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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1676-1680, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134497

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke (FH) se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en laplaca timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad, denominándose como persistente su presencia a mayor edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura anatómica se presenta de manera escasa, debido a una muy baja presencia en poblaciones modernas, situación que cambia al estudiar poblaciones arqueológicas. El propósito de este estudio es describir la expresión del foramen de Huschke en una población arqueológica de Chile central. Fueron analizados 27 huesos temporales obtenidos de los restos óseos de la población del Monumento Arqueológico Cementerio Tutuquén, los cuales están depositados en el Museo Regional de Rancagua, Chile. Se evaluó presencia y ubicación del foramen, sexo, temporalidad y rango etáreo para cada muestra incluida. El FH se presentó en un 77,78% de los temporales, siendo 47,62% restos masculinos, 28,57% femeninos y 23,81% de sexo indeterminado. La totalidad de los restos de niños y subadultos presentaron FH, mientras que en adultos su expresión disminuye hasta un 68,42%. La ubicación fue un 38,10% en cuadrante inferomedial, 33,33% superolateral, 23,81% superomedial, 4,71% central. No se encontraron FH de ubicación inferolateral. El único temporal observable del período 10.000 AP (antes del presente, 1950) presentó FH, mientras que, en el período 7.000 AP se presentó en 6/7 temporales y en 14/19 temporales del período 1.000 AP. Los datos aportados complementan el conocimiento anatómico del proceso de osificación del hueso timpánico y la expresión de la dehiscencia timpánica como rasgo morfológico menor desde el estudio de poblaciones arqueológicas.


SUMMARY: The tympanic dehiscence or Foramen of Huschke (FH) is considered a transient minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone. Its expression is considered physiological until the age of five, and its presence is constant after that. This characteristic is seldom mentioned in anatomical literature since it is infrequent in modern populations. However, there is a difference when archaeological populations are studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the expression of the Huschke foramen in an archaeological population of central Chile. For this analysis, 27 temporal bones were obtained from human skeletal remains of the Tutuquén Cemetery Archaeological Monument. Presence and location of the foramen, sex, time period and age range were evaluated for each sample. The FH occurred in 77.78% of the temporal bones, with 47.62% male, 28.57% female and 23.81% of undetermined sex. All children and subadults presented FH, while in adults it decreased to 68.42%. The location was 38.10% in the inferomedial quadrant, 33.33 % superolateral, 23.81% superomedial, 4.71% central, and no FH was found at the inferolateral position. The only temporal bone identified in the 10,000 BP (before the present 1950) presented FH, while in the 7,000 BP period, it presented in 6/7 temporal bones and in the 1000 BP period, it was found in 14/ 19 temporal bones. The data provided complements anatomical knowledge of the tympanic bone ossification process, and in archaeological population studies, tympanic dehiscence presents as a lesser morphological characteristic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear Canal/anatomy & histology , Archaeology , Chile
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 820-824, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124860

ABSTRACT

The pterion is a topographic point on the lateral aspect of the skull where frontal, sphenoid, parietal and temporal bones form the H or K shaped suture. This is an important surgical point for the lesions in anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was performed on 50 dry skulls from Serbian adult individuals from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. The type of the pterion on both sides of each skull was determined and they are calcified in four types (sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric). The distance between the center of the pterion and defined anthropological landmarks were measured using the ImageJ software. Sphenoparietal type is predominant with 86 % in right side and 88 % in left side. In male skulls, the distance from the right pterion to the frontozygomatic suture is 39.89±3.85 mm and 39.67±4.61 mm from the left pterion to the frontozygomatic suture. In female skulls the distance is 37.38±6.38 mm on the right and 35.94±6.46 mm on the left. The shape and the localization of the pterion are important because it is an anatomical landmark and should be used in neurosurgery, traumatology and ophthalmology.


El pterion es un punto topográfico en la cara lateral del cráneo donde los huesos frontales, esfenoides, parietales y temporales forman la sutura en forma de H o K. Este es un punto quirúrgico importante para las lesiones en la fosa craneal anterior y media. Este estudio se realizó en 50 cráneos secos de adultos serbios del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de Novi Sad. Se determinó el tipo de pterión en ambos lados de cada cráneo y se calcifican en cuatro tipos (esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, estrellado y epipterico). La distancia entre el centro del pterion y los puntos de referencia antropológicos definidos se midió utilizando el software ImageJ. El tipo esfenoparietal es predominante con 86 % en el lado derecho y 88 % en el lado izquierdo. En los cráneos masculinos, la distancia desde el pterion derecho hasta la sutura frontocigomática es 39,89 ± 3,85 mm y 39,67 ± 4,61 mm desde el pterion izquierdo hasta la sutura frontocigomática. En los cráneos femeninos, la distancia es 37,38 ± 6,38 mm a la derecha y 35,94 ± 6,46 mm a la izquierda. La forma y la localización del pterion son importantes debido a que es un indicador anatómico y debe usarse en neurocirugía, traumatología y oftalmología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Serbia
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 997-1002, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124888

ABSTRACT

La comprensión de la anatomía humana y especialmente de algunos órganos muy pequeños como es el oído medio e interno, resulta desafiante debido a su compleja estructura tridimensional. Construir conocimiento en la comprensión de la Anatomía del oído medio e interno humano, a partir del experimento de disección y modelación 3D. Con imágenes DICOM de una tomografía axial computarizada del oído humano convertidas a un modelo 3D (Mimics) y disecciones cadavéricas del hueso temporal, se diseñaron las estructuras óseas y blandas del oído externo, medio e interno mediante la implementación de software de modelado orgánico. Creación de un protocolo operativo estándar, modelado 3D de oído medio e interno e impresión 3D de las estructuras, diferenciando por color cada una de ellas. La experimentación, en este caso, la disección y modelación de las piezas anatómicas fue fundamental en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de esta área de las ciencias, permitiendo que se construya conocimiento a partir de la búsqueda de información, observación, análisis y reflexión. Los estudiantes manifestaron fascinación y aprendizaje profundo en la práctica realizada. La construcción de modelos explicativos en torno a la experimentación cualitativa permite comprender a profundidad los diferentes fenómenos. La actividad experimental, supera la demostración y facilita la confrontación de pensamiento, los estudiantes a través de esta actividad comprendieron a profundidad la anatomía del oído medio e interno, han adquirido destrezas quirúrgicas, han propuesto y analizado proyectos que les ha permitido participar eventos académicos, adquiriendo competencias como el uso comprensivo del conocimiento científico.


Understanding human anatomy, and especially some very small organs such as the middle and inner ear, is challenging due to their complex three-dimensional structure. To build knowledge in understanding of anatomy, of the human inner and middle ear, from the 3D modeling and dissection experiment. Using DICOM images from a computerized axial tomography of the human ear converted to a 3D model (Mimics) and cadaveric dissections of the temporal bone, the bony and soft structures of the external, middle, and internal ear were designed, using organic modeling software. A standard operating protocol, 3D modeling of the middle and inner ear and 3D printing of the structures was created, differentiating each one by color. In this case, the dissection and modeling of the anatomical pieces was fundamental in the teaching and learning of this area of science, allowing expanded knowledge from the search for information, observation, analysis and reflection. The students showed fascination and deep learning in the practice carried out. The construction of explanatory models around qualitative experimentation allows an in-depth understanding of the different phenomena. The experimental activity overcomes the demonstration and facilitates thought process. The students achieve and in depth understanding of the middle and inner ear anatomy, acquired surgical skills, proposed and analyzed projects that allowed them to participate in academic event. They have also acquired additional skills, such as the comprehensive use of scientific knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dissection/education , Education, Medical/methods , Anatomy/education , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Printing, Three-Dimensional
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892

ABSTRACT

The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.


El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 281-291, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posterior tympanotomy through facial recess (FR) is the conventional and most preferred approach to facilitate cochlear implantation, especially when the electrode is inserted through the round window. The complications of the FR approach can be minimized by proper understanding of the anatomy of the FR. Objective The present study was undertaken to assess the various parameters of FR and round window visibility, which may be of relevance for cochlear implant surgery. Methods Thirty-five normal wet human cadaveric temporal bones were studied by dissection for anatomy of FR and posterior tympanum. Photographs were taken with an 18megapixels digital camera, which were then imported to a computer to determine various parameters. Results The mean distance from the take-off point/crotch of the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) to the stylomastoid foramen was 4.08 ± 0.8 mm(range of 2.06 - 5.5mm). The variations in the course of the CTN included origin at the level of the lateral semicircular canal. Themean chorda-facial angle in our study was 26.91° ± 1.19°, with a range of 25° to 28.69°. The mean FR length ranged between 9.4 mm and 18.56 mm (mean of 12.41 ± 2.91mm) and varied with the origin of the CTN and pneumatization of temporal bone. The average maximum width of the FR was 2.93 ± 0.4 mm (range 2.24-3.45 mm) and the mean width of the FR at the level of the round window was 2.65 ± 0.41 mm. Conclusion The FR approach provides good access to the round windowmembrane in all cases. In some cases, table adjustment is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Round Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Implantation , Facial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Tympanic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Chorda Tympani Nerve/anatomy & histology , Dissection
6.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 311-316, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Sigmoid sinus (SS) variations have been classified variously in the literature. These classifications suffer from some form of shortcoming from a clinical point of view for their application. Objective We propose a clinically relevant classification of the SS in relation to the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) and to the exposure of the presigmoid dural plate. The positioning of the SS was analyzed with reference to the volume of themastoid and to the level of mastoid pneumatization. Methods A total of 94 formalin-preserved human cadaveric temporal bones were microdissected to carry out a complete mastoidectomy. The SS, the presigmoid dural plate, and the PSCCwere exposed, and the position of the former was analyzed in relation to the latter two in order to classify the position of the SS into three grades. Results GradeI hadthebest exposureof the presigmoid dura andof the PSCC,while grade III had the poorest exposure of the presigmoid dura and of the PSCC. Grade I SS was associated with good pneumatization and highermastoid volumescompared with grades II and III. Conclusions The SS exhibits considerable anatomic variability. A favorable positioning of the SS is associated with a large mastoid volume and pneumatization. A careful preoperative study of the imaging may help in understanding the positioning of the SS and the safety of various transmastoid approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Mastoid/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Semicircular Canals/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Mastoidectomy
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 435-446, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019586

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Various aspects of the round window anatomy and anatomy of posterior tympanum have relevant implications for designing cochlear implant electrodes and visualizing the round window through facial recess. Preoperative information about possible anatomical variations of the round window and its relationships to the adjacent neurovascular structures can help reduce complications in cochlear implant surgery. Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the common variations in round window anatomy and the relationships to structures of the tympanum that may be relevant for cochlear implant surgery. Methods: Thirty-five normal wet human cadaveric temporal bones were studied by dissection for anatomy of round window and its relation to facial nerve, carotid canal, jugular fossa and other structures of posterior tympanum. The dissected bones were photographed by a digital camera of 18 megapixels, which were then imported to a computer to determine various parameters using ScopyDoc 8.0.0.22 version software, after proper calibration and at 1× magnification. Results: When the round window niche is placed posteriorly and inferiorly, the distance between round window and vertical facial nerve decreases, whereas that with horizontal facial nerve increases. In such cases, the distance between oval window and round window also increases. Maximum height of the round window in our study ranged from 0.51-1.27 mm (mean of 0.69 ± 0.25 mm). Maximum width of round window ranged from 0.51 to 2.04 mm (mean of 1.16 ± 0.47 mm). Average minimum distance between round window and carotid canal was 3.71 ± 0.88 mm (range of 2.79-5.34 mm) and that between round window and jugular fossa was 2.47 ± 0.9 mm (range of 1.24-4.3 mm). Conclusion: The distances from the round window to the oval window and facial nerve are important parameters in identifying a difficult round window niche. Modification of the electrode may be a better option than drilling off the round window margins for insertion of cochlear implant electrodes.


Resumo Introdução: Vários aspectos da anatomia da janela redonda e da anatomia da caixa timpânica posterior são relevantes, devido a suas implicações no desenho dos eletrodos para o implante coclear e na visibilidade da janela redonda através do recesso facial. Informações prévias sobre possíveis variações anatômicas da janela redonda e suas relações com as estruturas neurovasculares adjacentes podem ajudar a reduzir as complicações dessa cirurgia. Objetivo: O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar as diversas variações da anatomia da janela redonda e sua relação com as estruturas adjacentes, o que pode ser relevante para a cirurgia de implante coclear. Método: Trinta e cinco ossos temporais normais de cadáveres humanos frescos foram dissecados para avaliação da anatomia da janela redonda e sua relação com o nervo facial, canal carotídeo, fossa jugular e outras estruturas da caixa timpânica posterior. Os ossos dissecados foram fotografados com uma câmera digital de 18 megapixels e as imagens importadas para um computador para determinar diversos parâmetros, utilizando-se o software ScopyDoc versão 8.0.0.22, após a calibração adequada e com ampliação de 1×. Resultados: Quando o nicho da janela redonda se encontra posicionado posteriormente e inferiormente, a distância entre a janela redonda e o nervo facial vertical diminui, enquanto aquela com o nervo facial horizontal aumenta. Em tais casos, a distância entre a janela oval e a janela redonda também aumenta. A altura máxima da janela redonda em nosso estudo variou de 0,51 a 1,27 mm (média de 0,69 ± 0,25 mm). A largura máxima da janela redonda variou de 0,51 a 2,04 mm (média de 1,16 a 0,47 mm). A distância mínima média entre a janela redonda e o canal carotídeo foi de 3,71 ± 0,88 mm (variação de 2,79 a 5,34 mm) e entre a janela redonda e a fossa jugular, em nosso estudo, foi de 2,47 ± 0,9 mm (variação de 1,24 ± 4,3 mm). Conclusão: A distância da janela redonda a partir da janela oval e do nervo facial são parâmetros importantes para a identificação do difícil nicho da janela redonda. A modificação do desenho do eletrodo pode ser uma opção melhor do que o broqueamento das margens da janela redonda para a inserção dos eletrodos no implante coclear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Round Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Tympanic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Oval Window, Ear/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Implantation , Dissection , Facial Nerve/anatomy & histology
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 260-265, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975582

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The literature shows that there are anatomical changes on the temporal bone anatomy during the first four years of life in children. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the temporal bone anatomy regarding the cochlear implant surgery in stillbirths between 32 and 40 weeks of gestational age using computed tomography to simulate the trajectory of the drill to the scala timpani avoiding vital structures. Objectives To measure the distances of the simulated trajectory to the facial recess, cochlea, ossicular chain and tympanic membrane, while performing the minimally invasive cochlear implant technique, using the Improvise imaging software (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, US). Methods An experimental study with 9 stillbirth specimens, with gestational ages ranging between 32 and 40 weeks, undergoing tomographic evaluation with individualization and reconstruction of the labyrinth, facial nerve, ossicular chain, tympanic membrane and cochlea followed by drill path definition to the scala tympani. Improvise was used for the computed tomography (CT) evaluation and for the reconstruction of the structures and trajectory of the drill. Results Range of the distance of the trajectory to the facial nerve: 0.58 to 1.71mm. to the ossicular chain: 0.38 to 1.49 mm; to the tympanic membrane: 0.85 to 1.96 mm; total range of the distance of the trajectory: 5.92 to 12.65 mm. Conclusion The measurements of the relationship between the drill and the anatomical structures of the middle ear and the simulation of the trajectory showed that the middle ear cavity at 32 weeks was big enough for surgical procedures such as cochlear implants. Although cochlear implantation at birth is not an indication yet, this study shows that the technique may be an option in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Cochlea/surgery , Cochlear Implantation/methods , Tympanic Membrane/surgery , Cadaver , Pregnancy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Intervention Studies , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Ear Ossicles/surgery , Stillbirth , Facial Nerve/surgery , Ear, Inner/surgery
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1239-1242, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893121

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The pterion, a landmark for neurosurgery, is the weakest part of the skull owing to relatively thin bone. Variant patterns of pterion can confuse the clinicians during diagnosis of the lateral skull fractures in emergency situations. Thedifferent pterion types of many races have been reported but not of Thais. In this study; therefore, we investigated the incidence of sutural pterion patterns on of Thai skulls. The infratemporal fossa of 110 sides from 55 dried skulls identified as Thais were observed and classified for individual pterion types. The results showed that the pterion patterns can be classified into 4 types; spheno-parietal (87.27 %), fronto-temporal (4.55 %), uni-epipteric (6.36 %), and multi-epipteric (1.82 %) types. It was found that the spheno-parietal type was dominant in males (61.81 %) than in females (25.45 %). The majority of the skulls showed bilateral symmetry (85.45 %) in all types and the unilateral ones were far less (14.55 %). In bilateral pterion incidence, the spheno-parietal type was approximately 93.61 % while the uni-epipteric type was not found. Moreover, the bilateral multi-epipteric type was found only in one female skull (2.13 %). These findings will be useful for the radiologists and the neurosurgeons concerning lateral skull fractures in emergency diagnosis.


RESUMEN: El pterion es un punto de referencia para la neurocirugía, y es la parte más débil del cráneo debido a estar conformado por hueso relativamente delgado. Los diversos patrones de pterion pueden confundir a los clínicos durante el diagnóstico de fracturas laterales de cráneo en situaciones de emergencia. Con excepción de los tailandeses, diferentes tipos de pterion se han reportado en muchas razas. hemos investigado la incidencia de diversos patrones de pterion en cráneos de Tailandia. Analizamos 110 fosas infratemporales, correspondientes a 55 cráneos secos del Noreste de Tailandia y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tipo de pterion. Los resultados mostraron que el pterion puede clasificarse en 4 tipos: esfeno-parietal (87,27 %), fronto-temporal (4,55 %), epiptérico (3,63 %) y multi-epiptérico (1,81 %). Se encontró que el tipo esfeno-parietal tuvo mayor incidencia en hombres (61,81 %) que en mujeres (25,45 %). Además, la incidencia de simetría bilateral (85,45 %) fue mayor que la unilateral (14,55 %). A nivel bilateral, el tipo esfeno-parietal fue de 93,61 %, mientras que el tipo epiptérico no se observó. Por otra parte, el tipo multiepiptérico fue encontrado bilateralmente en un solo cráneo femenino (2,13 %). Esta incidencia puede ser utilizada como un conocimiento básico para los radiólogos tailandeses sobre las fracturas laterales del cráneo en un diagnóstico de emergencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frontal Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Thailand
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1223-1227, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840871

ABSTRACT

Skeletal remains are crucial in forensic identification of the sex, especially human skulls including the styloid process, a bony projection from the skull. Hence, the objectives of the present study were undertaken to assess the value of the styloid process for the sex identification of unknown skulls and also to investigate the prevalence of elongated styloid process in 102 human dry skulls from the northeast Thai population. As a result, the interstyloid distances at both base and tip of the styloid processes were found to be significantly different between male and female specimens, although no significant difference was found in the length of the styloid process between males and females. In addition, the occurrence of the elongated styloid process was not associated with the gender, although its prevalent laterality on the left was recognized. It is suggested that the styloid process can be applied to the sex identification by measuring the interstyloid distance at the base or the tip of these processes.


Los restos óseos son cruciales para la identificación forense del sexo, especialmente en los cráneos humanos, incluyendo el proceso estiloides, una proyección ósea del cráneo. Por lo tanto, los objetivos del presente estudio consistieron en evaluar el valor del proceso estiloides en la identificación del sexo de cráneos desconocidos y también para investigar la prevalencia del proceso estiloides elongado en 102 cráneos secos humanos de la población del Noreste de Tailandia. Como resultado, se encontró que las distancias inter-estiloides tanto en la base y la punta de los procesos estiloides eran significativamente diferentes entre las muestras de hombres y mujeres, aunque no se encontró diferencia significativa en la presencia del proceso estiloides entre ambos. Además, la aparición del proceso estiloides elongado no se asoció con el sexo, aún cuando se observó su prevalencia en el lado izquierdo. Sugerimos que el proceso estiloides se puede utilizar en la identificación del sexo mediante la medición de la distancia inter-estiloide en la base o en la punta de estos procesos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Characteristics , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Forensic Anthropology , Ossification, Heterotopic , Temporal Bone/pathology , Thailand
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1414-1418, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840902

ABSTRACT

The infratemporal spine, or sphenoidal tubercle, is a bony structure described in both classical anatomical literature and contemporary literature. However, the available literature does not mention the specific anatomical characteristics or the distribution of this bony element in the population. The aim of this study was to define this structure, identify its presence, and identify its morphology in a sample of Chilean human skulls. Fifty-seven dry skulls, obtained from the morphology unit at Universidad de los Andes, were used. The great wings of the sphenoid bone on both sides of the skull were evaluated in search of the infratemporal spine. These spines were classified according to their morphological characteristics of either laminar, pyramidal, or truncated pyramidal, as they related to the infratemporal crest and as they related to the pterygoid process. The presence of the infratemporal spine was found in 100 % of the studied skulls, unilaterally or bilaterally. The most common morphology was found to be laminar (40 %), followed by pyramidal (35 %), and, finally, truncated pyramidal (24 %). The majority (73 %) of these infratemporal spines was closely associated with the pterigoyd process with a complete or partial relation, with fewer (34 %) being associated with the infratemporal crest.


La espina infratemporal o tubérculo esfenoidal es un reparo óseo mencionado tanto en la literatura anatómica clásica como en los artículos más actuales. Las publicaciones disponibles no mencionan las características anatómicas ni la distribución en la población de este elemento óseo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue definir, identificar la presencia y describir la morfología de la espina infratemporal en una muestra de población chilena. Se utilizaron 57 cráneos secos de la unidad de anatomía de la Universidad de los Andes. Se evaluaron las alas mayores del hueso esfenoides tanto derechas como izquierdas en búsqueda de la espina infratemporal. Se clasificaron según sus características morfológicas, siendo piramidal, piramidal truncada o laminar, según su relación con la cresta infratemporal y según su relación con el proceso pterigoideo. Se encontró la presencia de la espina infratemporal en un 100 % de los cráneos estudiados, ya sea de manera uni o bilateral. La morfología más común correspondió a laminar con un 40 %, seguido de piramidal con un 35 % y finalmente un 24 % de morfología piramidal truncada. Se relacionaron más bien con el proceso pterigoideo ya sea de manera completa o media (73 %) y en menor medida con la cresta infratemporal (34 %).


Subject(s)
Humans , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Chile , Skull/anatomy & histology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 251-254, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-743793

ABSTRACT

The jugular foramina (JF) are bilateral openings situated between the lateral part of the occipital bone and the petrous part of the temporal bones in the human skull. It is a bony canal transmitting neurovascular structures from the posterior cranial fossa through the base of the skull to the carotid space. Since the JF depicts variations in shape, size, height and volume between different racial and gender groups, along with distinctive differences in laterality from its intracranial to extracranial openings, knowledge of the JF may be necessary to understand intracranial pathologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphometric measurements of the jugular foramen. Various morphometric parameters of the JF and its relation to surrounding structures were measured and assessed in 73 dry skull specimens (n=146). Each of the morphometric parameters measured were statistically analyse using SPSS to determine the existence of a possible relationship between the parameters and sex, race, age and laterality. The comparisons of sex and age with the distance between the JF and lateral pterygoid plate and distance between the JF and foramen magnum yielded statistically significant p values of 0.0049 and 0.036, respectively. The results of this study correlated with that of previous studies indicating that measurements regarding the JF are greater on the right side. The provision of morphometric data pertaining to the JF and surrounding structures may assist surgeons and clinicians during operative procedures.


Los forámenes yugulares (FY) son aberturas bilaterales situadas entre la parte lateral del hueso occipital y la porción petrosa del hueso temporal del cráneo humano. Se trata de un canal óseo que da paso a estructuras neurovasculares de la fosa craneal posterior a través de la base del cráneo hasta el espacio carotídeo. Ya que el FY representa variaciones en la forma, tamaño, altura y volumen entre diferentes grupos raciales y sexo, además de las diferencias distintivas en la lateralidad desde sus aperturas intracraneales a las aperturas extracraneales, se hace necesario su conocimiento con el objetivo de comprender las patologías intracraneales. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las mediciones morfométricas del FY. Se midieron y evaluaron muestras de 73 cráneos secos, bilateralmente (n=146). Se estudiaron varios parámetros morfométricos del FY y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. Cada uno de los parámetros morfométricos medidos fue analizado estadísticamente con el programa SPSS para determinar la existencia de una posible relación entre los parámetros y sexo, raza, edad y lateralidad. Las comparaciones de sexo y edad con la distancia entre la placa pterigoidea lateral y el FY, y la distancia entre el FY y el foramen magno, arrojaron valores de p significativos de 0,0049 y 0,036, respectivamente. Los resultados de este estudio se correlacionaron con estudios previos que indican que las mediciones relativas al FY son mayores en el lado derecho. El suministro de datos morfométricos relativos al FY y las estructuras circundantes puede ayudar a los cirujanos y clínicos durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalometry , Occipital Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908110

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: las lesiones en el hueso temporal ocurren en el 30 a 70% de los casos de traumatismo de cráneo cerrado, siendo los accidentes automovilísticos causa del 31%. En general, las líneas de fractura corren paralelas a la línea del golpe entregado y se extienden a través de los agujeros de la base del cráneo, puntos débiles del hueso temporal. Estas se denominan como longitudinal o transversal, a pesar de que la mayoría son en realidad mixtas. Las fracturas bilaterales tienen una incidencia menor de 8-29%. Objetivo: Analizar los tipos de fracturas temporales más frecuentes y las modificaciones de éstas sobre su anatomía en correlación con la clínica del paciente y los exámenes de TAC. Diseño: Retrospectivo de corte transversal. Población: Niños y adultos jóvenes de ambos sexos. Método: Es un trabajo retrospectivo transversal con revisión de historias clínicas de niños y adultos jóvenes, más disecciones microanatómicas en cadáveres adultos de ambos sexos, fijados en formol al 10%. Resultados: Se recolectaron 10 pacientes; 8 de sexo masculino y 2 femeninos, del total 2 son niños. Todos con procedencia de Córdoba, consultan por zumbido, hipoacusia y mareo o desequilibrio postraumático. Uno de ellos niño de 13 años con hipoacusia bilateral y supuración de oído. Al grupo se suma una parálisis facial recuperada con tratamiento clínico. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de la anatomía, con el apoyo de la tomografía computada de oído, y los estudios audiológicos son fundamentales para el diagnóstico clínico y topográfico de la lesión.


Background: lesions occur in the temporal bone in the 30 to 70% of cases of closed skull trauma. Being car accidents cause 31%. In general, the fracture lines run parallel to the line of blow delivered and extend through the holes to the skull base, temporal bone weak points. These are denominate as longitudinal or transverseal, though most are actually mixed. The bilateral fractures have a lower incidence of 8-29%. Objetive: analize the types of temporal fractures the most frequent and modifications of these on their anatomy correlated with the patient’s clinical and computed tomography exams. Design: transversal cut retrospective. Population: children and young adults of both sexes. Method: it is a transversal retrospective study with review of clinical records of children and young adults more microanatomic dissections in adult cadavers of both sexes, fixed in 10% formalin. Results: 10 patients were collected; 8 male and 2 female, total 2 are children. All of them are from Córdoba, complaining of tinnitus, hearing loss and dizziness or post traumatic imbalance. The age average is to 22 years old. The 50% is given by automobile accidents, also presented cases of labor accident, drop height and flattening. One of them, a child to 13 years old with bilateral hearing loss and ear drainage. The group adds a facial paralysis recovered with clinical treatment. Conclusions: knowledge of anatomy, with supported by computed tomography ear, and audiological studies are essential for clinical diagnosis and topographic of the lesion.


Antecedentes: as lesões no osso temporal ocorrem em 30% a 70% dos casos de traumatismo de crânio fechado, sendo os acidentes automobilísticos causa de 31%. Em geral, as linhas de fratura correm paralelas à linha do golpe e se estendem através dos orifícios da base do crânio, pontos frágeis do osso temporal. Estas são denominadas como longitudinal ou transversal, a pesar de, na verdade, a maioria ser mista. As fraturas bilaterais tem uma incidência menor de 8-29%. Objetivo: Analisar os tipos de fraturas temporais mais frequentes e as modificações destas sobre a sua anatomia em correlação com a clínica do paciente e os exames de TAC. Desenho: Retrospectivo de corte transversal População: Crianças e jovens adultos em ambos os sexos. Método: É um trabalho retrospectivo transversal com revisão de histórias clínicas de crianças e jovens adultos mais dissecações microanatômicas em cadáveres adultos de ambos os sexos, conservados em formol a 10%. Resultados: Foram coletados 10 pacientes: 8 do sexo masculino e 2 femininos, dos quais 2 são crianças. Todos oriundos de Córdoba, consultam por zumbido, hipoacusia e tontura ou desequilíbrio póstraumático. Um desses pacientes, um adolescente de 13 anos com hipoacusia bilateral e supuração do ouvido. Ao grupo, soma-se uma paralisia facial recuperada com tratamento clínico. Conclusões: O conhecimento da anatomia, com o apoio da tomografia computadorizada de ouvido e os estudos audiológicos, é fundamental para o diagnóstico clínico e topográfico da lesão.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Young Adult , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/injuries , Skull Fractures/classification , Skull Fractures/diagnosis
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [99] p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871603

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A paralisia facial periférica caracteriza-se pela interrupção, definitiva ou temporária, do funcionamento da musculatura facial. Decorre de lesão ou mau funcionamento das fibras do nervo facial. É uma enfermidade que causa enorme impacto estético e funcional. O topodiagnóstico e o tratamento da paralisia facial periférica pode requer abordagem médica e fonoaudiológica; ser exclusivamente medicamentoso ou associado à terapia de reabilitação, ou ainda, medicamentoso e cirúrgico, seguido da reabilitação da mímica facial. A via FCM tem sido usada para a descompressão do NF quando a audição precisa ser preservada. Esse acesso pode ser realizado de forma isolada, ou combinado à via transmastóidea. Objetivo: Descrever uma técnica inovadora para a descompressão do nervo facial via fossa craniana média que permite a exposição direta dos segmentos labiríntico e timpânico do nervo facial, com a preservação da função da orelha interna. Métodos: Vinte cabeças extraídas de cadáveres adultos de ambos os gêneros, sem sinais de malformação, traumatismo, doença ou manipulação cirúrgica prévia foram usados neste estudo. Os pontos de referência utilizados foram a artéria meníngea média, o nevo petroso superficial maior, a eminência arqueada, o seio petroso superior, e o plano meatal seguido no ápice petroso a partir da sua porção mais anterior e medial. Foi feita a dissecação do plano meatal, com visualização do meato acústico interno, seguido no ápice petroso a partir da sua porção mais anterior e medial até a região do gânglio geniculado. Foi aberto o tégmen timpânico e identificada a porção timpânica do nervo facial. A dissecação seguiu no sentido retrógrado da porção timpânica do nervo facial em direção ao gânglio geniculado, até a sua porção labiríntica. A aracnoide do meato acústico interno era aberta, e depois de identificado o nervo facial, a bainha deste nervo era aberta em extensão exposta. Resultados: As distâncias médias, entre o canal semicircular...


Background: Peripheral facial palsy is characterized by the permanent or temporary interruption of the functioning of the facial muscles. The middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach has been used for the decompression of the facial nerve (FN) when hearing needs to be preserved. In this work, we describe an innovative technique for the decompression of the FN through the MCF approach that allows the direct exposure of the labyrinthine and entire tympanic segment of the FN, with the preservation of inner ear function. Methods: Twenty cadavers heads were used in this study. The reference landmarks used were the middle meningeal artery, the greater superficial petrosal nerve, the arcuate eminence, the inferior petrosal sinus and the meatal plane following the petrous apex from its most anterior and medial portion. Results: The tympanic segment of the FN presented, on average, a total length of 11 ± 0.67mm to the right, and 11.5 ± 0.60mm to the left. The longitudinal lengths of bone window in the tegmen tympani were 16.8±1.67mm to the right, and 16.8 ± 1.20mm to the left. The cross-sectional lengths of the bone window in the tegmen tympani were 5.5 ± 1.20mm and 5.0±1.75mm to the right and left sides, respectively. The average value of elliptical area formed by the longitudinal and transversal lengths of the bone window made in the tegmen tympani were 72.5 ± 22.5mm2 to the right, and 65.9 ± 30.3mm2 to the left. Conclusion: The proposed technique can be used for the surgical decompression of the tympanic, labyrinthine and meatal segments of the FN through the MCF, without imposing a risk to hearing, in addition to reducing the surgical time and the risk to patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cadaver , Facial Nerve , Cranial Fossa, Middle/anatomy & histology , Cranial Fossa, Middle/surgery , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/surgery
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1444-1448, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734696

ABSTRACT

Pterion is a point of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis where frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bones meet. This craniometric point is related to various structures in the cranial cavity like middle meningeal artery, anterior pole of insula and Broca's area. This study was done to find most common variation in its shape and presence of epipteric bones and to compare with other racial groups from previous study. Fifty adult human skulls of unknown sex taken from Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Rsearch, Vallah (Amritsar, India) were examined on both sides for the type and position of the pterion. Four types of pterion formation were noted. Sphenoparietal was observed in 89%, frontotemporal in 7%, stellate in 4% and epipteric in 12% of cases. The pterion was found to be 3.1±0.44 cm on the right side, 3.4±0.40 cm on the left side from the frontozygomatic suture and 4.1±0.45 cm on the right side and 4.4±0.32 cm on the left side from the centre of zygoma. These variations in the sutural morphology is comparable to other population. Its position is of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons who deserve further investigation in population of different area.


El pterion es un punto correspondiente con el extremo posterior de la sutura donde se ubican los huesos frontal, parietal, temporal y esfenoides. Este punto métrico del cráneo se relaciona con diversas estructuras en la cavidad craneal como la arteria meníngea media y polo anterior de la ínsula en el área de Broca. Este estudio se realizó para determinar la variación más común de la forma y presencia de huesos epiptéricos y comparar estos con otros grupos raciales. Cincuenta cráneos humanos adultos de sexo desconocido obtenidos en el departamento de anatomía, Sri Guru Ram Das Instituto de Ciencias Médicas e Investigaciones, Vallah (Amritsar, India) fueron examinados en ambos lados para el tipo y posición del pterion. Se observaron cuatro tipos de formación. Esfenoparietal en el 89% de las muestras, fronto temporal en el 7% de las muestras, estrelladas en 4% y epiptérico en el 12% de los casos. Desde la sutura frontocigomática el pterion se encontraba a 3,1±0,44 cm en el lado derecho, 3,4±0,40 cm en el lado izquierdo y desde el centro del hueso cigomático a 4,1±0,45 cm en el lado derecho y 4,4±0,32 cm en el lado izquierdo. Estas variaciones en la morfología de la sutura son comparables a otras poblaciones. Su posición es de interés para los antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, y merece una mayor investigación en poblaciones de diferentes regiones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Frontal Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Anatomic Variation , India
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 208-213, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708748

ABSTRACT

The pterion is an important landmark on the side of the skull as it overlies both the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery and the lateral cerebral fissure intracranially. The study was carried out to determine the pterion types and define its distances to some neighboring structures in dry human skulls of Southern Nigerians. The study comprised 50 dry human skulls of unknown sex and age obtained from selected Nigerian Universities. Sutural patterns of the pterion on both sides of each skull based on the description of Murphy (1956), were observed and recorded. Distances of the pterion to neighboring structures were also measured using digital vernial caliper. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and chi-square contingency table with the aid of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16. P<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results showed that the most common type of Pterion in Nigerian skulls was sphenoparietal. There was no significant association between side of the head and pterion type. The mean distance of the pterion to the frontozygomatic suture was 31.56±2.47 mm taking both side together, (left side = 31.08±2.24 mm; right side = 32.06±2.62 mm). The mean distance of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch was 39.87±3.16 mm taking both sides together (left side = 39.52±3.32 mm; right side = 40.22±2.98 mm). The mean distance of the pterion to the glabella was 77.51±4.08 mm taking both side together (left side = 76.74±4.27 mm; right side = 78.27±3.77 mm). This will be useful in Surgery, Anthropology and for assessing the location of the pterion in incomplete archeological remains or forensic materials.


El pterion es un importante marcador del lado del cráneo, ya que se superpone a la rama anterior de la arteria meníngea media y a la cisura cerebral lateral por vía intracraneal. El estudio se realizó para determinar el tipo de pterion y definir las distancias con algunas estructuras cercanas, en cráneos humanos secos de nigerianos del Sur. Se utilizaron 50 cráneos humanos sin información de sexo y edad, obtenidos de Universidades. Fueron observados y registrados los patrones suturales del pterion en ambos lados de cada cráneo, basados en la descripción de Murphy en 1956. También se midieron las distancias del pterion hacia estructuras cercanas utilizando un cáliper digital. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a análisis estadístico mediante estadística descriptiva y prueba de chi cuadrado con el programa estadístico SPSS versión 16. Un valor P<0,05 se consideró significativo. El tipo más común de pterion en cráneos de Nigeria fue esfenoparietal. No hubo asociación significativa entre el lado del cráneo y el tipo pterion. La distancia media del pterion a la sutura frontocigomática fue 31,56±2,47 mm (al lado izquierdo = 31,08±2,24 mm, al derecho = 32,06±2,62 mm). La distancia media del pterion hasta el punto medio del arco cigomático fue 39,87±3,16 mm (al lado izquierdo = 39,52±3,32 mm; al derecho = 40,22±2,98 mm). La distancia media del pterion a la glabela fue 77,51±4,08 mm (al lado izquierdo = 76,74±4,27 mm, al derecho = 78,27±3,77 mm). Esta información es útil para la cirugía y antropología, así como también en la evaluación de la ubicación del pterion en restos arqueológicos incompletos o material forense.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Blacks , Nigeria
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. [97] p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719941

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A ampliação dos critérios de indicação para cirurgia do implante coclear e os benefícios da preservação da audição residual no pósoperatório estimularam o desenvolvimento de técnicas cirúrgicas atraumáticas. Minimizar os traumas intracocleares durante a inserção do feixe de eletrodos do implante coclear é um passo fundamental para este intuito. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar se o trauma intracoclear é diferente quando o feixe de eletrodos do implante coclear é inserido através do quadrante anterossuperior ou anteroinferior da membrana da janela redonda. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco ossos temporais frescos de cadáveres humanos foram submetidos à timpanomastoidectomia padrão. Após exposição adequada da membrana da janela redonda, em metade dos ossos o feixe de eletrodos do implante coclear foi inserido via quadrante anterossuperior da membrana da janela redonda, e na outra metade via quadrante anteroinferior. Os ossos temporais foram desidratados e embebidos em epóxi, com o feixe de eletrodos in situ. As peças foram serialmente polidas, tingidas e visualizadas por meio de estereomicroscópio para avaliar o trauma intracoclear causado pela inserção do feixe de eletrodos. As imagens foram fotografadas. RESULTADOS: Em treze ossos temporais o feixe de eletrodos do implante coclear foi inserido via quadrante anterossuperior da membrana da janela redonda, e em doze ossos via quadrante anteroinferior. Obteve-se 372 superfícies. As análises histológicas revelaram diferentes graus de traumas às estruturas intracocleares. Os resultados mostraram que a inserção do feixe de eletrodos via quadrante anterossuperior ou anteroinferior acarretam a mesma frequência de trauma intracoclear. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de trauma intracoclear e a severidade dos traumas ocorridos no tocante à inserção do feixe de eletrodos de implante coclear pelo quadrante anterossuperior e anteroinferior da membrana da janela redonda não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa...


INTRODUCTION: The expansion of the indication criteria for cochlear implant surgery and the benefits of preserving residual hearing postoperatively have stimulated the development of atraumatic surgeries. Minimizing the intracochlear traumas during the electrodes insertion is a critical step for this aim. The objective of this study is to assess whether there is a difference in intracochlear trauma when the cochlear implant electrode array is inserted through the anterior-superior or anterior-inferior quadrants of the round window membrane. METHODS: Twenty-five fresh human temporal bones were submitted to standard tympanomastoidectomy. After adequate exposure of the round window membrane, in half of the bones the cochlear implant electrode array was inserted via anterior-superior quadrant of round window membrane and in the other half via anterior-inferior quadrant. The temporal bones were dehydrated and embedded in epoxy with the electrodes array in situ. The specimens were serially polished, stained and viewed through a stereomicroscope to assess the intracochlear trauma caused by insertion of the electrode array. Resulting images were documented. RESULTS: In thirteen temporal bones the cochlear implant electrode array was inserted via anterior-superior quadrant of round window membrane and in twelve bones via anterior-inferior quadrant. Three hundred and seventy two surfaces were obtained. Histological examinations revealed varying degrees of damage to the intracohlear structures. The results showed that the insertion of the electrode array via anterior-superior or anterior-inferior quadrant lead to the same frequency of intracochlear trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intracochlear trauma and severity of traumas regarding the insertion of cochlear implant electrode array via anterior-superior and via anterior-inferior quadrant of the round window membrane showed no statistically significant difference. However, it was observed that surgical exposure...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Cochlea/injuries , Ear, Inner , Electrodes, Implanted/adverse effects , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Round Window, Ear/surgery , Round Window, Ear/injuries , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Cadaver , Humans
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. [103] p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719951

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A técnica clássica para o implante coclear é realizada por meio de mastoidectomia seguida de timpanotomia posterior. O acesso pela fossa craniana média provou ser uma alternativa valiosa, embora seja usada para o implante coclear, ainda sem normatização. Objetivo: Descrever um novo acesso pela fossa craniana média que expõe o giro basal da cóclea para o implante coclear. Métodos: Estudo anatômico de ossos temporais. Foram dissecados 50 ossos temporais. A cocleostomia foi realizada mediante um acesso via fossa craniana média, na porção mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea, usando o plano meatal e seio petroso superior como as principais referências anatômicas. Foi determinada a distância entre os pontos de referência, o ângulo entre o plano meatal e a cocleostomia, e a distância entre esta estrutura e a janela redonda. Foi realizada tomografia computadorizada em 5 dos ossos temporais utilizados neste estudo. Resultados: Em todos os 50 ossos temporais, apenas a porção mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea foi aberta e tanto as escalas timpânica como a vestibular foram visualizadas. As distâncias médias ± DP, menores e maiores, entre a cocleostomia e o plano meatal foram estimadas em 2,48±0,88mm e 3,11±0,86mm, respectivamente. A distância média da cocleostomia até a janela redonda foi de 8,38±1,96mm, e daquela até o seio petroso superior 9,19±1,59mm. As distâncias médias, menores e maiores, entre a cocleostomia e o eixo longo do plano meatal a partir da sua porção mais proximal foram estimadas em 6,63±1,38mm e 8,2±1,43mm, respectivamente. O valor médio do ângulo entre a cocleostomia e o plano meatal foi igual a 22,54±7,400. As tomografias computadorizadas demonstraram a inserção do feixe de eletrodos por meio do giro basal da cóclea até o seu ápice em todas as peças submetidas a este exame. Conclusão: A técnica proposta para identificar o giro basal da cóclea é simples e confiável. Igualmente, permite a visualização da escala timpânica e a...


Introduction: The classic technique for cochlear implantation uses mastoidectomy followed by posterior tympanotomy. The middle cranial fossa approach has proved to be a valuable alternative for cochlear implantation, although the standardization of this technique is still needed. Objectives: To describe a novel approach through the middle cranial fossa for exposing the cochlear basal turn for cochlear implantation. Materials And Methods: Anatomical temporal bone study. Fifty temporal bones were dissected. A cochleostomy was performed via a middle fossa approach on the most superficial part of the cochlear basal turn, using the meatal plane and superior petrous sinus as the main landmarks. The distance between the landmarks, the angle between the cochleostomy and the meatal plane, and the distance between this structure and the round window were measured. A computed tomography was performed on 5 of the studied temporal bones. Results: In all 50 temporal bones, only the superficial portion of the cochlear basal turn was uncovered. The cochlear exposure allowed both the scala tympani and vestibule to be exposed. The mean ± SD minor and major distances between the cochleostomy and the meatal plane were estimated to be 2.48±0.88mm and 3.11±0.86mm, respectively. The mean distance from the cochleostomy to the round window was 8.38±1.96mm, and that to the superior petrosal sinus was 9.19±1.59mm. The mean minor and major distances between the cochleostomy and the long axis of the meatal plane from its most proximal portion were estimated to be 6.63±1.38mm and 8.29±1.43mm, respectively. The mean angle between the cochleostomy and the meatal plane was 22.54±7.400. The computed tomography of all 5 temporal bones demonstrated the insertion of the implant array from the cochlear basal turn towards its apex. Conclusion: The proposed technique for identifying the cochlear basal turn is simple and trustworthy. Additionally, it enables visualization of the scala tympani...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cadaver , Cochlear Implantation , Cranial Fossa, Middle/anatomy & histology , Cranial Fossa, Middle/surgery , Cochlear Implantation/methods , Neuroanatomy , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/rehabilitation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.1): 7-11, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720403

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. METHODS: Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. RESULTS: The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. CONCLUSION: Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Ear/anatomy & histology , Ear/surgery , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Anatomic Landmarks/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/surgery , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/surgery , Models, Animal , Reproducibility of Results , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology
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