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1.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(3): e13620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the auditory skills of temporal resolution and ordering in people who stutter. Methods: an observational, cross-sectional, analytical, and comparative research between study and control groups conducted at a speech-language-hearing teaching clinic of an academic institution, comprising people who stutter (who attended a public outreach program) and volunteers without communicative disorders, for 13 months. The procedures used were auditory perception anamnesis, acoustic immittance, and pure-tone and speech audiometry to discharge hearing changes. The participants who met the eligibility criteria had their resolution and ordering skills assessed with the Gaps-in-Noise, Random Gap Detection, Pitch Pattern Sequence, and Duration Pattern Sequence tests and the data obtained were entered into a spreadsheet for descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Results: the study group presented changes in temporal resolution and ordering. A statistically significant difference was also verified comparing the assessment findings of the study and control groups, in all the assessment tests. Conclusion: temporal resolution and ordering changes were observed in the people presented with stuttering, regardless of sex or chronological age.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar as habilidades auditivas de resolução e ordenação temporal em pessoas que gaguejam. Métodos: estudo observacional transversal analítico e comparativo entre o grupo estudo e o controle. Realizado numa Clínica-Escola de Fonoaudiologia de uma instituição de ensino com pessoas que gaguejam atendidos em projeto de extensão universitária, bem como por voluntários sem distúrbio de comunicação, no período de 13 meses. Os procedimentos realizados foram anamnese de percepção auditiva, imitanciometria, audiometria tonal e vocal para descartar alteração na audição. Para os participantes que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, realizou-se a avaliação das habilidades de resolução e ordenação com os seguintes testes: Gaps in Noise; Random Gap Detection Test; Pitch Pattern Sequence; e Duration Pattern Sequence. Após a realização dos testes descritos acima, os dados obtidos foram alocados em planilha digital para análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: o grupo estudo apresentou alteração nas habilidades de resolução e ordenação temporal. Verificou-se, também, a diferença estatisticamente significante nos achados avaliativos dos grupos estudo e controle, quando comparados, para todos os testes realizados nas avaliações. Conclusão: observou-se alteração das habilidades de resolução e ordenação temporal nos indivíduos com gagueira, independentemente do gênero ou idade cronológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Speech Perception/physiology , Stuttering/physiopathology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 100-115, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123341

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El lóbulo de la ínsula, o ínsula, se encuentra oculto en la superficie lateral del cerebro. La ínsula está localizada profundamente en el surco lateral o cisura silviana, recubierta por los opérculos frontal, parietal y temporal. Objetivo: Estudiar la compleja anatomía del lóbulo de la ínsula, una de las regiones de mayor complejidad quirúrgica del cerebro humano, y su correlación anatómica con casos quirúrgicos. Material y Métodos: En la primera parte de este estudio presentamos los resultados de nuestras disecciones microquirúrgicas en fotografías 2 D y 3D; en la segunda parte de nuestro trabajo, la correlación anatómica con una serie de 44 cirugías en pacientes con tumores de la ínsula, principalmente gliomas, operados entre 2007 y 2014. Resultados: Extenso conjunto de fibras subcorticales, incluyendo el fascículo uncinado, fronto-occipital inferior y el fascículo arcuato, conectan la ínsula a las regiones vecinas. Varias estructuras anatómicas responsables por déficits neurológicos severos están íntimamente relacionadas con la cirugía de la ínsula, tales como lesiones de la arteria cerebral media, cápsula interna, áreas del lenguaje en el hemisferio dominante y arterias lenticuloestriadas. Conclusión: El entrenamiento en laboratorio de neuroanatomía, estudio de material impreso en 3D, el conocimiento sobre neurofisiología intra-operatoria y el uso de armamento neuroquirúrgico moderno son factores que influencian en los resultados quirúrgicos


Introduction: The insular lobe, or insula, is the cerebral lobe sitting deep in the sylvian fissure and hidden by the lateral surface of the brain. It is covered by the frontal, parietal and temporal operculum. Objectives: To study the anatomy of the insular lobe, one of the most complex parts of the human brain, and to correlate this anatomy with intraoperative findings. Materials and Methods: In the first part of this article we show the results of our dissections, documented in 2D and 3D, and focus on microsurgical anatomy. In the second part we correlate the anatomical structures with intraoperative findings from 44 insular tumor surgeries, mainly gliomas, of patients operated on from 2007 to 2014. Results: Huge bundles of subcortical fibers, like uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital and arcuate fascicles, connect the insula to the neighboring structures. Several anatomical structures related to neurological disabilities are closely related to insular surgery, like the middle cerebral artery, internal capsule, lenticulostriate arteries and cortical and subcortical language circuits. Conclusions: Microsurgical laboratory training, 3D documentation, knowledge of brain mapping and modern neurosurgical armamentarium are important factors in achieving good results with insular glioma tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporal Lobe , Brain , Brain Mapping , Cerebrum , Anatomy , Neuroanatomy
3.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 20(1): 27-29, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253536

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Todo tipo de trauma facial requer uma avaliação detalhada, a fim de compreender o histórico da lesão e possíveis sequelas. O trauma óculo-orbital não está entre as lesões mais frequentes na epidemiologia do trauma facial, embora esteja associado a altos índices de morbidade e sequelas graves, sendo necessário um acompanhamento multidisciplinar. O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar um caso clínico de trauma óculo-orbitário severo ocasionado por arma de fogo. Relato do caso: Paciente de 19 anos foi atendido em um serviço de cirurgia bucomaxilofacial, vítima de trauma por arma de fogo, com a presença de um objeto metálico incomum na órbita esquerda e região temporal. Exame clínico e tomografia computadorizada foram realizados, confirmando uma trajetória extracraniana do objeto. O paciente foi submetido à cirurgia sob anestesia geral, e o objeto foi removido pelo orifício de entrada na região orbitária esquerda. Após avaliação oftalmológica, as funções do olho esquerdo não puderam ser recuperadas. Considerações Finais: O diagnóstico correto e o tratamento rápido são imperativos para restaurar a função e a estética agradável na região traumatizada... (AU)


Introduction: Any type of facial trauma requires a detailed evaluation in order to understand lesion history and possible sequelae. Oculoorbital trauma is not between the most frequent injuries within facial trauma epidemiology, although, it is associated to high morbidity rates and severe sequelae, so that a multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary. To report a clinic case of severe oculo-orbital trauma caused by firearm. Case Report: Patient, 19 years-old, attended the oral and maxillofacial surgery service victim of trauma by gunshot with the presence of an unusual metallic object in the left orbit and temporal region. Clinical exam and computed tomography scan were performed, confirming an extra-cranial trajectory of the object. Patient was submitted to surgery under general anesthesia and the object was removed through the entrance orifice in the left orbital region. After ophthalmologic evaluation, functions of the left eye could not be recovered. Final considerations: Correct diagnosis and rapid treatment are imperative to restore function and pleasant esthetics in the traumatized region... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Orbit , Temporal Lobe , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Gunshot , Eye Injuries , Lifting , Facial Injuries , Foreign Bodies , Tomography
5.
San Salvador; s.n; 2020. 43 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1128212

ABSTRACT

La presente investigación se realizó en la Clínica de Epilepsia del Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social con el fin de identificar el riesgo suicida que existe en los pacientes con epilepsia de lóbulo temporal Farmacorresistente; identificar las características sociodemográficas de los mismos y determinar según el tiempo de evolución de los síntomas, el inicio de tratamiento farmacológico y la frecuencia de crisis al mes el riesgo suicida de cada paciente. Para esta investigación se utilizó una muestra de 166 pacientes que asistieron a su cita en la clínica de epilepsia a quienes voluntariamente se les aplicó la Escala de Tendencias Suicidas de Pöldinger para medir el riesgo suicida de cada uno. Del total de encuestados hubo una predominancia del sexo femenino correspondiendo a 107 pacientes (64.5%), mientras que del sexo masculino fueron 59 pacientes (35.5%). En esta investigación se observó un porcentaje de 18.7% de pacientes (31), clasificados en las categorías de tendencia y riesgo suicida. A pesar del aparecimiento de las crisis en la infancia temprana y hasta los 18 años (50.6%) de los pacientes, no representó significancia estadística para el riesgo suicida. La única variable con asociación estadística significativa para el riesgo suicida fue el tiempo existente entre el inicio de los síntomas y el inicio de tratamiento farmacológico el cual puede impactar negativamente en el neurodesarrollo. Por tanto, dentro de la población estudiada se detectó un 18.7% de pacientes con tendencia o riesgo suicida, porcentaje que supera el reportado por algunos estudios realizados en población general. La predominancia de sexo femenino, la edad, el estado civil y factores laborales y académicos en la población estudiada no mostraron tener asociación o diferencias estadísticamente significativas con respecto a la tendencia o riesgo suicida al igual que el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad y la frecuencia de crisis al mes, mientras que el tiempo de inicio del tratamiento farmacológico sí se asoció estadísticamente a tendencia y riesgo suicida.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Temporal Lobe , Epilepsy , Mental Health
6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(3): 251-258, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039650

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Brain lesion studies currently employ techniques such as computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. Famous neuropsychologist Alexander Romanovich Luria's studies on cognition were conducted without the use of imaging technology for many years, in a large number of patients with brain lesions, and explored complex behavior and specific brain functions involving the lobes and subareas. For instance, he carried out several specific studies on memory and mental organization, reported in his books. The objective of this study is to associate recent studies in neuropsychology with Luria's work specifically on the temporal lobe. According to the data studied, Luria's epistemological foundation remains the basis for neuropsychological studies today, but new data on the temporal lobe in relation to epilepsy and hippocampus analysis have been introduced into the scope of neuropsychology. This study focuses on earlier data from Luria's studies on the neuropsychological functions of the temporal lobe, comparing these with more recent data. However, in order to improve clinical aspects, a detailed study on the neuropsychological tests used for the temporal lobe should be performed.


RESUMO Atualmente, estudos de lesão cerebral implementam técnicas como tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética funcional, tomografia por emissão de fóton e tomografia por emissão de pósitrons. Estudos sobre cognição do neuropsicólogo Alexander Romanovich Luria foram realizados há vários anos sem o uso de tecnologia de imagem, com uma grande quantidade de pacientes com lesões cerebrais, envolvendo comportamento complexo e funções cerebrais específicas em relação aos lobos e suas subáreas. Por exemplo, ele realizou vários estudos sobre memória e organização mental mostrados em alguns de seus livros. O objetivo deste trabalho é associar estudos recentes em neuropsicologia com o trabalho de Luria sobre o lobo temporal, em específico. De acordo com os dados estudados aqui, a base epistemológica de Luria para os estudos neuropsicológicos atuais é ainda, fundamental, mas novos dados sobre o lobo temporal em relação à análise de epilepsia e hipocampo foram introduzidos no escopo da neuropsicologia. Neste trabalho foram priorizados os estudos das funções neuropsicológicas do lobo temporal dos dados anteriores dos estudos de Luria em relação aos mais recentes, no entanto, para fins de melhoria de aspectos clínicos, um estudo detalhado sobre os testes neuropsicológicos utilizados para o lobo temporal deveria ser realizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporal Lobe , Neuropsychology
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 335-340, Jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Religiosity and spirituality (R/S) are widely regarded as important allies against illness and suffering in general. Findings in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) suggest the temporal lobe as the anatomical-functional basis of religious experiences. Both R/S are relevant in patients with epilepsy (PWE) since epilepsy can lead to psychosocial issues for a significant portion of patients and their families. Objective: To investigate R/S in PWE, as well as the impact of different epileptic syndromes on patients' R/S. Methods: One hundred PWE and 50 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex and educational level were submitted to an interview, as well as three previously validated questionnaires: Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT-R), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31). Results: PWE's and control's mean ages were 35.9 ± 12.4 vs. 36.3 ± 18.1 years, mean schooling was 8.9 ± 3.7 vs. 10.1 ± 4.2 years. The mean age of epilepsy onset was 14.5 ± 12.1 and monthly frequency of seizures was 5.9 ± 12.6. INSPIRIT-R's scores were not statistically significantly different between patients and controls (3.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.0 ± 0.8); however, INSPIRIT-R's scores were significantly higher in TLE patients when compared with other epilepsy syndromes (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.9; p = 0.04). Conclusion: Temporal lobe epilepsy patients have higher levels of R/S.


Resumo Religiosidade e espiritualidade (R/E) são geralmente consideradas importantes aliadas no enfrentamento de doenças e sofrimento. Estudos na epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT) sugerem que o lobo temporal é a base anatômico-funcional de experiências religiosas. Além disso, R/E têm impacto na vida de pacientes com epilepsia (PCE), uma vez que a epilepsia frequentemente está associada a distúrbios psicossociais em pacientes e seus familiares. Objetivo: Investigar R/E em PCE, bem como o impacto de diferentes síndromes epilépticas na R/E dos pacientes. Método: Cem PCE e 50 voluntários saudáveis pareados por idade, sexo e nível educacional foram submetidos a uma entrevista, bem como três questionários previamente validados: Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT-R), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), e Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31). Resultados: As médias de idade de PCE e controles foram de 35,9 ± 12,4 vs. 36,3 ± 18,1 anos, com escolaridade média de 8,9 ± 3,7 vs. 10,1 ± 4,2 anos. A idade média do início da epilepsia foi de 14,5 ± 12,1 e a frequência de crises mensais foi de 5,9 ± 12,6. Os escores do INSPIRIT-R não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os pacientes e controles (3,0 ± 0,8 vs. 3,0 ± 0,8); entretanto, os escores do INSPIRIT-R foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com ELT quando comparados com outras síndromes epilépticas (3,2 ± 0,7 vs. 2,8 ± 0,9; p = 0,04). Conclusão: Pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal possuem níveis mais altos de religiosidade e espiritualidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Religion , Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe/psychology , Spirituality , Anxiety/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 51-56, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002605

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar los procesos atencionales a estímulos visuales que no requieren repuesta motora, se llevó a cabo un estudio con potenciales evocados a 17 niños con trastornos del déficit de atención/ hiperactividad (TDAH-I) con predominio inatento y a 15 controles de edades entre 7 y 11 años. Se analizó la latencia y localización de fuentes de los potenciales evocados visuales tempranos P100 y N100 durante la realización de una tarea oddball visual (20% rayas horizontales y 80% verticales) en que las rayas verticales no exigían respuesta motora. Los resultados indican que los niños con TDAH-I procesan la información visual que no requiere respuesta motora con un mayor aumento de la actividad cerebral y mediante la vía temporal ventral mientras que el grupo control lo hace mediante la vía parietal dorsal. Este proceso neurobiológico de procesamiento de la información visual vía temporal ventral de los niños con TDAH-I podría deberse a alteraciones en los procesos emocionales que influyen directamente en el reconocimiento visual o a un déficit en el control de los procesos atencionales por parte de la vía parietal dorsal.


To evaluate attentional processes to visual stimuli that do not require motor response, a study with evoked potentials was carried out on 17 children with attention deficit disorder predominantly inattentive (ADDH-I) and 15 controls between the ages of 7 and 11 years. The latency and localization of sources of the early visual evoked potentials P100 and N100 were analyzed during the performance of a visual oddball task (20% horizontal and 80% vertical lines) where the vertical lines did not require motor response. The results indicate that ADDH-I group process visual information that does not require motor response with a greater increase in brain activity and through the ventral temporal pathway, while the control group does so by means of the dorsal parietal stream. This neurobiological process of visual information processing by ventral temporal pathway of ADDH-I group could be due to alterations in emotional processes that directly influence visual recognition or as consequence of deficit in the control of attentional processes by the dorsal parietal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Parietal Lobe/physiology , Attention/physiology , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Perception/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 73-85, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777208

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present paper was to review the processing mechanisms of social cues in faces. We summarized researches relative to social cues in faces and discussed the processing mechanism of these cues from the aspects of facial expression, facial attractiveness, gaze and face direction, and lipreading. First, we discussed the general neural mechanism of face information processing and summarized the functions of face areas in the fusiform gyrus, posterior superior temporal sulcus and inferior occipital gyrus. Next, the neural mechanism of emotional face perception was discussed. The processing of emotional faces consists of encodings of perceptual and emotional components. The amygdala plays an important role in the emotional processing of facial expressions. Furthermore, the neural responses to facial expressions may be influenced by multiple factors, such as the type of emotion, the dynamic presentation of the face and the consciousness of facial expressions. With respect to facial attractiveness processing, studies has shown that the reward circuitry is activated by highly attractive faces. However, the influence of facial attractiveness on neural responses remains elusive. It is proposed that the neural responses to facial attractiveness might be modulated by factors such as the task, observer's sex, expectation and other social cues in faces. Eye gaze perception and face view perception are related to visual attention, and the relevant neural circuitry has been found to include attention-related areas, such as the intraparietal sulcus. Finally, research on lipreading reveals its important role in language perception. The auditory cortex and language-related cortex have been shown to be activated by lipreading. In summary, the present evidence may support facial information processing theory. However, the theory could be further improved based on present and future findings. Furthermore, we discussed the deficits in the processing of social cues in individuals with mental disorders and proposed future research directions in this field.


Subject(s)
Brain Mapping , Cues , Emotions , Facial Expression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Temporal Lobe , Physiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740159

ABSTRACT

Ramsay Hunt syndrome with the complication of encephalitis or meningoencephalitis is rarely reported and uncommon in immunocompetent patients. The radiological manifestations of such cases usually involve the cerebellum and brainstem or exhibit the absence of any abnormality. We report a case of a 78-year-old immunocompetent man hospitalized with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, who later developed meningoencephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid-study excluded other causes of meningoencephalitis, and the clinical diagnosis indicated varicella zoster virus meningoencephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased signal intensities in the bilateral temporal lobe, midbrain, and pons on T2-weighted imaging, and T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery and contralateral asymmetric pachymeningeal enhancement. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging revealed ipsilateral facial nerve enhancement.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Diagnosis , Encephalitis , Facial Nerve , Herpes Zoster Oticus , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningoencephalitis , Mesencephalon , Pons , Temporal Lobe
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739664

ABSTRACT

A 53-year old man who had a left hemiparesis from head injury of traffic accident 20 years ago visited an emergency room with suddenly developed semi-comatose mental status. Brain CT showed 8.6-cm sized solid and cystic mass on right temporal lobe that was associated with hemorrhage. Solid lesion showed a strong enhancement after an administration of contrast media. Because of severe mass effect, emergency operation was performed. The mass was an intraparenchymal lesion with yellowish cystic fluid and the firm reddish-brown solid lesion was hemorrhagic. The lesion was totally resected. Pathologically, anaplastic solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma was diagnosed with 70/10 high power fields. Postoperative radiotherapy of 50 Gy was done. Postoperative 2 months later, the patient was recovered to alert mental state. We report this unusual case of non-dural based intraparenchymal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma with high mitotic index and acute massive hemorrhage. Rapid tumor growth of hypervascular tumor might have a chance of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Contrast Media , Craniocerebral Trauma , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemangiopericytoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Mitotic Index , Paresis , Radiotherapy , Solitary Fibrous Tumors , Temporal Lobe
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739327

ABSTRACT

Crossed aphasia (CA) is defined as language impairment following right-hemispheric brain lesion in right-handed person. Exact mechanism responsible for CA is ambiguous, and recently several brain lesions have been proposed to be associated with aphasia using lesion mapping method. Corpus callosum has dual bloody supply which makes it less vulnerable to infarction. Speech difficulties such as stuttering after corpus callosum infarction have been reported in the past, but aphasia is rare, which makes CA more unique. We report an extraordinary case of CA after right corpus callosum infarction. A 74-year-old female patient with a previous history of right thalamus infarction with no neurologic sequela has developed language disturbance without apraxia 1 month ago and a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed newly developed infarction at right corpus callosum. The aphasia quotient of the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 2.5, implying severe global aphasia. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed decreased metabolism in right corpus callosum and left frontal and temporal cortex, suggesting that interhemispheric diaschisis may be responsible for the CA. This is an extraordinary case report of an isolated manifestation of CA secondary to right corpus callosum infarction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aphasia , Apraxias , Brain , Brain Infarction , Corpus Callosum , Electrons , Female , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metabolism , Methods , Stuttering , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739166

ABSTRACT

Temporal hollowing is a contour deformity that results in a concavity or hollowing of the temporal region, causing significant cosmetic problems that affect patients both physically and psychologically. For these patients, cranioplasty is needed for protective coverage of the brain and to restore a pleasing aesthetic contour to the cranium. We report a case in which titanium mesh was used as a customized craniofacial implant for a bony defect and a silicone implant was used for soft tissue augmentation of muscle and to address temporal fat pad atrophy. The procedure resulted in high patient satisfaction from an aesthetic standpoint and, importantly, restored a functional barrier resistant to trauma.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Atrophy , Brain , Congenital Abnormalities , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Silicon , Silicones , Skull , Temporal Bone , Temporal Lobe , Titanium
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762778

ABSTRACT

Dysplastic nevus is common and affects about 10% of the northern European-descendent population. Studies over the past several decades have identified dysplastic nevi as a risk factor for malignant melanoma. Furthermore, in rare cases, they confirmed that dysplastic nevi have progressed to melanoma. Cases in which dysplastic nevi progressed to malignant melanoma in multiple studies are not uncommon. A 35-year-old woman presented with the major symptom of multiple itchy brown nodules (2.0 cm× 1.3 cm) in the left cheek that had first appeared 20 years earlier. Complete excision was performed at the first visit; subsequent biopsy confirmed that they were dysplastic nevi. They recurred three times over 3 years at the same site, all of which were histologically diagnosed as dysplastic nevi. Five years after the final excision, a brownish nodule developed in the left cheek, with others at the left temporal region, right retroauricular region, and left shoulder at the same time. These lesions were histologically diagnosed as malignant melanoma. We experienced a case of malignant melanoma that occurred at the same site after three recurrences of dysplastic nevi. Although rare, the possibility of malignant melanoma should be considered in follow-ups in cases involving repeatedly recurrent dysplastic nevi.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Cheek , Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Melanoma , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Shoulder , Temporal Lobe
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760895

ABSTRACT

Eikenella corrodens rarely causes invasive head and neck infections in immunocompetent children. We report a case of epidural abscess caused by E. corrodens in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. On physical examination upon admission, there was no neck stiffness, but discharge from the right ear was observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed approximately 4.5-cm-sized epidural empyema on the right temporal lobe as well as bilateral ethmoid and sphenoid sinusitis, right mastoiditis, and right otitis media. During treatment with vancomycin and cefotaxime, purulent ear discharge aggravated, and on follow-up brain MRI, the empyema size increased to 5.6×3.4 cm with interval development of an abscess at the right sphenoid sinus. Burr hole trephination was performed, and foul-smelling pus was aspirated from the epidural abscess near the right temporal lobe. Pus culture yielded E. corrodens. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy was also performed with massive pus drainage, and the same organism was grown. The patient was treated with intravenous cefotaxime for 3 weeks and recovered well with no other complications. Therefore, E. corrodens can cause serious complications in children with untreated sinusitis.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adolescent , Brain , Cefotaxime , Child , Drainage , Ear , Eikenella corrodens , Eikenella , Empyema , Epidural Abscess , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mastoid , Mastoiditis , Neck , Otitis Media , Physical Examination , Sinusitis , Sphenoid Sinus , Sphenoid Sinusitis , Suppuration , Temporal Lobe , Trephining , Vancomycin , Vomiting
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766821

ABSTRACT

Pathological tilts of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in the roll plane are most sensitive and frequent clinical vestibular signs of unilateral lesions extending from the labyrinths via the brainstem and thalamus to the cortex. SVV deviations in cortical lesion are usually related with the parietoinsular vestibular cortex or superior temporal gyrus. We report isolated dizziness with contralesional SVV tilt with a focal infarction restricted to the right temporo-parieto-occipital junction.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem , Dizziness , Ear, Inner , Infarction , Stroke , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus , Visual Perception
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766016

ABSTRACT

A 51-year-old woman presented with severe dizziness. The brain magnetic resonance image revealed a 5.5 cm multiloculated mass with a thick rim in the left temporal lobe. Cytological examination of frozen diagnosis of the mass showed hypercellular sheets of round and rhabdoid cells in a hemorrhagic background, and two mitotic figures were observed. Histologically, the excised dura-based mass consisted of predominantly round cells with small foci of rhabdoid tumor cells in a pseudoalveolar pattern in a hemorrhagic background, and the cells showed nuclear positivity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 as well as frequent mitosis. The mass was diagnosed as a grade 3 solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The cytological diagnosis of SFT/HPC is challenging because of the heterogeneous cytological findings, such as histological heterogeneity, and because there are no standardized cytological criteria for malignant SFT/HPC. Cytological findings, such as singly scattered small cells, hypercellularity, rare ropy collagen, and round and rhabdoid cells with pseudoalveolar pattern, may assist in the diagnosis of malignant SFT/HPC.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Collagen , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Female , Hemangiopericytoma , Humans , Middle Aged , Mitosis , Population Characteristics , Rhabdoid Tumor , Solitary Fibrous Tumors , STAT6 Transcription Factor , Temporal Lobe
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of unique customized spectacles provided with modified side arms may be helpful in reducing benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) in patients describing periocular sensory tricks (ST). METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of patients with BEB with positive periocular or temporal region ST phenomenon response under the care of the Botox Clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK. Nine consecutive patients with BEB describing ST were recruited, and the disease frequency and severity were assessed with the Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) and the Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) before and after the use of the sensory trick frames (STF). RESULTS: A reduction in the score was noted in both severity (p = 0.0115) and frequency patterns (p = 0.0117) in the JRS in patients using the STF. A significant reduction of the BSDI score was also observed (p = 0.0314). CONCLUSION: All the patients selected and fitted with the STF had a reduction in spasms and related symptoms. This new device may be helpful in some selected BEB patients who previously responded positively to periocular pressure alleviating maneuvers.


Subject(s)
Arm , Blepharospasm , Botulinum Toxins , Dystonic Disorders , Eyeglasses , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spasm , Temporal Lobe
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The processing of emotional visual stimulation involves the processing of emotional and visuoperceptual information. It is not completely revealed how the valence and arousal affect these two aspects. The objective was to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on spatiotemporal characteristics of cortical information processing using distributed source imaging of event-related current density (ERCD). METHODS: Electroencephalograms (64 channels) were recorded from 19 healthy men while presenting affective pictures. Distributed source localization analysis was adopted to obtain the spatiotemporal pattern of ERCD on cortical surface in response to emotional visual stimulation. A nonparametric cluster-based permutation test was used to find meaningful time and space without prior knowledge. RESULTS: Significant changes of ERCD in 400–800 ms among positive, negative, and neutral emotional conditions were found in left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right inferior temporal cortex (ITC). In the PCC, the stimuli with higher arousal levels showed more negative ERCD than neutral stimuli. In the ITC, the ERCD for negative stimuli was significantly more negative than those of positive and neutral ones. CONCLUSION: Arousal and valence had strong influence on memory encoding and visual analysis at late period. The location and time showing significant change in neural activity according to arousal and valence would provide valuable information for understanding the changes of cortical function by neuropsychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Arousal , Electronic Data Processing , Electroencephalography , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Male , Memory , Photic Stimulation , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Temporal Lobe
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