliminary studies are of considerable importance in raising hypotheses based on the medical analysis of the patients studied. However, larger studies with standardized methodology for diagnostic protocol and laboratory analysis of the individuals assessed are required.

RESUMO Introdução: A pandemia da SARS-CoV-2 tem sido um grande desafio para a comunidade científica internacional. Desde seu surgimento, estudos com a intenção de descrever os aspectos fisiopatológicos e as manifestações clínicas da doença vêm sendo conduzidos, levantando hipóteses e confirmando possíveis associações. Um dos temas dessa produção médica científica é o papel da superfície ocular como meio de transmissão e apresentação clínica da síndrome viral. Objetivo: Analisar o papel da superfície ocular na transmissão, na fisiopatologia e nas manifestações clínicas de SARS-CoV-2, através de uma revisão sistemática. Realizou-se a busca em três bancos de dados Cochrane Database, PubMed® e MEDLINE®, utilizando os descritores "COVID-19 e ophthalmology". Foram definidos como filtros o artigo ter sido publicado nos últimos 5 anos e estudo realizado em humanos, tendo sido encontrados 32 artigos. Destes, foram excluídos 12 por não corresponderem ao objetivo do estudo. Resultados: Ainda são poucos os estudos publicados sobre a relação entre o coronavírus 2 da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-CoV-2) e a via ocular. A maioria dos estudos mostrou associação entre a presença de manifestações oculares inespecíficas e a infecção pelo novo coronavírus, com limitações no número de pacientes analisados e na metodologia adotada. Hipóteses sobre o papel fisiopatológico se ancoram, em grande parte, na associação estudada entre o SARS-CoV-2 e a superfície ocular no passado. Comentários: Os resultados encontrados ainda não são suficientes para confirmar o papel da superfície ocular na fisiopatologia da doença. Grande parte desses estudos preliminares têm importância considerável ao levantar hipóteses baseadas na análise clínica dos pacientes estudados. No entanto, são necessários estudos maiores e com metodologia padronizada para protocolo diagnóstico e análise laboratorial dos indivíduos avaliados.

Humans , Eye Infections, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Eye Diseases/virology , Eye Manifestations , Tears/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/transmission , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 511-516, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153082


ABSTRACT Purpose: The effects of sex steroid hormones on tearparameters are known. Theaim of this studywas to examine the effects on tear parameters during exposure to high-dose sex steroids in a short period of time. Methods: Forty patients who were admitted to the infertility clinic of our hospital and planned to undergo ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins were included in our study. Prior tothe initiation of ovulation induction, the basal levels of estradiol were measured on day 3 of the menstrual cycle and ophthalmologic examinations were performed by the ophthalmology department of our hospital. The estradiol levels were-measured on the day ofovulation induction usinghuman chorionic gonadotropin and compared with basal estra­diol; eye examinations were also repeated. Result: Forty women with reproductive period and average age of 33.3 ± 4.2 years were included in this study. Basal levels of estradiol were significantly (p<0.001) higher after ovulation induction than before induction. The scores in the break-up timeand after induction were 6.2 ± 2.8 sn and 8.4 ± 1.4 sn, respectively. The values of Schirmer's test were 14.3 ± 7.1 mm and 20.6 ± 6.2 mm before and after induction, respectively. Both values were significantly higher after ovulation induction (p<0.001; p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: We observed impro­vemet in tear function tests following the use of estradiol even for a limited time.The use of estradiol during menopause may improve dry eye symptoms in patients.

RESUMO Objetivo: Os efeitos dos hormônios esteróides se­xuais nos parâmetros lacrimais são conhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar como os efeitos nos parâmetros lacrimais durante a exposição a altas doses de esteróides sexuais em um curto período de tempo. Métodos: Quarenta pacientes que foram admitidas na clínica de infertilidade do nosso hospital e planejavam a indução de ovulação por gonadotropinas exógenas. Antes do início da indução da ovulação, os níveis basais de estradiol foram medidos no terceiro dia do ciclo menstrual e os exames oftalmológicos foram efetuados pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia do nosso hospital. Os níveis de estradiol foram medidos no dia da indução da ovulação usando gonadotrofina coriónica humana e comparados aos estradiol basal; exames oftalmológicos também foram repetidos. Resultado: Quarenta mulheres com período reprodutivo e idade média de 33,3 ± 4,2 anos foram incluídas neste estudo. Os níveis basais de estradiol foram significativamente maiores (p<0,001) após a indução da ovulação do que antes desta. Os resultados dos testes de ruptura do filme lacrimal e após a indução foi de 6,2 ± 2,8 s e 8,4 ± 1,4 s respectivamente. Os valores do teste de Schirmer foram 14,3 ± 7,1 mm e 20,6 ± 6,2 mm, respectivamente antes e depois da indução. Ambos os valores foram significativamente maiores após a indução da ovulação (p<0,001; p=0,001 respectivamente). Conclusão: Observamos uma melhora nos testes de função lacrimal após o uso de estradiol, mesmo por tempo limitado. O uso de estradiol durante a menopausa poderá melhorar os sintomas do olho seco em pacientes.

Humans , Female , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Estradiol , Ovulation Induction , Tears
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 312-317, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131612


ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the clinical outcomes of the ocular surface in patients with vitamin D deficiency after oral replacement. Methods: A total of 40 patients with vitamin D deficiency were enrolled in the study. The patients received 50,000 units of oral vitamin D weekly over a period of 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 1,500-2,000 units/d were administered for 24 weeks. Eyelid margin score, meibomian gland expressibility score, Oxford grading, Schirmer I test, tear breakup time, tear osmolarity, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index score were evaluated at baseline, and at 8, 12, and 24 weeks. Results: The meibomian gland expressibility score, Schirmer I, tear breakup time, tear osmolarity, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score showed improvement 8 weeks after vitamin D supplementation (p<0.05). Compared with the pretreatment values, the eyelid margin score and Oxford grading were decreased at week 12 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin D replacement appears to improve ocular surface in individuals with vitamin D deficiency.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os resultados clínicos da superfície ocular em pacientes com deficiência de vitamina D após reposição oral. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 40 pacientes com deficiência de vitamina D. Os pacientes receberam 50.000 unidades de vitamina D semanalmente por um período de oito semanas. Após esse período, 1.500-2.000 unidades/dia foram administradas por 24 semanas. Escores da margem palpebral, escores de expressibilidade da glândula meibomiana, classificação de Oxford, teste de Schirmer I, tempo de ruptura lacrimal, osmolaridade da lágrima e escore do Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular foram avaliados no início e após 8, 12 e 24 semanas. Resultados: O escore de expressibilidade da glândula meibomiana, Schirmer I, tempo de ruptura lacrimal, osmolaridade da lágrima e o Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular apresentaram melhoras após 8 semanas de suplementação de vitamina D (p<0,05). Comparado com os valores do pré-tratamento, o escore da margem palpebral e a classificação de Oxford diminuíram na 12ª semana (p<0,05). Conclusão: A reposição de vitamina D parece melhorar a superfície ocular em indivíduos com deficiência de vitamina D.

Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Eyelid Diseases/drug therapy , Osmolar Concentration , Tears , Meibomian Glands
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 250-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131583


ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were included in the qualitative synthesis, which encompassed 6 literature reviews, 10 case series or cross-sectional studies, 4 case reports, and 6 intervention descriptions. Seventeen out of 26 records (65%) were categorized as level 5 within the Oxford CBME methodology grading system, the rest were level 4. The evidence generated on COVID-19 and ophthalmology to date is limited, although this is understandable given the circumstances. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. Ocular manifestations are not frequent and could resemble viral infection of the ocular surface. Most recommendations are based on the strategies implemented by Asian countries during previous coronavirus outbreaks. There is a need for substantive studies evaluating these strategies in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. In the meantime, plans for applying these measures must be implemented with caution, taking into account the context of each individual country, and undergo regular evaluation.

RESUMO Identificar e classificar as informações disponíveis sobre o COVID-19 e o tratamento oftalmológico de acordo com o nível de evidência, dentro de quatro tópicos principais de interesse: evidência do vírus nas lágrimas e na superfície ocular, infecção pela via conjuntival, manifestações oculares e recomendações de melhores práticas. Foi realizada uma revisão estruturada no PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, Biblioteca Cochrane e Google Scholar no COVID-19 e oftalmologia. A planilha de Níveis de Evidência 2011 do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 foi usada para avaliações de qualidade. Mil e dezoito itens foram identificados na busca; Foram incluídos 26 registros na síntese qualitativa, que incluiu 6 revisões de literatura, 10 séries de casos ou estudos transversais, 4 relatos de casos e 6 descrições de intervenções. Dezessete dos 26 registros (65%) foram classificados como nível 5 no sistema de classificação da metodologia Oxford CBME, o restante foi no nível 4. As evidências geradas no COVID-19 e na oftalmologia até o momento são limitadas, embora isso seja compreensível dadas as circunstâncias. Tanto a possível presença de partículas virais em lágrimas e conjuntiva quanto o potencial de transmissão conjuntival permanecem controversos. As manifestações oculares não são frequentes e podem se assemelhar a infecção viral da superfície ocular. A maioria das recomendações baseia-se nas estratégias implementadas pelos países asiáticos durante surtos anteriores de coronavírus. Há necessidade de estudos aprofundados avaliando essas estratégias no cenário da SARS-CoV-2. Enquanto isso, os planos para a aplicação dessas medidas devem ser implementados com cautela, levando em consideração o contexto de cada país e submetidos a auditorias periódicas.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Diseases/complications , COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tears/virology , Review Literature as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Evidence-Based Medicine , Pandemics/prevention & control
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 103-108, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088971


ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze whether inter-eye osmo larity differences were related to dry eye symptomatology. Methods: A total of 135 participants were randomly recruited from those who visited in the Optometry Clinic of the Optometry Faculty (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela). In a single scheduled session after the recruitment, Ocular Surface Disease Index was filled out following the standard instructions and TearLab measurements were made in both the participants' eyes (10-15 min lapse). Osmolarity values were compared between the right and left eyes and the absolute inter-ocular difference (-OD-OS-) correlated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index score for the whole sample. Based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index score, the sample was divided into four symptomatic subgroups, and differences in the -OD-OS- values were calculated. Results: The whole sample showed a statistically significant inter-eye osmolarity difference (p=0.025; -OD-OS- = 9.2 ± 9.3 mOsm/l) and the correlation between Ocular Surface Disease Index and -OD-OS- (r=0.369; p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found in the -OD-OS- value between symptomatic subgroups (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.003). Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between asymptomatic vs. moderate (p=0.006) vs. severe symp tomatic patients (p=0.001) and between mild vs. severe symptomatic patients (p=0.045), whereas no difference on -OD-OS- was found between participants with contiguous symptomatic subgroups (all p³0.174). Conclusion: Tear film inter-eye osmolarity differences are significantly higher in severe dry eye disease symptoms.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as diferenças entre osmolaridade entre os olhos foram relacionadas à sintomatologia do olho seco. Métodos: Um total de 135 participantes foram recrutados aleatoriamente entre os indivíduos da Clínica de Optometria da Faculdade de Optometria (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela). Em uma única sessão agendada após o recrutamento, o Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular foi preenchido seguindo as instruções padrão e as mensurações do TearLab foram feitas em ambos os olhos dos participantes (lapso de 10 a 15 min). Os valores de osmolaridade foram com parados entre os olhos direito e o esquerdo e a diferença absoluta ocular (-OD-OS-) correlacionada com a pontuação do Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular para toda a amostra. Com base na pontuação do Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular, a amostra foi dividida em quatro subgrupos sintomáticos, e as diferenças nos -OD-OS- os valores foram calcula dos. Resultados: A amostra total mostrou uma diferença de osmolarida de entre os olhos estatisticamente significativa (p=0,025; -OD-OS- = 9,2 ± 9,3 mOsm/l) e a correlação entre o Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular e -OD-OS- (r=0,369; p<0,001). Diferença estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada no valor -OD-OS- entre os subgrupos sintomáticos (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0,003). O teste U de Mann-Whitney mostrou uma diferença significativa entre pacientes assintomáticos versus moderados (p=0,006) versus sintomáticos graves (p=0,001) e entre pacientes sinto máticos leves e graves (p=0,045), enquanto que nenhuma di ferença de -OD-OS- foi encontrada entre os participantes de subgrupos sintomáticos contíguos (todos p³0,174). Conclusão: As diferenças entre osmolaridade inter-ocular do filme lacrimal são significativamente maiores nos sintomas graves da doença do olho seco.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tears/chemistry , Dry Eye Syndromes/physiopathology , Osmolar Concentration , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
Rev. salud bosque ; 10(1): 1-11, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1104443


El fluido lagrimal se caracteriza por ser una mezcla de moléculas que incluye proteínas, lípidos, metabolitos, entre otros; estas moléculas juegan un papel importante en la fisiopatología de distintas enfermedades, por lo cual las lágrimas han sido de gran interés para la comunidad científica en la búsqueda de biomarcadores y en el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas para enfermedades sistémicas y oculares. La poca invasividad y el bajo riesgo al obtener la lágrima la convierten en una interesante muestra en comparación con algunos fluidos corporales que pueden ser mucho más costosos y molestos para su obtención. Lo anterior ha sido demostrado en diversos estudios que sugieren estrategias para obtener la muestra e indican un posterior análisis mediante avanzadas técnicas de biología molecular y celular, entre ellas los análisis ómicos, que han logrado una mejor caracterización lagrimal.Los análisis ómicos han contribuido en la identificación diferencial de distintas moléculas que pueden desempeñar un papel importante en el diagnóstico, seguimiento y/o tratamiento de enfermedades oculares y sistémicas. Por tanto, el propósito del presente artículo fue describir las diferentes características del fluido lagrimal, así como los posibles candidatos de biomarcadores de patologías oculares y sistémicas reportados.

The lacrimal fluid is characterized by a mixture of molecules from proteins, lipids, metabolites among others, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of different diseases, for which it has been of great interest in the scientific community for the search of biomarkers and development of therapeutic strategies in systemic and eye diseases. The lower invasiveness and risk when obtaining the tear, makes it an interesting sample compared to some bodily fluids that can be much more expensive and annoying to obtain. The above has been demonstrated through various studies in which they suggest different strategies to obtain the sample and its subsequent analysis using techniques of molecular and cellular biology among them advanced molecular technology such as those such as omic analyses, which have achieved a better lacrimal characterization. These analyses have contributed to the differential identification of different molecules that may play an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring and/or treatment of eye and systemic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the different characteristics of the tear fluid as well as the possible candidates for biomarkers of mainly reported eye and systemic pathologies.

O líquido lacrimal é caracterizado por ser uma mistura de moléculas que inclui proteínas, lipídios, metabólitos, entre outros; Essas moléculas desempenham um papel importante na fisiopatologia de diferentes doenças, motivo pelo qual as lágrimas têm sido de grande interesse para a comunidade científica na busca de biomarcadores e no desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas para doenças sistêmicas e oculares. A baixa invasividade e o baixo risco de obter a lágrima fazem dela uma amostra interessante em comparação com alguns fluidos corporais que podem ser muito mais caros e problemáticos de obter. Isso foi demonstrado em vários estudos que sugerem estratégias para obter a amostra e indicam uma análise subsequente usando técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular e celular, incluindo análise ômica, que alcançaram melhor caracterização das lágrimas.A análise ômica contribuiu para a identificação diferencial de diferentes moléculas que podem desempenhar um papel importante no diagnóstico, monitoramento e / ou tratamento de doenças oculares e sistêmicas. Portanto, o objetivo deste artigo foi descrever as diferentes características do líquido lacrimal, bem como os possíveis candidatos a biomarcadores de patologias oculares e sistêmicas relatadas.

Tears , Technology , Therapeutics , Cell Biology , Eye , Molecular Biology
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 138-145, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811330


PURPOSE: The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) which are standard questionnaires of dry eye syndrome were used to determine the associations between clinical dry eye tests and meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD).METHODS: Forty-one patients with MGD were enrolled in this study. The score of the dry eye syndrome questionnaire and the degree of blepharitis (score: 0–4), Schirmer test results, degree of fluorescence staining of cornea (Oxford Grading System), tear break-up time (TBUT), Pentacam imaging, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography results were used to compare and analyze the results of each test for possible correlations with the dry eye questionnaire answers.RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between OSDI and SPEED (R = 0.278, p = 0.011). SPEED was correlated with the Oxford grade (R = 0.478, p < 0.001) and MGD grade (R = 0.280, p = 0.011) while there was no significant correlation with corneal aberrations, tear meniscus height, tear meniscus area, Schirmer test results, or TBUT. The OSDI correlated with the MGD grade (R = 0.651, p < 0.001), TBUT (R = −0.360, p = 0.001), and age (R = −0.230, p = 0.037). Using multiple regression analyses, the MGD grade affected the OSDI (β = 0.580, p < 0.001) and the Oxford grade significantly influenced the SPEED (β = 0.447, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: In Koreans, the OSDI questionnaire answers were associated with the MGD grade and SPEED questionnaire answers were associated with the corneal surface status. The OSDI questionnaire was therefore clinically useful in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction.

Humans , Blepharitis , Cornea , Dry Eye Syndromes , Fluorescence , Meibomian Glands , Tears , Tomography, Optical Coherence
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 146-152, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811329


PURPOSE: To determine whether eyeliner tattoo affects the meibomian gland (MG) and ocular surface.METHODS: The medical charts of an eyeliner tattoo group (16 eyes of 8 patients) and a control group (16 eyes of 18 patients) were retrospectively reviewed. The ocular surface disease index questionnaire, ocular surface staining score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), upper eyelid abnormality, meibum expressibility and quality, and MG loss and tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) which measured with LipiView® (TearScience, Morrisville, NC, USA) were compared. In the tattoo group, the correlation between the distance from the MG orifice to the tattoo pigment and other indices were analyzed.RESULTS: Compared to controls, the tattoo group had a significantly higher ocular surface disease index (p = 0.002), shorter TBUT (p < 0.001), higher vessel engorgement of the upper lid (p = 0.016), poorer meibum expressibility and quality (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively), higher MG loss (p < 0.001), and thinner LLT (p = 0.024). In the tattoo group, the closer the tattoo was to the MG orifice, the more the upper lid vessel was engorged and the more MG loss occurred (r(s) = −0.560, p = 0.024; r(s) = −0.563, p = 0.023, respectively), and a thinner LLT was observed (r(s) = 0.567, p = 0.022).CONCLUSIONS: Eyeliner tattoos may be related to changes in the lid margin, loss of the MG, and thinning of the LLT.

Dry Eye Syndromes , Eyelids , Meibomian Glands , Retrospective Studies , Tears
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1-8, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811317


PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical findings in phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis patients and assess the function and morphology of Meibomian glands using an interferometer (LipiView®, TearScience, Morrisville, NC, USA) in such patients.METHODS: This retrospective study included 19 eyes of 13 patients diagnosed with phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis. The lipid layer thickness (LLT) and meibograph of each eye was quantified by tear interferometry. Tear film break-up time (TBUT) and corneal staining score were measured. Meibomian gland morphology (lid margin vascularity, plugging of gland orifices, lid margin irregularity, lid margin thickening, and partial glands) was evaluated based on anterior photographs and meibographs.RESULTS: The mean age was 21.3 years (8–44 years). Mean BUT and Oxford corneal staining scores were 2.6 ± 1.2 seconds and 1.9 ± 0.8, respectively. Abnormal findings of the Meibomian glands were observed in all patients. The mean LLT was 79.6 ± 27.4 µm and the incomplete eye blinking frequency was 3.8 ± 5.9 during 20 seconds. The graphs of the tear lipid layer showed various patterns such as flat, up-hill, down-hill, and mixed.CONCLUSIONS: Meibomian gland dysfunctions and changes in the tear film lipid layer were noted in patients with phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis. These factors are to be considered for the treatment of phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in young patients under 10 years of age.

Humans , Blinking , Interferometry , Keratoconjunctivitis , Meibomian Glands , Retrospective Studies , Tears
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 94-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811117


BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature on the use of hip arthroscopy for pathologic conditions in skeletally immature patients. Thus, the indications and safety of the procedure are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and functional outcomes of hip arthroscopy for pediatric and adolescent hip disorders. We further attempted to characterize arthroscopic findings in each disease.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 32 children and adolescents with hip disorders who underwent 34 hip arthroscopic procedures at a tertiary care children's hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. We evaluated functional limitations and improvement after operation by using the modified Harris hip score (HHS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), subjective pain assessment with a visual analog scale (VAS), and range of hip motion as well as the complications of hip arthroscopy. Arthroscopic findings in each disease were recorded.RESULTS: Hip arthroscopy was performed for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (n = 6), developmental dysplasia of the hip (n = 6), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 5), idiopathic femoroacetabular impingement (n = 6), sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip (n = 3), hereditary multiple exostosis (n = 2), synovial giant cell tumor (n = 3), idiopathic chondrolysis (n = 2), and posttraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (n = 1). Overall, there was a significant improvement in the modified HHS, WOMAC, VAS, and range of hip motion. Symptom improvement was not observed for more than 18 months in four patients who had dysplastic acetabulum with a labral tear (n = 2) or a recurrent femoral head bump (n = 2). There were no complications except transient perineal numbness in five patients.CONCLUSIONS: Our short-term follow-up evaluation shows that hip arthroscopy for pediatric and adolescent hip disorder is a less invasive and safe procedure. It appears to be effective in improving functional impairment caused by femoroacetabular impingement between the deformed femoral head and acetabulum or intra-articular focal problems in pediatric and adolescent hip disorders.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Acetabulum , Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroscopy , Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary , Femoracetabular Impingement , Follow-Up Studies , Giant Cell Tumors , Head , Hip , Hypesthesia , Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease , Ontario , Osteoarthritis , Osteonecrosis , Pain Measurement , Retrospective Studies , Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses , Tears , Tertiary Healthcare , Visual Analog Scale
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 23-29, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786596


PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the method using the S-reamer and gel-type graft material by the success rate and survival rate.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implantation period was from 2008 to 2014, Follow check up year is 2019. There were 59 patients and 117 implants. All implants were placed in the posterior maxilla with the sinus lift. The patients population consisted of 34 men and 25 women, ranging from 19 to 75 years. The residual bone heights were from 1 mm to 6 mm. Sinus was perforated with S-reamer without membrane tearing and gel type bone graft material was used for membrane lifting and filling the space. all implants were placed simultaneously. Panoramic X-ray was taken. After 5 – 6 months healing period, final prostheses were restored. After more 5-years implant surgery, Panoramic X-ray was obtained and X-ray analysis and clinical examination were performed. Success criteria was referred to a Buser's success critera. All implants were classified to success implant, survival implant, failed implant. A success implant was satisfying success criteria, a survival implant was a implant that was acute infection with suppuration and bone loss, a failed implant was a implant that was mobile, removed.RESULTS: Five implants were removed, and 4 implants had infected with bone loss. Survival rate was 95.7% and success rate was 92.3%.CONCLUSION: This retrospective study presented that this method with S-reamer and gel-type graft material was a successful treatment without membrane tear in the condition of 1-6 mm residual bone height.

Female , Humans , Male , Lifting , Maxilla , Membranes , Methods , Prostheses and Implants , Retrospective Studies , Suppuration , Survival Rate , Tears , Transplants
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 394-398, nov.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057916


Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of two types of contact lenses made of two different types of silicone hydrogel material on ocular physiological parameters and tear function tests. Methods: The contact lenses with the appropriate diopters were supplied to the volunteering patients. The patients were evaluated before wearing the contact lenses (visit0:V0), at the first month(visit1:V1) and at the thirth month(visit2:V2) following their wear. At all visits a detailed biomicroscopic examination was done, ocular physiological variables were collected, the tear function tests were performed and the tear meniscus area (TMA) was visualized and measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Results: The results of Schirmer 1 test were 12.07 ± 1.51 [9-16] mm for the right eyes (samfilcon A group) and 12.09 ± 1.5 [9-16] mm for the left eyes (senofilcon A group) at V0. (p=0.950) At V2, the mean Schirmer 1 test results were 11.92±1.34 [9-15] mm in the samfilcon A group and 12.2±1.41 [9-16] mm in the senofilcon A group (p=0.239). The mean TMA dimensions in the AS-OCT images were 338.42±47.1 [241-401] microns in the samfilcon A group and 338.42±47.1 [241-401]microns in the senofilcon A group at V0. (p>0.05). At V2, the mean TMA dimensions were 337.2±45.53 [241-402] microns in thesamfilcon A group and 340.31±48.22 [240-411] microns in the senofilcon A group (p=0.728). Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated that contact lenses containing samfilcon A and senofilcon A silicone hydrogel material do not cause meaningful ocular surface problems.

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos de dois tipos de lentes de contacto feitas de dois tipos diferentes de material de hidrogel de silicone nos parâmetros fisiológicos oculares e testes de função lacrimal. Métodos: As lentes de contacto com as dioptrias apropriadas foram fornecidas aos pacientes voluntários. Os pacientes foram avaliados antes do uso das lentes de contacto (visita0: V0), no primeiro mês (visita1: V1) e no terceiro mês (visita2: V2), após o uso destas. Em todas as visitas, foi realizado um exame biomicroscópico detalhado, as variáveis fisiológicas oculares foram recolhidas, os testes de função lacrimal foram realizados e a área do menisco lacrimal (TMA) foi visualizada e medida com tomografia de coerência óptica do segmento anterior (AS-OCT). Resultados: Os resultados do teste de Schirmer 1 foram 12,07 ± 1,51 [9-16] mm para os olhos direitos (grupo samfilcon A) e 12,09 ± 1,5 [9-16] mm para os olhos esquerdos (grupo senofilcon A) em V0. (p = 0,950) Em V2, os resultados médios do teste de Schirmer 1 foram 11,92 ± 1,34 [9-15] mm no grupo samfilcon A e 12,2 ± 1,41 [9-16] mm no grupo senofilcon A (p = 0,239). As dimensões médias do TMA nas imagens AS-OCT foram 338,42 ± 47,1 [241-401] mícrons no grupo samfilcon A e 338,42 ± 47,1 [241-401] mícrons no grupo senofilcon A em V0. (p> 0,05).> Em V2, as dimensões médias do TMA foram 337,2 ± 45,53 [241-402] mícrons no grupo samfilcon A e 340,31 ± 48,22 [240-411] mícrons no grupo senofilcon A (p = 0,728). Conclusões: O nosso estudo demonstrou que as lentes de contacto que contêm material de hidrogel de silicone de samfilcon A e senofilcon A não causam problemas significativos na superfície ocular.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Silicones/pharmacology , Tears/metabolism , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Ophthalmoscopy , Visual Acuity , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , Myopia/therapy