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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 20240301. 98 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532845

ABSTRACT

Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência do tratamento térmico (TT) a seco pós-cura sobre as propriedades mecânicas e ópticas de resinas acrílicas ativadas quimicamente (Dencôr e Duralay) e resinas bisacrílicas (Protemp 4 e Primma Art). Os corpos de prova (cps) foram confeccionados nas dimensões de 12mm de diâmetro e 1mm de espessura em matriz de poliacetal. Após a confecção, as resinas foram divididas em grupos experimentais onde receberam TT, pelo período de 10 minutos, 70 C (TT70), a 100 C (TT100) ou a 130 C (TT130) e as pertencentes ao grupo controle foram mantidas a 24 C (CTL) pelo mesmo período. A diferença de cor (CIEDE2000 - E00) e o parâmetro de translucidez (PT) foram avaliados utilizando um espectrofotômetro. A resistência ao manchamento após imersão em água, vinho tinto e café durante 30 dias também foi avaliada por meio da E00. A avaliação de microdureza Knoop (KHN) foi realizada no microdurômetro e a análise da resistência à flexão biaxial (RFB) teve o auxílio da máquina de ensaio universal pelo método pistão sobre três esferas. O TT não teve influência sobre a RFB. O grupo TT130 produziu valores de KHN maiores que os demais grupos. Todos os TT acarretaram um aumento significativo no E00, com exceção do grupo TT70 da Dencôr e da Protemp. O TT na Dencôr resultou em aumento do PT, e para a Duralay e Protemp, uma redução do PT em TT100 e TT130. No geral, as resinas acrílicas apresentaram um aumento da estabilidade de cor ao serem submetidas ao TT. Para as resinas bisacrílicas, o TT não influenciou a resistência ao manchamento. O presente trabalho concluiu que os TTs produziram aumento na KHN (TT130) e não influenciaram a RFB. O TT e a imersão em corantes levaram a uma maior diferença de cor, todavia dentro do limite de aceitabilidade. Houve aumento pontual da resistência ao manchamento das resinas.


Subject(s)
Temperature , Acrylic Resins , Thermic Treatment , Polymethyl Methacrylate
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

ABSTRACT

Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Temperature , Agricultural Pests , Humidity
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253436, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355870

ABSTRACT

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus' survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores' size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Spores, Fungal , Temperature , Mycelium
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252845, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355877

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate whether skeletal development of the Pantanal Caiman (Caiman yacare) is similarly influenced by temperature variation and controlled increases in embryo motility. All eggs were incubated at 90% humidity and 29 °C for the first 45 days. Thereafter, the incubation temperature was either maintained at 29 °C and embryos were treated with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on days 46, 47, 48, and 49 (Group I, 29 °C 4-AP, n = 15); maintained at 29 °C (n = 14; Group II); or at 33 °C (n = 14, Group III). Embryonic movement was measured using an Egg Buddy® digital monitor on days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 60, at which point embryos were euthanized and samples were collected for analysis. No differences were observed between groups with varying incubation temperatures. In contrast, embryonic motility was greater in embryos treated with 4-AP (P < 0.001) on day 49, and this was associated with higher proportions of snout-vent and hand lengths. This study demonstrates for the first time that pharmacologically induced increases in embryo motility result in phenotypic changes to the proportion of elements during prenatal ontogeny, thereby effectively altering the adaptation of the species to specific environments.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e motilidade embrionária sobre o desenvolvimento esquelético de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare). Os ovos foram incubados com 90% de umidade e empregou-se a temperatura de 29°C por 45 dias. Após, para a incubação do Grupo I a temperatura continuou em 29°C, mas associou-se à injeção de 4-aminopiridina (29°C-4AP, n = 15) aplicada nos dias 46, 47, 48 e 49, do Grupo II permaneceu em 29°C (n = 14) e do Grupo III elevou-se para 33°C (n = 14). A movimentação foi mensurada através do monitor digital Egg Buddy® nos dias 30, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, os embriões foram eutanasiados e coletadas amostras embrionárias. Na análise estatística não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos para o fator temperatura sobre a motilidade embrionária no desenvolvimento esquelético. Em contraste, a motilidade evidenciou diferença estatística no dia 49 para o Grupo I (P < 0,001) e apresentou maiores proporções de nariz e mão. Esses dados demonstraram pela primeira vez que o aumento na motilidade, induzidos farmacologicamente resultam em divergências fenotípicas na proporção de segmentos anatômicos durante a ontogenia pré-natal, podendo alterar efetivamente a adaptação dos animais em ambientes específicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles , Temperature
5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 30(2): 1-14, 2023-05-08. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1538059

ABSTRACT

Background: Brewer ́s spent grain (BSG) is a biomass by-product generated in large volumes during industrial beer production. BSG has become a growing environmental problem, as most breweries discard it inappropriately, negatively impacting the environment. Alternatives for the exploitation of this by-product have consisted of elaborating food supplements for farm animals, obtaining biofuels, developing adsorbents, and obtaining substances for the food industry. However, the high moisture content in BSG (approximately 70%), poses a significant challenge in exploring various reuse alternatives. Therefore, the implementation of a pre-drying process becomes essential. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the BSG drying kinetics at different temperatures and the effect of the drying temperature on the physical properties and the content of bioactive compounds. Methods: BSG samples were dried at different temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 105°C) and analyzed for their moisture ratio, water activity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) radical scavenging activity. Also, four kinetics models were fitted to the drying data. Results:It was determined that the effective diffusivity was between 5.23x10


Antecedentes: El Bagazo residual de malta (BSG por sus siglas en inglés) es un subproducto biomásico generado en grandes volúmenes durante la producción industrial de cerveza. El BSG se ha convertido en un creciente problema para el medio ambiente, debido a que la mayoría de las cervecerías descartan inapropiadamente este residuo generando un impacto negativo al ambiente. Las alternativas para el aprovechamiento de este subproducto han consistido especialmente en la elaboración de suplementos alimenticios para animales de granja, obtención de biocombustibles, desarrollo de adsorbentes y obtención de productos para la industria alimentaria. Sin embargo, el alto contenido de humedad (~70%) del BSG representa un reto para el desarrollo de diferentes alternativas de reutilización, por lo que se hace necesario un proceso de secado previo. Objetivos: En este estudio se analizó la cinética de secado del BSG a diferentes temperaturas y el efecto de la temperatura de secado sobre sus propiedades físicas y contenido de compuestos bioactivos. Métodos: Las muestras de BSG fueron secadas a diferentes temperaturas (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 y 105°C) y analizadas en términos de razón de humedad, actividad acuosa, contenido de polifenoles totales (TPC) y actividad secuestradora del radical DPPH. Además, se ajustaron 4 modelos cinéticos a los datos de secado. Resultados: Se determinó que la difusividad efectiva del BSG varió entre 5.23x10


Subject(s)
Humans , Malta , Temperature , Beer , Kinetics , Biomass
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238692, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509506

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study investigated the influence in vitro of different sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation protocols associated or not with DualRinse (HEDP) on the temperature of the solution. Methods: Forty-eight premolars were instrumented and their apical third sealed to allow a closed irrigation system. The teeth remained immersed in a basin of warm water (37°C). The teeth were divided into the groups: G1 (NaOCl+Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI)), G2 (NaOCl/HEDP + PUI), G3 (NaOCl + EasyClean (EC)) and G4 (NaOCl/HEDP + EC). The canals were filled with the respective solutions and after 180 seconds the first temperature measurement was taken (T0). Then, the solutions were agitated, following the different protocols, for 60 seconds and a new measurement was performed (T60). The temperature was measured using a digital thermometer for type "K" sensors that was inserted into the middle third of the teeth. At the end of the measurements, the teeth were sectioned and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. The dentinal wall of middle third was graded according to the amount of debris and smear layer remaining on the walls. The results were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Results: G1 and G2 had an average increase in temperature of 1.1°C and 1.65°C, respectively (p>0.05). EasyClean caused a decrease in the temperature of the solutions in both groups, without a significant statistical difference with T0 (p>0.05). Regarding cleaning, it was only possible to observe clean dentinal tubules in the groups with the chelator. PUI discretely increased the temperature of the solution, regardless of the solution. The opposite effect was observed after activation with EasyClean. Conclusion: The association of NaOCl with a chelating agent promoted the cleaning of the dentinal tubules


Subject(s)
Root Canal Irrigants , Sodium Hypochlorite , Temperature , Ultrasonics , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Chelating Agents
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e231377, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1519248

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the quantity and positioning of feldspathic ceramic specimens inside the furnace on their flexural strength and translucency. The tested hypotheses were that the arrangement of specimens in the furnance would not influence 1) the translucency or 2) the biaxial strength of the porcelain. Methods: Ninety porcelain specimens were made (1.2 mm thickness and 13.5 mm diameter) and assigned into two main groups (n=15): G1 group - 15 firing cycles containing only one specimen each, always at the center of the refractory; and G5 group - 15 firing cycles containing five specimen each, where one specimen was at the center of the refractory and four specimens positioned equidistantly on the periphery. The translucency test was performed using a spectrophotometer, followed by the flexural strength test, according to ISO 6872:2015. T-student test was performed for both the mechanical and optical obtained data. Results: The flexural strength of the porcelain was not affected by the positioning (center x periphery) of the specimens inside the furnace (p =0.08), but the translucency was affected (periphery > center; p =0.009). Regarding to the number of feldspathic ceramic specimens, the biaxial flexural strength was affected (p =0.025), as well as the translucency (p <0.05). Conclusion: A higher quantity of feldspathic ceramic specimens for each firing cycle decreased its biaxial flexural strength and translucency. Also, specimens positioned at the center of the refractory became less translucent than those positioned at the periphery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thermodynamics , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Absorption, Physicochemical , Flexural Strength , Light , Spectrophotometry , Temperature , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Fractographic Analysis
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39018, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415912

ABSTRACT

The study analyzed the influence of temperature on the depth of cure of bulk-fill composite resins. Three discs (ISO 4049/2000) from each group were made, and four restorative materials were investigated: Opus Bulk-Fill Flow, Opus Bulk-Fill APS, Filtek™ One Bulk-Fill, and Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Flow. They were light-cured (Gnatus ± 1,200 mW/cm2) for 20 seconds, varying the temperature (23°C and 5°C) and simulating the use of the product both at room temperature and under refrigeration. The materials were inserted in aluminum matrices with 10 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter. A clear film strip and a glass microscope slide were positioned at the top and bottom surfaces. The material was condensed and light-cured with the tip of the light source in close contact, for 20 seconds on the top surface. Immediately after irradiation, the samples were removed from the mold, and the uncured part was removed with a plastic spatula. The measurement was performed with a micrometer ± 0.1 mm, and the value was divided by 2. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA at a significance of 0.05. There was a statistical difference in the temperature between the results obtained in Opus Bulk-Fill APS (p <0.001) and Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Flow (p = 0.018) resins. For the temperature of 5°C, Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Flow showed a statistical difference compared to the other resins, while Opus Bulk-Fill Flow and Opus Bulk-Fill APS did not. For the temperature of 23°C, Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Flow maintained the statistical difference from the others, but Filtek™ One Bulk-Fill and Opus Bulk-Fill APS did not present statistical differences. Storing the Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Flow composite resin in the refrigerator caused a greater depth of cure than the other resins, and the depth of cure decreased at room temperature. As for Opus Bulk-Fill APS, the depth of cure decreased proportionally to the temperature decrease. The temperature may affect the depth of cure of some composite resins.


Subject(s)
Temperature , Cold Temperature , Composite Resins , Polymerization
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 351-359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981011

ABSTRACT

To explore the changes of cold sensitivity after exposure to acute hypoxia and its mechanisms, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normoxia control group (21% O2, 25 °C), 10% O2 hypoxia group (10% O2, 25 °C), 7% O2 hypoxia group (7% O2, 25 °C), normoxia cold group (21% O2, 10 °C) and hypoxia cold group (7% O2, 10 °C). Cold foot withdrawal latency and preference temperature of each group were measured, skin temperatures were estimated using an infrared thermographic imaging camera, body core temperature was recorded by wireless telemetry system, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of c-Fos in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB). The results showed that acute hypoxia significantly prolonged the latency of cold foot withdrawal and significantly enhanced the intensity of cold stimulation for foot withdrawal, and the rats under hypoxia preferred cold temperature. Cold exposure (10 °C) for 1 h significantly enhanced the expression of c-Fos in LPB of rats in normoxia, while hypoxia inhibited cold-induced c-Fos expression. Acute hypoxia significantly increased the skin temperature of feet and tails, decreased the skin temperature of interscapular region, and decreased the body core temperature of rats. These results indicate that acute hypoxia can significantly blunt cold sensitivity through the inhibition of LPB, suggesting actively keeping warm measures should be taken at the early stage after ascent to high altitude to prevent the upper respiratory infection and acute mountain sickness.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Parabrachial Nucleus/physiology , Temperature , Cold Temperature , Hypoxia , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980994

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term ketogenic diet on the low temperature tolerance of mice and the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: normal diet (WT+ND) group and ketogenic diet (WT+KD) group. After being fed with normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The changes in core temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure of mice under low temperature condition were detected, and the protein expression levels of PPARα and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were detected by Western blot. PPARα knockout mice were divided into normal diet (PPARα-/-+ND) group and ketogenic diet (PPARα-/-+KD) group. After being fed with the normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The above indicators were also detected. The results showed that, at room temperature, the protein expression levels of PPARα and UCP1 in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group were significantly up-regulated, compared with those of WT+ND group. Under low temperature condition, compared with WT+ND, the core temperature and blood glucose of WT+KD group were increased, while mean arterial pressure was decreased; The ketogenic diet up-regulated PPARα protein expression in brown adipose tissue, as well as UCP1 protein expression in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group. Under low temperature condition, compared to WT+ND group, PPARα-/-+ND group exhibited decreased core temperature and down-regulated PPARα and UCP1 protein expression levels in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. Compared to the PPARα-/-+ND group, the PPARα-/-+KD group exhibited decreased core temperature and did not show any difference in the protein expression of UCP1 in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the ketogenic diet promotes UCP1 expression by up-regulating PPARα, thus improving low temperature tolerance of mice. Therefore, short-term ketogenic diet can be used as a potential intervention to improve the low temperature tolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , PPAR alpha/pharmacology , Diet, Ketogenic , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Temperature , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 38-43, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a model of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) infection in dentinal tubules by gradient centrifugation and to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low-temperature plasma on E. faecalis in dentinal tubules.@*METHODS@#Standard dentin blocks of 4 mm×4 mm×2 mm size were prepared from single root canal isolated teeth without caries, placed in the E. faecalis bacterial solution, centrifuged in gradient and incubated for 24 h to establish the model of dentinal tubule infection with E. faecalis. The twenty dentin blocks of were divided into five groups, low-temperature plasma jet treatment for 0, 5 and 10 min, calcium hydroxide paste sealing for 7 d and 2% chlorhexidine gel sealing for 7 d. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscope were used to assess the infection in the dentinal tubules and the antibacterial effect of low-temperature plasma.@*RESULTS@#The results of scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that after 24 h of incubation by gradient centrifugation, E. faecalis could fully enter the dentinal tubules to a depth of more than 600μm indicating that this method was time-saving and efficient and could successfully construct a model of E. faecalis infection in dentinal tubules. Low-temperature plasma could enter the dentinal tubules and play a role, the structure of E. faecalis was still intact after 5 min of low-temperature plasma treatment, with no obvious damage, and after 10 min of low-temperature plasma treatment, the surface morphology of E. faecalis was crumpled and deformed, the cell wall was seriously collapsed, and the normal physiological morphology was damaged indicating that the majority of E. faecalis was killed in the dentinal tubules. The antibacterial effect of low-temperature plasma treatment for 10 min exceeded that of the calcium hydroxide paste sealing for 7 d and the 2% chlorhexidine gel sealing for 7 d. These two chemicals had difficulty entering deep into the dentinal tubules, and therefore only had a few of antibacterial effect on the bacterial biofilm on the root canal wall, and there was also no significant damage to the E. faecalis bacterial structure.@*CONCLUSION@#Gradient centrifugation could establish the model of E. faecalis dentin infection successfully. Low-temperature plasma treatment for 10 min could kill E. faecalis in dentinal tubules effectively, which is superior to the calcium hydroxide paste sealing for 7 d and the 2% chlorhexidine gel sealing for 7 d.


Subject(s)
Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/physiology , Temperature , Dentin , Biofilms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 597-599, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980765

ABSTRACT

An automatic ash-removal heat-sensitive moxibustion device was developed, which could keep relatively constant temperature of heat-sensitive moxibustion, and realize the automatic ignition and automatic ash removal of moxa sticks during heat-sensitive moxibustion. The automatic ash-removal heat-sensitive moxibustion device comprises a bracket and a moxibustion box fixed on the top of the bracket; the bracket is composed of a base and a movable telescopic arm. This device can solve the problems of temperature instability, moxa ash blocking heat transfer and moxa ash falling during heat-sensitive moxibustion, avoiding the scalding caused by moxa ash falling, and reduce the workload of medical staff.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Temperature
13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 593-596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980764

ABSTRACT

In view of the limitations of the high operational difficulty, safety hazards and adverse reactions of traditional fire needle, and unclear treatment parameters of existing electric fire needles, a new digital electric fire needle instrument was designed and developed in this study. This instrument is a gun type structure, consisting of a gun body, a power supply interface on the gun body, a display unit and a drive unit, a heating unit, a cooling unit, a positioning unit, and a needle inserting unit in the gun body. This instrument can digitally realize the regulation of parameters such as fire needle inserting temperature, depth and speed, and it has the advantageous features of intelligent needle burning, precise positioning, and safe and easy operation. This instrument meets the needs of more patients, medical professionals and scientific researchers, and is conducive to promoting the development of fire needle acupuncture therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Needles , Heating , Research Personnel , Temperature
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 439-443, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the body surface temperature of the relevant back-shu points in patients with chronic persistent asthma by infrared thermal imaging technology, and observe the specific changes of the body surface temperature of the relevant back-shu points under the condition of lung disease.@*METHODS@#Forty-five patients with chronic persistent asthma (observation group) and 45 healthy subjects (control group) were selected. The body surface temperature of bilateral Feishu (BL 13), Geshu (BL 17), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) were measured by BK-MT02A medical infrared thermography.@*RESULTS@#The body surface temperature of bilateral Feishu (BL 13), Geshu (BL 17), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The body surface temperature of bilateral Feishu (BL 13) and Geshu (BL 17) was higher than that of ipsilateral Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) in the two groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in body surface temperature between ipsilateral Feishu (BL 13) and Geshu (BL 17), between ipsilateral Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The pathological increase of body surface temperature of Feishu (BL 13), Geshu (BL 17), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) in patients with chronic persistent asthma indicates that above acupoints have specificity in reflecting lung diseases. The Feishu (BL 13) and Geshu (BL 17), which have significantly increased body surface temperature, not only provide objective basis for the pathological pathogenesis of "deficiency in origin and excess in symptom" in patients with chronic persistent asthma, but also reflect the different expressions of different acupoints on the same meridian for the lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temperature , Asthma/diagnostic imaging , Meridians , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy/methods
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus pumilus/metabolism , Sewage , Temperature , Dietary Fiber , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243629, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285611

ABSTRACT

Abstract As an important enzyme, xylanase is widely used in the food, pulp, and textile industry. Different applications of xylanase warrant specific conditions including temperature and pH. This study aimed to carry out sodium alginate beads as carrier to immobilize previous reported mutated xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum which expressed in E. coli, the activity of immobilization of mutated xylanase was elevated about 4% at pH 6 and 13% at 62 °C. Moreover, the immobilized mutated xylanase retained a greater proportion of its activity than the wide type in thermostability. These properties suggested that the immobilization of mutated xylanase has potential to apply in biobleaching industry.


Resumo Como importante enzima, a xilanase é amplamente utilizada na indústria alimentícia, de celulose e têxtil. Diferentes aplicações de xilanase garantem condições específicas, incluindo temperatura e pH. Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar grânulos de alginato de sódio como carreador para imobilizar xilanase mutada relatada anteriormente de Neocallimastix patriciarum que expressa em E. coli, a atividade de imobilização da xilanase mutada foi elevada em cerca de 4% em pH 6 e 13% a 62 °C. Além disso, a xilanase mutada imobilizada reteve uma proporção maior de sua atividade do que o tipo amplo em termoestabilidade. Essas propriedades sugerem que a imobilização da xilanase mutada tem potencial para aplicação na indústria de biobranqueamento.


Subject(s)
Neocallimastix , Temperature , Escherichia coli/genetics
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250879, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339383

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the state of São Paulo, the main sugarcane producing region of the world, two species of scale insects have frequently occurred, Aclerda takahashii (Kuwana, 1932) (Hemiptera: Aclerdidae) and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). To map the distribution and abundance of these species, 17 sugarcane producing fields, distributed in six mesoregions in São Paulo, were evaluated in August 2017 and, January, February, June and July 2018 during the ripening phase. The study on the seasonality of these species, by the presence or absence of the scale insects during the phenological cycle of the plant, was conducted between August 2017 and July 2018 in two sugarcane producing fields in the municipality of Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of S. sacchari was found in all the analyzed locations, and A. takahashii in twelve. Both scale insects showed significant difference of infestation in the node's region of the stems during the ripening phase in one of the studied locations. The aclerdid presented significant difference by infestation in one site during the ripening phase of the plant. The pseudococcid infested a greater number of nodes in the following phases of development; vegetative, grand growth and ripening in both studied areas, but it was in one site during the ripening phase that presented the greatest difference. Although the pink sugarcane mealybug was more abundant than A. takahashii in both studies, there were no patterns of relationships between the numbers of individuals to geographical locations and temperature.


Resumo No estado de São Paulo, principal região produtora de cana-de-açúcar do mundo, duas espécies de cochonilhas têm ocorrido frequentemente, Aclerda takahashii (Kuwana, 1932) (Hemiptera: Aclerdidae) e Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Para mapear a distribuição e abundância destas espécies, 17 regiões produtoras de cana-de-açúcar, distribuídas em seis mesorregiões de São Paulo, foram avaliadas em agosto de 2017 e janeiro, fevereiro, junho e julho de 2018, durante a fase de maturação. O estudo da sazonalidade destas espécies, pela presença ou ausência das cochonilhas durante o ciclo fenológico da planta, foi conduzido entre agosto de 2017 e julho de 2018 em duas regiões produtoras de cana-de-açúcar no município de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. Saccharicoccus sacchari foi encontrada em todas as localidades analisadas, e A. takahashii em 12. Ambas cochonilhas mostraram diferença significativa de infestação na região dos nós dos colmos durante a fase de maturação em uma das localidades estudadas. O aclerdídeo apresentou diferença significativa pela infestação em uma localidade durante a fase de maturação da planta. O pseudococcídeo infestou um grande número de nós nas seguintes fases de desenvolvimento; perfilhamento, crescimento vegetativo e maturação em ambas áreas estudadas, mas foi em uma localidade durante a fase de maturação que apresentou a maior diferença. Embora a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar foi mais abundante do que A. takahashii em ambos estudos, não houve padrões de relações entre o número de indivíduos com a localização geográfica e temperatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Saccharum , Hemiptera , Temperature , Brazil , Crops, Agricultural
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

ABSTRACT

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Seeds , Stress, Physiological , Temperature , Germination , Seedlings , Hydrogen Peroxide
19.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 271-276, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986026

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the burden of disease attributable to high temperature exposure in China and globally from 1990 to 2019, and to study the current burden of disease in relevant populations. Methods: In October 2021, based on data from the global burden of disease 2019 (GBD 2019) study, population attributable fraction (PAF), number of deaths, mortality, disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and DALY rate of Chinese and global populations with different ages and genders in 1990 and 2019 were extracted and analyzed. The rate of change was calculated, the mortality rate was normalized by the age structure of the world standard population, and the causes of disease burden caused by high temperature exposure of Chinese residents were analyzed. Results: In 2019, compared with 1990, the PAF of Chinese and global population decreased by 43.98% and 12.41% respectively, the number of deaths increased by 29.55% and 49.40% respectively, the crude mortality rate increased by 7.81% and 3.30% respectively, the DALY decreased by 48.12% and 14.41% respectively, and the DALY rate decreased by 56.82% and 40.82% respectively. The mortality rate of the ≥70 age group was higher than that of other groups. The disease burden indicators such as PAF, standardized mortality and DALY attributable to high temperature exposure in men were higher than those in women. In 2019, the main cause of DALY affected by high temperature exposure in Chinese population was ischemic heart disease (84400 person-years), and the main cause of death was ischemic heart disease (4900 cases). Conclusion: The burden of diseases attributable to high temperature exposure is still serious in China and the world at large. Targeted interventions should be formulated for men, the elderly and people with occupational exposure, and a sound surveillance system should be established to reduce the burden of diseases caused by high temperature exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Temperature , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology , Myocardial Ischemia
20.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 189-197, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the thermal environment of different types of public places and the thermal comfort of employees, so as to provide scientific basis for the establishment of microclimate standards and health supervision requirements. Methods: From June 2019 to December 2021, 50 public places (178 times) of 8 categories in Wuxi were selected, including hotels, swimming pools (gymnasiums), bathing places, shopping malls (supermarkets), barber shops, beauty shops, waiting rooms (bus station) and gyms. In summer and winter, microclimate indicators such as temperature and wind speed were measured in all kinds of places, combined with the work attire and physical activity of employees in the places. Fanger thermal comfort equation and center for the built environment (CBE) thermal comfort calculation tool were used to evaluate the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) and standard effective temperature (SET) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 55-2020. The modification effects of seasonal and temperature control conditions on thermal comfort were analyzed. The consistency of GB 37488-2019 "Hygienic Indicators and Limits in Public Places" and ASHRAE 55-2020 evaluation results on thermal environment was compared. Results: The thermal sensation of hotel, barber shop staff and the gym front-desk staff were moderate, while the thermal sensation of swimming place lifeguard, bathing place cleaning staff and gym trainer were slightly warm in summer and winter. Waiting room (bus station) cleaning and working staff, shopping mall staff felt slightly warm in summer and moderate in winter. Service staff in bathing places felt slightly warm in winter, while staff in beauty salons felt slightly cool in winter. The thermal comfort compliance of hotel cleaning staff and shopping mall staff in summer was lower than that in winter (χ(2)=7.01, 7.22, P=0.008, 0.007). The thermal comfort compliance of shopping mall staff in the condition of air conditioning off was higher than that in the condition of air conditioning on (χ(2)=7.01, P=0.008). The SET values of front-desk staff in hotels with different health supervision levels were significantly different (F=3.30, P=0.024). The PPD value and SET value of the front-desk staff, and the PPD value of cleaning staff of hotels above three stars were lower than those of hotels below three stars (P<0.05). The thermal comfort compliance of front-desk staff and cleaning staff in hotels above three stars was higher than that in hotels below three stars (χ(2)=8.33, 8.09, P=0.016, 0.018). The consistency of the two criteria was highest among waiting room (bus station) staff (100.0%, 1/1) and lowest among gym front-desk staff (0%, 0/2) and waiting room (bus station) cleaning staff (0%, 0/1) . Conclusion: There are different degrees of thermal discomfort in different seasons, under the condition of air conditioning and health supervision, and the microclimate indicators can not fully reflect the thermal comfort of human body. The health supervision of microclimate should be strengthened, the applicability of health standard limit value should be evaluated in many aspects, and the thermal comfort of occupational group should be improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temperature , Cold Temperature , Air Conditioning , Wind , Seasons
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