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1.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(5): 587-594, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604486

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the level of morphometric and genetic variability among populations of Anastrepha pickeli Lima from several localities in Brazil, one locality in Bolivia and one in Paraguay. Traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were used, as well as sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). Six variables were measured from the aculeus for traditional morphometric analysis and 14 landmarks from the right wing were used for geometric analysis, using 10 specimes/population. The aculeus tip length, aculeus width at the end of the cloaca opening, and the serrate part length contributed with 62.7 percent for grouping. According to the results from traditional morphometry, there was no significant difference, but the multivariate tests showed that the canonical variables were statistically significant, indicating a difference in the wing conformation among populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the populations clustered into three clades and revealed a high level of genetic variation within A. pickeli populations from various geographic regions. Anastrepha pickeli populations differed among them according to the methods used in this study, showing incongruence among the methods used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/genetics , Genetic Variation
2.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(2): 212-216, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586658

ABSTRACT

Antennal sensilla of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. In the flagellum, there are trichoid, basiconic, clavate type I and II, and styloconic sensilla and microtrichia. Only microtrichiae and chaetica sensilla were observed in the scape and pedicel. The number of sensilla in the flagellum was similar between sexes. At the apex there was a higher density of trichoid and an absence of clavate sensilla, while basiconic sensilla were more abundant in the proximal region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Antennae/anatomy & histology , Sensilla/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 291-297, mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638065

ABSTRACT

Complex genitalia occur in many arthropods and in some species extreme female morphologies lead to serious mechanical difficulties for males. Tephritid flies offer examples of such complex genitalia. Because of their economic importance and the extensive use of sterile male releases for tephritid control in Texas and Mexico, studies have been done on various aspects of their basic reproductive biology, but the process of intromission has received little attention. The distiphallus of the male of Anastrepha ludens is complex. One membranous sac on the distiphallus is capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female along with stiffening of the basiphallus and may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm) into the ventral receptacle. We were unable to establish an association between some of the behaviours displayed by males during mating and intromission process. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 291-297. Epub 2011 March 01.


En muchos artrópodos, se observan genitales complejos; la morfología extrema en las hembras podría conducir a serios problemas mecánicos para los machos (Kamimura & Matsuo 2001). Las moscas tefrítidas tienen ejemplos de tales órganos genitales complejos. Debido a su importancia económica y la amplia utilización de machos estériles para el control biológico en Texas y México, se han realizado estudios sobre diversos aspectos de su biología reproductiva, pero el proceso de penetración ha recibido muy poca atención. El distiphallus de los machos de Anastrepha ludens es complejo. Un saco membranoso en el distiphallus es capaz de realizar ciclos rítmicos de inflación y deflación. El inflado de la bolsa cerca de la base del distiphallus, junto con la rigidez del basiphallus probablemente ayuda a impulsar el edeagus más profundamente en la hembra y orientar la vara genital (que no transfiere esperma) en la región del receptáculo ventral. No pudimos establecer una asociación entre algunas de las conductas mostradas por los machos durante el apareamiento y el proceso de intromisión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Copulation/physiology , Genitalia, Female/anatomy & histology , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/physiology , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/classification
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 78(1): 37-43, jan-mar, 2011. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396272

ABSTRACT

A mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus, tem, como principais hospedeiros primários, frutos de Myrtaceae. O tamanho do inseto pode ser indicador de aptidão e fecundidade, sendo os estudos morfométricos utilizados para auxiliar nestas identificações. Este trabalho objetivou verificar a associação entre peso dos frutos, pupários e tamanho das asas das moscas-das-frutas que se desenvolveram em diferentes mirtáceas. Foram amostrados frutos de araçazeiro-amarelo, araçazeiro-vermelho, goiabeira e goiabeira-serrana em cinco árvores de cada espécie. Os frutos foram pesados e os pupários oriundos destes pesados e individualizados. Registrou-se o número, sexo e área total da asa direita das moscas. Comparou-se o peso médio dos frutos, dos pupários e o tamanho de asas. O peso médio dos pupários foi maior em goiaba e araçá-vermelho. A maior área média de asa foi registrada nos indivíduos emergidos de goiabas e a menor, nos de araçá-amarelo. O peso dos frutos e dos pupários em araçá-amarelo, vermelho e goiaba-serrana não apresentaram associação significativa. Nas goiabeiras, a correlação entre o peso dos frutos e o dos pupários foi negativa. O peso dos frutos e a área da asa das moscas provenientes das espécies de mirtáceas não evidenciaram correlação. Os resultados indicam que a mosca é capaz de desenvolver-se de forma semelhante nas espécies de mirtáceas amostradas.


The fruit-fly Anastrepha fraterculus uses the myrtacean fruits as its main primary hosts. The insect size might be an indicator of aptitude and fecundity, and morphometric studies are used to help in those identifications. This study aimed to verify the association among fruit weight, puparial weight and wing size of fruit-flies that developed in different myrtacean species. Yellow strawberry guava, cattle guava, guava and feijoa fruits were sampled from 5 trees of each species. The fruits were weighed, and the puparia originated from them were also weighed and individualized. The number, gender and total right-wing area of the flies were registered. Mean fruit and puparial weights and wing sizes were compared. Mean puparial weight was higher in guava and cattle guava. The largest mean wing area was recorded for individuals from guavas; the smallest, for those from yellow strawberry guava. The fruit and puparial weights did not present a significant association in yellow strawberry guava, cattle guava and feijoa. In guavas, the correlation between fruit and puparial weights was negative. The fruit weight and wing area in all myrtacean species did not show any correlation. These results indicate the fly is able to develop similarly in all sampled myrtacean species.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/parasitology , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/growth & development
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 77(1): 33-41, jan-mar, 2010. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1381847

ABSTRACT

Devido à importância das moscas-das-frutas como pragas da fruticultura, este trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar as populações das moscas-das-frutas em pomares comerciais de goiaba na região do Cariri, Estado do Ceará, por meio de índices faunísticos e estudar a flutuação populacional dessas moscas ao longo do ano. Para isso, foram instaladas armadilhas McPhail nos Municípios de Barbalha, Crato e Juazeiro do Norte. As armadilhas foram examinadas semanalmente e as moscas capturadas foram triadas, conservadas em álcool a 70% e identificadas. Constatou-se que Anastrepha zenildae (Wiedemann), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart) e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) foram as moscas-das-frutas associadas à goiaba. Dessas, A. zenildae. A. sororcula e A. obliqua foram dominantes e constantes na região estudada, enquanto que A. fraterculus e C. capitata foram não-dominantes, mas também constantes. A. zenildae ocorreu em quase todos os meses do ano, exceto em outubro e dezembro de 2008, nos três pomares de goiaba do Cariri e com picos populacionais nos meses mais chuvosos e com temperaturas amenas.


Due to the importance of fruit-flies as pests in fruit growing, the present study was aimed to characterize the populations of fruit-flies in commercial guava orchards in the Cariri region (state of Ceará), Brazil, by means of faunistic indexes and to study their population fluctuation during the year. For this purpose, McPhail traps were installed in the counties Barbalha, Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. The traps were examined weekly and the captured flies were separated, preserved in 70% alcohol and identified. Anastrepha zenildae (Wiedemann), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were associated with guava fruits. Of them, A. zenildae. A. sororcula and A. obliqua were dominant and constant in the studied region, while A. fraterculus and C. capitata were non-dominant but constant. A. zenildae occurred in almost all months of the year, except October and December of 2008, with population peaks in the rainy season with its milder temperatures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/classification , Psidium , Brazil , Animal Population Groups
6.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(4): 491-496, July-Aug. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-525836

ABSTRACT

The morphology of the third-instar larva of Anastrepha leptozona Hendel is characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The antennomaxillary complex, oral ridges, labium, stomal sensory organ, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles and caudal segment are described and illustrated. Mature larvae of A. leptozona present a "ventral sclerite" below the pharyngeal sclerite which is characterized for the first time in Anastrepha species.


A morfologia da larva do terceiro ínstar de Anastrepha leptozona Hendel é descrita. São analisados, em microscopia de luz e de varredura, o complexo antenomaxilar, as margens da abertura oral, o bordo, o órgão oral, o esqueleto cefalofaríngeo, os espiráculos anterior e posterior e o segmento caudal. As larvas do terceiro ínstar de A. leptozona têm um "esclerito ventral" abaixo do esclerito faríngeo, o qual é caracterizado pela primeira vez em espécies de Anastrepha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/growth & development , Larva , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(1): 149-152, Feb. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510135

ABSTRACT

Ovarian sizes (length and width) were measured in young females of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) subjected or not to the inhibitor α -difluormethylornithine (α -DFMO). The most effective concentration of α -DMFO used was 50 mM and the ovarian measurements (length and width) of the treated females were smaller than those of females not treated with α -DMFO. These data may suggest some relationship between ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and sexual maturation in A. fraterculus.


As dimensões dos ovários (comprimento e largura) foram mensuradas em fêmeas jovens da Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) submetidas ou não ao inibidor α -difluormetilornitina (α -DFMO). A concentração mais efetiva de α -DMFO utilizada foi 50 mM e as medidas (comprimento e largura) das fêmeas tratadas com o inibidor foram menores que as fêmeas não tratadas com inibidor α -DMFO. Estes dados podem sugerir uma relação entre ornitina descarboxilase (ODC) e maturação sexual em A. fraterculus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Eflornithine/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ornithine Decarboxylase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ovary/drug effects , Tephritidae/drug effects , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/enzymology
8.
Neotrop. entomol ; 37(6): 651-661, Nov.-Dec. 2008. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507021

ABSTRACT

Neotropical Rhagoletis species are arranged in four groups: nova,psalida,striatella and ferruginea, which include 18 species. On both sides of the Andes, the evolution of morphological differences among these groups has been suggested to be related to the Andes uplift process. In order to test this hypothesis, a phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data was performed. The results suggest that: 1) Neotropical species of Rhagoletis constitute a separate group from Paleartic and North American species, with the only exception being a member of the striatella group having a certain association with the northern species. 2) Neotropical species seem to form a monophyletic clade, although statistical support for this is weak. 3) The split of South American Rhagoletis from other groups was dated at 4.333 million years ago, which is before the emergence of a continuous landbridge between Central and South América. 4) Within species distributed in South América, morphological and molecular data were coincident, placing species of the ferruginea group separate from the other Neotropical Rhagoletis. 5) The divergence of the ferruginea group from the other groups was dated at 3.882 million years ago, which is before the last uplift of the Andes. These results suggest that diversification of the ferruginea,psalida and nova groups, on each side of the Andes, was the result of a vicariant separation followed by dispersal and isolation processes. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that the Andes uplift has played an important role in Neotropical Rhagoletis diversification.


Las especies de Rhagoletis neotropicales han sido agrupadas en cuatro grupos: nova,psalida,striatella y ferruginea, constituyendo 18 especies. Se han descrito diferencias morfológicas entre estas especies a ambos lados de la cordillera de los Andes que podrían relacionarse con el proceso de levantamiento cordillerano. En este trabajo se evalúa esta hipótesis usando análisis filogenético de atributos morfológicos y moleculares. Los resultados muestran que: a) las especies Neotropicales de Rhagoletis constituyen un grupo separado de las especies Palearticas y Norteamericanas, con la excepción de un miembro del grupo striatella el cual presenta cierta asociación con las especies Norteamericanas; 2) Las especies Neotropicales parece conformar un clado monofilético; 3) La separación de los grupos Sudamericanos de otros grupos fue estimada en 4.333 millones de años antes del presente, proceso anterior a la emergencia del puente de tierra entre América Central y Sudamérica; 4) Dentro de las especies con distribución Sudamericana, los caracteres morfológicos y moleculares coinciden en ubicar algunas especies del grupo ferruginea separadas de especies de Rhagoletis Neotropicales. 5) La separación del grupo ferruginea fue estimada en 3.882 millones de años antes del presente, evento que precede al último levantamiento de los Andes. La diversificación de los grupos ferruginea,psalida y nova a uno y otro lado de la cordillera de los Andes parece responder inicialmente a un proceso vicariante y posteriores eventos de dispersión y aislamiento. Estos resultados sugieren que el levantamiento de los Andes habría participado en los patrones de diversificación de las Rhagoletis Neotropicales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/genetics , Geography , Phylogeny , South America
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 37(5): 536-545, Sept.-Oct. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498312

ABSTRACT

Rachiptera limbata Bigot desenvolve-se em Baccharis linearis (R. et Pav) na região de Santiago, Chile. As larvas alimentam-se dos caules e secretam um líquido, que em contato com o ar, forma uma câmara larval, onde ocorre a passagem para o estádio de pupa. Os estádios larvais das espécies neotropicais de Tephritinae são pouco conhecidos. O presente estudo descreve a morfologia dos estádios larvais de R. limbata, comparando-os com outras espécies de Tephritinae, em uma abordagem filogenética. Foram analisados, em microsopia de luz e de varredura, o complexo antenomaxilar, as dobras da cutícula, as margens da abertura oral, o esqueleto cefalofaríngeo, os espiráculos anterior e posterior e os lóbulos anais das larvas de primeiro, segundo, terceiro estádios e da pupa. O esqueleto cefalofaríngeo é altamente esclerotizado e apresenta um orifício ou abertura na cornua ventral, característica essa que parece ser plesiomórfica em R. limbata e outras espécies neotropicais. Os espiráculos anteriores estão ausentes nas larvas de primeiro estádio. Nas larvas de segundo e terceiro estádios são desenvolvida formando cinco túbulos curtos dispostos em fileira única. Nas larvas de primeiro e segundo estádios, as aberturas dos espiráculos têm cerdas únicas; nas larvas de terceiro estádio não há cerdas. Essa última característica parece decorrer de uma atraso no desenvolvimento (neotenia) da larva de R. limbata, quando comparada a outras espécies neotropicais e neárticas.


Rachiptera limbata Bigot develops on Baccharis linearis (R. et Pav.) in the areas around Santiago, Chile. The larvae feed on stem tissues and secrete a liquid that hardens to form a protective feeding and pupation chamber. The immature stages of Neotropical species of Tephritinae are poorly known. In this paper, the morphology of the immature stages of R. limbata are described and compared, in a phylogenetic context, with other Tephritinae species. Antennomaxillary complex, pads, oral ridge, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles and anal lobes of first-, second-, third-instar larvae and pupae were studied with optical and scanning electron microscopy. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton is darkly sclerotized and shows an opening or window in the ventral cornua. This trait seems to be plesiomorphic in R. limbata and in other Neotropical species. First-instar larvae anterior spiracles are absent; whereas in second and third instars spiracles are developed as a row of five short tubules. In first- and second-instar larvae, the posterior spiracular slit has only a single hair per bundle; whereas third-instar larvae lack hairs. This last trait seems to be consequence of a larval development delay and an apomorphic trait in R. limbata, compared to other Neotropical and Neartical species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asteraceae/parasitology , Tephritidae/growth & development , Tephritidae/physiology , Larva , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology
10.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 23(3/4): 455-462, July-Dec. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644249

ABSTRACT

Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata are widely distributed fruit flies that cause significant damageto fruit crops in tropical and temperate regions. The economic importance of these flies has resulted innumerous studies of their biology, with particular emphasis on their control and management. However,various aspects of the biology of these species are still poorly understood. In this work, we used scanningelectron microscopy (SEM) to examine the external anatomy and organization of the digestive system inthese two species. Adult males and females of A. fraterculus and females of C. capitata were dissected inphysiological saline solution, and the digestive tracts were removed and prepared for microscopy. SEMshowed that the crop was covered by a strong muscular layer that consisted of circular fibers connected bylongitudinal fibers; this arrangement was probably related to the post-feeding behavior of these flies in whichthe crop contents are regurgitated and reingested. The size of the rectum varied and was probably related tothe different body sizes of the two species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Digestive System , Digestive System Physiological Phenomena , Intestines/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tephritidae , Tephritidae/metabolism
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 34(6): 917-925, Nov.-Dec. 2005. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-451293

ABSTRACT

Four species of Tephritoidea, three from genus Anastrepha: A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi and A. serpentina (Wiedemann), and one from genus Ceratitis, C. capitata (Wiedemann) were compared based on puparium morphology and application of the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA). Puparia were characterized for the first time using the spiracular posterior plate morphology. Application of HMA allowed the detection of variability in the D2 domain from 28S rRNA gene in all four species (confirmed by sequencing). This is a fast, simple, sensitive and inexpensive assay that was used for the first time in the analysis of two Tephritoidea genera. The detected variability suggests that the tecnique has great potential for rapid determination of infestations with two or more species in the same host fruit.


Foram comparadas com base na morfologia do pupário e na técnica de HMA (Heteroduplex Mobility Assay)) quatro espécies de Tephritoidea, três delas pertencentes ao gênero Anastrepha, A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi e A. serpentina (Wiedemann) e uma do gênero Ceratitis, C. capitata (Wiedemann). Os pupários foram caracterizados pela primeira vez com base na morfologia da placa espiracular posterior. A aplicação da técnica de HMA possibilitou a detecção de variabilidade no segmento D2 do gene 28S rRNA nas quatro espécies (confirmada por seqüenciamento). Esta é uma técnica rápida, simples, sensível e barata que é aplicada pela primeira vez na análise de dois gêneros de Tephritoidea. A variabilidade observada sugere grande potencial da técnica no caso da determinação da infestação por duas ou mais espécies num mesmo fruto hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/genetics , Heteroduplex Analysis/methods , Pest Control , Pupa , Tephritidae/classification
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 62(4b): 775-786, Nov. 2002. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-339376

ABSTRACT

Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area), and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were analyzed at alternating (20º/6ºC and 20º/13°C) and constant (6°C; 25°C) temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Oviposition , Temperature , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/physiology , Fertility , Life Expectancy , Longevity , Ornithine Decarboxylase , Sex Factors , Time Factors
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