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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547

ABSTRACT

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.


El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921738

ABSTRACT

The terpenoids in Pogostemon cablin have complex structures and abundant pharmacological effects. Patchouli alcohol(PA) and pogostone(PO) have a high medicinal value by virtue of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and other biological activities. Due to the low content of terpenoid metabolites in P. cablin, the study of biosynthesis and metabolism regulation can provide a biosynthetic basis for obtaining high-content terpenoids. In this study, key enzyme genes in biosynthesis, transcription factors in metabolism regulation, spatio-temporal expression of terpene synthase were reviewed, aiming to provide a reference for the development, protection, and utilization of P. cablin resources.


Subject(s)
Pogostemon/genetics , Terpenes , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888112

ABSTRACT

Twenty-six compounds, including sixteen meroterpenoids(1-16), a triterpenoid(17), four terpenoid derivatives(18-21), and five aromatic compounds(22-26), were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and MS. Compounds 21-26 were obtained from plants of Psidium for the first time. Based on the structure,(R)-2-ethylhexyl 2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate(24 a), an α-glucosidase inhibitor recently isolated from Paramignya trimera, should be revised as compound 24. Meroterpenoids 1-16 were evaluated for their antitumor and antifungal activities. Meroterpenoids psiguajadial D(4), guapsidial A(5), 4,5-diepipsidial A(7), guadial A(14), and guadial B(15) showed cytotoxicities against five human tumor cell lines(HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480), among which 5 was the most effective with an IC_(50) of 3.21-9.94 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Psidium , Terpenes
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888101

ABSTRACT

Terpenes are the largest group of natural products and contain the widest assortment of structural types. Terpene cyclization is also the most complex reaction found in nature. For a long time, terpenoids with diverse structures have attracted natural product chemists to explore their biosynthesis mechanism. Such a large number of terpene skeletons are catalyzed by enzymes called terpene synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase is a kind of terpene synthase, which can catalyze the cyclization of linear precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) to sesquiterpene skeletons. Sesquiterpene synthase cyclize a single precursor FPP into many sesquiterpene skeletons. With the continuous discovery of sesquiterpene synthase, the cyclization mechanism of sesquiterpene synthase has been studied deeply. In recent years, with the development and improvement of isotope labeling of substrate FPP and structural analysis of sesquiterpene synthase, the structure and cyclization mechanism of sesquiterpene synthase have been studied more systematically and accurately. In this review, we reviewed the progress of the research methods on the mechanism of sesquiterpene cyclization by substrate isotope labeling and protein structure, as well as the summary and prospect of sesquiterpene synthase research.


Subject(s)
Cyclization , Sesquiterpenes , Terpenes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888100

ABSTRACT

The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887977

ABSTRACT

Ginkgolides,the unique terpenoids in Ginkgo biloba,have a significant effect on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Metabolic regulation and synthetic biology strategies are efficient methods to obtain high-quality ginkgolides. The present study reviewed the cloning and functions of genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of ginkgolides,as well as relevant studies of omics,genetic transformation,and metabolic regulation in recent years,and predicted the research trends and prospects,aiming to provide a reference for discovering the key genes related to the biosynthetic pathway and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides.


Subject(s)
Ginkgo biloba/genetics , Ginkgolides , Humans , Lactones , Plant Extracts , Terpenes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887956

ABSTRACT

Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of leaves of Chinese hawthorn(Crataegus pinnatifida var. major) by various purification steps, and their structures were determined as 2α,3α,12β,19α,-tetrahydroxyursan-13β,28-olide(1),euscaphic acid(2), tormentic acid(3), ursolic acid(4), pomolic acid(5), corosolic acid(6), maslinic acid(7), linalyl rutinoside(8),(Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucoside(9),(3S, 6S)-cis-linalool-3,7-oxide-β-D-glucopyranoside(10), pisumionoside(11), icariside B6(12), byzantionoside B(13),(6R,7E,9R)-9-Hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(14) and(6S,7E,9R)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(15) mainly based on the mass spectrum(MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopic techniques, of which compound 1 was a new pentacyclic triterpene, and compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 15 were isolated form this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
China , Crataegus , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Terpenes , Triterpenes
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2085-2104, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887783

ABSTRACT

Terpenoids are a group of structurally diverse compounds with good biological activities and versatile functions such as anti-cancer and immunity-enhancing effects, and are widely used in food, healthcare and medical industries. Facilitated by the increasing understandings on the natural biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids in recent years, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered into high-yield strains for production of a variety of terpenoids, some of which have reached or become close to the level required by industrial production. In this connection, synthetic biology driven biotechnological production of terpenoids has become a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and traditional extraction approaches. This article summarizes the recent process in engineering S. cerevisiae for terpenoids biosynthesis, highlighting the effect of synthetic biology strategies by taking a couple of typical terpenoids as examples.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1931-1951, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887773

ABSTRACT

Medicinal natural products derived from plants are usually of low content and difficult to extract and isolate. Moreover, these compounds are structurally complex, making it difficult to obtain them by environmental unfriendly chemical synthesis. Biosynthesis of medicinal natural products through synthetic biology is a novel, environment-friendly and sustainable approach. Taking terpenoids (ginsenosides, paclitaxel, artemisinin, tanshinones), alkaloids (vincristine and morphine), and flavonoids (breviscapine) as examples, this review summarizes the advances of the biosynthetic pathways and synthetic biology strategies of plant-derived medicinal natural products. Moreover, we introduce the key technologies and methods of synthetic biology used in the research of medicinal natural products, and provide future prospects in this area.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Biosynthetic Pathways , Plants , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879085

ABSTRACT

Diaporthe sp. fungi is one of the important sources of active natural products. Polyketides, alkaloids, terpenes, anthraquinones and other types of novel metabolic products are found from this genus, and many of them have significant anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-hyperlipidemia, inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis, antioxidant and other biological activities. This paper reviewed source, structure and biological activity of natural products from Diaporthe sp. in the past two decades, and provided a reference for in-depth study of natural product of this genus fungus and innovative drug development.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biological Products/pharmacology , Fungi , Polyketides , Terpenes
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888788

ABSTRACT

Terpenoid indole (TIAs) and β-carboline alkaloids (BCAs), such as suppressant reserpine, vasodilatory yohimbine, and antimalarial quinine, are natural compounds derived from strictosidine. These compounds can exert powerful pharmacological effects but be obtained from limited source in nature. the whole biosynthetic pathway of TIAs and BCAs, The Pictet-Spengler reaction catalyzed by strictosidine synthase (STR; EC: 4.3.3.2) is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their biosynthesis pathways, especially the role of STR, and related findings will support the biosynthetic generation of natural and unnatural compounds. This review summarizes the latest studies concerning the function of STR in TIA and BCA biosynthesis, and illustrates the compounds derived from strictosidine. The substrate specificity of STR based on its structure is also summarized. Proteins that contain six-bladed four-stranded β-propeller folds in many organisms, other than plants, are listed. The presence of these folds may lead to similar functions among organisms. The expression of STR gene can greatly influence the production of many compounds. STR is mainly applied to product various valuable drugs in plant cell suspension culture and biosynthesis in other carriers.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/biosynthesis , Carbolines/metabolism , Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases , Indoles/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200772, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eucalyptus species possess anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal properties. In this study, the chemical composition and biological activities of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil (EO) and the leaf and stem anatomy were investigated. EO was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified by GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, and reducing phosphomolybdenum complex. Broth microdilution was used to determine antimicrobial activity. Cytotoxicity was verified against HeLa, HRT-18, and Calu-3 cells by MTT assay. The cytotoxic mechanism was studied by cell DNA content, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation. The microscopic analyzes of the leaves and the stems were performed by light microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The main constituent of the EO was 1,8-cineole (55.24%). The EO showed low antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Calu-3 cells showed a significant reduction in viability with IC50 of 689.79 ± 29.34 μg/mL. EO at 1000 μg/mL decreased the DNA content in Jurkat cells. In general, EO increased cell percentage in sub-G0 and S phases with concomitant reduction of cell percentage in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and provided DNA fragmentation of 29.73%. Anatomical and micromorphological features of the leaves and stems can help in the species identification and its differentiation from other Eucalyptus species.


Subject(s)
Terpenes , Biological Phenomena , Oils, Volatile , Myrtaceae , Microscopy
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 15-28, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102865

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and acaricidal effect of two Psidium species essential oils and selected compounds on Tetranychus urticae. Essential oils from the leaves of Psidium laruotteanum and Psidium myrsinites were obtained through hydrodistillation, analyzed using CG-FID and CG-MS and evaluated for toxicity to T. urticae by fumigation and residual contact. The susceptibility of T. urticae to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was also investigated. The major constituents of the P. laruotteanum oil were (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) and γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) and the major constituents of the P. myrsinites oil were ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) and α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%). Based on the LC50 estimates, no significant differences were found between the two oils regarding toxicity by fumigation or residual contact. ß-Caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol had the highest level of toxicity, independently of the method investigated. The findings indicate that both oils and selected constituents, especially ß-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol, are promising as natural acaricidal agents that affect T. urticae through more than one mode of action.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Psidium laruotteanum y Psidium myrsinites se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, se analizaron por CG-FID y CG-MS, y se evaluaron sus toxicidades por fumigación y contacto residual contra Tetranychus urticae. Se investigó también la susceptibilidad del T. urticae a monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos. En el aceite esencial de P. laruotteanum, (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) y γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) se identificaron como constituyentes mayoritarios, mientras que en el aceite esencial de P. myrsinites, ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) y α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%) se encontraron como mayoritarios. Con base en las CL50 estimadas, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre las toxicidades de los aceites por fumigación, y tampoco por contacto residual. ßCaryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol presentaron las mayores toxicidades, independientemente del método investigado. Estos resultados indican, que los dos aceites, así como los constituyentes seleccionados, entre los que se destacan ß-caryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol, son promisores agentes acaricidas naturales por actuar en el T. urticae por más de un mecanismo de acción.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Psidium/chemistry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control , Fumigation , Acaricides/chemistry , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
18.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828376

ABSTRACT

The components of traditional Chinese medicine(TCMCs) are the basic unit of raw materials for Chinese medicines, and their physical and chemical properties directly affect the choice of dosage forms and the optimization of prescriptions. However, most of TCMCs are multi-component complex systems, and the characterization of their overall properties is still in the exploration stage. On the basis of biological activity, the representative components are determined, and then the individual characteristics are fitted with the weight coefficient of efficacy contribution rate, which may provide reference for characterizing the overall properties of TCMCs. In this study, with the pharmacological effects of isoproterenol(ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in rats as the indicators, the pharmacodynamic contribution rates of three representative components of chishao terpene glucoside components(CSTGCs) were evaluated by the normalization weighting method. The contribution rates of paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin were 54.87%, 32.46% and 12.67%, respectively. The oil-water partition coefficients of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin in water and buffer solutions with different pH values were measured, and the oil-water partition coefficients of CSTGCs were characterized by the weight of their pharmacodynamics contribution rate. The results showed that the apparent oil-water partition coefficient(log P) of CSTGCs in the phosphate buffer system such as n-octanol-water(pH 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 5.8, 6.8) were 0.18-0.22, indicating that CSTGCs have common absorption and low permeability, providing basis for the preparation of CSTGCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Artery Disease , Glucosides , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Ischemia , Rats , Terpenes , Water
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827942

ABSTRACT

Syringa plants are of important value in ornamental, economic and medical fields. The terpenoids in Syringa plants mainly include iridoids, sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids, most showing activities such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-flu virus, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation effects. Among the above active compounds, sesquiterpenoids have attracted increasing attention. In this review, the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Syringa terpenoids were summarized in order to provide an overview for further research and development of Syringa plants.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Sesquiterpenes , Syringa , Terpenes , Triterpenes
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