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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(3): 119-122, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1363019

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Eagle está caracterizado por una elongación o una curvatura medial excesiva de la apófisis estiloides o por una calcificación del ligamento estilohioideo que puede provocar dolor cervicofacial o síntomas neurológicos por la compresión de los vasos o nervios del cuello. El tratamiento más eficaz es el quirúrgico y consiste en la resección de la apófisis estiloides; puede ser realizado por vía externa o mediante un abordaje transoral. Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente con síndrome de Eagle que fue tratado con éxito mediante un abordaje transoral, sin amigdalectomía y con asistencia de endoscopios. (AU)


Eagle syndrome is characterized by an elongation or excessive medial curvature of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament that can cause cervicofacial pain or neurological symptoms due to compression of the vessels or nerves of the neck. The most effective treatment is surgical and consists of resection of the styloid process, it can be performed by externally or through a transoral approach.The clinical case of a patient with Eagle syndrome who was successfully treated by a transoral approach, without tonsillectomy and with the assistance of endoscopes, is described. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Temporal Bone/surgery , Ossification, Heterotopic/surgery , Ossification, Heterotopic/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery
2.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(2): e056, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254595

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estudiar morfométricamente el complejo estilohioideo (CEH) mediante tomografía computarizada multicorte (TCM). Materiales y métodos: Investigación descriptiva, retrospectiva y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 238 estudios de TCM, pertenecientes a pacientes de ambos sexos con edades entre 20 y 87 años, con indicación de tomografía para el macizo craneofacial. Se realizó la medición de la longitud del CEH en vistas laterales de reconstrucciones volumétricas en 3D. Se obtuvo la distribución de estos casos de acuerdo con edad, sexo, lateralidad, tipo de osificación y motivo de indicación del examen. Resultados: La longitud media del CEH fue de 30,66 ± 10,58 mm. Del total de la muestra, 127 (53,4%) individuos mostraron un CEH elongado; de estos, un 63,8% fueron mujeres y un 64,6% de los pacientes presentó un compromiso bilateral del complejo. La mayoría de los sujetos con un CEH elongado tenían edades comprendidas entre 30 y 59 años. El tipo de osificación encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue del tipo I (elongación continua). En cuanto al motivo de indicación del examen, la mayoría de los pacientes fueron referidos para estudio de la articulación temporomandibular. Conclusiones: La TCM es una herramienta útil en la identificación y el estudio morfométrico de la osificación del CEH, tanto en su longitud como tipo. El examen de un CEH osificado es importante para el diagnóstico diferencial de dolor cervicofacial y disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular. (AU)


Objective: tomography (MCT). Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 238 MCT studies performed in patients of both sexes between 20 to 87 years of age, with indication of tomography of the craniofacial complex. The length of the SHC was measured in lateral views of 3D volumetric reconstructions. The distribution of these cases was obtained according to age, sex, laterality, type and the reason for the examination. Results: The mean length of the SHC was 30.66 ± 10.58 mm. Of the total sample, 127 (53.4%) individuals showed an elongated SHC; of these, 63.8% were women and 64.6% of the patients presented a bilateral compromise of the complex. Most of the subjects with an elongated SHC were between 30 and 59 years old. The type of ossification most frequently found was type I (continuous elongation). Regarding the reason for the examination, most of the individuals were referred for study of the temporomandibular joint. Conclusions: MCT is a useful tool for the identification and morphometric study of ossification of the SHC, both in length and type. Examination of an ossified SHC is important for the differential diagnosis of cervico-facial pain and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Temporal Bone , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Hyoid Bone , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e153-e157, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152048

ABSTRACT

La actinomicosis es una infección causada por un bacilo anaerobio Gram-positivo, filamentoso, ramificado, no esporulado. Integra la flora habitual de la orofaringe y coloniza transitoriamente el tracto gastrointestinal, genital femenino y el árbol bronquial. Es poco frecuente en el hueso temporal. Por su semejanza a un hongo, es difícil su reconocimiento, lo que hace necesaria la sospecha clínica para obtener los cultivos apropiados en condiciones anaeróbicas en forma prolongada. Los hallazgos microscópicos típicos incluyen necrosis con gránulos de azufre amarillento y la presencia de filamentos que se asemejan a infecciones fúngicas. El tratamiento requiere de elevadas y prolongadas dosis de antibiótico con penicilina o amoxicilina, entre 6 y 12 meses. La duración de la terapia antimicrobiana podría ser reducida en pacientes que han sido operados quirúrgicamente. Se presenta, a continuación, un caso clínico de actinomicosis en el hueso temporal en un paciente pediátrico que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico para su resolución.


Actinomycosis is an infection caused by a Gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacillus. Mainly belonging to the human commensal flora of the oropharynx, it normally colonizes the human digestive and genital tracts and the bronchial tree. It is slightly frequent in the temporal bone. Bacterial cultures and pathology are the cornerstone of diagnosis, but particular conditions are required in order to get the correct diagnosis. Prolonged bacterial cultures in anaerobic conditions are necessary to identify the bacterium and typical microscopic findings include necrosis with yellowish sulfur granules and filamentous Gram-positive fungal-like pathogens. Patients with actinomycosis require prolonged (6- to 12-month) high doses of penicillin G or amoxicillin, but the duration of antimicrobial therapy could probably be shortened in patients in whom optimal surgical resection of infected tissues has been performed. A pediatric patient with actinomycosis in temporal bone who needed surgery resolution is reported.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Temporal Bone , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/surgery , Actinomycosis/therapy , Mastoiditis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1676-1680, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134497

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke (FH) se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en laplaca timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad, denominándose como persistente su presencia a mayor edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura anatómica se presenta de manera escasa, debido a una muy baja presencia en poblaciones modernas, situación que cambia al estudiar poblaciones arqueológicas. El propósito de este estudio es describir la expresión del foramen de Huschke en una población arqueológica de Chile central. Fueron analizados 27 huesos temporales obtenidos de los restos óseos de la población del Monumento Arqueológico Cementerio Tutuquén, los cuales están depositados en el Museo Regional de Rancagua, Chile. Se evaluó presencia y ubicación del foramen, sexo, temporalidad y rango etáreo para cada muestra incluida. El FH se presentó en un 77,78% de los temporales, siendo 47,62% restos masculinos, 28,57% femeninos y 23,81% de sexo indeterminado. La totalidad de los restos de niños y subadultos presentaron FH, mientras que en adultos su expresión disminuye hasta un 68,42%. La ubicación fue un 38,10% en cuadrante inferomedial, 33,33% superolateral, 23,81% superomedial, 4,71% central. No se encontraron FH de ubicación inferolateral. El único temporal observable del período 10.000 AP (antes del presente, 1950) presentó FH, mientras que, en el período 7.000 AP se presentó en 6/7 temporales y en 14/19 temporales del período 1.000 AP. Los datos aportados complementan el conocimiento anatómico del proceso de osificación del hueso timpánico y la expresión de la dehiscencia timpánica como rasgo morfológico menor desde el estudio de poblaciones arqueológicas.


SUMMARY: The tympanic dehiscence or Foramen of Huschke (FH) is considered a transient minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone. Its expression is considered physiological until the age of five, and its presence is constant after that. This characteristic is seldom mentioned in anatomical literature since it is infrequent in modern populations. However, there is a difference when archaeological populations are studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the expression of the Huschke foramen in an archaeological population of central Chile. For this analysis, 27 temporal bones were obtained from human skeletal remains of the Tutuquén Cemetery Archaeological Monument. Presence and location of the foramen, sex, time period and age range were evaluated for each sample. The FH occurred in 77.78% of the temporal bones, with 47.62% male, 28.57% female and 23.81% of undetermined sex. All children and subadults presented FH, while in adults it decreased to 68.42%. The location was 38.10% in the inferomedial quadrant, 33.33 % superolateral, 23.81% superomedial, 4.71% central, and no FH was found at the inferolateral position. The only temporal bone identified in the 10,000 BP (before the present 1950) presented FH, while in the 7,000 BP period, it presented in 6/7 temporal bones and in the 1000 BP period, it was found in 14/ 19 temporal bones. The data provided complements anatomical knowledge of the tympanic bone ossification process, and in archaeological population studies, tympanic dehiscence presents as a lesser morphological characteristic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear Canal/anatomy & histology , Archaeology , Chile
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 820-824, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124860

ABSTRACT

The pterion is a topographic point on the lateral aspect of the skull where frontal, sphenoid, parietal and temporal bones form the H or K shaped suture. This is an important surgical point for the lesions in anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was performed on 50 dry skulls from Serbian adult individuals from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. The type of the pterion on both sides of each skull was determined and they are calcified in four types (sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric). The distance between the center of the pterion and defined anthropological landmarks were measured using the ImageJ software. Sphenoparietal type is predominant with 86 % in right side and 88 % in left side. In male skulls, the distance from the right pterion to the frontozygomatic suture is 39.89±3.85 mm and 39.67±4.61 mm from the left pterion to the frontozygomatic suture. In female skulls the distance is 37.38±6.38 mm on the right and 35.94±6.46 mm on the left. The shape and the localization of the pterion are important because it is an anatomical landmark and should be used in neurosurgery, traumatology and ophthalmology.


El pterion es un punto topográfico en la cara lateral del cráneo donde los huesos frontales, esfenoides, parietales y temporales forman la sutura en forma de H o K. Este es un punto quirúrgico importante para las lesiones en la fosa craneal anterior y media. Este estudio se realizó en 50 cráneos secos de adultos serbios del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de Novi Sad. Se determinó el tipo de pterión en ambos lados de cada cráneo y se calcifican en cuatro tipos (esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, estrellado y epipterico). La distancia entre el centro del pterion y los puntos de referencia antropológicos definidos se midió utilizando el software ImageJ. El tipo esfenoparietal es predominante con 86 % en el lado derecho y 88 % en el lado izquierdo. En los cráneos masculinos, la distancia desde el pterion derecho hasta la sutura frontocigomática es 39,89 ± 3,85 mm y 39,67 ± 4,61 mm desde el pterion izquierdo hasta la sutura frontocigomática. En los cráneos femeninos, la distancia es 37,38 ± 6,38 mm a la derecha y 35,94 ± 6,46 mm a la izquierda. La forma y la localización del pterion son importantes debido a que es un indicador anatómico y debe usarse en neurocirugía, traumatología y oftalmología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Serbia
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 997-1002, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124888

ABSTRACT

La comprensión de la anatomía humana y especialmente de algunos órganos muy pequeños como es el oído medio e interno, resulta desafiante debido a su compleja estructura tridimensional. Construir conocimiento en la comprensión de la Anatomía del oído medio e interno humano, a partir del experimento de disección y modelación 3D. Con imágenes DICOM de una tomografía axial computarizada del oído humano convertidas a un modelo 3D (Mimics) y disecciones cadavéricas del hueso temporal, se diseñaron las estructuras óseas y blandas del oído externo, medio e interno mediante la implementación de software de modelado orgánico. Creación de un protocolo operativo estándar, modelado 3D de oído medio e interno e impresión 3D de las estructuras, diferenciando por color cada una de ellas. La experimentación, en este caso, la disección y modelación de las piezas anatómicas fue fundamental en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de esta área de las ciencias, permitiendo que se construya conocimiento a partir de la búsqueda de información, observación, análisis y reflexión. Los estudiantes manifestaron fascinación y aprendizaje profundo en la práctica realizada. La construcción de modelos explicativos en torno a la experimentación cualitativa permite comprender a profundidad los diferentes fenómenos. La actividad experimental, supera la demostración y facilita la confrontación de pensamiento, los estudiantes a través de esta actividad comprendieron a profundidad la anatomía del oído medio e interno, han adquirido destrezas quirúrgicas, han propuesto y analizado proyectos que les ha permitido participar eventos académicos, adquiriendo competencias como el uso comprensivo del conocimiento científico.


Understanding human anatomy, and especially some very small organs such as the middle and inner ear, is challenging due to their complex three-dimensional structure. To build knowledge in understanding of anatomy, of the human inner and middle ear, from the 3D modeling and dissection experiment. Using DICOM images from a computerized axial tomography of the human ear converted to a 3D model (Mimics) and cadaveric dissections of the temporal bone, the bony and soft structures of the external, middle, and internal ear were designed, using organic modeling software. A standard operating protocol, 3D modeling of the middle and inner ear and 3D printing of the structures was created, differentiating each one by color. In this case, the dissection and modeling of the anatomical pieces was fundamental in the teaching and learning of this area of science, allowing expanded knowledge from the search for information, observation, analysis and reflection. The students showed fascination and deep learning in the practice carried out. The construction of explanatory models around qualitative experimentation allows an in-depth understanding of the different phenomena. The experimental activity overcomes the demonstration and facilitates thought process. The students achieve and in depth understanding of the middle and inner ear anatomy, acquired surgical skills, proposed and analyzed projects that allowed them to participate in academic event. They have also acquired additional skills, such as the comprehensive use of scientific knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dissection/education , Education, Medical/methods , Anatomy/education , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Printing, Three-Dimensional
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892

ABSTRACT

The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.


El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 451-454, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024494

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The anatomy of the temporal bone is complex due to the large number of structures and functions grouped in this small bone space, which do not exist in any other region in the human body. With the difficulty of obtaining anatomical parts and the increasing number of ear, nose and throat (ENT) doctors, there was a need to create alternatives as real as possible for training otologic surgeons. Objective: Developing a technique to produce temporal bone models that allow them to maintain the external and internal anatomical features faithful to the natural bone. Methods: For this study, we used a computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones of a 30-year-old male patient, with no structural morphological changes or any other pathology detected in the examination, which was later sent to a 3D printer in order to produce a temporal bone biomodel. Results: After dissection, the lead author evaluated the plasticity of the part and its similarity in drilling a natural bone as grade "4" on a scale of 0 to 5, in which 5 is the closest to the natural bone and 0 the farthest from the natural bone. All structures proposed in the method were found with the proposed color. Conclusion: It is concluded that it is feasible to use biomodels in surgical training of specialist doctors. After dissection of the bone biomodel, it was possible to find the anatomical structures proposed, and to reproduce the surgical approaches most used in surgical practice and training implants (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Temporal Bone/surgery , Computer Simulation , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Otologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Education, Medical , Simulation Training
9.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(4): 180-187, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152268

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hueso temporal es una estructura valiosa en el abordaje de patologías intracraneales a la fosa media y posterior, requiriendo en ocasiones la realización de petrosectomías anteriores, posteriores o abordajes combinados para la resección de tumores en dichas regiones. El propósito del presente estudio es realizar análisis morfométrico con enfoque quirúrgico del hueso temporal, en cráneos adultos, con énfasis en el tubérculo suprameatal (TSM) teniendo en consideración sus relaciones anatómicas. Material y métodos: El presente estudio se realizó en las instalaciones de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Se analizaron 200 huesos temporales de 100 cráneos humanos adultos. Se dio énfasis al TSM de acuerdo a su ubicación y tamaño, clasificándolo en: anterior medio o posterior y en tipo I (0-1 mm), tipo II (2-3 mm) y tipo III (>3 mm). Además, se realizaron mediciones con enfoque quirúrgico de la porción petrosa del hueso temporal y de la cresta supramastoidea. Resultados: El TSM se observó en 171 especímenes estudiados (85.5%). Entre ellos, la posición posterior fue la más frecuente 85 de 171 (49.70%), seguida de la posición media 43 (25.14%) y por último la posición anterior 43 (25.14%). En cuanto al tamaño, se encontró con mayor frecuencia el tipo II en 99 de los especímenes (49.5%), el tipo I en 82 especímenes (41%) y tipo III en 19 (9.5%). El asterion se reflejó dentro de la impresión de los senos en la mayoría 48.5%, la unión de la cresta supramastoidea con sutura escamosa se reflejaba en 98.5% de los casos a la fosa media. Discusión: En nuestra búsqueda de información no se cuenta con datos para realizar comparación con la obtenida en este estudio del tubérculo suprameatal, el hallazgo encontrado parece indicar que se encuentra una relación directa con la presencia de la impresión del surco del seno petroso superior. La distribución de acuerdo a su posición reviste importancia cuando se encuentra en grado III puesto que plantea una dificultad técnica, en abordajes como en petrosectomías, o bien, al cavum de Meckel desde un abordaje retrosigmoideo. Conclusión: La observación anatómica y clasificación que realizamos del tubérculo suprameatal, una estructura muy poco evaluada, nos da una consideración preoperatoria y transoperatoria cuando realizamos abordaje que involucra la cara posterior de la porción petrosa del hueso temporal


Introduction: The temporal bone is a valuable structure in the approach of intracranial pathologies to the middle and posterior fossa. Sometimes requiring the performance of petrosectomies or combined approaches for the resection of tumors in these regions. The purpose of this study is to perform morphometric analysis in adult skulls with a surgical approach to the temporal bone, with emphasis on the suprameatal tubercle (SMT) taking into account their anatomical relationships. Material and methods: The present study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). 200 temporal bones from 100 adult human skulls were analyzed. The SMT was emphasized according to its location and size, classifying it as: anterior, middle, or posterior and type I (0-1 mm), type II (2-3 mm) and type III (> 3mm). In addition, measurements were made with a surgical approach of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone and the supramastoid crest. Results: The SMT was observed in 171 specimens studied (85.5%). Among them, the posterior position was the most frequent 85 of 171 (49.70%), followed by the middle position in 43 (25.14%) and finally the anterior position in 43 (25.14%). In terms of size, type II was more frequently found in 99 of the specimens (49.5%), type I in 82 specimens (41%) and type III were found in 19 (9.5%). The asterion was reflected within the impression of the sinuses in the majority 48.5%, the union of the supramastoid crest with squamous suture was reflected in 98.5% of the cases to the middle fossa.Discussion: In our search for information, there is no data to make a comparison with that obtained in this study of the suprameatal tubercle. The findings seems to indicate that there is a direct relationship with the presence of the impression of the groove of the upper petrosal sinus. The distribution according to its position is important when it is in grade III since it poses a technical difficulty, in approaches such as petrosectomies, or approach to Meckel's cave from a retrosigmoid approach. Conclusion: The anatomical observation and classification that we perform of the suprameatal tubercle, a very poorly evaluated structure, gives us a preoperative and transoperative consideration when we perform an approach that involves the posterior aspect of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone


Subject(s)
Temporal Bone , Skull , Bone and Bones
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 311-316, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Sigmoid sinus (SS) variations have been classified variously in the literature. These classifications suffer from some form of shortcoming from a clinical point of view for their application. Objective We propose a clinically relevant classification of the SS in relation to the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) and to the exposure of the presigmoid dural plate. The positioning of the SS was analyzed with reference to the volume of themastoid and to the level of mastoid pneumatization. Methods A total of 94 formalin-preserved human cadaveric temporal bones were microdissected to carry out a complete mastoidectomy. The SS, the presigmoid dural plate, and the PSCCwere exposed, and the position of the former was analyzed in relation to the latter two in order to classify the position of the SS into three grades. Results GradeI hadthebest exposureof the presigmoid dura andof the PSCC,while grade III had the poorest exposure of the presigmoid dura and of the PSCC. Grade I SS was associated with good pneumatization and highermastoid volumescompared with grades II and III. Conclusions The SS exhibits considerable anatomic variability. A favorable positioning of the SS is associated with a large mastoid volume and pneumatization. A careful preoperative study of the imaging may help in understanding the positioning of the SS and the safety of various transmastoid approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Mastoid/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Semicircular Canals/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Mastoidectomy
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 281-291, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posterior tympanotomy through facial recess (FR) is the conventional and most preferred approach to facilitate cochlear implantation, especially when the electrode is inserted through the round window. The complications of the FR approach can be minimized by proper understanding of the anatomy of the FR. Objective The present study was undertaken to assess the various parameters of FR and round window visibility, which may be of relevance for cochlear implant surgery. Methods Thirty-five normal wet human cadaveric temporal bones were studied by dissection for anatomy of FR and posterior tympanum. Photographs were taken with an 18megapixels digital camera, which were then imported to a computer to determine various parameters. Results The mean distance from the take-off point/crotch of the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) to the stylomastoid foramen was 4.08 ± 0.8 mm(range of 2.06 - 5.5mm). The variations in the course of the CTN included origin at the level of the lateral semicircular canal. Themean chorda-facial angle in our study was 26.91° ± 1.19°, with a range of 25° to 28.69°. The mean FR length ranged between 9.4 mm and 18.56 mm (mean of 12.41 ± 2.91mm) and varied with the origin of the CTN and pneumatization of temporal bone. The average maximum width of the FR was 2.93 ± 0.4 mm (range 2.24-3.45 mm) and the mean width of the FR at the level of the round window was 2.65 ± 0.41 mm. Conclusion The FR approach provides good access to the round windowmembrane in all cases. In some cases, table adjustment is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Round Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Implantation , Facial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Tympanic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Chorda Tympani Nerve/anatomy & histology , Dissection
13.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(3): 336-340, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058705

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Un síndrome caracterizado por dolor cervical y un apófisis estiloides alargado fue descrito por primera vez por Watt Eagle en 1937. Aunque el síndrome de Eagle en su variante vascular es raro y no es reconocido como causa clara de disección carotídea, en los últimos años ha sido reportado un incremento del número de casos de disección carotídea causada por una apófisis estiloides alargada. Paciente de 56 años que acudió al servicio de urgencias por paresia facial izquierda aguda y habla confusa. Presentaba dolor cervical de dos días de evolución, relacionado con un ataque de tos. Se activó el código ictus y la tomografía computarizada (TC) mostró isquemia del lóbulo temporal derecho y disección bilateral de la arteria carótida interna. La angio-TC de los troncos supraaórticos con reconstrucción tridimensional, identificó una apófisis estiloides alargado en ambos lados. El paciente fue sometido a una angioplastía con colocación de dos stents. Debido al alto riesgo de padecer nuevo ictus, se decidió realizar tratamiento quirúrgico. Para el lado derecho se realizó un abordaje transoral y en el izquierdo un abordaje abierto. La apófisis estiloides alargado es una causa importante de disección carotídea y de las complicaciones cerebrovasculares relacionadas.


ABSTRACT A syndrome characterized by cervical pain and an abnormally elongated styloid process was first described by Watt Eagle in 1937. Even though vascular Eagle syndrome is uncommon and is not well recognized as a cause for carotid artery dissection, in the last few years there have been an increasing number of case reports of carotid artery dissection caused by an elongated styloid process. A 56 years old man presented to the emergency department with acute left facial weakness and slurred speech. He complained of two days neck pain, related to a coughing fit. The code stroke protocol was activated and imaging showed a right temporal bone stroke and a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. A scan angiography of the supra-aortic vessels with 3D reconstruction was performed showing a bilateral abnormally elongated styloid process. The patient underwent angioplasty with two stent placements. Due to the high risk of recurrent strokes, the patient was evaluated in the otolaryngology department for styloid process resection. Finally a transoral approach for the right side and an open approach for the left side were performed. We have to consider an elongated styloid process as an important cause of carotid artery dissection and subsequent cerebrovascular complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ossification, Heterotopic/complications , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/therapy , Stroke/etiology , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Angioplasty , Neck Pain/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 435-446, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019586

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Various aspects of the round window anatomy and anatomy of posterior tympanum have relevant implications for designing cochlear implant electrodes and visualizing the round window through facial recess. Preoperative information about possible anatomical variations of the round window and its relationships to the adjacent neurovascular structures can help reduce complications in cochlear implant surgery. Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the common variations in round window anatomy and the relationships to structures of the tympanum that may be relevant for cochlear implant surgery. Methods: Thirty-five normal wet human cadaveric temporal bones were studied by dissection for anatomy of round window and its relation to facial nerve, carotid canal, jugular fossa and other structures of posterior tympanum. The dissected bones were photographed by a digital camera of 18 megapixels, which were then imported to a computer to determine various parameters using ScopyDoc 8.0.0.22 version software, after proper calibration and at 1× magnification. Results: When the round window niche is placed posteriorly and inferiorly, the distance between round window and vertical facial nerve decreases, whereas that with horizontal facial nerve increases. In such cases, the distance between oval window and round window also increases. Maximum height of the round window in our study ranged from 0.51-1.27 mm (mean of 0.69 ± 0.25 mm). Maximum width of round window ranged from 0.51 to 2.04 mm (mean of 1.16 ± 0.47 mm). Average minimum distance between round window and carotid canal was 3.71 ± 0.88 mm (range of 2.79-5.34 mm) and that between round window and jugular fossa was 2.47 ± 0.9 mm (range of 1.24-4.3 mm). Conclusion: The distances from the round window to the oval window and facial nerve are important parameters in identifying a difficult round window niche. Modification of the electrode may be a better option than drilling off the round window margins for insertion of cochlear implant electrodes.


Resumo Introdução: Vários aspectos da anatomia da janela redonda e da anatomia da caixa timpânica posterior são relevantes, devido a suas implicações no desenho dos eletrodos para o implante coclear e na visibilidade da janela redonda através do recesso facial. Informações prévias sobre possíveis variações anatômicas da janela redonda e suas relações com as estruturas neurovasculares adjacentes podem ajudar a reduzir as complicações dessa cirurgia. Objetivo: O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar as diversas variações da anatomia da janela redonda e sua relação com as estruturas adjacentes, o que pode ser relevante para a cirurgia de implante coclear. Método: Trinta e cinco ossos temporais normais de cadáveres humanos frescos foram dissecados para avaliação da anatomia da janela redonda e sua relação com o nervo facial, canal carotídeo, fossa jugular e outras estruturas da caixa timpânica posterior. Os ossos dissecados foram fotografados com uma câmera digital de 18 megapixels e as imagens importadas para um computador para determinar diversos parâmetros, utilizando-se o software ScopyDoc versão 8.0.0.22, após a calibração adequada e com ampliação de 1×. Resultados: Quando o nicho da janela redonda se encontra posicionado posteriormente e inferiormente, a distância entre a janela redonda e o nervo facial vertical diminui, enquanto aquela com o nervo facial horizontal aumenta. Em tais casos, a distância entre a janela oval e a janela redonda também aumenta. A altura máxima da janela redonda em nosso estudo variou de 0,51 a 1,27 mm (média de 0,69 ± 0,25 mm). A largura máxima da janela redonda variou de 0,51 a 2,04 mm (média de 1,16 a 0,47 mm). A distância mínima média entre a janela redonda e o canal carotídeo foi de 3,71 ± 0,88 mm (variação de 2,79 a 5,34 mm) e entre a janela redonda e a fossa jugular, em nosso estudo, foi de 2,47 ± 0,9 mm (variação de 1,24 ± 4,3 mm). Conclusão: A distância da janela redonda a partir da janela oval e do nervo facial são parâmetros importantes para a identificação do difícil nicho da janela redonda. A modificação do desenho do eletrodo pode ser uma opção melhor do que o broqueamento das margens da janela redonda para a inserção dos eletrodos no implante coclear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Round Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Tympanic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Oval Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Implantation , Dissection , Facial Nerve/anatomy & histology
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(2): 82-90, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177680

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desarrollar y potenciar las habilidades neuroquirúrgicas que se requieren en la disección del hueso temporal aplicado a la realización de abordajes quirúrgicos transtemporales, a través de modelos de bajo costo y aplicación sencilla. Materiales y métodos: Trabajamos sobre huesos temporales secos, con insumos hospitalarios descartables y con materiales básicos obtenidos en ferreterías. Se identificaron con silicona y teflón coloreados con acrílico, estructuras vasculares y nerviosas que forman los principales reparos anatómicos y se utiliza material sintético de látex adherido a la superficie endocraneal para recrear duramadre. Realizamos un estudio exhaustivo del hueso temporal con las diferentes estructuras anatómicas íntimamente relacionadas con él, abordándolo desde diferentes vistas. Una vez familiarizados con la anatomía, se ensayan abordajes neuroquirúrgicos y disecciones anatómicas profundizando el conocimiento sobre las estructuras relevantes no visibles previa a la disección. Discusión: En la formación neuroquirúrgica no solo importa el conocimiento teórico, sino que se requiere praxis eficaz aplicada al mismo y se logra sólo a través de auténticas experiencias, la cual da al practicante, la oportunidad de ensayar aspectos de un abordaje para lograr competencia previa a su aplicación en el paciente. Conclusión: El residente puede utilizar esta técnica de fácil acceso y bajo costo para realzar su experiencia de aprendizaje anatómico y fresado de huesos temporales y así poder discutir aspectos y ensayar un abordaje previo a una cirugía.


Introduction: Develop and enhance the neurosurgical skills required for temporal bone drilling applied to transtemporal surgical approaches through low cost and simple application models. Materials and methods: We worked on dry temporal bones with disposable hospital supplies and basic materials obtained in hardware stores. Vascular and nervous structures that form the main anatomical structures are identified with silicone and Teflon colored with acrylic and synthetic latex material is attached to the endocranial surface to recreate the dura mater. We carried out an exhaustive study of the temporal bone with the different anatomical structures intimately related to it, approaching it from different views. Once familiarized with the anatomy, neurosurgical approaches and anatomical dissections are practiced, increasing the understanding of the relevant structures not visible prior to dissection. Discussion: During neurosurgical training theoretical knowledge is not the only domain that matters, rather effective praxis applied to i t is needed and achieved only through authentic experiences, which gives the practitioner the opportunity to examine aspects of an approach in order to achieve expertise prior to its application to the patient. Conclusion: The resident can use this accessible and low cost technique to enhance their experience in anatomical learning and temporal b ones drilling and therefore, be able to discuss certain aspects and practice an approach prior to surgery.


Subject(s)
Temporal Bone , General Surgery , Low Cost Technology , Dissection
16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 11-18, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990058

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La condromatosis sinovial (CS), es una lesión benigna poco frecuente y de clínica bastante inespecífica. Suele afectar articulaciones de huesos largos como la rodilla, el codo y la cadera, presentándose generalmente de manera unilateral. Se cree que solo un 3 % de los casos de CS afecta la articulación temporomandibular. Esta condición se caracteriza por ser un trastorno metaplásico del tejido conectivo sinovial que suele manifestarse con la formación de pequeños y múltiples nódulos de cartílago que posteriormente pueden desprenderse, calcificarse y formar cuerpos libres dentro del espacio articular. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 55 años con condromatosis sinovial de la articulación temporomandibular, tratada desde hace 3 años bajo el diagnóstico de desórdenes temporomandibulares. A pesar de ser considerada una lesión de tipo benigna, esta puede llegar a ser localmente agresiva, extendiéndose como en nuestro reporte hacia la fosa craneal media, adelgazando parte del hueso temporal.


ABSTRACT: Synovial chondromatosis (CS) is a benign lesion that is rare and clinically quite nonspecific. It usually affects the joints of long bones such as the knee, elbow and hip, usually occurring unilaterally. It is believed that in only 3 % of cases of CS the temporomandibular joint. This is a condition its characterized by being a metaplastic synovial connective tissue that manifests itself with the formation of small and multiple cartridges that detach, calcify and form free bodies within the joint space. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint, treated for 3 years under the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Despite being considered a benign lesion, this can become locally aggressive, extending as in our report to the cranial fossa, thinning part of the temporal bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/pathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/pathology , Chondromatosis, Synovial/surgery , Chondromatosis, Synovial/pathology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Calcinosis/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/surgery , Chondromatosis, Synovial/complications , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 137-141, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010196

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Preoperative temporal bone imaging studies have been routinely performed prior to cochlear implantation. Radiologists need to report these examinations with special focus on the surgeon's expectations. Objectives: To provide a basic structured format, in the form of a checklist, for reporting preoperative computed tomography (CT) and to its clinical impact on operative findings. Methods: The preoperative temporal bone CT scans of 47 patients were analyzed and reported according to the proposed checklist. Intraoperative assessment of mastoidectomy, posterior tympanotomy and round window access was done by the surgeon in a blinded fashion and were correlated with the radiological findings to assess its significance. Results: The proposed radiological checklist was reliable in assessing operative difficulty during cochlear implantation. Contracted mastoid and lower tegmen position were associated with a greater difficulty of the cortical mastoidectomy. Presence of an air cell around the facial nerve (FN) was predictive of easier facial recess access exposure. Facial nerve location and posterior external auditory canal (EAC) wall inclination were predictive of difficult round window (RW) accessibility. Conclusion: Certain parameters on the preoperative temporal bone CT scan may be useful in predicting potential difficulties encountered during the key steps involved in cochlear implant surgery (AU)


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Preoperative Care , Cochlear Implantation , Round Window, Ear/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Ear/diagnostic imaging , Checklist
18.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 184-190, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The cochlear anatomy varies in each individual, and that has an impact on decisions regarding the insertion of electrodes. The measurement of the cochlear size is the routine examination required to choose the proper cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. Objective: To acquire normative data on the size of the cochlea (length, width, height, scala timpani [ST] height, cochlear duct length [CDL]) of CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) temporal bone data and on HRCT temporal data manipulated to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar images with OsiriX MD DICOM Viewer version 9.5.1 (Pixmeo SARL, Bernex, Geneva, Switzerland) viewer of 18 patients (36 ears) who were CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia, in order to determine cochlear length (A), cochlear width, cochlear height, ST height and CDL, calculated through a simple mathematical function. Results: The average cochlear length (A) was 8.75 mm (standard deviation [SD] = 0.31 mm); the average cochlear width was 6.53 mm (SD = 0.35 mm); the average cochlear height was 3.26 mm (SD = 0.24 mm) and the average ST height at the basal cochlea was 1.00 mm (SD = 0.1mm); and 0.71 mm (SD = 0.1 mm) at the half turn of cochlea. The average total CDL was 32.45 mm (SD = 1.31 mm; range: 30.01-34.83 mm). Conclusion: The cochlear size varies in each individual; therefore, the temporal bone measurement of CI candidates using HRCT is essential: for the selection of suitable implant electrodes; to minimize cochlear damages at the insertion of the electrode arrays; and to maximize the hearing improvements (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Duct/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cochlear Implantation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Facial nerve stimulation (FNS) is a complication of cochlear implantation (CI). This study compared the thickness and density of the bone separating the upper basal turn of the cochlea (UBTC) and the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve (LSFN) on preoperative computed tomography (CT) in patients with and without FNS after CI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adult patients who underwent CI from January 2011 to February 2017 with preoperative CT at a tertiary referral hospital were considered for this retrospective case–control study. Patients were divided into two groups: with FNS (n=4) and without FNS (n=53). The density and thickness of the bone between the LSFN and UBTC were measured on preoperative CT. Charts were reviewed for other parameters. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was seen in the thickness (p=0.007) but not in the density (p=0.125) of the bone between the UBTC and LSFN. Four patients had FNS at the mid-range electrode arrays, and one of them additionally had FNS at the basal arrays. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased thickness of the bone between the UBTC and LSFN can explain postoperative FNS, confirming the histologic and radiologic findings in previous studies, which indicated that the thickness of the temporal bone between the LSFN and UBTC is less in patients who experience FNS. While the density in this region was also less, it was not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cochlea , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Electric Stimulation , Electrodes , Facial Nerve , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temporal bone fracture (TBF) is a common occurrence in cases of head trauma. Although the incidence of temporal bone concussion (TBC) has increased in cases of head trauma, it has not been extensively studied. We assessed the characteristics of TBF and TBC in patients with head trauma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 432 patients with head injury who visited our hospital between January 2011 and April 2016. Of these patients, 211 who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Their clinical characteristics, causes of injury, and hearing function were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 211 patients, 157 had TBFs and 54 had TBCs. Ear symptoms were more common among patients with TBF than among those with TBC. Car accidents were the most common cause of both TBF and TBC, but assault and sports injuries were more common among patients with TBC than among those with TBF. The occurrence of facial palsy in both cases of TBF and TBC. Hearing loss was observed among 35 patients with TBF and 11 patients with TBC. However, patients with TBF showed conductive hearing loss with an air-bone gap. Hearing function of these patients with TBF recovered with a reduced air-bone gap, but the patients with TBC showed little recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency physicians should focus more on temporal bone injury in patients with head trauma. Therefore, an early complete diagnostic battery, which includes high-resolution computed tomography, audiometric tests, neurologic examination, and vestibular tests, be performed in patients with head trauma.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Craniocerebral Trauma , Ear , Emergencies , Facial Paralysis , Head , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Conductive , Humans , Incidence , Neurologic Examination , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone
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