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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929047

ABSTRACT

At present, endometriosis remains a worldwide health burden, with the main symptoms of dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility, markedly reducing the quality of life (de Ziegler et al., 2010). Although there is no proof that the disease is associated with high mortality, this disorder can significantly contribute to the deterioration of women's general well-being (McPeak et al., 2018). The main current treatment for endometriosis is surgery to remove endometriotic lesions; however, the recurrence rate following surgical treatment is as high as 21.5% at two years and 40.0%‍-‍50.0% at five years post-surgery (Koga et al., 2015). To prevent recurrence, adjuvant treatment with drugs after surgery is recommended to prolong relapse-free intervals. However, it is inconvenient for patients to continuously use such medications in terms of adverse effects and cost (Turk, 2002).


Subject(s)
Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Female , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Telomerase/metabolism , Up-Regulation
2.
Clinics ; 76: e2432, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Telomeres are a terminal "DNA cap" that prevent chromosomal fusion and degradation. However, aging is inherent to life, and so is the loss of terminal sequences. Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase encoded by self-splicing introns that counteract chromosome erosion. Telomerase activity is observed during early embryonic development, but after the blastocyst stage, the expression of telomerase reduces. The consequences of either insufficient or unrestrained telomerase activity underscore the importance of ongoing studies aimed at elucidating the regulation of telomerase activity in humans. In the present study, we aimed to standardize a simplified telomerase repeat-amplification protocol (TRAP) assay to detect telomerase activity in unstimulated and PHA-stimulated mononuclear cells. METHODS and RESULTS: Our optimized qPCR-based can efficiently evaluate telomerase activity. Quantification of protein and DNA between unstimulated and PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed cellular activation and cell-cycle entry. The assay also showed that relative telomerase activity is significantly different between these two conditions, supporting the applicability of the assay. Furthermore, our findings corroborated that telomerase activity decreases with age. CONCLUSIONS: Telomeres and telomerase are implicated in aging and development of chronic diseases and cancer; however, difficulty in accessing commercial kits to investigate these aspects is a critical constraint in health surveillance studies. Our optimized assay was successfully used to differentiate telomerase activity between unstimulated and stimulated cells, clearly showing the reactivation of telomerase upon cell activation. This assay is affordable, reproducible, and can be executed in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Telomerase/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism , Neoplasms , Aging , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1056-1064, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the cytotoxic effect and its mechanism of the micromolecule compound on the leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#The cytotoxic effects of 28 Nilotinib derivatives on K562, KA, KG, HA and 32D cell lines were detected by MTT assays, and the compound Nilo 22 was screen out. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle on leukemia cells were detected by flow cytometry. The effect of compound screened out on leukemogenesis potential of MLL-AF9 leukemia mice GFP@*RESULTS@#Nilo 22 serves as the most outstanding candidate out of 28 Nilotinib derivatives, which impairs leukemia cell lines, but spares normal hematopoietic cell line. Comparing with Nilotinib, Nilo 22 could induce the apoptosis of GFP@*CONCLUSION@#Nilo 22 shows a significant cytotoxic effect on mice and human leukemia cells, especially for drug resistance cells. Nilo 22 is a promising anti-leukemia agent to solve the common clinical problems of drug resistance and relapse of leukemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Leukemia , Mice , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(12): 559-564, dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767794

ABSTRACT

Abstract PURPOSE To analyze the relation between the cytological findings and telomerase activity (TA). METHODS Cervical samples were evaluated and classified according to the Bethesda System. Telomerase activity was measured total product generated values (TPG) using the TRAP assay (telomeric repeat amplification protocol); data were analyzed statistically using the χ2 test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS The study was conducted on 102 patients. Of these, 3.9% showed normal cytological findings, 8.8% showed cervicitis; 2% showed Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS); 67.6% showed Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL); 11.8% showed High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (H-SIL) and 5.9% showed Squamous Carcinoma. Among telomerase-positive samples, the TPG values were cervicitis<normal<ASCUS<L-SIL<H-SIL<Carcinoma. CONCLUSION Results show increased telomerase activity with increasing severity of lesion, supporting the association between TA and type of lesion.


Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar a relação entre os achados citológicos e atividade da telomerase (AT). MÉTODOS Amostras cervicais foram avaliadas e classificadas pelo sistema Bethesda. A AT foi medida como valores de produto total gerado (PTG), utilizando o protocolo de amplificação repetida da telomerase (TRAP); os dados foram analisados estatisticamente usando o teste do χ2, com nível de significância de p<0,05. RESULTADOS Cento e dois pacientes foram analisados: 3,9% com achados citológicos normais, 8,8% com cervicite, 2% com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS), 67,6% com lesão escamosa intraepitelial baixo grau (LEI-BG), 11,8 % com lesão intraepitelial escamosa alto grau (LEI-AG) e 5,9% com carcinoma escamoso. Valores PTG para amostras positivas AT foram: cervicite<normal<ASCUS<LEI-BG<LEI-AG<Carcinoma. CONCLUSÃO Os resultados mostram um aumento na AT com o aumento da lesão, sustentando a associação entre a AT e o tipo de lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Telomerase/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/enzymology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Vaginal Smears
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 1004-1009, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762903

ABSTRACT

Sex hormones from environmental and physiological sources might play a major role in the pathogenesis of hepatoblastoma in children. This study investigated the effects of estradiol and bisphenol A on the proliferation and telomerase activity of human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. The cells were divided into 6 treatment groups: control, bisphenol A, estradiol, anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 (hereinafter ICI), bisphenol A+ICI, and estradiol+ICI. Cell proliferation was measured based on average absorbance using the Cell Counting-8 assay. The cell cycle distribution and apoptotic index were determined by flow cytometry. Telomerase activity was detected by polymerase chain reaction and a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. A higher cell density was observed in bisphenol A (P<0.01) and estradiol (P<0.05) groups compared with the control group. Cell numbers in S and G2/M phases after treatment for 48 h were higher (P<0.05), while the apoptotic index was lower (P<0.05) and telomerase activities at 48 and 72 h (P<0.05) were higher in these groups than in the control group. The cell density was also higher in bisphenol A+ICI (P<0.01) and estradiol+ICI (P<0.05) groups compared with the ICI group. Furthermore, cell numbers were increased in S and G2/M phases (P<0.05), while the apoptotic index was lower (P<0.05) and telomerase activities at 48 and 72 h were higher (P<0.05) in these groups than in the ICI group. Therefore, bisphenol A and estradiol promote HepG2 cell proliferation in vitro by inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of telomerase activity via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Estrogens, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , /drug effects , Phenols/pharmacology , Telomerase/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Flow Cytometry , /enzymology , Interphase/drug effects , Telomerase/metabolism
6.
Clinics ; 70(5): 346-349, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the serum aminotransferase levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease and establish their relationships with serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: Patients with chronic kidney disease were evaluated between September 2011 and May 2012. Aminotransferase and creatinine serum levels were measured using an automated kinetic method, and glomerular filtration rates were estimated using the Cockroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas to classify patients into chronic kidney disease stages. RESULTS: Exactly 142 patients were evaluated (mean age: 64±16 years). The mean creatinine serum level and glomerular filtration rate were 3.3±1.2 mg/dL and 29.1±13 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Patients were distributed according to their chronic kidney disease stages as follows: 3 (2.1%) patients were Stage 2; 54 (38%) were Stage 3; 70 (49.3%) were Stage 4; and 15 (10.5%) were Stage 5. The mean aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels showed a reduction in proportion to the increase in creatinine levels (p=0.001 and p=0.05, respectively) and the decrease in glomerular filtration rate (p=0.007 and p=0.028, respectively). Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels tended to be higher among patients classified as stage 2 or 3 compared with those classified as stage 4 or 5 (p=0.08 and p=0.06, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase serum levels of patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease decreased in proportion to the progression of the disease; they were negatively correlated with creatinine levels and directly correlated with glomerular filtration rate. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Foreskin/drug effects , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/toxicity , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere Shortening/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , DNA , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Activation , Foreskin/enzymology , Foreskin/ultrastructure , Keratinocytes/enzymology , Keratinocytes/ultrastructure , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Superoxides/metabolism , Telomere Shortening/genetics
7.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 620-632, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744835

ABSTRACT

O estudo descreve os pontos de venda de alimentos e sua associação com sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Desenho transversal com amostra probabilística de 2.506 escolares de escolas públicas (n = 19) e privadas (n = 11). O sobrepeso/obesidade foi classificado pela referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde de 2007. Foram realizadas análises brutas e ajustadas por meio de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade foi de 34,2%. Na rede pública, foram verificados 19,6% de sobrepeso e 13,5% de obesidade. Na rede privada, observaram-se 22,4% de sobrepeso e 11,1% de obesidade. Na rede pública, foi encontrada associação entre sobrepeso/obesidade e utilização da padaria (p = 0,004). Na rede privada, observou-se que os escolares de famílias que utilizaram o supermercado apresentaram 26% menos de sobrepeso/obesidade do que os escolares que não utilizam esses pontos de venda de alimentos (p = 0,003). Os dados encontrados evidenciam a existência de associação entre a utilização de alguns tipos de pontos de venda de alimentos (supermercado e padaria) e a prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade na população escolar.


The study analyzes retail food outlets and their association with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional design with a random sample of 2,506 schoolchildren from public (n = 19) and private schools (n = 11). Overweight and obesity were classified according to World Health Organization guidelines for 2007, and crude and adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%. In public schools, 19.6% of the children were overweight and 13.5% were obese, as compared to 22.4% and 11.1% in private schools. An association was found in the public school system between overweight/obesity and the use of bakeries for food purchases (p = 0.004). In the private school system, children of families that bought groceries at the supermarket showed 26% less overweight/obesity compared to those who did not (p = 0.003). The data show an association between some types of food outlets (supermarkets and bakeries) and prevalence of overweight/obesity in the school-age population.


El estudio describe los puntos de venta de alimentos y su asociación con el sobrepeso/obesidad en escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio transversal con una muestra aleatoria de 2.506 escolares de las escuelas públicas (n = 19) y privadas (n = 11). El sobrepeso/obesidad se clasifica, en función de la OMS en 2007, con análisis ajustados y crudos que se realizaron mediante la regresión de Poisson. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue de un 34,2%. En el sistema público el resultado fue de un 19,6% sobrepeso y un 13,5% obesidad. En el privado se observó un 22,4% de sobrepeso y 11,1% obesidad. En el primero se encontró una correlación entre el sobrepeso/obesidad y el consumo de bollería (p = 0,004). En las escuelas privadas se observó que los escolares de familias que habían utilizado el supermercado tenían un 26% menos de sobrepeso/ obesidad que los niños en edad escolar que no utilizaron este punto de venta de alimentos (p = 0,003). En el momento del estudio existe una asociación entre el uso de algunos tipos de punto de venta de alimentos (supermercado y panadería) y la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad en escolares.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/chemistry , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Telomere/chemistry , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism , DNA, Fungal/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere-Binding Proteins/genetics , Telomere-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 63-68, ene. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742552

ABSTRACT

Background: Vildagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP4i). Its efficacy and safety of DPP4i in Chilean real life type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients is not well known. Aim: To assess the safety profile and effectiveness of 12 weeks of treatment with Vildagliptin for glycemic control in T2D Chilean patients with a poor glycemic control. Patients and Methods: Retrospective assessment of the effects of Vildagliptin treatment during 12 weeks in 103 T2D patients aged 29 to 92 years (47% males). The main outcomes were changes in glycosylated hemoglobin and the occurrence of adverse effects. Results: After 12 weeks of Vildagliptin use, glycosylated hemoglobin decreased from 8.3 ± 1.4 to 7.2 ± 1.1% (p < 0.01). Fasting plasma glucose and the number of hypoglycemic events also decreased significantly. No significant weight change was observed. The treatment had good compliance, tolerance and patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Vildagliptin treatment reduced glycosylated hemoglobin by 1.1% and was well tolerated in this group of diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Telomerase/genetics
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157207

ABSTRACT

The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process, and HCC arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to changes in the genomic landscape. Current advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized the search for genetic alterations in cancer genomes. Recent studies in which all coding exons in HCC were sequenced have shed new light on the genomic landscape of this malignant disease. Catalogues of these somatic mutations and systematic analysis of catalogued mutations will lead us to uncover candidate HCC driver genes, although further functional validation is needed to determine whether these genes play a causal role in the development of HCC. This review provides an overview of previously known oncogenes and new oncogene candidates in HCC that were uncovered from recent exome or whole-genome sequencing studies. This knowledge provides direction for future personalized treatment approaches for patients with HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Oxidative Stress , Precision Medicine , Telomerase/metabolism , Transcription Factors/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 545-548, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731147

ABSTRACT

O fruto biri-biri pertence à família das Oxalidacae, espécie Averrhoa bilimbi. Este fruto tem um alto conteúdo de oxalato solúvel e é utilizado na culinária, na produção de picles, geleias, e como tratamento para algumas doenças como hipertensão, diabetes e hiperlipidemia. Assim como outros frutos ricos em oxalato, pode provocar lesão renal aguda. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 50 anos, hipertenso, com função renal normal, que ingeriu uma grande quantidade de suco em jejum para tratamento de hipertensão. O paciente desenvolveu quadro de lesão renal aguda associado a dores lombares, soluços e diarreia. A lesão renal aguda era não oligúrica e teve uma evolução favorável em 10 dias sem necessidade de tratamento dialítico. A função renal retornou ao normal após esses 10 dias de seguimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemistry , Liver Neoplasms/chemistry , Apoptosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinogens , Cell Adhesion , Cell Division , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood supply , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/blood supply , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Ploidies , Prognosis , Proteome/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 367-371, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731047

ABSTRACT

This in vitro study evaluated the potential protective effect of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol (α-T) isomer against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (HP) applied on dental pulp cells. Odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells were seeded on 96-well plates for 72 h, treated with different concentrations of α-T (1, 3, 5, and 10 mM) for different times (1, 4, 8, and 24 h) and then exposed or not to a 0.018% HP solution for 30 min. In positive and negative control groups, cells were exposed to HP or culture medium (DMEM containing 5% DMSO), respectively. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay and the absorbance numeric data, expressed as percentage values, were subjected to the statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=5%). Considering the cells in the negative control as having 100% of cell viability, all combinations of α-T concentrations and pretreatment times showed a protective effect against HP cytotoxicity. Significant reduction of cell viability (59%) was observed in the positive control compared with the negative control. The highest values of pulp cell viability were obtained after pretreatment with 1 and 3 mM α-T concentrations for 24 h followed by exposure to HP (126% and 97% of cell viability, respectively). Under the tested conditions, the most effective cell protection against the cytotoxic effects of HP was provided by the lowest concentrations of α-T (1 and 3 mM) applied for 24 h.


Neste estudo, foi avaliado o potencial protetor do isômero alfa-tocoferol da vitamina E (-T) contra a ação tóxica do peróxido de hidrogênio (PH) aplicado sobre células pulpares. Células odontoblastóides MDPC-23 foram semeadas em placas de 96 compartimentos por 72 h, tratadas com diferentes concentrações de α-T (1, 3, 5 e 10 mM) por diferentes períodos (1, 4, 8 e 24 h) e, então, expostas ou não a uma solução com 0,0018% de PH por 30 min. Nos controles positivo e negativo, as células foram expostas ao PH ou meio de cultura (DMEM contendo 5% de DMSO), respectivamente. A viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo teste do MTT e os valores numéricos de absorbância, expressos em porcentagem, foram submetidos a análise estatística pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney (α=5%). Considerando as células do grupo controle negativo como apresentando 100% de viabilidade celular, todas as combinações de α-T, nas diferentes concentrações, e tempos de pré-tratamento demonstraram um efeito protetor contra a citotoxicidade do PH. Redução significativa da viabilidade (59%) foi observada para o grupo controle positivo comparado ao controle negativo. Os maiores valores de viabilidade celular foram obtidos após pré-tratamento com 1 e 3 mM de α-T por 24 h seguido de exposição ao PH (126% e 97% de viabilidade celular, respectivamente). Assim, de acordo com as condições experimentais, o efeito protetor mais efetivo contra os efeitos tóxicos do PH foi observado para as menores concentrações de α-T (1 e 3 mM) aplicado por 24 h.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Esophagus/cytology , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Size , Cell Division/physiology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomaviridae/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(7): 567-575, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712970

ABSTRACT

Limitations on tissue proliferation capacity determined by telomerase/apoptosis balance have been implicated in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, collagen V shows promise as an inductor of apoptosis. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between the telomerase/apoptosis index, collagen V synthesis, and epithelial/fibroblast replication in mice exposed to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at high oxygen concentration. Two groups of mice were analyzed: 20 mice received BHT, and 10 control mice received corn oil. Telomerase expression, apoptosis, collagen I, III, and V fibers, and hydroxyproline were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ detection of apoptosis, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and histomorphometry. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of increased alveolar epithelial cells type 1 (AEC1) in apoptosis. Immunostaining showed increased nuclear expression of telomerase in AEC type 2 (AEC2) between normal and chronic scarring areas of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Control lungs and normal areas from UIP lungs showed weak green birefringence of type I and III collagens in the alveolar wall and type V collagen in the basement membrane of alveolar capillaries. The increase in collagen V was greater than collagens I and III in scarring areas of UIP. A significant direct association was found between collagen V and AEC2 apoptosis. We concluded that telomerase, collagen V fiber density, and apoptosis evaluation in experimental UIP offers the potential to control reepithelization of alveolar septa and fibroblast proliferation. Strategies aimed at preventing high rates of collagen V synthesis, or local responses to high rates of cell apoptosis, may have a significant impact in pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis/physiology , Collagen Type V/biosynthesis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Telomerase/metabolism , Butylated Hydroxytoluene , Cell Proliferation , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type II/analysis , Collagen Type V/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Electron , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Staining and Labeling , Telomerase/isolation & purification
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(1): 69-76, ene.-feb. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708560

ABSTRACT

La telomerasa es la enzima responsable del mantenimiento de la longitud de los telómeros mediante la adición de secuencias repetitivas ricas en guanina, y su actividad se observa principalmente en gametos, células madre y células tumorales. En las células somáticas humanas el potencial de proliferación es limitado, alcanzando la senescencia luego de 50-70 divisiones celulares, debido a que la ADN polimerasa no es capaz de copiar el ADN en los extremos de los cromosomas. Por el contrario, en la mayoría de las células tumorales el potencial de replicación es ilimitado debido al mantenimiento de la longitud telomérica dado por la telomerasa. Los telómeros tienen proteínas adicionales que regulan la unión de la telomerasa. De la misma manera la telomerasa también se asocia con un complejo de proteínas que regulan su actividad. Este trabajo se centra en la estructura y función del complejo telómero/telomerasa y a cómo las alteraciones en su comportamiento conducen al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades, principalmente cáncer. El desarrollo de inhibidores del sistema telómero / telomerasa podría ser un blanco con posibilidades prometedoras.


Telomerase is the enzyme responsible for the maintenance of telomere length by adding guanine-rich repetitive sequences. Its activity can be seen in gametes, stem cells and tumor cells. In human somatic cells the proliferative potential is limited, reaching senescence after 50-70 cell divisions, because the DNA polymerase is not able to copy the DNA at the ends of chromosomes. By contrast, in most tumor cells the replicative potential is unlimited due to the maintenance of the telomeric length given by telomerase. Telomeres have additional proteins that regulate the binding of telomerase, likewise telomerase associates, with a protein complex that regulates its activity. This work focuses on the structure and function of the telomere/telomerase complex and how changes in its behavior lead to the development of different diseases, mainly cancer. Development of inhibitors of the telomere/telomerase complex could be a target with promising possibilities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Telomerase/genetics , Telomere/physiology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cell Division/physiology , Neoplasms/enzymology , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1/physiology , /physiology
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(12): 855-860, dez. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657968

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate telomerase activity and proliferation of HS839.T melanoma cells, subjected to the action of AZT. METHODS: Cells were grown in triplicate, AZT at different concentrations: 50, 100 and 200μM, was added and left for 24 and 48 hours, and its effects were compared with the control group. Telomerase activity was detected by PCR and cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT. RESULTS: After 24 hours, there was no inhibition of cell proliferation or telomerase activity when compared to the control group. After 48 hours, there was a momentary decrease, suggesting that the cell lines used in this study are sensitive to AZT, but quickly recover both the enzyme activity and cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: The action of AZT on the melanoma cells studied, at the concentrations and times tested, did not inhibit telomerase activity nor affect cell proliferation.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade da telomerase e da proliferação de células de melanoma HS839.T submetidas à ação do AZT. MÉTODOS: As células foram cultivadas, em triplicata, com diferentes concentrações de AZT: 50, 100 e 200µM, por 24h e 48h, seus efeitos comparados com o grupo controle. A atividade da telomerase foi detectada por PCR e a proliferação celular avaliada por MTT. RESULTADOS: No tempo de 24 horas, não houve inibição da proliferação celular e da atividade da telomerase em comparação com o grupo controle. No período de 48 horas, houve uma diminuição momentânea, sugerindo que as células das linhagens utilizadas neste estudo são sensíveis ao AZT, mas que recuperam a atividade enzimática e proliferativa. CONCLUSÃO: Nas células de melanoma HS839.T estudadas e nas concentrações e tempos propostos, a ação do AZT não inibiu a atividade da telomerase e não afetou a proliferação celular.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Melanoma/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Telomerase/metabolism , Zidovudine/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Melanoma/enzymology , Skin Neoplasms/enzymology , Time Factors , Telomerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Zidovudine/administration & dosage
15.
Biocell ; 36(3): 121-126, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-694712

ABSTRACT

Recent findings suggest that apoptotic protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) may also play an important non-apoptotic function inside mitochondria. AIF was proposed to be an important component of respiratory chain complex I that is the major producer of superoxide radical. The possible role of AIF is still controversial. Superoxide production could be used as a valuable measure of complex I function, because the majority of superoxide is produced there. Therefore, we employed superoxide-specific mitochondrial fluorescence dye for detection of superoxide production. We studied an impact of AIF knockdown on function of mitochondrial complex I by analyzing superoxide production in selected cell lines. Our results show that tumoral telomerase-positive (TP) AIF knockdown cell lines display significant increase in superoxide production in comparison to control cells, while a non-tumoral cell line and tumoral telomerase-negative cell lines with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) show a decrease in superoxide production. According to these results, we can conclude that AIF knockdown disrupts function of complex I and therefore increases the superoxide production in mitochondria. The distinct effect of AIF depletion in various cell lines could result from recently discovered activity of telomerase in mitochondria of TP cancer cells, but this hypothesis needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/genetics , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/physiology , Electron Transport Complex I/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Fluorescent Dyes/pharmacology , Gene Silencing , HeLa Cells , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Phenanthridines/pharmacology , Superoxides/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/ultrastructure
16.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1039-1046, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the relationship between fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblasts, and telomerase-mediated regulatory signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-four surgical lung biopsies, which had been obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histologically classified as usual interstitial pneumonia, were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and the tissue expression of inter leu kin-4, transforming growth factor-β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The point-counting technique was used to quantify the expression of these markers in unaffected, collapsed, mural fibrosis, and honeycombing areas. The results were correlated to patient survival. RESULTS: Fibroblast telomerase expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression were higher in collapsed areas, whereas myofibroblast expression and interleukine-4 tissue expression were higher in areas of mural fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β expression was higher in collapsed, mural fibrosis and honeycombing areas in comparison to unaffected areas. Positive correlations were found between basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression and fibroblast telomerase expression and between interleukin-4 tissue expression and myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. Negative correlations were observed between interleukin-4 expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis. Myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and interleukin-4 tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis were negatively associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast telomerase expression is higher in areas of early remodeling in lung tissues demonstrating typical interstitial pneumonia, whereas myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression predominates in areas of late remodeling. These events seem to be regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and interleukin-4 tissue expression, respectively.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Actins/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Biopsy , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , /metabolism , Lung/pathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(7): 665-675, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639466

ABSTRACT

In this study, we demonstrated the importance of telomerase protein expression and determined the relationships among telomerase, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and myofibroblasts during early and late remodeling of parenchymal and vascular areas in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) using 27 surgical lung biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Telomerase+, myofibroblasts α-SMA+, smooth muscle cells caldesmon+, endothelium ET-1+ cellularity, and fibrosis severity were evaluated in 30 fields covering normal lung parenchyma, minimal fibrosis (fibroblastic foci), severe (mural) fibrosis, and vascular areas of UIP by the point-counting technique and a semiquantitative score. The impact of these markers was determined in pulmonary functional tests and follow-up until death from IPF. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was significantly increased in normal and vascular areas compared to areas of fibroblast foci. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was inversely correlated with minimal fibrosis in areas of fibroblast foci and directly associated with severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Telomerase activity in minimal fibrosis areas was directly associated with diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen/alveolar volume and ET-1 expression and indirectly associated with diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Cox proportional hazards regression revealed a low risk of death for females with minimal fibrosis displaying high telomerase and ET-1 expression in normal areas. Vascular dysfunction by telomerase/ET-1 expression was found earlier than vascular remodeling by myofibroblast activation in UIP with impact on IPF evolution, suggesting that strategies aimed at preventing the effect of these mediators may have a greater impact on patient outcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Actins/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Prognosis , Survival Analysis
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137367

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst prognoses among all types of cancers. The survival rate is less than 5 per cent; this is due to difficulty in diagnosing at an early stage. Despite the improvements in diagnostic imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, etc., the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still difficult. Alternative methods of diagnosing pancreatic cancer at an early stage are presently been explored. The detection of telomerase activity has been proposed to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Telomerase is made up of three major parts namely, human telomerase reverse transcriptase, human telomerase and telomerase -associated protein. Several researchers have shown telomerase activity in tissues and fluids of patients with pancreatic and other types of cancers. About 95 per cent telomerase activity has been detected in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Since telomerase activity is present in a vast majority of human cancers, it might have a role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Bile/metabolism , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Telomerase/diagnosis , Telomerase/metabolism
19.
Braz. oral res ; 25(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595836

ABSTRACT

Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD) of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia) and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT). Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3 percent of PMD, in 63.3 percent of OSCC and in 80 percent of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7 percent of PMD, in 43.3 percent of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90 percent of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , /analysis , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Telomerase/analysis , /analysis , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , /metabolism , Disease Progression , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Telomerase/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , /metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112652

ABSTRACT

This study was done to evaluate the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from placenta according to the development stage and to compare the results to those from adult bone marrow (BM). Based on the source of hMSCs, three groups were defined: group I included term placentas, group II included first-trimester placentas, and group III included adult BM samples. The stemness was evaluated by the proliferation capacity, immunophenotypic expression, mesoderm differentiation, expression of pluripotency markers including telomerase activity. The cumulative population doubling, indicating the proliferation capacity, was significantly higher in group II (P<0.001, 31.7+/-5.8 vs. 15.7+/-6.2 with group I, 9.2+/-4.9 with group III). The pattern of immunophenotypic expression and mesoderm differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes were similar in all three groups. The expression of pluripotency markers including ALP, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-4, and telomerase were strongly positive in group II, but very faint positive in the other groups. In conclusions, hMSCs from placentas have different characteristics according to their developmental stage and express mesenchymal stemness potentials similar to those from adult human BMs.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesoderm/cytology , Octamer Transcription Factor-3/metabolism , Placenta/cytology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism
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