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1.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 187-194
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185757

ABSTRACT

The human digestive tract contains some 100 trillion cells and thousands of species of micro-organisms may be present as normal flora of this tract as well as other mucocutaneous junctions of the body. Candida specie is the most common organism residing in these areas and can easily invade the internal tissues in cases of loss of host defenses. Modifications of previously existing antifungal agents may provide new options to fight against these species. Inorganic compounds of different antifungals are under investigations. Present study report six complexes of fluconazole with Cu [II]], Fe[II], Cd[II], Co[II], Ni[II] and Mn[II] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV and H-NMR. The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were found in agreement with the expected values as the metal to ligand value was 1:2 ratios with two chlorides in coordination sphere. The morphology of each complex was studied using scanning electron microscope and compared with fluconazole molecule the flaky-slab rock like particles of pure fluconazole was also observed as reported earlier. However, the complexes of fluconazole were showed different morphology in their micrograph. Fluconazole and its complex derivatives have also been screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Candida albican and Aspergillus niger by MIC method. The complexes showed varied activity ranging from 2-20%


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
2.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 224-235, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764078

ABSTRACT

Los pilares terapéuticos del niño con shock séptico se mantienen en el tiempo, sin embargo, se han incorporado nuevos conceptos, siendo importante que el pediatra y el intensivista tengan conocimiento a cabalidad de ellos. La reanimación con fluidos es una intervención fundamental, no obstante, aún no se ha establecido un tipo de fluido ideal, presentando cada uno limitaciones específicas, no existiendo evidencia sobre la superioridad de un tipo de fluido. Si a pesar de una adecuada resucitación con fluidos persiste el shock, el inicio de inótropos y/o vasopresores está indicado. En caso de refractariedad al uso de vasopresores, nuevos fármacos vasoactivos pueden ser empleados y el uso de hidrocortisona debe considerarse en niños con sospecha de insuficiencia suprarrenal. Existe controversia respecto a la transfusión de glóbulos rojos o el nivel óptimo de glucemia, no existiendo consenso en el valor umbral para el uso de estos hemocomponentes o el inicio de insulina, respectivamente. Asimismo, la utilización de la hemofiltración de alto volumen (HFAV)aún permanece controversial, requiriendo mayores estudios para su recomendación en forma rutinaria en el curso de un shock séptico refractario. El soporte nutricional es primordial, ya que la desnutrición es una grave complicación que debe ser prevenida y tratada adecuadamente. El objetivo de la presente revisión es entregar una actualización en los más recientes avances en tratamiento del shock séptico en la población pediátrica.


Essential therapeutic principles in children with septic shock persist over time, although some new concepts have been recently incorporated, and fully awareness of pediatricians and intensivists is essential. Fluid resuscitation is a fundamental intervention, but the kind of ideal fluid has not been established yet, as each of these interventions has specific limitations and there is no evidence supportive of the superiority of one type of fluid. Should septic shock persists despite adequate fluid resuscitation, the use of inotropic medication and/or vasopressors is indicated. New vasoactive drugs can be used in refractory septic shock caused by vasopressors, and the use of hydrocortisone should be considered in children with suspected adrenal insufficiency, as it reduces the need for vasopressors. The indications for red blood cells transfusion or the optimal level of glycemia are still controversial, with no consensus on the threshold value for the use of these blood products or the initiation of insulin administration, respectively. Likewise, the use of high-volume hemofiltration is a controversial issue and further study is needed on the routine recommendation in the course of septic shock. Nutritional support is crucial, as malnutrition is a serious complication that should be properly prevented and treated. The aim of this paper is to provide update on the most recent advances as concerns the treatment of septic shock in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Tablets/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Bone Screws , Cellulose/chemistry , Desiccation/methods , Excipients/chemistry , Particle Size , Pressure , Starch/analogs & derivatives , Starch/chemistry , Stearic Acids/chemistry , Temperature , Water/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 49-57, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748247

ABSTRACT

Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum (7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Biodiversity , Bauhinia/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Fungi/metabolism , Hydrolases/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Biological Products/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , South America , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
4.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(1)ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-770993

ABSTRACT

Introduction: calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. On the other hand, spray drying is an important technology used in the pharmaceutical industry. In this process the end-product must comply with precise quality standards. Objective: To evaluate the spray drying of calcium and magnesium citrate and to make comparison with the traditional method of drying. Methods: calcium and magnesium citrate salt was obtained at bench scale from dolomite and suspended in water in a proportion 1:10 (w/v) and spray-dried. The final batches were evaluated by chemical and technological analysis methods Results: the results showed that calcium, magnesium, citric acid and total ash content have similar concentrations regardless of the used drying method. Residual moisture content of the dried product by spray drying method was higher than that of the dried sample by traditional method. Nevertheless, all the results were below the maximum allowable limit. The physical properties of the samples for each drying method were similar except for density because the spray-dried samples showed values lower than those of traditionally dried samples(AU)


Introducción: el calcio es un nutriente esencial que se requiere en cantidades sustanciales, pero muchas dietas son deficientes de calcio, lo que hace necesario suplementar el mismo. Por otro lado, el secado por aspersión es una tecnología importante usada en la industria farmacéutica. Con este proceso de secado se obtiene un producto final que obedece a los estándares de calidad necesarios. Objetivo: este estudio se realizó para evaluar el secado por aspersión del citrato de calcio y magnesio y su comparación con el método tradicional de secado. Métodos: se obtuvieron lotes de citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco a partir de dolomita y se suspendieron en agua en una proporción 1:10 (masa/volumen). Posteriormente fueron secados mediante secado por aspersión. Se evaluaron los lotes obtenidos mediante métodos de análisis químicos y tecnológicos. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el contenido de calcio, magnesio, ácido cítrico y cenizas totales eran similares independiente del método de secado empleado. El contenido de humedad residual en las muestras secadas por aspersión fue superior al de las muestras secadas por el método tradicional. No obstante, los resultados obtenidos en ambos casos estaban por debajo del límite máximo permisible. Las propiedades físicas de las muestras para cada método de secado estudiado fueron similares, excepto para la densidad, dónde se observó que las muestras secadas por aspersión tienen valores de densidad menores que las muestras secadas por el método tradicional. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que las condiciones de secado por aspersión estudiadas son adecuadas para el secado del citrato de calcio y magnesio obtenido a partir de dolomita(AU)


Subject(s)
Magnesium Calcium Carbonate , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Sprinkle Irrigation/methods
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 721-729, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723139

ABSTRACT

DNJ, an inhibitor of α-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf.


Subject(s)
1-Deoxynojirimycin/isolation & purification , 1-Deoxynojirimycin/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Reishi/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Culture Media/chemistry , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Reishi/growth & development , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1043-1048, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705251

ABSTRACT

Since the 1970s, the establishment and development of the biotech industry has improved exponentially, allowing the commercial production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Nowadays, new recombinant protein production is considered a multibillion-dollar market, in which about 25% of commercial pharmaceuticals are biopharmaceuticals. But to achieve a competitive production process is not an easy task. Any production process has to be highly productive, efficient and economic. Despite that the perfect host is still not discovered, several research groups have chosen Pichia pastoris as expression system for the production of their protein because of its many features. The attempt of this review is to embrace several research lines that have adopted Pichia pastoris as their expression system to produce a protein on an industrial scale in the health care industry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biotechnology/methods , Health Care Sector , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Pichia/genetics , Pichia/metabolism , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699810

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium/physiology , Biotechnology/methods , Drug Compounding/methods , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Probiotics/pharmacology , Aerosols , Drug Stability , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Temperature , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
8.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 865-871
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138403

ABSTRACT

Two chromatographic methods were developed for analysis ofdiiodohydroxyquinoline [DIHQ] and metronidazole [MTN]. In the first method, diiodohydroxyquinoline and metronidazole were separated on TLC silica gel 60F254 plate using chloroform: acetone: glacial acetic acid [7.5: 2.5: 0.1, by volume] as mobile phase. The obtained bands were then scanned at 254 nm. The second method is a RP-HPLC method in which diiodohydroxyquinoline and metronidazole were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using water: methanol [60 :40, V/V, PH=3.6] as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 mL.min[-1] and UV detection at 220 nm. The mentioned methods were successfully used for determination of diiodohydroxyquinoline and metronidazole in pure form and in their pharmaceutical formulation


Subject(s)
Iodoquinol/chemistry , Metronidazole/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Solvents/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Buffers , Calibration
9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 921-928
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138410

ABSTRACT

A simple, sensitive, selective and cost effective spectrofluorimetric method has been established for the quantification of sulpiride after their complete alkaline hydrolysis. The method is based on the condensation of the primary amino group of alkaline hydrolytic product of sulpiride with acetyl acetone and formaldehyde in acidic medium [0.25 M HCl] to form a fluorescent product. The reaction product formed shows maximum fluorescence intensity at 483 nm after excitation at 431 nm. The different reaction conditions influencing the condensation reaction were carefully optimized and a linear range of 0.1-3.5 micro g mL[-1] with good correlation coefficient between florescent intensity and concentration of sulpiride was found at optimum parameters. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 11 and 39 ng mL[-1] respectively. The proposed method was successfully used for the quantification of sulpiride in bulk powder and commercial formulations. The effect of common pharmaceutical excipients and co-administered drug was also studied and no interferences were observed. The validity of the method was tested by analyzing sulpiride in bulk powder, and pharmaceutical formulations through recovery studies. Recoveries [%] were obtained from 98.62 to 100.24% for bulk powder, and 97.09 to 100.57% for commercial formulations. The results were validated statistically with those obtained by reference literature high performance liquid chromatographic method


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, Fluorescence/standards , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Temperature , Pentanones/chemistry , Powders , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 929-937
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138411

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to optimize the formulation of metoprolol succinate [MS] sustained release tablets using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC] and sodium alginate [SA] as the matrix combination. After investigating the effects of various parameters on drug release, a 2-factor, 5-level central composite design was employed, using the amount of HPMC K4M [A] and SA [318 cP] [B] as the independent variables and the drug percentage released at 1h, 4h, 8h, 20h [Q[1], Q[4], Q[8], Q20]] as the responses. Response surfaces were established to obtain the matrix ranges and the main factors affecting four responses. In order to validate the optimization study, six confirmatory runs were performed; indicating high predictability of response surface methodology for MS sustained release tablets. Data fitting to Peppas equation indicated that the mechanism of drug release could be diffusion along with erosion. This matrix combination can be used as a good alternative to the commercially pellet technology, which was complicated, time-consuming and energy-intensive


Subject(s)
Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Models, Chemical , Solubility , Tablets , Viscosity , Methylcellulose/chemistry , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/chemistry , Alginates/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Delayed-Action Preparations , Diffusion , Glucuronic Acid/chemistry , Hexuronic Acids/chemistry
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 943-948
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138413

ABSTRACT

Time-dependent films, augmented with prebiotics, offer potential strategy for colon-specific controlled drug release. In this study, we produced films containing levan [L] and Aminoalkyl Methacrylate Copolymer RS [ER]. Free films of ER combined with levan were produced by the casting process and characterized by the mobility of the polymeric matrix, hydration, differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and thermogravimetry [TGA]. The results of this study suggest that the exopolysaccharide levan can be used in combination with ER for colon specific materials. No evidence of incompatibilities between the levan and the synthetic polymer were detected, and levan improved the mobility of the polymeric matrix and the hydrophilicity of the system. Levan may have positively altered the density of the polymeric matrix, as visualized by thermal characterization. The endothermic decomposition peak was shifted with increasing amounts of levan. This new barrier polymer utilized a combination of time-dependent enzymatic mechanisms and can be considered promising for use in the coating of solid oral drugs for specific release


Subject(s)
Colon , Delayed-Action Preparations , Fructans/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Methacrylates/chemistry , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Thermogravimetry , Water/chemistry , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 961-966
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138416

ABSTRACT

An easy, fast and validated RV-HPLC method was invented to quantify donepezil hydrochloride in drug solution and orally disintegrating tablet. The separation was carried out using reversed phase C-18 column [Agilent Eclipse Plus C-18] with UV detection at 268 nm. Method optimization was tested using various composition of organic solvent. The mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer [0.01M], methanol and acetonitrile [50:30:20, v/v] adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid [80%] was found as the optimum mobile phase. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 0.24% to -1.83% and -1.83% to 1.99% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.41% to 1.81% and 0.11% to 1.90% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 0.125 micro g/mL to 16 micro g/mL, with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 +/- 0.00016. The drug solution was stable under room temperature at least for 6 hours. System suitability studies were done. The average plate count was > 2000, tailing factor <1, and capacity factor of 3.30. The retention time was 5.6 min. The HPLC method was used to assay donepezil hydrochloride in tablet and dissolution study of in-house manufactured donepezil orally disintegrating tablet and original Aricept


Subject(s)
Indans/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/standards , Drug Stability , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Acetonitriles/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Buffers , Calibration , Limit of Detection , Methanol/chemistry , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 495-502
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142609

ABSTRACT

As a representative proton pump inhibitor, Lansoprazole was poorly soluble in water which caused the low oral bioavailability. The present study was carried out to enhance the dissolution of lansoprazole by cogrinding with some commonly used hydrophilic polymers [beta-CD, PVP, HPMC, L-HPC, CS, PEG and PVPP] in the weight ratio of 1:1 for 2 h in the jar mill. Samples of coground mixture, micronised drug, and physical mixture were characterized by XRPD, and DSC, the results showed that the drug crystallinity reduced in the coground process. The amount of drug released from the coground mixtures in PBS [pH 6.8, 37[degree sign] C] in 30 min was 100% approximately [except the coground mixtures prepared with VPP or PEG] while released from the micronised drug was just about 20%. Increasing the hydrophilicity and diminishing the size of drug particles by cogrinding were the main causes for enhancing the dissolution of the drug. The results of the stability study of lansoprazole in coground mixture showed that there were no significant changes in the drug content and dissolution characteristics 6 months later. It is clear that the cogrinding method described in the article is very effective for enhancing the dissolution of the poorly soluble drugs, and it is easy for industrialization, showing a strong potential for future applications


Subject(s)
Water/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Stability , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Particle Size , Polymers/chemistry , Solubility , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 629-636
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142628

ABSTRACT

Solid dispersion technique has been developed many years for improving solubility of water-insoluble drugs, aiming to achieve a better oral bioavailability. However, this technique exhibits many inconveniences when used for large-scale tableting procedures. The objective of current research work was to develop cilnidipine solid dispersions [SDs] to improve the dissolution behaviors of this water-insoluble drug. Moreover, an innovative granulation method was designed to simplify the traditional tableting technology used in solid dispersion technique. Three different kinds of polymers, polyethylene glycol [PEG], polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP] and poloxamer, were used as carriers to prepare solid dispersions. The interactions in the solid state were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry [DSC], powder Xray diffraction [PXRD] and FT-IR spectroscopy. The designed granulation method was employed to prepare solid dispersion tablets and the formulation was optimized through investigating the dissolution behaviors. The results indicated PEG solid dispersion showed the best effect both on physical characterizations and dissolution studies. Furthermore, all type of solid dispersions significantly improved the dissolution rates when compared to pure drug and its corresponding physical mixture [PM]. The solid dispersion tablets prepared in simplified tableting method exhibited better operability, stability and dissolution behavior than the tablets prepared in traditional ways, which brought more opportunities to solid dispersion technique for industrial production


Subject(s)
Tablets/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Water/chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Poloxamer/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Povidone/chemistry , Powders , Solubility , Dihydropyridines/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry
15.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 44(4): 512-518, oct.-dic. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-584555

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se aplicó una de las técnicas más representativas que conforman el análisis térmico, la calorimetría diferencial de barrido, para estudiar la compatibilidad entre el extracto seco de Rhizophora mangle L y distintos excipientes preseleccionados para la obtención de formulaciones a partir de esta especie vegetal. Se obtuvo como resultado la no interacción química entre el extracto vegetal seco y los excipientes


In present paper authors applied one of the more representative techniques conforming the thermal analysis, the differential scanning clometry to study the compatibility among the Rhizophora mangle L dry extract and different excipients selected to obtain the formulae from this vegetal species. As result, it was possible to obtain the non-chemical interaction between the dry vegeral extract and the excipients ones


Subject(s)
Rhizophoraceae/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Differential Thermal Analysis
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2010. 139 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-566891

ABSTRACT

O ácido clavulânico (AC) é um potente inibidor de β-lactamases utilizado na área médica. Métodos alternativos, econômicos e simples para sua purificação são de grande interesse. Este trabalho objetivou produzir e extrair AC de Streptomyces spp. por fermentação extrativa utilizando sistema de duas fases aquosas (SDFA) - polietileno glicol (PEG)/sais fosfato. Foi selecionado o melhor produtor de AC entre sete linhagens de Streptomyces spp. Avaliou-se a influência de cinco fatores no cultivo do melhor produtor em frascos agitados (pH, temperatura, velocidade de agitação, concentrações das fontes de nitrogênio e de carbono), utilizando planejamento experimental estatístico. Definidas as melhores condições de cultivo, foram estudadas a produção e a extração do AC em fermentação extrativa utilizando SDFA em frascos agitados e em sistema descontínuo utilizando biorreator. Em biorreator também foram realizados o estudo termodinâmico do processo de fermentação nas condições ótimas obtidas nas etapas anteriores e a determinação do coeficiente volumétrico de transferência de massa (kLa), comparando os sistemas de fermentação no meio de cultivo simples (SF) e fermentação extrativa utilizando sistema SDFA PEG/sais fosfato (SFE) sem e com crescimento microbiano. A linhagem de Streptomyces selecionada como a melhor produtora de AC foi a DAUFPE 3060, a qual apresentou a maior produção desse inibidor, 494 mg/L em 48h, em frascos agitados nas condições: pH 6,0, 32ºC, 150 rpm, 5 g/L de glicerol e 20 g/L de farinha de soja. Após a etapa de otimização realizada para o estudo da temperatura e da concentração de farinha de soja, variáveis mais significativas no estudo de seleção, a temperatura e a concentração de farinha de soja ótimas, foram 32ºC e 40 g/L, respectivamente, com produção de 629 mg/L de AC em 48h. O estudo termodinâmico confirmou que a temperatura de 32ºC é a máxima de produção do AC; após esse valor, inicia-se, gradualmente, a degradação do AC...


Clavulanic acid (CA) is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases used in the medical field. Alternative methods, economic and simple purification are of great interest. This PhD project aims to produce and extract clavulanic acid of Streptomyces spp. By extractive fermentation using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) - Polyethylene glycol (PEG)/phosphate salts. The best producer of clavulanic acid among seven strains of Streptomyces spp was selected. The influence of five factors in the cultivation of the best producer in flasks (pH, temperature, agitation velocity, concentrations of nitrogen and carbon sources) using statistical experimental design was evaluated. Defined the best cultivation conditions, the production and extraction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation using ATPS in flasks and in a batch system using a bioreactor was analyzed. In batch system using a bioreactor were also carried out the thermodynamic study of the fermentation process in optimum conditions determined in previous steps and also determined the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) comparing the fermentation systems in simple culture medium (SF) and in a extractive fermentation using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) PEG/phosphate salts (SEF) medium with and without microbial growth. A strain of Streptomyces spp. selected as the best producer of AC was DAUFPE 3060, which showed the highest production of this inhibitor, 494 mg/L at 48h, in flasks under the conditions of pH 6.0, 32 ºC, 150 rpm, 5 g/L of glycerol and 20 g/L of soybean flour. After the optimization step, the most significant variables in the study selection, temperature and concentration of soybean flour, were studied. The optimal values were 32 ºC and 40 g/L of temperature and soybean flour concentration, respectively, with production of 629 mg/L of CA after 48h of cultivation. The thermodynamic study confirmed that 32 ºC is the maximum temperature production of CA, after this value, starts…


Subject(s)
Clavulanic Acid , Fermentation , Streptomyces , Biochemistry , Drug Industry , Industrial Microbiology , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
17.
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal [National Research Center]. 2008; 7 (1): 1-10
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-99680

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of different extraction methods [hydrodistillation, modified hydrodistillation and organic solvent extraction] of essential oil from coriander fruits on its chemical constituents. Also to investigate the changes in the chemical composition and physiochemical properties of coriander volatile oil during storage as a result of packing in different containers P.V.C., glass and aluminum] as well as, the effect of different drying methods [oven drying, spray drying and lyophilization drying] for microencapsulation technique on the main constituent of the volatile oil. The quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out using GC-MS for different extraction methods and microencapsulation experiments, while the oil samples for storage experiments were analyzed using GLC. Results indicated that hydrodistillation method was superior to the other two; also the storage of coriander volatile oil in aluminum containers for 180 days was safe and had no effect on any of the studied physiochemical parameters. Lyophilization drying method was the most suitable one for preservation of the volatile oil where most of the compounds as well as their relative percentage were nearly like the control sample


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Freeze Drying/methods , Drug Storage , Drug Packaging , Drug Compounding
19.
São Paulo; Pharmabooks; 2003. xviii,737 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591588

ABSTRACT

O autor Dr. Gilberto Barcelos Souza, reúne de forma clara e objetiva publicações internacionais e estudos sobre diversos fármacos preparados na forma líquida e de interesse para o setor magistral e hospitalar. As monografias apresentam dados sobre a forma farmacêutica de partida, forma preparada, concentração, estabilidade, modo de preparo, estocagem e observações sobre conservação e rótulo.Consideramos estes dados uma ferramenta essencial ao farmacêutico moderno sendo um diferencial para a sua prática diária garantindo uma resposta terapêutica segura e adequada em seus pacientes. Ao dar prioridade às formulações líquidas e suas estabilidades o autor demonstra a possibilidade de adequar a forma farmacêutica às necessidades do paciente estreitando a relação do farmacêutico com o clínico e fortalecendo o que chamamos de "TRÍADE" (relação médico - paciente - farmacêutico).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pharmacology/methods , Pediatrics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Therapy
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 12(5): 359-365, nov. 2002.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-341995

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the most important features of health economics, especially its scope and applications within the sphere of health. Health economics is a field of study which allows countries to gear their health policies toward making more rational use of their resources and expanding and improving their health care services. Such policies should, on the other hand, aim to generate strategies for adequately managing human, technical, economic, and financial resources so as to reap the finest health benefits possible. A knowledge of how economics can be applied to health will enable health professionals to introduce an economics culture into their daily work. In other words, it will allow them to keep in mind the scope of their various working tools¾health planning, national health accounts and accounting, and economic assessment methods, which include health and pharmaceutical technology assessment and pharmacoeconomics¾as well as the place that economics has in health research. Hopefully, a knowledge of these aspects of economic analysis will provide decision-makers with one more tool they can apply in selecting more efficient options and attaining the highest health benefits at the lowest possible cost for the national health system


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Economics, Pharmaceutical/trends , Health Planning/economics , Health Planning/methods , Health Services Research/economics , Health Services Research/methods , National Health Programs/economics , Public Health Administration/economics , Public Health Administration/methods , Technology, Pharmaceutical/economics , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
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