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Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1666-1672, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528798


SUMMARY: The temporal bone is a complicate structure which located on the lateral skull. The objective of the present study was to determine the temporal bone air spaces' morphometry, morphology, and pneumatization in Turkish healthy adult people. This retrospective observational study was carried out from 82 subjects (47 males, 35 females) aged 18-69 years. The external auditory canal and related structures' diameters and the volume of these areas were evaluated. The means and standard deviations of the Meatus acusticus externus length (MAEL), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea length (MAEcL), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea length (MAEoL), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea surface (MAEcS), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea surface (MAEoS), meatus acusticus externus volume (MAEV), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea volume (MAEcV), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea volume (MAEoV), processus mastoideus air cells volume (PMACV), cavum tympani volume (CTV), and temporale pneumatic spaces volume (OTPSV) were found as 23.21±3.70 mm, 12.69±3.72 mm, 7.80±3.70 mm, 669.89±107.7 mm2, 267.50±30.51 mm2, 743.50±119.6 mm3, 971.97±156.69 mm3, 419.51±48.67 mm3, 5915.93±650.34 mm3, 673.48±91.93 mm3, 7813.34±717.49 mm3 have found in 82 subjects, respectively. In this paper, the morphometric and volume properties of the temporal bone cavities measurements were significantly higher in males than females. These results may both provide reference values of Turkish healthy population, and lead to decrease potential surgical complications about temporal and mastoid regions.

El hueso temporal es una compleja estructura ubicada en el parte lateral del cráneo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la morfometría, morfología y neumatización de los espacios aéreos del hueso temporal en individuos adultos turcos sanos. Este estudio observacional retrospectivo que se llevó a cabo en 82 sujetos (47 hombres, 35 mujeres) de entre 18 y 69 años. Se evaluaron los diámetros del meato acústico externo y las estructuras relacionadas y el volumen de estas áreas. Las medias y las desviaciones estándar de la longitud del meato acústico externo (MAEL), la longitud de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcL), la longitud de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoL), la superficie de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcS), la superficie de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoS), volumen del meato acústico externo (MAEV), volumen de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcV), volumen de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoV), volumen de las células aéreas del proceso mastoideo (PMACV), volumen del cavum tympani (CTV) y el volumen de los espacios neumáticos temporales (OTPSV) se encontró como 23,21 ± 3,70 mm, 12,69 ± 3,72 mm, 7,80 ± 3,70 mm, 669,89 ± 107,7 mm2, 267,50 ± 30,51 mm2, 743,50 ± 119,6 mm3, 971,97 ± 156,69 mm3, 419,5. 1±48,67 mm3, 5915,93 ± 650,34 mm3, 673,48 ± 91,93 mm3, 7813,34 ± 717,49 mm3, respectivamente. En este artículo, las propiedades morfométricas y de volumen de las mediciones de las cavidades del hueso temporal fueron significativamente mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Estos resultados pueden proporcionar valores de referencia de la población sana turca y conducir a una disminución de las posibles complicaciones quirúrgicas en las regiones temporal y mastoidea.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Retrospective Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography
RFO UPF ; 28(1)20230808. ilus
Article in Portuguese | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526601


Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como propósito fornecer uma análise abrangente das características anatômicas, clínicas e radiográficas da Síndrome de Eagle, além de abordar os métodos de diagnóstico e estratégias terapêuticas. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma busca por artigos científicos publicados no período de 2016 a 2024, utilizando as bases de dados Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), US National Library of Medicine (PubMed) e Google Scholar. A coleta de artigos foi realizada nos idiomas inglês e português, utilizando as palavras-chave: "síndrome de eagle", "síndrome estiloide", "síndrome da artéria carótida", "estilalgia", "eagle syndrome", "styloid syndrome", "carotid artery syndrome" e "stylalgia". Conclusão: Os profissionais devem estar atentos à síndrome de Eagle em casos de dor unilateral ao realizar atividades como engolir, bocejar e chorar, sem causa aparente, especialmente em mulheres adultas que não encontram alívio com analgésicos. Devido à frequência de casos assintomáticos, a realização precoce de exames radiológicos desempenha um papel crucial na avaliação diagnóstica. É essencial que profissionais de Otorrinolaringologia, Neurologia e Odontologia estejam cientes dessa síndrome, pois está associada a uma significativa deterioração na qualidade de vida. (AU)

Objective: This work aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the anatomical, clinical and radiographic characteristics of Eagle Syndrome, in addition to addressing diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies. Materials and methods: A search was carried out for scientific articles published between 2016 and 2024, using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), US National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Google Scholar databases. Articles were collected in English and Portuguese, using the keywords: "eagle syndrome", "styloid syndrome", "carotid artery syndrome", "stilalgia", "eagle syndrome", "styloid syndrome", "carotid artery syndrome" and "stylalgia". Conclusion: Professionals should be aware of Eagle syndrome in cases of unilateral pain when performing activities such as swallowing, yawning and crying, without an apparent cause, especially in adult women who do not find relief with analgesics. Due to the frequency of asymptomatic cases, early radiological examinations play a crucial role in diagnostic evaluation. It is essential that Otorhinolaryngology, Neurology and Dentistry professionals are aware of this syndrome, as it is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. (AU)

Humans , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Ossification, Heterotopic/diagnosis , Ossification, Heterotopic/therapy , Radiography, Panoramic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 65-65, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984280


@#A 23-year-old male motorcyclist experienced blunt head trauma with loss of consciousness, headache and vomiting, epistaxis and right otorrhagia after a collision with a motor vehicle. Fractures involving the right parietal and temporal bones, as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage were identified on a cranial and facial CT scan. On independent evaluation of the imaging study, a subtle but distinct fracture line in the skull base involving the petrous carotid canal was identified. (Figure 1) The patient subsequently underwent CT angiography to evaluate for any injury to the internal carotid artery. In this examination, good opacification of the internal carotid arteries and their branches was noted, with no evident aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula formation. In patients with temporal bone fractures, the most commonly encountered complications are: tympano-ossicular injury causing conductive hearing loss, cochlear or vestibular injury causing sensorineural hearing loss or vertigo, facial nerve trauma causing facial paralysis, and fractures of the tegmen or posterior cranial fossa plate causing cerebrospinal fluid leaks.1 On the other hand, injury to the intratemporal portion of the internal carotid artery has been described as a rare complication and as such may be overlooked.1 However, its potentially devastating and life-threatening sequelae necessitates a purposeful and intentional evaluation for its presence. These sequelae include brain ischemia from arterial dissection or complete vascular occlusion, exsanguinating epistaxis or otorrhagia from carotid pseudoaneurysms, and the formation of carotid-cavernous fistulas.2 The incidence of involvement of the carotid canal in skull base fractures has been reported to be around 24%, with around 11% of this group developing internal carotid artery injuries.3 As such, the presence of fractures involving the petrous carotid canal is an indication for CT or MR angiography to further evaluate the internal carotid artery.

Temporal Bone , Carotid Artery, Internal
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 469-472, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982769


Objective:To analyze the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patients with rare malignant tumors of the temporal bone. Methods:Four cases of rare temporal bone malignant tumors in our hospital between March 2014 and December 2020 were reviewed, including two cases of chondrosarcoma, one case of fibrosarcoma and one case of endolymphatic cystic papillary adenocarcinoma. There were three males and one female, ages between 28 and 56 years at the time of surgery. Common symptoms included hearing loss, facioplegia, tinnitus, and headache. All patients underwent imaging examinations to evaluate the extent of the lesions. Tumors were removed by subtotal temporal bone resection or infratemporal fossa approach, and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was applied if necessary. Results:One of the two chondrosarcoma patients was cured by complete resection of the tumor for 75 months, the other one recurred after the first excision of the tumor and underwent infratemporal fossa approach resection of skull base mass again with no recurrence found yet for 112 months. One patient with fibrosarcoma survived for 28 months after surgery with a positive margin and post-operative radiotherapy. One patient with endolymphatic cystic papillary adenocarcinoma recurred 12 months after subtotal lithotomy, and underwent subtotal temporal bone resection again, combined with radiotherapy. No recurrence was found for 63 months. Conclusion:The incidence of rare temporal bone malignant tumors is extremely low, the location is hidden, and the symptoms are atypical. Attention should be paid for early detection and early treatment. Surgical resection is the main treatment, and radiotherapy can be supplemented in the advanced stage or with a positive margin.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chondrosarcoma/surgery , Fibrosarcoma , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery , Temporal Bone/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 452-459, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986913


Objective: To explore the imaging evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea associated with inner ear malformation (IEM) in children. Methods: The clinical data of 28 children with CSF otorrhea associated with IEM confirmed by surgical exploration in Beijing Children's Hospital, from Nov, 2016 to Jan, 2021, were analyzed retrospectively,including 16 boys and 12 girls, aged from 8-month to 15-year and 8-month old, with a median age of 4-year old. The shapes of stapes were observed during the exploration surgery, and the imaging features of temporal bone high resolution CT(HRCT) and inner ear MRI pre- and post-operation were analyzed. Results: In 28 children with CSF otorrhea, 89.3%(25/28) had stapes footplates defect during exploration. Preoperative CT showed indirect signs such as IEM, tympanic membrane bulging, soft tissue in the tympanum and mastoid cavity. IEM included four kinds: incomplete partition type I (IP-Ⅰ), common cavity (CC), incomplete partition type Ⅱ (IP-Ⅱ), and cochlear aplasia (CA); 100%(28/28) presented with vestibule dilation; 85.7%(24/28) with a defect in the lamina cribrosa of the internal auditory canal. The direct diagnostic sign of CSF otorrrhea could be seen in 73.9%(17/23) pre-operative MRI: two T2-weighted hyperintense signals between vestibule and middle ear cavity were connected by slightly lower or mixed intense T2-weighted signals, and obvious in the coronal-plane; 100%(23/23) hyperintense T2-weighted signals in the tympanum connected with those in the Eustachian tube.In post-operative CT, the soft tissues in the tympanum and mastoid cavity decreased or disappeared as early as one week. In post-operative MRI, the hyperintense T2-weighted signals of tympanum and mastoid decreased or disappeared in 3 days to 1 month,soft tissues tamponade with moderate intense T2-weighted signal were seen in the vestibule in 1-4 months. Conclusions: IP-Ⅰ, CC, IP-Ⅱ and CA with dilated vestibule can lead to CSF otorrhea. Combined with special medical history, T2-weighted signal of inner ear MRI can provide diagnostic basie for most children with IEM and CSF otorrhea.HRCT and MRI of inner ear can also be used to evaluate the effect of surgery.

Male , Female , Child , Humans , Aged , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Temporal Bone , Ear, Middle
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(4): 509-522, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431928


El fresado de hueso temporal (HT) es un desafío para los otorrinolaringólogos. Este procedimiento requiere un conocimiento detallado de esta zona anatómicamente compleja y un dominio de la técnica quirúrgica. La exposición a una mastoidectomía simple o mastoidectomía radical varía entre residentes y distintos programas de especialidad y, frecuentemente, no se cumple el número requerido para la curva de aprendizaje durante la formación. Por lo anterior, surge la necesidad de realizar simulación quirúrgica de fresado de HT. El gold standard para su entrenamiento son los modelos cadavéricos, sin embargo, su costo y baja disponibilidad representan una limitación importante. Los modelos de simulación no cadavéricos podrían jugar un rol importante en el entrenamiento de esta cirugía. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura sobre los modelos de simulación disponibles en fresado de HT. Se encontraron estudios sobre modelos cadavéricos, basados en impresión 3D, realidad virtual y de bajo costo. Los modelos de impresión 3D y realidad virtual han sido evaluados favorablemente en cuanto a adquisición de habilidades, aprendizaje de anatomía, similitud con modelos cadavéricos y sensación táctil. Los modelos de impresión 3D presentan mayor fidelidad anatómica y física, pero tienen un mayor costo. En suma, se han desarrollado modelos de fresado de HT no cadavéricos que cuentan, principalmente, con validez de apariencia y contenido, y solo algunos con validez de constructo. Se necesitan más estudios para evaluar su validez predictiva y transferencia de habilidades al paciente real.

Temporal bone (TB) dissection is a challenging procedure for otolaryngologists. It requires a detailed knowledge of this anatomically complex area and mastery of the surgical technique. Exposure to a simple or radical mastoidectomy may vary among residents and specialty programs, frequently not complying with the required number of surgeries to complete the learning curve during residency. Hence, TB dissection simulation is of great importance. The gold standard for simulated training are cadaveric models, nevertheless, the associated high cost and low availability represent a major limitation for this modality. Non-cadaveric simulation models could play a key role in simulated training for this surgery. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the available simulation models for TB dissection was conducted. Articles for cadaveric, 3D-printed, virtual reality and low-cost models were identified. 3D-printed and virtual reality models have been favorably evaluated in terms of skill acquisition, anatomy learning, similarity to cadaveric models, and tactile sensation. 3D-printed models present superior anatomic and physical fidelity, but are more expensive. In sum, the current non-cadaveric models for TB dissection mostly present face and content validity, while few models count with construct validity. Further studies are required to assess predictive validity and skill transfer to the real patient.

Otologic Surgical Procedures/education , Temporal Bone/surgery , Simulation Training/methods , User-Computer Interface , Clinical Competence , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Virtual Reality
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 235-242, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374731


Abstract Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia is a benign disorder, in which normal bone is replaced by fibrosis and immature bone trabeculae, showing a similar distribution between the genders, and being more prevalent in the earlier decades of life. Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone is a rare condition, and there is no consensus as to whether it is more common in monostotic or polyostotic forms. External auditory meatus stenosis and conductive dysacusis are the most common manifestations, with cholesteatoma being a common complication, whereas the involvement of the otic capsule is an unusual one. Surgical treatment is indicated to control pain or dysacusis, otorrhea, cholesteatoma, and deformity. Objectives: To describe the clinical experience of a tertiary referral hospital with cases of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone. Methods: Sampling of patients diagnosed with fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone, confirmed by tomography, treated at the pediatric otology and otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinics, between 2015 and 2018. The assessed variables were age, gender, laterality, external auditory meatus stenosis, deformity, hearing loss, presence of secondary cholesteatoma of the external auditory meatus, lesion extension and management. Results: Five patients were included, four females and one male, with age ranging from 13 to 34 years. Three had the polyostotic form and two the monostotic form of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone. Four patients had local deformity and external auditory meatus stenosis, two of which progressed to cholesteatoma. All patients showed some degree of hearing impairment. All had preserved otic capsule at the tomography. Two patients are currently undergoing clinical observation; two were submitted to tympanomastoidectomy due to secondary cholesteatoma; one was submitted to lesion resection, aiming to control the dysacusis progression. Conclusion: Five cases of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone were described, a rare disorder of which the otologist should be aware.

Resumo Introdução: Displasia fibrosa é uma desordem benigna, na qual o osso é substituído por fibrose e trabeculado ósseo imaturo, com distribuição semelhante entre sexos, mais comum nas primeiras décadas de vida. O acometimento do osso temporal pela displasia fibrosa é raro, não há consenso se é mais comum nas formas monostóticas ou poliostóticas. Estenose do meato acústico externo e disacusia condutiva são as manifestações mais comuns. Colesteatoma é também uma complicação comum e o acometimento da cápsula ótica incomum. O tratamento cirúrgico está indicado para controle de dor ou disacusia, otorreia, colesteatoma, deformidade. Objetivos: Descrever a experiência clínica de hospital terciário de referência com casos de displasia fibrosa do osso temporal. Método: Amostragem dos pacientes com diagnóstico de displasia fibrosa do osso temporal, confirmado pela tomografia, atendidos nos ambulatórios de otologia e otorrinolaringologia pediátrica, entre 2015 e 2018. As variáveis avaliadas foram idade, gênero, lateralidade, estenose do meato acústico externo, deformidade, perda auditiva, presença de colesteatoma secundário de meato acústico externo, extensão da lesão e conduta adotada. Resultados: Foram incluídos cinco pacientes, quatro do sexo feminino e um masculino, de 13-34 anos. Três apresentaram a forma poliostótica da displasia fibrosa do osso temporal e dois a forma monostótica. Quatro apresentaram deformidade local e estenose do meato acústico externo, dois desses evoluíram com colesteatoma. Todos manifestaram algum grau de comprometimento auditivo. Todos apresentaram cápsula ótica preservada na tomografia. Duas pacientes estão em observação clínica; duas foram submetidas a timpanomastoidectomia devido a colesteatoma secundário; um foi submetido a ressecção da lesão para controle de progressão da disacusia. Conclusão: Foram descritos cinco casos de displasia fibrosa do osso temporal, desordem rara para a qual o otologista deve estar atento.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cholesteatoma/complications , Cholesteatoma/pathology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/surgery , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/diagnosis , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/pathology , Temporal Bone/pathology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Hearing Disorders
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1368-1375, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405291


SUMMARY: Internal acoustic opening is a space that opens to facies posterior of the petrous piece of temporal bone that goes inside facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, intermedial nevre and labyrinthine artery. The purpose of this study is the assessment of internal acoustic opening from a morphometric perspective, determination of the shape of the hole and determination of the distance to some important anatomic formations. This study is conducted on 166 temporal bones with unknown sex formation which are part of the skull collection in NEU and KTO Karatay University, Anatomy Department. In this study, the vertical and diameter of internal acoustic meatus, its distance to the bottom and top sides of posterior surface of the petrous part, its distance to groove for superior sagittal sinus and its distance to apex were measured. Moreover, in this study internal acoustic opening spaces are categorized into six groups as round, oval, U-shaped, fissure, irregular and V shape. Digital caliper was used for internal acoustic meatus measurements. While the vertical horizontal diameters and distance to groove for superior sagittal sinus of internal acoustic opening on the right side are 4.12 mm, 6.83 mm and 19.64mm respectively, they are 4.56 mm, 7.10 mm and 21.06 mm on the left side respectively. We have observed in this study, 37.3 % of the internal acoustic opening as round, 34.3 % as oval, 6.6 % as U-shaped, 6.6 % as fissure, 12.7 % as irregular and 2.4 % as V-shaped. We believe that these measurements can provide guidance and help in surgical procedures.

RESUMEN: El poro acústico interno es un espacio que se abre en la cara posterior de la parte petrosa del hueso temporal, donde entran los nervios facial, intermedio y vestibulococlear, además de la arteria laberíntica. El propósito de este estudio fue la evaluación del poro acústico interno desde una perspectiva morfométrica, determinación de la forma del foramen y de la distancia a algunas formaciones anatómicas importantes. Este estudio se realizó en 166 huesos temporales de individuos de sexo desconocido que forman parte de la colección de cráneos del Departamento de Anatomía en NEU y KTO, Universidad de Karatay, Se midió la altura vertical y el diámetro del poro acústico interno, su distancia a los lados inferior y superior de la superficie posterior de la parte petrosa, su distancia al surco del seno sagital superior y su distancia al vértice. Además, el poro acústico interno se clasificó en seis grupos: redondos, ovalados, en forma de U, de fisura, irregulares y en forma de V. Se utilizó un calibrador digital para las mediciones del meato acústico interno. Mientras que los diámetros horizontales, verticales y la distancia al surco para el seno sagital superior del poro acústico interno en el lado derecho fue de 4,12 mm, 6,83 mm y 19,64 mm respectivamente, en el lado izquiedo fue de 4,56 mm, 7,10 mm y 21,06 mm, respectivamente. Hemos observado que en el 37,3 % de los casos el poro acústico interno era redondo, el 34,3 % ovalado, el 6,6 % en forma de U, el 6,6 % de fisura, el 12,7 % irregular y el 2,4 % en forma de V. Estas medidas pueden servir de guía y ayuda en los procedimientos quirúrgicos.

Humans , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology
Arq. odontol ; 58: 87-96, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1411738


Aim: To evaluate the presence and characteristics of pneumatizations in the roof of the mandibular fossa and articular eminence by panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Methods: This study analyzed CBCT images of the temporomandibular joint of 705 patients, In 60 exams, it was possible to compare tomographic with panoramic images. For cases where pneumatization was present, laterality and pattern of manifestation were considered. A chi-square test was used to compare the differences between CBCT and panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumatization. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed a sample profile that was predominantly female (75.9%), with a mean age of 42.6 years (± 17.4). The presence of pneumatizations in the roof of the mandibular fossa and articular eminence in CBCT images was identified in 330 (46.8%) and 154 (21.8%) exams, respectively, and the most frequent pneumatization pattern was the multilocular type in both locations. Bilateral pneumatization was more prevalent in the roof of the mandibular fossa. Considering the analysis of 60 pairs of exams, in panoramic radiography, pneumatizations in the roof of the mandibular fossa and articular eminence were identified in 22 (36.7%) and 12 (20.0%) examinations, respectively. Regarding CBCT images, pneumatizations in the roof of the mandibular fossa was observed in 24 (40.0%) exams, while articular eminence was found in 14 (23.3%) images. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportion of pneumatization identified by panoramic radiography and CBCT (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that panoramic radiography may be an imaging method used to evaluate pneumatization in the temporomandibular joint region.

Objetivos: Avaliar a presença e as características da pneumatização no teto da fossa mandibular e eminência articular por meio de radiografias panorâmicas (RP) e tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico (TCFC). Métodos: Foram analisadas imagens tomográficas da ATM de 705 pacientes, sendo que 60 desses pacientes também possuíam RP. Para todos os casos foram avaliadas a presença, a lateralidade e o padrão de manifestação da pneumatização. O teste qui-quadrado foi empregado para comparar os resultados obtidos a partir das RP e das TCFC no que tange o diagnóstico das pneumatizações. Resultados: A análise descritiva revelou uma amostra predominantemente feminina (75,9%) com uma média de idade de 42,6 anos (± 17,4). A pneumatização no teto da fossa mandibular e eminência articular foi evidenciada em 330 (46,8%) e 154 (21,8%) imagens de TCFC, respectivamente, e o padrão de pneumatização mais frequente foi o multilocular em ambas as regiões. A pneumatização bilateral foi mais prevalente no teto da fossa mandibular. Considerando a análise dos 60 pares de exames, nas radiografias panorâmicas as pneumatizações no teto da fossa mandibular e eminência articular foram identificadas em 22 (36,7%) e 12 (20,0%) exames, respectivamente. Em relação às imagens tomográficas, a presença desse achado no teto da fossa foi observada em 24 (40,0%) exames e na eminência articular em 14 (23,3%). Não houve diferença com significância estatística entre a proporção de pneumatização identificada em RP e TCFC (p > 0,05). Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a radiografia panorâmica pode ser um método de diagnóstico por imagem empregado para avaliação de pneumatizações na região da ATM.

Temporal Bone , Temporomandibular Joint , Radiography, Panoramic , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1331-1336, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385487


SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the variations of carotid artery course on the relationship between styloid process (SP) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Carotid CT angiography scans of 170 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The variability of the course of ICA were classified. The length and medial angulation of the SP were measured on coronal 3D images. On axial images, the shortest distance between the bone edge of the SP and ICA were measured. The distance between SP and ICA among the course patterns of carotid artery were compared statistically. In the comparison of distances between SP and ICA with respect to the course of ICA, the difference between straight and curving (p <0.001) was statistically significant. Curving caused the separation of ICA and SP. The highest and the shortest distance was at the curving and coiling group, respectively. We found that SP-ICA distance has a positive and negative correlation with SP angle (p<0.001) and SP length (p<0.001), respectively. The course of ICA is one of the major determinants affecting the relationship of ICA and SP. The curving pattern of ICA has a tendency to increase the distance between SP and ICA.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el rol de las variaciones que tiene el curso de la arteria carótida en la relación entre el proceso estiloides (PE) y la arteria carótida interna (ACI). Se evaluaron retrospectivamente angiografías por tomografía computarizada carotídea de 170 pacientes. Se clasificó la variabilidad del curso de ACI. Se midieron en imágenes coronales y en 3D la longitud y la angulación medial del PE. En las imágenes axiales, se midió la distancia más corta entre el margen del PE y la ACI. Se comparó estadísticamente la distancia entre PE y la ACI entre los patrones de trayecto de la arteria carótida. La comparación de las distancias entre PE y la ACI respecto al curso de ACI, fue estadísticamente significativa, siendo la diferencia entre arterias recta y curva (p <0,001). La arteria curva provocó la separación de la ACI y del PE. Las mayores y menores distancias estaban en el grupo de arterias curvas y enrolladas, respectivamente. La distancia PE-ACI tiene una correlación positiva y negativa con el ángulo PE (p <0,001) y la longitud del PE (p <0,001), respectivamente. El curso de la arteria carótida interna es uno de los principales determinantes que afectan la relación con el proceso estiloides. El patrón de curva de la ACI tiende a aumentar la distancia entre PE y la propia arteria arteria.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Anatomic Variation , Computed Tomography Angiography
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(3): 207-215, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1419201


Introducción: Los meningiomas de la fosa posterior representan el 20% de todos los meningiomas intracraneales. Cada subtipo tiene una base de implantación, abordaje quirúrgico y morbimortalidad postoperatoria muchas veces diferente. Advertimos que en reuniones científicas y publicaciones no se sigue una forma de clasificar uniforme, sencilla y clara con orientación netamente quirúrgica. Esto genera que el neurocirujano en formación no cuente con herramientas suficientes para la toma de decisiones. Objetivos: Proponer una clasificación sencilla de los meningiomas de la fosa posterior con un fundamento anatomo-quirúrgico y presentar casos ilustrativos de cada subtipo. Materiales y métodos: Se estableció una nomenclatura considerando reportes previos, el criterio anatómico y la experiencia quirúrgica de los autores. Se presentaron casos revisando las historias clínicas y los archivos de imágenes correspondientes a cada subtipo de la clasificación. Resultados: Representamos a la fosa posterior como un compartimento con 3 anillos: el superior se divide en medial, lateral-anterior y lateral-posterior; el medio se divide en 6 variantes: clivales puros, esfeno-petro-clivales, petrosos anteriores, petrosos posteriores y de la convexidad suboccipital medial y lateral; el inferior se divide en anterior, lateral derecho, lateral izquierdo y posterior. Conclusión: Los meningiomas del anillo superior pueden resolverse mediante una vía suboccipital medial o lateral; los del anillo medio tienen un espectro de opciones más diverso; los del anillo inferior -siguiendo el esquema de división en cuadrantes de un reloj- pueden resolverse por medio de un abordaje suboccipital medial o extremolatera

Introduction: Posterior fossa meningiomas represent 20% of all meningiomas, being each location associated with a specific approach, morbidity and mortality. The actual classifications are focus on the dural attachment, without associating the anatomical with the surgical aspects, useful to the young neurosurgeons for decision making. Objectives: To propose a classification of the posterior fossa meningiomas with an anatomical-surgical view including the presentation of cases. Materials and Methods: A nomenclature was established concerning previous reports, the anatomical criteria and the surgical experience of the authors. Cases were presented by reviewing the medical records corresponding to each subtype of the proposed classification. Results: We represent the posterior fossa as a 3 rings compartment: the upper one is divided into medial, anterior-lateral and posterior-lateral; the middle ring is divided into 6 variants: pure clival, spheno-petro-clival, anterior petrosal, posterior petrosal, and medial and lateral suboccipital convexity; the lower ring is divided into anterior, right lateral, left lateral, and posterior. Conclusion: Superior ring meningiomas can be resolved by a medial or lateral suboccipital approach; middle ring meningiomas have a more diverse spectrum of options; while meningiomas of the inferior ring - following the scheme of division into quadrants of a clock - can be resolved by means of a medial or extreme-lateral suboccipital approach.

Meningioma , Temporal Bone , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Foramen Magnum
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(3): 119-122, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363019


El síndrome de Eagle está caracterizado por una elongación o una curvatura medial excesiva de la apófisis estiloides o por una calcificación del ligamento estilohioideo que puede provocar dolor cervicofacial o síntomas neurológicos por la compresión de los vasos o nervios del cuello. El tratamiento más eficaz es el quirúrgico y consiste en la resección de la apófisis estiloides; puede ser realizado por vía externa o mediante un abordaje transoral. Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente con síndrome de Eagle que fue tratado con éxito mediante un abordaje transoral, sin amigdalectomía y con asistencia de endoscopios. (AU)

Eagle syndrome is characterized by an elongation or excessive medial curvature of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament that can cause cervicofacial pain or neurological symptoms due to compression of the vessels or nerves of the neck. The most effective treatment is surgical and consists of resection of the styloid process, it can be performed by externally or through a transoral approach.The clinical case of a patient with Eagle syndrome who was successfully treated by a transoral approach, without tonsillectomy and with the assistance of endoscopes, is described. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Temporal Bone/surgery , Ossification, Heterotopic/surgery , Ossification, Heterotopic/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(2): e056, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254595


Objetivo: Estudiar morfométricamente el complejo estilohioideo (CEH) mediante tomografía computarizada multicorte (TCM). Materiales y métodos: Investigación descriptiva, retrospectiva y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 238 estudios de TCM, pertenecientes a pacientes de ambos sexos con edades entre 20 y 87 años, con indicación de tomografía para el macizo craneofacial. Se realizó la medición de la longitud del CEH en vistas laterales de reconstrucciones volumétricas en 3D. Se obtuvo la distribución de estos casos de acuerdo con edad, sexo, lateralidad, tipo de osificación y motivo de indicación del examen. Resultados: La longitud media del CEH fue de 30,66 ± 10,58 mm. Del total de la muestra, 127 (53,4%) individuos mostraron un CEH elongado; de estos, un 63,8% fueron mujeres y un 64,6% de los pacientes presentó un compromiso bilateral del complejo. La mayoría de los sujetos con un CEH elongado tenían edades comprendidas entre 30 y 59 años. El tipo de osificación encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue del tipo I (elongación continua). En cuanto al motivo de indicación del examen, la mayoría de los pacientes fueron referidos para estudio de la articulación temporomandibular. Conclusiones: La TCM es una herramienta útil en la identificación y el estudio morfométrico de la osificación del CEH, tanto en su longitud como tipo. El examen de un CEH osificado es importante para el diagnóstico diferencial de dolor cervicofacial y disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular. (AU)

Objective: tomography (MCT). Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 238 MCT studies performed in patients of both sexes between 20 to 87 years of age, with indication of tomography of the craniofacial complex. The length of the SHC was measured in lateral views of 3D volumetric reconstructions. The distribution of these cases was obtained according to age, sex, laterality, type and the reason for the examination. Results: The mean length of the SHC was 30.66 ± 10.58 mm. Of the total sample, 127 (53.4%) individuals showed an elongated SHC; of these, 63.8% were women and 64.6% of the patients presented a bilateral compromise of the complex. Most of the subjects with an elongated SHC were between 30 and 59 years old. The type of ossification most frequently found was type I (continuous elongation). Regarding the reason for the examination, most of the individuals were referred for study of the temporomandibular joint. Conclusions: MCT is a useful tool for the identification and morphometric study of ossification of the SHC, both in length and type. Examination of an ossified SHC is important for the differential diagnosis of cervico-facial pain and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Temporal Bone , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Hyoid Bone , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e153-e157, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152048


La actinomicosis es una infección causada por un bacilo anaerobio Gram-positivo, filamentoso, ramificado, no esporulado. Integra la flora habitual de la orofaringe y coloniza transitoriamente el tracto gastrointestinal, genital femenino y el árbol bronquial. Es poco frecuente en el hueso temporal. Por su semejanza a un hongo, es difícil su reconocimiento, lo que hace necesaria la sospecha clínica para obtener los cultivos apropiados en condiciones anaeróbicas en forma prolongada. Los hallazgos microscópicos típicos incluyen necrosis con gránulos de azufre amarillento y la presencia de filamentos que se asemejan a infecciones fúngicas. El tratamiento requiere de elevadas y prolongadas dosis de antibiótico con penicilina o amoxicilina, entre 6 y 12 meses. La duración de la terapia antimicrobiana podría ser reducida en pacientes que han sido operados quirúrgicamente. Se presenta, a continuación, un caso clínico de actinomicosis en el hueso temporal en un paciente pediátrico que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico para su resolución.

Actinomycosis is an infection caused by a Gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacillus. Mainly belonging to the human commensal flora of the oropharynx, it normally colonizes the human digestive and genital tracts and the bronchial tree. It is slightly frequent in the temporal bone. Bacterial cultures and pathology are the cornerstone of diagnosis, but particular conditions are required in order to get the correct diagnosis. Prolonged bacterial cultures in anaerobic conditions are necessary to identify the bacterium and typical microscopic findings include necrosis with yellowish sulfur granules and filamentous Gram-positive fungal-like pathogens. Patients with actinomycosis require prolonged (6- to 12-month) high doses of penicillin G or amoxicillin, but the duration of antimicrobial therapy could probably be shortened in patients in whom optimal surgical resection of infected tissues has been performed. A pediatric patient with actinomycosis in temporal bone who needed surgery resolution is reported.

Humans , Male , Child , Temporal Bone , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/surgery , Actinomycosis/therapy , Mastoiditis
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 527-532, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385347


RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en la placa timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura es escasa, generando controversias entre de los anatomistas que la han descrito. El epónimo Huschke, anatomista alemán, quien ha sido mencionado como el primero en observarla en 1844. Sin embargo, existen antecedentes de que dicha característica ósea fue previamente descrita por otros autores casi 200 años antes. La actual denominación, dehiscencia timpánica, fue dada en 1878 por Bürkner, siendo aceptada hasta el día de hoy. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar un análisis histórico de la descripción morfológica de la dehiscencia timpánica en la literatura anatómica especializada.

SUMMARY: Tympanic dehiscence or Huschke's Foramen is considered a minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic, transitory morphological cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone, whose expression is considered physiological up to 5 years of age. The mention of this feature in the literature is scarce, generating controversy among the anatomists who have described it. The eponymous Huschke, a German anatomist, who has been mentioned as the first to observe it in 1844. However, there is a history that this bone characteristic was previously described by other authors almost 200 years earlier. The current name, tympanic dehiscence, was given in 1878 by Bürkner, being accepted until today. The objective of this article is to carry out a historical analysis of the morphological description of tympanic dehiscence in specialized anatomical literature.

Humans , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Anatomy/history
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 801-805, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942526


Objective: To elucidate the clinical manifestations of temporal bone tympanic plate fracture and the correlation between treatment time after injury and its prognosis, and to discuss the importance of early treatment of tympanic fracture. Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on the clinical data of 15 patients(17 ears)with temporal bone tympanic plate fracture from March 2006 to July 2019. The course of disease was less than 1 month (initial stage) in 7 cases (7 ears), 1 month to 6 months (middle stage) in 2 cases (3 ears), and 6 months or more (late stage) in 6 cases (7 ears). The symptoms, signs, CT findings, pure tone audiometry results, surgical methods and clinical efficacy of each group were summarized. Results: Most patients with temporal bone tympanic plate fracture were referred to otology department by maxillofacial surgery. Fracture occured indirectly with the chin or zygomatic region as the direct stress point. Thirteen of the 15 patients had mental region wounds or scars, and 14 patients had external acoustic canal bleeding immediately after injury. In the initial-stage group, hearing was mostly unchanged, while in the middle and late-stage groups, hearing loss was mainly caused by conduction factors. In the initial stage group, 6 cases/7 cases were cured by external acoustic canal packing; External acoustic canal stenosis or atresia occurred in 2 cases in the middle-stage group and were cured by external acoustic canal plasty. All the 6 patients in the late-stage group had external acoustic canal stenosis or atresia, among whom 5 patients with external acoustic canal cholesteatoma were cured by external acoustic canal plasty, and the other one patient with middle ear cholesteatoma was cured by modified radical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty after external acoustic canal plasty for three times. Conclusions: Temporal bone tympanic plate fracture is a special type of temporal bone fracture. In the early stage of temporal bone tympanic fracture, bleeding of the external acoustic canal is the main symptom, and hearing is normal mostly. Advanced conductive deafness may result from external acoustic canal stenosis and/or cholesteatoma formation later. Bleeding of the external acoustic canal and irregular bulge of the anterior wall of the external acoustic canal with mental region wound are important signs for early diagnosis of temporal bone fracture. Temporal bone tympanic fracture should be paid attention to, early detection and timely treatment can avoid external acoustic canal stenosis and atresia.

Humans , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/surgery , Ear Canal , Mastoid , Mastoidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Tympanoplasty
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 8-12, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961086


@#<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the correlation between pre-operative in-house temporal bone CT scan readings and intraoperative findings during mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma in a tertiary government hospital from January 2018 to December 2019.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong></p><p><strong>Design:</strong> Review of Records</p><p><strong>Setting:</strong> Tertiary Government Hospital</p><p><strong>Participants:</strong> A total of 25 charts were included in the study. Surgical memoranda  containing intraoperative findings were scrutinized. Data on key structures or locations were  filled into a data gathering tool. Categorical descriptions were used for surgical findings:  "present" or "absent" for location, and "intact" or "eroded" for status of ossicles and critical structures. Radiological readings to describe location and extent of disease were recorded as either "involved" or "uninvolved," while "intact" or "eroded" were used to describe the status of ossicles and critical structures identified. Statistical correlations were computed using Cohen kappa coefficient. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were also computed.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> No correlation between radiologic readings and surgical findings were found in terms of location and extent of cholesteatoma (? < 0). However, moderate agreement was noted in terms of status of the malleus (? = .42, 95% CI, .059 to .781, p<.05), substantial agreement noted for the incus status (? = 0.682, 95% CI, .267 to .875, p<.05), and fair agreement noted for the stapes status (? = .303, 95% CI, -.036 to .642, p>.05). Slight agreement was also noted in description of facial canal and labyrinth (? =.01, 95% CI, -.374 to .394, p>.05), while no correlation was noted for the status of the tegmen (? = 0, 95% CI, -.392 to .392, p<.05).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study shows the unreliability and shortcomings of CT scan readings in our institution in detecting and predicting surgical findings. An institutional policy needs to be considered to ensure that temporal bone CT scans be obtained using techniques that can appropriately describe the status of the middle ear and adjacent structures with better reliability.</p>

Humans , Male , Female , Cholesteatoma , Temporal Bone , Tomography
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 55-56, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974025


@#A 27-year-old man undergoes otolaryngologic evaluation for blunt head trauma suffered in a vehicular accident. With regards to the right ear, pertinent otologic findings include an ear canal laceration and a delayed-onset facial nerve paresis. Tuning fork testing reveals an abnormal Rinne test on the right (AC<BC). The radiologist’s interpretation of the computerized tomographic imaging study of the temporal bone indicated the presence of a longitudinal fracture of the right temporal bone with no disruption of the ossicular chain. (Figure 1) However, careful examination of the anatomy of the malleo-incudal complex in relation to the other structures in the epitympanum actually reveals findings indicative of a malleo-incudal complex dislocation. How can this discrepancy in the radiologic interpretation be accounted for? By what objective parameters can the presence of a malleoincudal complex dislocation be identified?

Temporal Bone , Diagnostic Imaging , Ear Ossicles
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1676-1680, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134497


RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke (FH) se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en laplaca timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad, denominándose como persistente su presencia a mayor edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura anatómica se presenta de manera escasa, debido a una muy baja presencia en poblaciones modernas, situación que cambia al estudiar poblaciones arqueológicas. El propósito de este estudio es describir la expresión del foramen de Huschke en una población arqueológica de Chile central. Fueron analizados 27 huesos temporales obtenidos de los restos óseos de la población del Monumento Arqueológico Cementerio Tutuquén, los cuales están depositados en el Museo Regional de Rancagua, Chile. Se evaluó presencia y ubicación del foramen, sexo, temporalidad y rango etáreo para cada muestra incluida. El FH se presentó en un 77,78% de los temporales, siendo 47,62% restos masculinos, 28,57% femeninos y 23,81% de sexo indeterminado. La totalidad de los restos de niños y subadultos presentaron FH, mientras que en adultos su expresión disminuye hasta un 68,42%. La ubicación fue un 38,10% en cuadrante inferomedial, 33,33% superolateral, 23,81% superomedial, 4,71% central. No se encontraron FH de ubicación inferolateral. El único temporal observable del período 10.000 AP (antes del presente, 1950) presentó FH, mientras que, en el período 7.000 AP se presentó en 6/7 temporales y en 14/19 temporales del período 1.000 AP. Los datos aportados complementan el conocimiento anatómico del proceso de osificación del hueso timpánico y la expresión de la dehiscencia timpánica como rasgo morfológico menor desde el estudio de poblaciones arqueológicas.

SUMMARY: The tympanic dehiscence or Foramen of Huschke (FH) is considered a transient minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone. Its expression is considered physiological until the age of five, and its presence is constant after that. This characteristic is seldom mentioned in anatomical literature since it is infrequent in modern populations. However, there is a difference when archaeological populations are studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the expression of the Huschke foramen in an archaeological population of central Chile. For this analysis, 27 temporal bones were obtained from human skeletal remains of the Tutuquén Cemetery Archaeological Monument. Presence and location of the foramen, sex, time period and age range were evaluated for each sample. The FH occurred in 77.78% of the temporal bones, with 47.62% male, 28.57% female and 23.81% of undetermined sex. All children and subadults presented FH, while in adults it decreased to 68.42%. The location was 38.10% in the inferomedial quadrant, 33.33 % superolateral, 23.81% superomedial, 4.71% central, and no FH was found at the inferolateral position. The only temporal bone identified in the 10,000 BP (before the present 1950) presented FH, while in the 7,000 BP period, it presented in 6/7 temporal bones and in the 1000 BP period, it was found in 14/ 19 temporal bones. The data provided complements anatomical knowledge of the tympanic bone ossification process, and in archaeological population studies, tympanic dehiscence presents as a lesser morphological characteristic.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear Canal/anatomy & histology , Archaeology , Chile
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 820-824, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124860


The pterion is a topographic point on the lateral aspect of the skull where frontal, sphenoid, parietal and temporal bones form the H or K shaped suture. This is an important surgical point for the lesions in anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was performed on 50 dry skulls from Serbian adult individuals from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. The type of the pterion on both sides of each skull was determined and they are calcified in four types (sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric). The distance between the center of the pterion and defined anthropological landmarks were measured using the ImageJ software. Sphenoparietal type is predominant with 86 % in right side and 88 % in left side. In male skulls, the distance from the right pterion to the frontozygomatic suture is 39.89±3.85 mm and 39.67±4.61 mm from the left pterion to the frontozygomatic suture. In female skulls the distance is 37.38±6.38 mm on the right and 35.94±6.46 mm on the left. The shape and the localization of the pterion are important because it is an anatomical landmark and should be used in neurosurgery, traumatology and ophthalmology.

El pterion es un punto topográfico en la cara lateral del cráneo donde los huesos frontales, esfenoides, parietales y temporales forman la sutura en forma de H o K. Este es un punto quirúrgico importante para las lesiones en la fosa craneal anterior y media. Este estudio se realizó en 50 cráneos secos de adultos serbios del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de Novi Sad. Se determinó el tipo de pterión en ambos lados de cada cráneo y se calcifican en cuatro tipos (esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, estrellado y epipterico). La distancia entre el centro del pterion y los puntos de referencia antropológicos definidos se midió utilizando el software ImageJ. El tipo esfenoparietal es predominante con 86 % en el lado derecho y 88 % en el lado izquierdo. En los cráneos masculinos, la distancia desde el pterion derecho hasta la sutura frontocigomática es 39,89 ± 3,85 mm y 39,67 ± 4,61 mm desde el pterion izquierdo hasta la sutura frontocigomática. En los cráneos femeninos, la distancia es 37,38 ± 6,38 mm a la derecha y 35,94 ± 6,46 mm a la izquierda. La forma y la localización del pterion son importantes debido a que es un indicador anatómico y debe usarse en neurocirugía, traumatología y oftalmología.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Serbia