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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2138-2145, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981345

ABSTRACT

The powder modification technology was used to improve the powder properties and microstructure of Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder, thereby solving the problem of poor solubility of Dioscoreae Rhizoma formula granules. The influence of modifier dosage and grinding time on the solubility of Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder was investigated with the solubility as the evaluation index, and the optimal modification process was selected. The particle size, fluidity, specific surface area, and other powder properties of Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder before and after modification were compared. At the same time, the changes in the microstructure before and after modification was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the modification principle was explored by combining with multi-light scatterer. The results showed that after adding lactose for powder modification, the solubility of Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder was significantly improved. The volume of insoluble substance in the liquid of modified Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder obtained by the optimal modification process was reduced from 3.8 mL to 0 mL, and the particles obtained by dry granulation of the modified powder could be completely dissolved within 2 min after being exposed to water, without affecting the content of its indicator components adenosine and allantoin. After modification, the particle size of Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract powder decreased significantly, d_(0.9) decreased from(77.55±4.57) μm to(37.91±0.42) μm, the specific surface area and porosity increased, and the hydrophilicity improved. The main mechanism of improving the solubility of Dioscoreae Rhizoma formula granules was the destruction of the "coating membrane" structure on the surface of starch granules and the dispersion of water-soluble excipients. This study introduced powder modification technology to solve the solubility problem of Dioscoreae Rhizoma formula granules, which provided data support for the improvement of product quality and technical references for the improvement of solubility of other similar varieties.


Subject(s)
Powders , Solubility , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Technology , Plant Extracts , Particle Size
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1264-1272, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970597

ABSTRACT

The traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) enterprises have accumulated a large amount of product quality review(PQR) data. Mining these data can reveal the hidden knowledge in production and helps improve pharmaceutical manufacturing technology. However, there are few studies involving the mining of PQR data and thus enterprises lack the guidance to analyze the data. This study proposed a method to mine the PQR data, which consisted of 4 functional modules: data collection and preprocessing, risk classification of variables, risk evaluation by batches, and the regression analysis of quality. Further, we carried out a case study of the formulation process of a TCM product to illustrate the method. In the case study, the data of 398 batches of products during 2019-2021 were collected, which contained 65 process variables. The risks of variables were classified according to the process performance index. The risk of each batch was analyzed through short-term and long-term evaluation, and the critical variables with the strongest impact on the product quality were identified by partial least square regression. The results showed that 1 variable and 13 batches were of high risk, and the critical process variable was the quality of the intermediates. The proposed method enables enterprises to comprehensively mine the PQR data and helps to enhance the process understanding and improve the quality control.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Data Mining/methods , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 966-977, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970568

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair by network pharmacology and Box-Behnken method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to screen out and verify the potential active components of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus, and the process evaluation indexes were determined in light of the components of the content determination under Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of each component, and the comprehensive score was calculated as the process evaluation index. The ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus was optimized by the Box-Behnken method. The core components of the Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair were screened out as spinosin, jujuboside A, jujuboside B, schisandrin, schisandrol, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B. The optimal extraction conditions obtained by using the Box-Behnken method were listed below: extraction time of 90 min, ethanol volume fraction of 85%, and two times of extraction. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation indexes were determined, and the optimized process was stable, which could provide an experimental basis for the production of preparations containing Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Ziziphus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Schisandra/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 22-29, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970497

ABSTRACT

Owing to the advancement in pharmaceutical technology, traditional Chinese medicine industry has seen rapid development. Preferring conventional manufacturing mode, pharmaceutical enterprises of traditional Chinese medicine have no effective process detection tools and process control methods. As a result, the quality of the final products mainly depends on testing and the quality is inconsistent in the same batch. Process analytical technology(PAT) for traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing, as one of the key advanced manufacturing techniques, can break through the bottleneck in quality control of medicine manufacturing, thus improving the production efficiency and product quality and reducing the material and energy consumption. It is applicable to the process control and real-time release of advanced manufacturing modes such as intelligent manufacturing and continuous manufacturing. This paper summarized the general idea of PAT for traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing. Through the analysis of the characteristics and status quo of the technology, we summed up the methodology for the continuous application and improvement of PAT during the whole life-cycle of traditional Chinese medicine. The five key procedures(process understanding, process detection, process modeling, process control, and continuous improvement) were summarized, and the application was reviewed. Finally, we proposed suggestions for the technical and regulatory challenges in implementing PAT in traditional Chinese medicine industry. This paper aims to provide a reference for development and application of PAT in advanced manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing, and continuous manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine industry.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Drug Industry , Quality Control
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4536-4544, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008708

ABSTRACT

In recent years, continuous manufacturing technology has attracted considerable attention in the pharmaceutical industry. This technology is highly sought after for its significant advantages in cost reduction, increased efficiency, and improved productivity, making it a growing trend in the future of the pharmaceutical industry. Compared to traditional batch production methods, continuous manufacturing technology features real-time control and environmentally friendly intelligence, enabling pharmaceutical companies to produce drugs more efficiently. However, the adoption of continuous manufacturing technology has been slow in the field of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pharmaceuticals. On the one hand, there is insufficient research on continuous manufacturing equipment and technology that align with the characteristics of TCM preparations. On the other hand, the scarcity of talent with diverse expertise hampers its development. Therefore, in order to promote the modernization and upgrading of the TCM pharmaceutical industry, this article combined the current development status of the TCM industry to outline the development status and regulatory requirements of continuous manufacturing technology. At the same time, it analyzed the problems with existing TCM manufacturing models and explored the prospects and challenges of applying continuous manufacturing technology in the field of TCM pharmaceuticals. The analysis focused on continuous manufacturing control strategies, technical tools, and pharmaceutical equipment, aiming to provide targeted recommendations to drive the development of the TCM pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Drug Industry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmaceutical Preparations
6.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 572-577, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of preparing compound tablets for the treatment of hypertension by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology and to evaluate the quality of the printed compound tablets in vitro.@*METHODS@#Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were used as the exci-pient to prepare the shell of tablet. The ellipse-shaped tablets (the length of major axes of ellipse was 20 mm, the length of the minor axes of ellipse was 10 mm, the height of tablet was 5 mm) with two separate compartments were designed and printed using FDM 3D printer. The height of layer was 0.2 mm, and the thickness of roof or floor was 0.6 mm. The thickness of shell was 1.2 mm, and the thickness of the partition wall between the two compartments was 0.6 mm. Two cardiovascular drugs, captopril (CTP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), were selected as model drugs for the printed compound tablet and filled in the two compartments of the tablet, respectively. The microscopic morphology of the tablets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The weight variation of the tablets was investigated by electronic scale. The hardness of the tablets was measured by a single-column mechanical test system. The contents of the drugs in the tablets were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the dissolution apparatus was used to measure the in vitro drug release of the tablets.@*RESULTS@#The prepared FDM 3D printed compound tablets were all in good shape without printing defects. The average weight of the tablets was (644.3±6.55) mg. The content of CTP and HCT was separately (52.3±0.26) mg and (49.6±0.74) mg. A delayed in vitro release profile was observed for CTP and HCT, and the delayed release time for CTP and HCT in vitro was 20 min and 40 min, respectively. The time for 70% of CTP and HCT released was separately 30 min and 60 min.@*CONCLUSION@#CTP and HCT compound tablets were successfully prepared by FDM 3D printing technology, and the printed tablets were of good qualities.


Subject(s)
Captopril , Cytidine Triphosphate , Drug Liberation , Hydrochlorothiazide , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tablets/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4969-4977, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921634

ABSTRACT

The high shear wet granulation(HSWG) process of Chinese medicine has a complicated mechanism. There are many influencing factors that contribute to this process. In order to summarize the manufacturability of different kinds of materials in HSWG, this paper constructed a material library composed of 11 materials, including 4 Chinese medicine extracts and 7 pharmaceutical excipients. Each material was described by 22 physical parameters. Several binders were employed, and their density, viscosity and surface tension were characterized. Combining empirical constraints and the principle of randomization, 21 designed experiments and 8 verification experiments were arranged. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to establish a process model in prediction of the median granule size based on properties of raw materials and binders, and process parameters. The surface tension and density of binders, as well as the maximum pore saturation were identified as key variables. In the latent variable space of the HSWG process model, all materials could be divided into three categories, namely the Chinese medicine extracts, the diluents and the disintegrants. The granulation of Chinese medicine extracts required low viscosity and low amount of binder, and the resulted granule sizes were small. The diluent powders occupied a large physical space, and could be made into granules with different granule sizes by adjusting the properties of binders. The disintegrants tended to be made into large granules under the condition of aqueous binder. The combination use of material database and multivariate modeling method is conducive to innovate the knowledge discovery of the wet granulation process of Chinese medicine, and provides a basis for the formulation and process design based on material attributes.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2350-2355, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879197

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we first introduced the concept of digital twin(DT) based key technologies for intelligent manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and applied DT in two case studies of novel extraction equipment for traditional Chinese medicine and drying equipment for Chinese medicine pills to illustrate the advantages of DT in development of new pharmaceutical technology and optimization of pharmaceutical equipment structure. Furthermore, we discussed the feasibility to adopt DT in the production process of TCM for formation of data-driven real-time optimization of production process and dynamic prediction `of operation and maintenance service. The "ruled" production mode based on data and driven by algorithm was constructed to realize the technical scheme of quality perception, evaluation, prediction, intelligent control and intelligent decision-making in product life cycle.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2045-2050, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879128

ABSTRACT

In the past few years, continuous manufacturing(CM) has been put forward by the FDA. Pharmaceutical enterprises are encouraged to promote the implementation of CM, which has become a hot research direction of pharmaceutical technology. In February 2019, the FDA issued a draft guideline for the implementation of CM, which greatly promoted the development of CM and provided reference for continuous manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). The production process of TCM is a complex system. With the innovation of production equipment and the promotion of automation and informatization of TCM production, the exis-ting policies, regulations and traditional production control capacity are difficult to meet the market demand for high-quality TCM pro-ducts. In this paper, we reviewed the new technologies and methods of quality control in accordance with the characteristics of TCM production by referring to modern manufacturing technology, information technology and quality control technology. Based on the "QbD" theory and "PAT" technology, process knowledge system(PKS), an advanced control strategy, was proposed to provide a reference for the implementation of CM in TCM production.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 41-45, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878908

ABSTRACT

Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
11.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(1)ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1509232

ABSTRACT

Dear colleagues: The Organizing Committee of the V International Congress on Pharmacology of Vaccines (VacciPharma 2020) organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology, BioCubaFarma and the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) would like to invite you to participate in this important event, scheduled for June 14 to 18, 2020 at the Convention Centre of the Melia Marina Varadero Hotel, Varadero Beach, Matanzas, Cuba. The Congress will be formed by different workshops and symposia such as: Meningococcal and Gonococcal vaccines Pneumococcal vaccines Pertussis and combined vaccines Enteric vaccines Leptospira vaccines Viral vaccines Animal models in vaccine development, QC and 3Rs Vaccine technology and bioprocess Vaccine technology transfers Patent, business and international cooperation VacciPharma 2020 is sponsored by: Cuban Society of Pharmacology (SCF) International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) Latin-American Association of Pharmacology (ALF) PAHO / WHO BioCubaFarma National research centers: Finlay Vaccine Institute (IFV); Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB); Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM); Center for Control of Drugs, Equipment and Medical Devices (CECMED); National Center for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA); Tropical Medicine Institute Pedro Kourí (IPK); National Center for Biopreparations (BioCEN); Center for Drug Research and Development (CIDEM); Center for Clinical Trials (CENCEC); among others International Manufacturers and Companies The key objectives of the Congress are: To provide a progressive state-of-the-art report for scientists, manufacturers, governmental authorities and healthcare workers, who need to be updated about the latest scientific developments for human vaccines, including basic science, product development, market introduction, immunization programs and epidemiological surveillance. To promote the scientific collaboration among experts and institutions through the experience exchange, the presentation of results and the discussion on the conference topics. To accelerate progress in the development of vaccines and the acceptance and introduction of new methods and technologies. Opening lectures, oral presentations and posters will provide you the opportunity to be involved in a high quality congress to discuss about the progress in the field of vaccinology and pharmacology sciences. Deadline for registration and abstract submission: April 15th, 2020 Further information can be found at the VacciPharma 2020 Website: www.immunovaccipharma.com


Subject(s)
Animals , Pharmacology , Bacterial Vaccines , Viral Vaccines , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Models, Animal , Congress , Cuba
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 878-883, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008513

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, the decoction process of famous classical formula Xiebai San was determined by optimizing the particle size of "Cuo san" and investigating the decoction process parameters, such as boiling container, water volume and duration. Xiebai San was taken as an example to explore the study method of the "Cuo san" in the famous classical formulas. The specific chromatogram of Xiebai San and the determination method of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiebai San were established. Different particle sizes of "Cuo san" and decoction parameters were optimized based on the similarity of specific chromatogram, the specific chromatogram's peak area, the content of glycyrrhizin, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and extract yield rate.The particle size of Xiebai San powder was determined to be 2.00-4.75 mm(by four-mesh sieves). The decoction process was determined as follows: put the prescription amount into a ceramic pot, add 420 mL of water, and boil and simmer until the volume is 300 mL.The similarity of specific chromatogram was above 0.9, the specific chromatogram's peak area was larger, the content of glycyrrhizin was 0.12%, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 0.21%,and the extract yield rate was 15.05%. The finally determined particle size of "Cuo san" can better represent the quality of Xiebai San, and is easy to prepare and suitable for industrial production.This experimental research method can comprehensively investigate the quality of Xiebai San as a whole, the content of active ingredients, and the situation of extract yield.It is a more comprehensive and objective evaluation method, and can provide experimental basis and reference for the study of other "Cuo san" famous classical formulas.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Particle Size , Powders , Technology, Pharmaceutical
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 274-284, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008335

ABSTRACT

In this paper, five representative Chinese herbal decoction pieces of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were selected to prepare the corresponding fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder. The physical properties of 20 kinds of powders, such as related parameters of particle size, density, stability and flowability, were evaluated comprehensively. The compression curves of powder porosity and tensile strength changing with pressure were plotted, and the Heckel equation and the Kawakita equation were used to describe the powder compression behavior. The results showed that compared with the fine powder of pieces, the compressibility of the semi-extract powder and the extract powder was significantly improved. Compared with the extract powder, the particle size and relative uniformity of the semi-extract powder were increased, indicating that the uniformity of the powder was improved. Besides, the semi-extract powder could reduce the hygroscopicity of the powder. Particularly, the semi-extract powder of Scutellariae Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba and vinegar-processed Corydalis Rhizoma could maintain the porous structure of the tablet even under a high tableting pressure, which was beneficial to tablet disintegration. For some traditional Chinese medicines(such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos), the semi-extract powder could reduce the viscosity, which avoided the sticking in the die compression. The semi-extract powder and the physical mixture powder prepared by the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces had similar physical properties and compression behaviors. Principal component analysis(PCA) was carried out on the 17 physical attributes and 5 compression parameters of the powder. It was found that the first principal component mainly reflected the differences among the material sources, while the second principal component could reflect the differences among fine powder of pieces, extract powder, semi-extract powder and physical mixed powder originating from the same Chinese herbal decoction pieces. In this paper, the mechanism of "unification of drugs and excipients" of Chinese medicine semi-extract powder was explained in terms of physical properties and compression behavior of powders, which provided reference for the formulation design and process development of Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Powders , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 267-273, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008334

ABSTRACT

In this study, the texture analyzer acupuncture pressure sensor was used to objectively characterize the "herb soaking with exact amount of water" for moistening process of ginseng. The single factor rotation experiment was used to investigate the effects of puncture speed, puncture depth and puncture site on puncture force and work. According to ginseng processing method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, ginseng medicinal materials with diameters of about 1 cm and 2 cm were selected, and puncture experiments were carried out at the set measurement time to determine the hardness, work and water absorption of the ginseng moistening process. The endpoint threshold for the ginseng softening process was determined and verified. To reflect the actual internal conditions of the ginseng softening process, the puncture depth was preferably 70%, and the puncture speed was 30 mm·min~(-1). In the ginseng moistening process, the softening hardness and the puncture work were in accordance with the first-order kinetic equation y=a×exp(-k×x). The 0 h initial hardness a of 1 cm and 2 cm ginseng herbs were 289.8 N and 1 227 N, and the rate constants K were 0.149 4 N·h~(-1) and 0.100 7 N·h~(-1), respectively. After the ginseng was completely softened, the force required for puncture was 10 N, which can be used as the standard for "drug penetration". At this time, the water absorption rate of ginseng was 70%-100%. The softening time of ginseng with a diameter of 1 cm was about 20-22 h, and the softening time of ginseng with a diameter of 2 cm was about 40-46 h. A needle-type pressure sensor was used to accurately determine the end point of the softening process of ginseng and reduce the loss of active ingredients. The study results provide reference for the softening process kinetics and the process intelligent monitoring of other dried roots and rhizomes.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Panax , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Water
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 259-266, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008333

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the inline turbidity sensor technology was used to quantify the turbidity of the solution during the dissolution of Chinese medicine granules. The probe measurement position and the magnetic stirring speed were optimized. As a result, the stirring speed was 400 r·min~(-1), and the probe position was at 1/4 of the diameter of the beaker. The measurement results were accurate and reliable. Totally 105 batches of commercially available Chinese medicine granules were collected and dissolved according to the requirements of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. At the time point of 5 min, 57 batches of granules were completely dissolved, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 0-70 FTU; 32 batches of granules showed a slight turbidity, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 70-350 FTU; 14 batches of granule solution were turbid, and the corresponding turbidity values ranged between 350-2 000 FTU; two batches of granule solution were heavily turbid, and the corresponding turbidity values were >2 000 FTU. Among the above results, the number of batches in line with the pharmacopoeia dissolution requirement was 84.76%, and the dissolution of some granules still needed to be improved. The turbidity sensor recorded the change curve of turbidity value over time(solubility behavior curve). The degree of important of disintegration and dissolution during the dissolution process showed disintegration > dissolution, disintegration≈dissolution, disintegration < dissolution. The dissolution behavior of the granules can be classified into three categories. The analysis of the mechanism in the process of granule solubility provides a basis for product process improvement.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Solubility , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 233-241, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008330

ABSTRACT

Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Artemisiae Annuae Herba(LA or Jinqing) alcohol precipitation has various process parameters and complex process mechanism, and is one of the key units for manufacturing Reduning Injection. In order to identify the critical process parameters(CPPs) affecting the weight of the extract produced from the alcohol precipitation process, 259 batches of historical production data from 2017 to 2018 were collected, with a total of 829 318 data points. These data showed characteristics of large data, such as a large data volume, a low value density, and diverse sources. The data cleaning and feature extraction were first performed, and 48 feature variables were selected. The original data points were reduced to 9 936. Then, a combination of Pearson correlation analysis and grey correlation analysis were used to screen out 15 potential critical process parameters(pCPPs). After that, the partial least squares(PLS) was used in prediction of the weight of the extract, proving that the performance of predictive model based on 15 pCMAs is equivalent to that of predictive model based on 48 feature variables. The variable importance in projection(VIP) index was used to identify 9 CPPs, including 2 alcohol precipitation supernatant volume parameters, 4 initial extract weight parameters and 3 added alcohol volume parameters. As a result, the number of data points was 1 863, accounting for 0.28% of the original data. The big data analysis approach from a holistic point of view can effectively increase the value density of the original data. The critical process parameters obtained can help to accurately describe the quality transfer mechanism of the Jinqing alcohol precipitation process.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Big Data , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Solvents , Technology, Pharmaceutical
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 221-232, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008329

ABSTRACT

Along with the striding of the Chinese medicine(CM) manufacturing toward the Industry 4.0, some digital factories have accumulated lightweight industrial big data, which become part of the enterprise assets. These digital assets possess the possibility of solving the problems within the CM production system, like the Sigma gap and the poverty of manufacturing knowledge. From the holistic perspective, a three-tiered architecture of CM industrial big data is put forward, and it consists of the data integration layer, the data analysis layer and the application scenarios layer. In data integration layer, sensing of CM critical quality attributes is the key technology for big data collection. In data analysis and mining layer, the self-developed iTCM algorithm library and model library are introduced to facilitate the implementation of the model lifecycle methodologies, including process model development, model validation, model configuration and model maintenance. The CM quality transfer structure is closely related with the connection mode of multiple production units. The system modeling technologies, such as the partition-integration modeling method, the expanding modeling method and path modeling method, are key to mapping the structure of real manufacturing system. It is pointed out that advance modeling approaches that combine the first-principles driven and data driven technologies are promising in the future. At last, real-world applications of CM industrial big data in manufacturing of injections, oral solid dosages, and formula particles are presented. It is shown that the industrial big data can help process diagnosis, quality forming mechanism interpretations, real time release testing method development and intelligent product formulation design. As renewable resources, the CM industrial big data enable the manufacturing knowledge accumulation and product quality improvement, laying the foundation of intelligent manufacturing.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Big Data , Commerce , Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1304-1310, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008571

ABSTRACT

In the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine, Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal material, with a very important medicinal value, but its raw products have certain toxicity. According to the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, after Pinelliae Rhizoma is processed, its toxic and side effects can be reduced, there by ensuring its medication safety in clinic. Based on the processing characteristics of Pinelliae Rhizoma replication method, this article discusses the changes before and after processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma with multiple materials and multiple processes. This method does not have a unified process. One or more materials are added, and various processes, such as dipping, soaking, bleaching, or steaming, cooking or combined methods are adopted. Then, Pinelliae Rhizoma is repeatedly processed to meet the specified quality requirements. By different processing methods, the efficacy changes accordingly, and Pinelliae Rhizoma can be used for the treatment of different diseases. The article starts in the two directions of multi-materials and multi-processes, and summarizes the effects of multi-materials or multi-processes on the chemical composition and efficacy, as well as the processing mechanism of reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency, in the expectation of reducing the toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of Pinelliae Rhizoma. The medicinal scope provides a reference and theoretical basis for further studies on the processing mechanism. An in-depth study is conducted to make Pinelliae Rhizoma more safe and effective in clinic application, and ensure its clinical efficacy. It will provide reference for future studies on quality control, active ingredients and new drug development of the processing of pinellia slices. It has laid a scientific foundation for exploring the best processing techno-logy, and provided a theoretical basis for solving the production problems of processed Pinelliae Rhizoma products, so as to improve the production efficiency and the quality of medicines.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pinellia/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2546-2551, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828047

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma on its toxic lectin protein and clarify the scientific detoxification connotation of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Raw products and lectin were treated by soaking in licorice juice, lime solution or mixture solution of these two to investigate the different processing time on the content of toxic lectin protein. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the changes of lectin protein bands in the solution and precipitates before and after processing. MALDI-TOF technology was used to qualitatively analyze and compare the protein molecular weight before and after processing. The results showed that the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum were 5.01% and 0.04% respectively, indicating that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that the content of lectin in raw drugs decreased significantly after soaking in lime solution for one day or in licorice juice for three day, and the effect was greatest in mixture solution. Qualitative analysis showed that after being treated by soaking in lime solution, the lectin protein was decomposed into small peptide segments, while after being treated by soaking in licorice juice, the lectin protein was denatured and precipitated. The structure of lectin protein in Pinelliae Rhizoma was broken after being processed with licorice juice and lime solution, which significantly reduced the content of toxic lectinprotein. This is one of the detoxification mechanisms of Pinelliae Rhizoma processing.


Subject(s)
Calcium Compounds , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Lectins , Oxides , Pinellia , Technology, Pharmaceutical
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5413-5420, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008414

ABSTRACT

To optimize the technology of Gardeniae Fructus processed with ginger juice,establish fingerprints and simultaneously determine seven compounds( geniposidic acid,chlorogenic acid,genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside,geniposide,rutin,crocin Ⅰ,and crocin Ⅱ) by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography( UPLC). Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18( 2. 1 mm×50 mm,1. 7μm) column was used with acetonitrile and 0. 1% formic acid solution as mobile phase for gradient elution at the flow rate of 0. 4 m L·min-1. The data was comprehensively processed and analyzed with similarity evaluation,principal component analysis( PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis( PLS-DA) methods. Twenty common peaks were identified in this study,and the similarity of samples was over 0. 97. The results of PCA and PLS-DA showed that there were differences in chemical compositions and contents between the raw Gardeniae Fructus and those processed with ginger juice,with 9 potential differentiated chromatographic peaks. After being processed with ginger juice,the contents of chlorogenic acid,crocin Ⅰ and crocin Ⅱ were less than before and the contents of other four compositions were higher than before. The optimized preparation for Gardeniae Fructus processed with ginger juice was stable and feasible. The methods of UPLC fingerprints and simultaneous determination of seven components can be effectively carried out to distinguish Gardeniae Fructus and Gardeniae Fructus processed with ginger juice.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gardenia/chemistry , Zingiber officinale , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
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