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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e050, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132693


Abstract Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The increase in its incidence has been associated with resistance to antimicrobial therapy and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO) and its main component - terpinen-4-ol - against resistant Candida albicans strains (genotypes A and B) identified by molecular typing and against C. albicans ATCC 90028 and SC 5314 reference strains in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and rate of biofilm development were used to evaluate antifungal activity. Results were obtained from analysis of the biofilm using the cell proliferation assay 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Terpinen-4-ol and TTO inhibited C. albicans growth. CLSM confirmed that 17.92 mg/mL of TTO and 8.86 mg/mL of terpinen-4-ol applied for 60 s (rinse simulation) interfered with biofilm formation. Hence, this in vitro study revealed that natural substances such as TTO and terpinen-4-ol present promising results for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Terpenes/chemistry , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms/growth & development , Tea Tree Oil/chemistry , Denture Bases/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 444-458, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008263


This review work focuses on how the secondary chemistry could help in the survival of plants in high mountain habitats under extreme environmental conditions. The elevated levels of stress in high areas of the tropic and subtropic change dramatically not only by following the annual cycles of winter and summer but they also change in a single day. Some species, however, are able to successfully grow at heights more than 3000 m in the tropical mountains due, in part, to highly specialized physiological processes that affect their physical and chemical responses. In this study, it describes some strategies of how the secondary metabolites could help the plants to stand the high levels of stress in the high mountain ecosystems.

Este trabajo de revisión se centra en cómo la química secundaria podría ayudar en la supervivencia de plantas en hábitats de alta montaña en condiciones ambientales extremas. Los altos niveles de estrés en las zonas altas del trópico y subtrópico cambian dramáticamente no solo al seguir los ciclos anuales de invierno y verano, sino que también cambian en un solo día. Sin embargo, algunas especies pueden crecer con éxito a alturas superiores a 3000 m en las montañas tropicales debido, en parte, a procesos fisiológicos altamente especializados que afectan sus respuestas físicas y químicas. En esta revisión, se describen algunas estrategias de cómo los metabolitos secundarios podrían ayudan a las plantas a soportar los altos niveles de estrés en los ecosistemas de alta montaña.

Plants/chemistry , Stress, Physiological , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Altitude , Phloroglucinol/analysis , Phloroglucinol/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 575-582, nov. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007341


The skin is the largest organ of the human body and its main function is to protect it from the external environment. It is exposed to injuries that require a rapid healing process to recover its functionality. Microorganisms inhabit the skin, which makes up the normal microbial flora, but in situations of injury they can cause infections that slow down the regeneration process. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of alternative methods to accelerate the regeneration process and prevent infections. In this work, the efficacy of flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine and the terpenic derivative Filifolinone and its mixtures, isolated from plants of the genus Heliotropium, on the stimulation of cell proliferation was evaluated. The results showed that the mixtures stimulated proliferation and migration in MA104 cells mainly due to the presence of Filifolinone, that together with the known antibacterial activity of 3-O-methylgalangine, opens new alternatives for the use of natural compounds in healing processes.

La piel es el órgano más grande del cuerpo humano y su función principal es protegerla del entorno externo. Está expuesta a lesiones que requieren un proceso de curación rápido para recuperar su funcionalidad. Los microorganismos que habitan en la piel, constituyen la flora microbiana normal, pero en situaciones de lesión pueden causar infecciones que retardan el proceso de regeneración. Por lo tanto, existe un gran interés en el desarrollo de métodos alternativos para acelerar el proceso de regeneración y prevenir infecciones. En este trabajo, se evaluó la eficacia del flavonoide 3-O-metilgalangina y el derivado terpénico Filifolinona y sus mezclas, aisladas de plantas del género Heliotropium, en la estimulación de la proliferación celular. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas estimularon la proliferación y la migración en las células MA104 debido principalmente a la presencia de Filifolinona, que junto con la actividad antibacteriana conocida de la 3-O-metilgalangina, abre nuevas alternativas para el uso de compuestos naturales en los procesos de curación.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Heliotropium , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Terpenes/chemistry , Wound Healing , Flavonoids/chemistry , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/drug effects
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e66, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952002


Abstract The use of a free-radical polymerization inhibitor, butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), and a common photo-initiator, camphorquinone (CQ), to reduce polymerization stress in dental composite was investigated in this study. Samples were prepared by mixing Bis-GMA, UDMA, and TEGDMA at a 1:1:1 ratio (wt%), and silanized borosilicate glass fillers at 70 wt% were added to form the composite. Sixteen groups of resin composite were prepared using combinations of four CQ (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) and four BHT (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) concentrations. For each group, six properties were tested, including flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), degree of conversion (DC), contraction stress (CS), stress rate, and gel point (GP). The effects of CQ and BHT combinations on each of these properties were evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's Protected Least Significant Differences test at the 5% significance level. Groups with low CQ and BHT showed moderate values for FS, FM, and CS with a 70% DC. Increasing the BHT concentration caused a decrease in CS and DC with an increase in GP values. Increasing the CQ content led to a steady increase in values for FS and FM. High CQ and BHT combinations showed the most promising values for mechanical properties with low stress values.

Terpenes/chemistry , Butylated Hydroxytoluene/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Curing Lights, Dental , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Reference Values , Stress, Mechanical , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Pliability , Elastic Modulus , Polymerization , Methacrylates/chemistry
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 110-115, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741223


The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of six Indian plant extracts and 0.2% chlorhexidine against clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, which were isolated from the plaque samples of 45 pediatric patients. Six plant extracts were prepared in three different forms, namely aqueous extracts, organic solvent-based extracts and crude (raw) extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the mean zones of inhibition (mm) produced against the bacterial isolates. Results showed that crude garlic extract exhibited greater antibacterial activity than chlorhexidine. Aqueous extract of amla and organic solvent-based extract of ginger showed the maximum antibacterial activity against S. mutans, whereas aqueous extract of tulsi and organic solvent based extract of amla showed the minimum antibacterial activity. This study suggests that plant extracts like garlic in crude form, amla as aqueous infusion and ginger as alcoholic tincture have potential for the control of S. mutans. These extracts can be used as an alternative remedy for dental caries prevention or in the form of mouthwash, which is safe and economical.

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a atividade antibacteriana de seis plantas indianas contra linhagens clínicas de Streptococcus mutans, que foram isoladas das amostras de biofilme dental de 45 pacientes pediátricos, com 0,2% de clorexidina. Seis extratos vegetais foram preparados em três formas diferentes, a saber, extratos aquosos, extratos à base de solventes orgânicos e extratos brutos. Os testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foram realizados por método de difusão em agar. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada através da medição da zona de inibição, em milímetros, produzida contra os isolados bacterianos. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de alho cru apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana do que a clorexidina. O extrato aquoso de amla e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de gengibre mostraram a máxima atividade antibacteriana contra S. mutans, enquanto o extrato aquoso de tulsi (manjericão) e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de amla mostraram mínima atividades antibacteriana. Este estudo sugere que extratos de plantas como o alho em forma bruta, amla como infusão aquosa e gengibre como tintura alcoólica tem um potencial para o controle de S. mutans. Estes extratos podem ser utilizados como uma via alternativa para a prevenção de cáries dentárias ou sob a forma de bochechos, que são seguros e econômicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Plaque/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Aloe/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Ginger/chemistry , Glycerides/chemistry , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ocimum/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(5): 415-436, sept.2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-786491


Species from the Montanoa genus have been used for hundreds of years in Mexican traditional medicine. The Náhuatl name given by Aztecs to this plant was “cihuapahtli”, meaning “woman’s medicine” (cihua, woman; pahtli, medicine), because M. tomentosa has been used to treat female health disorders since pre-Hispanic times due to its uterotonic properties. Later on, the Spanish pronunciation transformed the word into “zoapatle”, the name still used by herb sellers in México. Despite its use in folk medicine, intensive scientific research on this plant did not begin until the early 1970’s. The only two available reviews exclusively focused on the Montanoa species cover the period from 1529 to 1985. However, in the last two decades, important phytochemical, biochemical and biotechnological advances were achieved. This is a review of the history, botany, most relevant chemistry, biological activity and biotechnology of the secondary metabolites from the Montanoa genus so far.

Especies del género Montanoa han sido empleadas por siglos en la medicina tradicional Mexicana. El nombre asignado a esta planta por los Aztecas fue “cihuapahtli”, ó “medicina para la mujer” (cihua, mujer; pahtli, medicina). Específicamente, M. tomentosa es usada para tratar desordenes de la mujer desde tiempos prehispánicos por sus propiedades uterotónicas. La castellanización transformó esta palabra en “zoapatle”, este nombre sigue siendo usado por los curanderos en México. A pesar de su uso en la medicina folklórica, la investigación científica intensa en esta planta comenzó desde inicios de 1970. Las únicas dos revisiones disponibles y dedicadas exclusivamente a las especies de Montanoa cubren el periodo de 1529 a 1985. Sin embargo, en las últimas dos décadas, se han logrado importantes avances fitoquímicos, bioquímicos y biotecnológicos. Este trabajo presenta una revisión de la historia, botánica, química más relevante, actividades biológicas y biotecnología de los metabolitos secundarios del género Montanoa a la fecha.

Contraceptive Agents, Female , Flavonoids/chemistry , Montanoa/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Terpenes/chemistry , Biotechnology , Ethnobotany , Mexico
Córdoba; s.n; 2014. [2],63 p. ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-727946


Introducción: Schinus areira L., comúnmente conocido como "Aguaribay", "Gualeguay" o "Molle", pertenece a la familia Anacardiaceae, en donde se incluyen árboles ornamentales, arbustos y lianas, frutos y nueces comercialmente valiosas como el cajú o el pistacho. Objetivo: Obtener el aceite esencial de Schinus areira y su fracción en terpenos hidrocarburos para determinar sus efectos sobre la actividad cardiovascular y su acción en parámetros histopatológicos, bioquímicos y hematológicos en animales de experimentación. Materiales y Métodos: a) Se aisló el aceite esencial (AE) del Schinus areira por arrastre de vapor de agua y posteriormente a través de cromatografía de capa delgada, su fracción en terpenos hidrocarburos (FH); b) se cuantificó mediante cromatografía de masa la composición química del AE y de la FH; c) se determinó el efecto de ambos compuestos en parámetros histopatológicos, bioquímicos, hematológicos y la actividad cardiovascular en conejos despiertos normotensos con un tratamiento agudo y crónico y d) se evaluó el efecto a dosis crecientes de noradrenalina, el corazón ex vivo de ratón, previamente tratado con el AE de S. areira.

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Schinus areira L., commonly known as "Aguaribay", "Gualeguay" or "Molle", belongs to the Anacardiaceae family, where trees, shrubs and vines, fruits and nuts commercially valuable as cashews or pistachios are included. The research of active compounds present in plants for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has increased significantly worldwide and because of these trends, many reports have evaluated the effects of various plants and their components in the cardiovascular system in order to provide a scientific basis for therapeutic applications target. The EO of Schinus areira and hydrocarbon fraction were obtained to determine their effects on cardiovascular activity and its action on histopathological, biochemical and hematological parameters in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: a) The essential oil (EO) of Schinus areira stripping water and subsequently through thin layer chromatography, the hydrocarbon fraction (HF) were isolated, b) were quantified by chromatography mass chemistry EO and HF, c) the effect of both oils on histopathological, biochemical, hematological and cardiovascular activity in conscious normotensive rabbits d) was determined the effects of increasing doses of noradrenaline were evaluated, the heart ex vivo mouse pretreated EO of S. areira.

Animals , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Cardiovascular System , Terpenes/chemistry , Argentina
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 623-628
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142627


Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins [polyphenolics], cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild [aerial, inflorescence] and tissue culture regenerants [in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants]. HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina

Biological Factors/chemistry , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Steroids/chemistry , Tannins/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/chemistry , Antimalarials
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 370-376, May 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624019


The activity of five (1-5) abietane phenol derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis was studied using promastigotes and axenic and intracellular amastigotes. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed with J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as a reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed by performing metabolite excretion and transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural studies. Compounds 1-5 were more active and less toxic than Glucantime. The infection rates and mean number of parasites per cell observed in amastigote experiments showed that derivatives 2, 4 and 5 were the most effective against both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The ultrastructural changes observed in the treated promastigote forms confirmed that the greatest cell damage was caused by the most active compound (4). Only compound 5 caused changes in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites, as measured by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All of the assayed compounds were active against the two Leishmania species in vitro and were less toxic in mammalian cells than the reference drug.

Animals , Female , Mice , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Macrophages/parasitology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry , Leishmania braziliensis/ultrastructure , Leishmania infantum/ultrastructure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Terpenes/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(1): 12-34, ene. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-654799


Vismia genus is an important source of natural medicinal products, thus, information collected in this review is an attempt to cover the most recent developments in the ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and phytochemistry of this genus. Anthraquinones and other quinonoid derivates, terpenoids and volatile constituents have been reported as the major constituents isolated from different Vismia species. On the other hand, pharmacological studies carried out to date have revealed the variety of anti-plasmodium, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungical properties of extracts and pure isolated compounds of the different species tested. The information summarized in this paper intends to serve as a reference tool to practitioners in the fields of etnopharmacology and chemistry of natural products.

El género Vismia es una fuente importante de productos naturales medicinales, es por esto que la información reunida en la presente revisión cubre los estudios más recientes en la etnofarmacología, farmacología y fitoquímica de este género. Antraquinonas y otros derivados quinoides, terpenos y constituyentes volátiles han sido reportados como los compuestos mayormente aislados de las diferentes especies de Vismia. Por otro lado, los estudios farmacológicos realizados hasta los momentos muestran las diversas propiedades antiplasmodicas, antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y antifúngicas que presentan tanto los extractos como los compuestos puros aislados de las diferentes especies ensayadas. La información resumida en este documento intenta servir de material de apoyo para investigadores en los campos de la etnofarmacologia y la química de productos naturales.

Anthraquinones/chemistry , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Terpenes/chemistry , Xanthones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Ethnopharmacology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Terpenes/pharmacology , Xanthones/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (4): 451-457
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137543


In the present study a new alcohol derivative of tetrahydrogeraniol [THG], an acyclic monoterpene, has been prepared by using Grignard reagent and methyl cyclopropyl ketone. Penetration enhancing effects of THG and the synthesized derivative 5,9-dimethyl-2-cyclopropyl-2-decanol [DICNOL] on the transdermal penetration of 5-fluorouracil [5-FU] and tramadol hydrochloride [tramadol HC1] across the excised rat skin were studied by an in vitro permeation technique using Franz diffusion cells. Azone was used as standard enhancer for comparison. DICNOL and THG significantly enhanced 5-FU and tramadol HC1 penetration through rat skin compared with the control. DICNOL enhanced the permeability of 5-FU and tramadol HC1 across full thickness skin by about 11 and 20 fold, respectively. Increased partition coefficient and diffusion coefficient values were obtained by these enhancers. The results suggest that the amount of DICNOL in the skin, especially in the stratum corneum, may be related to its penetration enhancing effects

Animals, Laboratory , Male , Fatty Alcohols/pharmacokinetics , Fatty Alcohols/chemical synthesis , Skin Absorption/drug effects , Terpenes/chemistry , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Terpenes/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Molecular Structure , Permeability/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tramadol/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(8): 773-777, Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-502296


A series of seven limonene β-amino alcohol derivatives has been regioselectively synthesised in moderate to good yields. Two of these compounds were found to be significantly effective against in vitro cultures of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigote form in the micromolar range. The activities found for 3b and 3f were about 100-fold more potent than the standard drug, Pentamidine, in the same test, while limonene did not display any activity. This is the first report of antileishmanial activity by limonene β-amino alcohol derivatives.

Animals , Mice , Amino Alcohols/chemical synthesis , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemical synthesis , Cyclohexenes/chemistry , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Terpenes/chemistry , Amino Alcohols/pharmacology , Amino Alcohols/toxicity , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/toxicity , Cyclohexenes/pharmacology , Cyclohexenes/toxicity , Molecular Structure , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Structure-Activity Relationship , Terpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes/toxicity
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 10(4): 521-535, oct. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504122


Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) from Armoracia rusticana catalyses the oxidation of (R)-limonene into the oxidized derivatives carveol and carvone. This study compares the direct addition (DA) of hydrogen peroxide with its continuous electrogeneration (EG) during the enzymatic oxidation of (R)-limonene. Reaction mixtures containing HRP, (R)-limonene as substrate, and hydrogen peroxide, added directly or electrogenerated, in 100 mM sodium-potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 25ºC were studied. Two electrochemical systems for the hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration were evaluated, both containing as auxiliary electrode (AE) a platinum wire and saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as reference. Reticulated vitreous carbon foam (RVCF) and an electrolytic copper web (CW) were evaluated as working electrodes (WE). Results were compared in terms of hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration, (R)-limonene residual concentration or conversion and product selectivity. Best results in terms of maximum H2O2 concentration (1.2 mM) were obtained using the CW electrode at -620 mV SCE, and continuous aeration. Use of the EG system under optimized conditions, which included the use of acetone (30% v/v) as a cosolvent in a 3 hrs enzymatic reaction, lead to a 45% conversion of (R)-limonene into carveol and carvone (2:1). In comparison to the results obtained with DA, the use of EG also improved the half-life of the enzyme.

Cyclohexanes/chemistry , Electrochemistry/methods , Horseradish Peroxidase/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Armoracia/chemistry , Catalysis , Chromatography, Gas , Electrochemistry/instrumentation , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Solvents , Spectrophotometry
Braz. dent. j ; 16(2): 98-102, maio-ago. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-413406


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a microdureza de materiais resinosos polimerizados com unidades de fotoativação LED (diodos emissores de luz) e halógena. Vinte espécimes cilíndricos (3,0 mm de diâmetro e 2,0 mm de altura) foram preparados para cada material testado (Z100, Definite e Dyract). Os espécimes foram fotoativados na face superior (topo), utilizando duas unidades de fotoativação (Ultraled and Curing Light 2500), com tempos de 40 s e 60 s. As medidas de dureza foram realizadas nas superfícies do topo e da base de cada espécime. A análise estatística foi realizada por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Não houve diferença significante na dureza na face superior entre as unidades LED e halógena para a Z100 e o Dyract. Por outro lado, a dureza foi menor quando a Definite foi polimerizada com o LED do que com a unidade halógena. Na base, a dureza de todos os materiais foi menor com o LED do que com a unidade halógena. A Z100 apresentou maior dureza que o Dyract e que a Definite independentemente da unidade de fotoativação. Não houve diferença significante na dureza entre os dois tempos de fotoativação para a face superior. Na base, a dureza foi maior quando os materiais foram polimerizados por 60 s. O LED não foi capaz de produzir a mesma dureza que a unidade halógena nos materiais resinosos testados.

Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Lighting/instrumentation , Compomers/chemistry , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Equipment Design , Hardness , Materials Testing , Polymers/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Siloxanes/chemistry , Time Factors , Terpenes/chemistry , Zirconium/chemistry
DARU-Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2005; 13 (4): 177-181
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70338


From the aerial parts of Satureja macrantha C. A. Mey, one monoterpene [1], two triterpenoids [2,3] and one sesquiterpene [4] were isolated. Their structures were determined to be thymol [1], oleanolic acid [2], ursolic acid [3] and caryophyllene oxide [4], by using 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR and EIMS spectra. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity effects of the crude extracts and isolated compounds were examined. Among them compounds 1 [612 microM], 2 [17 microM] and 3 [29 microM] were effective against Artemia salina larva

Terpenes/isolation & purification , Terpenes/chemistry , Terpenes , Artemia/parasitology , Thymol
J Biosci ; 2003 Sep; 28(5): 637-46
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111208


Terpenoids are known to have many important biological and physiological functions. Some of them are also known for their pharmaceutical significance. In the late nineties after the discovery of a novel non-mevalonate (non-MVA) pathway, the whole concept of terpenoid biosynthesis has changed. In higher plants, the conventional acetate-mevalonate (Ac-MVA) pathway operates mainly in the cytoplasm and mitochondria and synthesizes sterols, sesquiterpenes and ubiquinones predominantly. The plastidic non-MVA pathway however synthesizes hemi-, mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenes, along with carotenoids and phytol chain of chlorophyll. In this paper, recent developments on terpenoids biosynthesis are reviewed with respect to the non-MVA pathway.

Acetates/metabolism , Erythritol/chemistry , Mevalonic Acid/metabolism , Plants/genetics , Terpenes/chemistry
Braz. dent. j ; 14(1): 37-41, June 2003. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-340487


This study evaluated the effect of surface finishing methods on the average surface roughness of resin composites. Seven composites and two polishing systems were used. One hundred and twenty-six conical specimens of each material were prepared in stainless steel molds against a polyester strip. Forty-two of them remained intact and were used as controls. Each half of the remaining samples was polished with either diamond burs or diamond burs + aluminum oxide discs. The results showed no statistical difference in average surface roughness (Ra, µm) between the polyester strip and aluminum oxide discs (p>0.05). However, finishing with diamond burs showed a statistically higher average roughness for all composites (p<0.05). Statistical differences were detected among materials (p<0.05) in the use of diamond burs

Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Polishing , Analysis of Variance , Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , Diamond/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Polyesters/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Statistics as Topic , Surface Properties , Siloxanes/chemistry , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42395


Examination of chemical compositions of essential oil distilled from the fruit of Zanthoxylum limonella Alston (Rutaceae) revealed the presence of 33 chemical components. Evaluation of the oil composition was achieved by GC/MS analysis. Limonene (31.09%), terpin-4-ol (13.94%) and sabinene (9.13%) were found to be the major components. Effects of essential oil have been performed in isolated guinea pig ileum, rat thoracic aorta and conscious mice. The essential oil at the concentration of 7.68 x 10(-5)-1.92 x 10(-3) microl/25 ml, produced dose-dependent contraction of the isolated rat thoracic aorta. These contractions were significantly reduced by pretreatment with prazosin (1 x 10(-7) M) and verapamil (1 x 10(-7) M). Its contraction was abolished in calcium free Krebs solution. Contractile response to the volatile oil (2 x 10(-6)-5.12 x 10(-4) microl/25 ml) was examined in isolated guinea pig ileum, it evoked ileal contraction in concentration-dependent manner and the contractions were suppressed after exposure to chlorpheniramine (1 x 10(-7) M) cypoheptadine (1 x 10(-7) M) atropine (1 x 10(-7) M) and verapamil (1 x 10(-7) M). Therefore, it could be concluded that the essential oil from the fruit of Zanthoxylum limonella possessed stimulation effect on different smooth muscle preparations by non-specific mechanisms. It involved the non receptor and receptor-mediated mechanism. Gastrointestinal stimulant effect of the essential oil was confirmed in intact mice since the oil significantly increased black ink movement from the stomach to ileo-caecal junction after oral feeding.

Animals , Culture Techniques , Cyclohexenes , Female , Fruit/chemistry , Guinea Pigs , Ileum/drug effects , Intestines/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred A , Models, Animal , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Probability , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Sensitivity and Specificity , Terpenes/chemistry
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1995 Jul; 33(7): 521-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60389


Synthetic analogues of a monoterpenic fragment of aplasmomycin were tested for their antimalarial activity in Plasmodium falciparum culture in vitro. The antimalarial activities of these agents were evaluated in chloroquine sensitive strains. Parasite growth was inhibited in a dose dependent manner in the presence of the synthetic compounds (3-9).

Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Peptides , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Terpenes/chemistry
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111674


Biological activity of saturated diethers viz. 1-benzyloxy/phenoxy-8-alkoxy and 1-alkoxy-8-benzyloxy-3,7-dimethyl-1, 8-octanes (IIa-IIq) prepared from Geraniol, were studied on three mosquito species and the bug Dysdercus koenigii. These diethers exhibited oviposition deterrent and developmental inhibition activities of greater magnitudes than the compounds based on citronellol reported in Part I of this paper. Some of these new compounds inhibit development of mosquitoes at 0.05 ppm and deter oviposition at 0.05 per cent doses. Tests were extended to field simulated conditions in selected cases.

Animals , Culicidae/classification , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Insect Vectors/classification , Male , Octanes/pharmacology , Oviposition/drug effects , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Terpenes/chemistry