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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 212-216, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365352

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Neonates are more susceptible to drug interactions and adverse effects, and special care should be taken when prescribing medication to them. This study aimed to investigate drug usage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 98 patients at the Apollo tertiary care hospital (Bannerghatta, Bangalore, India) in a period of 6 months. The most common indications for neonatal intensive care unit admission, average number of drugs per patient, the most frequently used medication, distribution of patients based on the birth procedure, and possible drug interactions were collected from patient profiles. RESULTS: Among the patients, 52% were males and 48% were females. Notably, 38% of patients were preterm, 60% were term, and only 2% were post-term. Also, 80.6% were born by cesarean section and 19.4% were born by normal vaginal delivery. The highest mean of drug use was in the patient of 1,000-1,500 g (8.06 per patient). Preterm was the most frequent indication for admission in neonatal intensive care unit, followed by hyperbilirubinemia and then respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used medication was vitamin K (99%) and antibiotics followed by dextrose. In different types of antibiotics, amikacin (41%), cefoperazone+sulbactam (35%), cephalosporin (1%), ceftriaxone (0.7%), and amoxicillin (0.3%) were commonly administered. There were some possible interactions, such as aminoglycoside with furosemide and calcium gluconate. CONCLUSION: Premature birth and resulting low birth weight were the main reasons for drug prescription. High administration of antibiotics is probably an area of concern and should be seriously considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , India
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 154-159, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279095

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: La colitis ulcerosa crónica idiopática (CUCI) es una enfermedad con inflamación crónica de la mucosa del colon de origen multifactorial. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar posibles cambios en el comportamiento de la CUCI en un hospital de referencia. Métodos: Se incluyeron nuevos casos de CUCI confirmados por histopatología de enero del 2007 a diciembre del 2014. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 189 pacientes. La media de nuevos casos anuales de CUCI fue de 23.6. Este estudio incorpora 95 pacientes de sexo masculino (50 %) y 94 de sexo femenino (50 %), con una edad promedio al diagnóstico de 44.6 años. La frecuencia de pancolitis fue del 77 %, en comparación con el 59 % en el periodo anterior. Las manifestaciones extraintestinales (MEI) estuvieron presentes en el 55.8 % y las colectomías en el 5.2 %. Conclusión: Algunas características de la enfermedad han cambiado con el tiempo: aumento de la frecuencia de pancolitis y MEI, así como disminución de la tasa de colectomías.


Abstract Background: Chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis (CIUC) is a disease with multifactorial chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. In Mexico, there are studies that show an increase in the frequency of new cases. The purpose of this work was to identify possible changes in CIUC behavior in a referral hospital. Methods: New ulcerative colitis (UC) cases confirmed by histopathology from January 2007 to December 2014 were included. Results: A total of 189 patients were included. Mean number of UC annual new cases was 23.6. The study included 95 male patients (50 %) and 94 female patients (50 %), with an average age of 44.6 years at diagnosis. The frequency of pancolitis was 77 %, in comparison with 59 % in the previous period. Extra-intestinal manifestations (EIM) were present in 55.8 % and colectomies in 5.2 %. Conclusion: Some characteristics of the disease have changed over time: there is an increased frequency of pancolitis and EIM, as well as a decrease in the rate of colectomies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Comorbidity , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921330

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological characteristics of invasive candidiasis (IC) in China.@*Methods@#A ten-year retrospective study including 183 IC episodes was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China.@*Results@#The overall incidence of IC from 2010-2019 was 0.261 episodes per 1,000 discharges. Candidemia (71.0%) was the major infective pattern; 70.3% of the patients tested positive for @*Conclusion@#The incidence of IC has declined in the recent five years.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candidiasis, Invasive/microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 57-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of granulomas in various organs. Cutaneous involvement is common and the reported incidence has varied from 9% to 37%. Studies on cutaneous sarcoidosis in Brazil are lacking. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis diagnosed at the Department of Dermatology of the University of São Paulo, from May 1994 to March 2018. Methods: Clinical data of patients with confirmed cutaneous sarcoidosis were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to gender, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, cutaneous presentation, systemic involvement and treatment. Results: Cutaneous sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 72 patients with a female predominance (74%). The mean age at diagnosis was 49.6 years and most of the patients were white (61%). Papules and plaques were the most common lesions. Systemic sarcoidosis was detected in 81% of patients, affecting mainly the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes (97%). Typically, cutaneous lesions were the first manifestation (74%). Systemic therapy was necessary for 72% of patients; the dermatologist managed many of these cases. Oral glucocorticoids were the most commonly used systemic medication (92%). The mean number of systemic drugs used was 1.98 per patient. Limitations: Insufficient data in medical records. Conclusions: This series highlights the dermatologist role in recognizing and diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis, evaluating patients for systemic disease involvement and treating the skin manifestations. Cutaneous sarcoidosis was once considered exceedingly infrequent in Brazil in comparison to infectious granulomatous diseases; however, the present series seems to suggest that the disease is not so rare in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Sarcoidosis/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Administration, Cutaneous , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 55-60, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091898

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE It has been observed that celiac disease (CD) is not restricted to a single type characterized by diarrhea but also has atypical, asymptomatic (silent), and latent forms. The prevalence of this autoimmune disease, which affects approximately 1% of the world, is estimated to be around 3%, including atypical and asymptomatic cases. In our study, we aimed to evaluate adult celiac patients. METHODS Between December 2008-2015, patients diagnosed with CD over the age of 18 years old were included in the study. Patients' symptoms at admission, frequency and type of anemia, transaminase levels, and celiac antibody positivity, and autoimmune diseases diagnosed at follow up were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS Of 195 patients, 151 (77.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35.73 ± 12.19 years (range, 18-71 years). A hundred patients (51.3%) had gastrointestinal symptoms. At the time of admission, 118 patients (60.5%) had anemia, and 52 (26.7%) had hypertransaminasemia. During the mean follow-up period of 58 months (36-120 months), 84 (43.1%) of the patients presented at least one autoimmune disease, and this rate was 96.6% in individuals diagnosed above the age of 50 years. CONCLUSION In adult CD, resistant anemia, dyspepsia, and hypertransaminasemia are very common findings at the time of diagnosis, and the association with other autoimmune diseases, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is high.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Observou-se que a doença celíaca (DC) não se restringe a um único tipo caracterizado por diarreia, mas também tem formas atípicas, assintomáticas (silenciosas) e latentes. Estima-se que a prevalência desta doença autoimune, que afeta aproximadamente 1% da população do mundo, seja em torno de 3%, incluindo casos atípicos e assintomáticos. Em nosso estudo, objetivou-se avaliar pacientes celíacos adultos. MÉTODOS Entre dezembro de 2008 e 2015, pacientes diagnosticados como DC com idade acima de 18 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os sintomas dos pacientes na admissão, frequência e tipo de anemia, níveis de transaminases e positividade de anticorpos celíacos e doenças autoimunes diagnosticadas no seguimento foram avaliados retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS Dos 195 pacientes, 151 (77,4%) eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 35,73±12,19 anos (variação de 18 a 71 anos). Cem pacientes (51,3%) foram encaminhados com sintomas gastrointestinais. No momento da internação, 118 pacientes (60,5%) apresentavam anemia e 52 (26,7%) apresentavam hipertransaminemia. Durante o período médio de acompanhamento de 58 meses (36-120 meses), 84 (43,1%) pacientes estavam acompanhados por pelo menos uma doença autoimune, e essa taxa foi de 96,6% em indivíduos diagnosticados acima dos 50 anos de idade. CONCLUSÃO No adulto DC, anemia resistente, dispepsia e hipertransaminasemia são achados muito comuns no momento do diagnóstico e a associação com outras doenças autoimunes, especialmente tireoidite de Hashimoto, é alta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/complications , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Transaminases/blood , Anemia/complications , Middle Aged
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 559-566, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040355

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: While studies have focused on early readmissions or readmissions during the same hospitalization in a pediatric intensive care unit, little is known about the children with recurrent admissions. We sought to assess the characteristics of patients readmitted within 1 year in a Brazilian pediatric intensive care unit. Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. The outcome was the maximum number of readmissions experienced by each child within any 365-day interval during a 5-year follow-up period. Results: Of the 758 total eligible admissions, 75 patients (9.8%) were readmissions. Those patients accounted for 33% of all pediatric intensive care unit bed care days. Median time to readmission was 73 days for all readmissions. Logistic regression showed that complex chronic conditions (odds ratio 1.07), severe to moderate cognitive disability (odds ratio 1.08), and use of technology assistance (odds ratio 1.17) were associated with readmissions. Multiple admissions had a significantly prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation (8 vs. 6 days), longer length of pediatric intensive care unit (7 vs 4 days) and hospital stays (20 vs 9 days), and higher mortality rate (21.3% vs 5.1%) compared with index admissions. Conclusion: The rate of pediatric intensive care unit readmissions within 1 year was low; however, it was associated with a relevant number of bed care days and worse outcomes. A 30-day index of readmission may be inadequate to mirror the burden of pediatric intensive care unit readmissions. Patients with complex chronic conditions, poor functional status or technology assistance are at higher risk for readmissions. Future studies should address the impact of qualitative interventions on healthcare and recurrent admissions.


Resumo: Objetivo: Apesar dos estudos terem focado em reinternações precoces ou reinternações durante a mesma internação na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica, pouco se sabe sobre essas crianças com internações recorrentes. Buscamos avaliar as características dos pacientes reinternados em 1 ano em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileira. Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo realizado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica terciária. O resultado foi o número máximo de reinternações por cada criança em qualquer período de 365 dias durante um período de acompanhamento de 5 anos. Resultados: Do total de 758 internações elegíveis, 75 pacientes (9,8%) foram de reinternações. Esses pacientes representaram 33% de todos os dias de cuidados com os internados na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. O tempo mediano para a reinternação foi 73 dias para todas as reinternações. A regressão logística mostrou que as doenças crônicas complexas (razão de chance de 1,07), deficiência cognitiva grave a moderada (razão de chance de 1,08) e uso de suporte de aparelhos tecnológicos (razão de chance de 1,17) foram associados às reinternações. As múltiplas internações apresentaram duração significativamente prolongada na ventilação mecânica (8 em comparação a 6 dias), maior tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica (7 em comparação a 4 dias) e tempos de internação (20 em comparação a 9 dias) e maior taxa de mortalidade (21,3% em comparação a 5,1%), em comparação às internações iniciais. Conclusão: A taxa de reinternações na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica em 1 ano foi baixa, porém foi associada a um número relevante de cuidados durante internação e piores resultados. Um índice de reinternação de 30 dias pode ser inadequado para refletir a grande número de reinternações na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Os pacientes com doenças crônicas complexas, estado funcional ruim ou suporte de aparelhos tecnológicos correm maior risco de reinternações. Estudos futuros devem abordar o impacto das intervenções qualitativas sobre os serviços de saúde e as internações recorrentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Risk Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 237-245, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent studies suggest that sustained use of generic antibiotics may be associated with clinical failure and emergence of antibacterial resistance. The present study was designed to determine the clinical outcome between the use of generic meropenem (GM) and brand-name meropenem (BNM). Additionally, this study evaluated the economic impact of GM and BNM to determine if the former represents a cost-effective alternative to the latter. Methods: Patients treated between January 2011 and May 2014 received GM while patients treated between June 2014 and March 2017 received BNM. Mortality was compared between groups. Total infection cost was defined by the cost of antimicrobial consumption, length of stay, and laboratory and imaging exams until infection resolution. Findings: A total of 168 patients were included; survival rate for the 68 patients treated with GM was 38% compared to 59% in the patients treated with BNM. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables most strongly-associated with mortality were cardiovascular disease (OR 18.18, 95% CI 1.25-262.3, p = 0.033) and treatment with generic meropenem (OR 18.45, 95% CI 1.45-232.32, p = 0.024). On the other hand, total infection cost did not show a significant difference between groups (BNM $10,771 vs. GM $11,343; p = 0.91). Interpretation: The present study suggests that patients treated with GM have a risk of death 18 times higher compared to those treated with BNM. Furthermore, economic analysis shows that GM is not more cost effective than BNM. Summary: More studies measuring clinical outcomes are needed to confirm the clinical equivalence of brand-name versus generic antibiotics, not only for meropenem but also for other molecules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/economics , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Meropenem/economics , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Sex Distribution , Colombia , Age Distribution , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 321-329, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hospital readmission and long length of stay (LOS) increase morbidity and hospital mortality and are associated with excessive costs to health systems. Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of hospital readmission and long LOS among elders with neurological disorders (NDs). Methods: Patients ≥ 60 years of age admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010, with acute NDs, chronic NDs as underpinnings of acute clinical disorders, and neurological complications of other diseases were studied. We analyzed demographic factors, NDs, and comorbidities as independent predictors of readmission and long LOS (≥ 9 days). Logistic regression was performed for multivariate analysis. Results: Overall, 1,154 NDs and 2,679 comorbidities were identified among 798 inpatients aged ≥ 60 years (mean 75.8 ± 9.1). Of the patients, 54.5% were female. Patient readmissions were 251(31%) and 409 patients (51%) had an LOS ≥ 9 days (95% confidence interval 48%-55%). We found no predictors for readmission. Low socioeconomic class (p = 0.001), respiratory disorder (p < 0.001), infection (p < 0.001), genitourinary disorder (p < 0.033), and arterial hypertension (p = 0.002) were predictors of long LOS. Identified risks of long LOS explained 22% of predictors. Conclusions: Identifying risk factors for patient readmission are challenges for neurology teams and health system stakeholders. As low socioeconomic class and four comorbidities, but no NDs, were identified as predictors for long LOS, we recommend studying patient multimorbidity as well as functional and cognitive scores to determine whether they improve the risk model of long LOS in this population.


RESUMO Readmissão hospitalar e tempo longo de internação aumentam a morbidade, a mortalidade hospitalar e estão associados a custos excessivos para os sistemas de saúde. Objetivo: Este estudo almejou identificar preditores de readmissões hospitalares e longo tempo de internação (TDI) entre idosos com doenças neurológicas (DN). Métodos: Pacientes de idade ≥ 60 anos admitidos no hospital entre 1 de janeiro de 2009 e 31 de dezembro de 2010 com DN aguda, DN crônica subjacente a transtorno clínico agudo e complicações neurológicas de outras doenças foram estudados. Nos analisamos fatores demográficos, DN e comorbidades como preditores independentes de readmissão hospitalar e TDI (≥ 9 dias). Utilizamos regressão logística para analise multivariada. Resultados: Um total de 1154 DN e 2679 comorbidades foram identificadas entre 798 pacientes com idade ≥ 60 anos (media 75.8 ± 9.1). Desses pacientes 54.5% foram mulheres. Foram 251(31%) readmissões de pacientes e 409 (51%) dos pacientes tiveram um TDI≥9 dias (intervalo de confiança 95%, 48%-55%). Não encontramos preditores para readmissões. Baixa classe social (p = 0,001), distúrbio respiratório (p < 0,001), infecção (p < 0,001), distúrbio genito-urinário (p = 0,033) e hipertensão arterial (p = 0,002) foram os preditores de longo tempo de internação. Esses fatores de risco compõem 22% dos preditores para longo TDI. Conclusões: A identificação de fatores de risco para readmissão hospitalar é um desafio para equipes neurológicas e gestores dos sistemas de saúde. Conquanto baixa classe social e 4 comorbidades, todavia nenhuma DN, foram identificadas como preditoras para longo TDI nós recomendamos investigar multimorbidade, escores funcionais e cognitivos para saber se eles melhoram o modelo de risco para longo TDI nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Acute Disease , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hypertension/epidemiology
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 143-145, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: There is little information on herpes zoster from hospital registries in South America. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of herpes zoster (HZ) in hospitalized patients.' Methods: We searched for hospital-based records during the period from March 2000 to January 2017 in a 700-bed tertiary-care hospital located in southern Brazil. The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed, and data regarding demographics, medical history, clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment regimens, and clinical outcomes were collected. Patients were also evaluated for mortality. Results: There were 801 records of herpes zoster according to the proposed criteria. Most patients with HZ presented a cutaneous clinical form of the disease with involvement of a single dermatome (n = 589, 73.5%). Additional clinical characteristics included postherpetic neuralgia (22.1%), ophthalmic HZ (7.6%) and meningoencephalitis (2.7%). Most patients presented immunocompromised conditions (64.9%) including HIV, administration of immunosuppressive agents, and malignant neoplasms. During this period, there were 105 (13.1%) deaths, which were mostly unrelated to HZ. Five deaths were related to HZ meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a high burden of HZ disease in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital in the HZ vaccination era. Awareness of the incidence and comorbidity factors associated with HZ in Latin American countries such as Brazil contribute for adoption and implementation of strategies for immunization in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(3): 147-154, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of the present study was to explore obstetric management in relation to clinical, maternal and child health outcomes by using the Robson classification system. Methods Data was collected from obstetrics registries in tertiary care hospitals in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Results The analysis of > 5,400 deliveries (60% of all the deliveries in 2016) in major maternity hospitals in Dubai showed that groups 5, 8 and 9 of Robson's classification were the largest contributors to the overall cesarean section (CS) rate and accounted for 30% of the total CS rate. The results indicate that labor was spontaneous in 2,221 (45%) of the women and was augmented or induced in almost 1,634 cases (33%). The birth indication rate was of 64% for normal vaginal delivery, of 24% for emergency CS, and of 9% for elective CS.The rate of vaginal birth after cesarean was 261(6%), the rate of external cephalic version was 28 (0.7%), and the rate of induction was 1,168 (21.4%). The prevalence of the overall Cesarean section was 33%; with majority (53.5%) of it being repeated Cesarean section. Conclusion The CS rate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is higher than the global average rate and than the average rate in Asia, which highlights the need for more education of pregnant women and of their physicians in order to promote vaginal birth. A proper planning is needed to reduce the number of CSs in nulliparous women in order to prevent repeated CSs in the future. Monitoring both CS rates and outcomes is essential to ensure that policies, practices, and actions for the optimization of the utilization of CS lead to improved maternal and infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Oxytocics , Pregnancy, Multiple/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates , Oxytocin , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Analgesia, Obstetrical/statistics & numerical data , Unnecessary Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Term Birth , Anesthesia, Epidural/statistics & numerical data , Labor, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrical Forceps/statistics & numerical data
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4476, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with and without sepsis at critical care units of a public hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2012 to April 2013. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with and without sepsis in the intensive care units were reviewed of medical records. Results We evaluated 466 patients, 58% were men, median age was 40 years, and 146 (31%) of them were diagnosed with sepsis. The overall mortality was 20% being significantly higher for patients with sepsis (39%). The factors associated with intensive care unit mortality were the presence of sepsis (OR: 6.1, 95%CI: 3.7-10.5), age (OR: 3.6, 95%CI: 1.4-7.2), and length of hospital stay (OR: 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.98). Pulmonary (49%) and intra-abdominal (20%) infections were most commonly identified sites, and coagulase-negative staphylococci and enteric Gram negative bacilli the most frequent (66%) pathogens isolated. Conclusion Although the impact of sepsis on mortality is related to patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics, a critical evaluation of these data is important since they will allow the direct implementation of local policies for managing this serious public health problem.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com sepse e sem sepse em unidades de cuidados intensivos de um hospital público. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado de maio de 2012 a abril de 2013. Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais de pacientes com sepse e sem sepse das unidades de terapia intensiva foram revisados a partir dos prontuários médicos. Resultados Avaliamos 466 pacientes, 58% homens, mediana de idade 40 anos; sendo 146 (31%) diagnosticados com sepse. A mortalidade global foi 20%, e significativamente maior para pacientes com sepse (39%). Os fatores associados à mortalidade em unidade de terapia intensiva foram a presença de sepse (OR: 6,1, IC95%: 3,7-10,5), idade (OR: 3,6, IC95%: 1,4-7,2) e tempo de internação (OR: 0,96, IC95%: 0,94-0,98). As infecções pulmonares (49%) e intra-abdominais (20%) foram os focos mais comumente identificados, e os estafilococos coagulase-negativa e bacilos entéricos Gram-negativos foram os patógenos isolados mais frequentes (66%). Conclusão Embora o impacto da sepse sobre a mortalidade esteja relacionado às características clínicas e epidemiológicas dos pacientes, uma avaliação crítica desses dados é importante, pois permitirá a implementação direta de políticas locais para gerenciar este grave problema de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sepsis/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Sepsis/microbiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(2): e2104, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003085

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: investigar as principais causas e situações de risco mais comuns relacionadas aos acidentes na infância, em nossa realidade local. Métodos: estudo observacional, transversal, retrospectivo, descritivo e analítico, a partir dos prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos nos serviços de urgências pediátricas do complexo hospitalar do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP, no ano de 2016. Foram incluídos os atendimentos de pacientes de zero a 15 anos de idade que haviam recebido atendimento médico relacionado a acidentes, determinando-se idade, sexo, tipo de acidente, período do dia e ambiente onde aconteceu o acidente e histórico de acidentes pregressos. Resultados: do total de atendimentos com registros adequados no prontuário, 936 (27,5%) estavam relacionados a acidentes: 588 (62,8%) em pacientes do sexo masculino e 348 (37,2%) em pacientes do sexo feminino. Quanto à idade, 490 (52,3%) acidentes ocorreram com crianças de zero a cinco anos, 245 (26,2%) com crianças de seis a dez anos e 201 (21,5%) com crianças com mais de dez anos de idade. Quedas e traumas locais foram os tipos de acidentes mais comuns em todas as faixas etárias analisadas. A maior parte dos acidentes ocorreu à tarde (46,1%), em casa (60,7%), e 26,6% dos pacientes apresentavam antecedentes de acidentes prévios. Conclusão: os acidentes foram responsáveis por grande parcela dos atendimentos de urgência. A elevada taxa de pacientes com registros de acidentes prévios indica a exposição repetida destas crianças às situações de risco.


ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the main causes and most common risk situations related to childhood accidents, in our local reality. Methods: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study from the medical records of patients attended in the pediatric emergency services of the hospital complex of Hospital das Clínicas, Botucatu Medical School - UNESP, in 2016. We included patients from zero to 15 years old who had received medical care related to accidents, determining age, gender, type of accident, period of the day, accident place, and history of previous accidents. Results: considering all consultations with appropriate medical records, 936 (27.5%) were related to accidents: 588 (62.8%) in male patients and 348 (37.2%) in female patients. As to age, 490 (52.3%) happened with children from zero to five years, 245 (26.2%) with children from six to ten years, and 201 (21.5%) with children over ten years. Falls and local traumas were the most common types of accidents in all analyzed age groups. Most accidents occurred in the afternoon (46.1%), at home (60.7%), and 26.6% of the patients had a history of previous accidents. Conclusion: accidents were responsible for a large portion of urgent care. The high rate of patients with previous accident records indicated the repeated exposure of these children to risk situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 603-607, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977472

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aims to investigate the incidence of postnatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and the predictive factors for hospital mortality. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Brazilian tertiary center, and data were collected from medical records with inclusion criteria defined as any newborn with CHD diagnosed in the postnatal period delivered between 2015 and 2017. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the potential risk factors for mortality. Results: During the 3-year period, 119 (5.3%) children of the 2215 children delivered at our institution were diagnosed with CHD. We considered birth weight (P=0.005), 1st min Apgar score (P=0.001), and CHD complexity (P=0.013) as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The most common CHD was ventricular septal defect. Indeed, 60.5% cases were considered as "complex" or "significant" CHDs. Heart surgeries were performed on 38.9% children, 15 of whom had "complex" or "significant" CHD. A mortality rate of 42% was observed in this cohort, with 28% occurring within the initial 24 h after delivery and 38% occurring in patients admitted for heart surgery. Conclusion: The postnatal incidence of CHD at our service was 5.3%. Low 1st min Apgar score, low birth weight, and CHD complexity were the independent factors that affected the hospital outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Heart Defects, Congenital/mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Incidence , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(10): 668-673, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973923

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Medication-overuse headache is commonly seen in tertiary centers. Limited evidence is available regarding treatment. We compared the use of one or two drugs, three drugs, or four pharmacological agents for the prevention of headache. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 149 consecutive patients. Sudden withdrawal and pharmacological prevention with one or more drugs were carried out. Adherence and the decrease of headache frequency of more than 50% were compared after four months between the one or two, three, and four drug groups. Results: There was no difference in adherence (p > 0.6). Headache frequency reduction was shown in 23 (54.8%, one or two drugs), 33 (70%, three drugs) and 11 (55%, four drugs); p = 0.13 and p = 0.98, not significant. There was a tendency towards significance between the one or two drug takers versus the three drug and four drug takers together (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The use of more drugs was not better at improving headache. However, there is the possibility that acting simultaneously on different sites may promote broader modulation and better outcome.


RESUMO Objetivos: Cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos (CEM) é comum em centros terciários. Existe evidência limitada quanto a estratégias de tratamento e se combinar drogas é melhor do que abordagens com monoterapia. Objetivamos comparar o uso de até dois, três ou quatro agentes farmacológicos para a prevenção. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 149 pacientes consecutivos. A suspensão súbita das drogas usadas em excesso e o início de prevenção foram realizados. A adesão e a redução superior a 50% na frequência da cefaleia foram comparadas após quatro meses entre até duas drogas, três drogas e quatro drogas. Resultados: A adesão não foi diferente (p > 0.6). A redução da frequência de cefaleia foi de 23 (54.8%, até duas drogas, 33 (70%, três drogas) e 11 (55%, quatro drogas; p = 0.13 e p = 0.98, não significativo). Houve uma tendência à significância quando comparamos até duas drogas com três e quatro drogas (p = 0.09). Conclusões: Não demonstramos superioridade de mais drogas, comparando-se a um ou dois medicamentos. Acreditamos na possibilidade de atuação em sítios de diferentes de forma simultânea e a modulação mais abrangente com melhores parâmetros evolutivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Headache Disorders, Secondary/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Withholding Treatment , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 377-386, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Influenza continues to drive seasonal morbidity, particularly in settings with low vaccine coverage. Objectives: To describe the influenza cases and viral circulation among hospitalized patients. Methods: A prospective study based on active surveillance of inpatients with influenza-like illness from a tertiary hospital in Bucharest, Romania, in the season 2016/17. Results: A total of 446 patients were tested, with a balanced gender distribution. Overall, 192 (43%) patients tested positive for influenza, with the highest positivity rate in the age groups 3-13 years and >65 years. Peak activity occurred between weeks 1 and 16/2017, with biphasic distribution: A viruses were replaced by B viruses from week 9/2017; B viruses predominated (66.1%). Among the 133 (69.3%) subtyped samples, all influenza A were subtype H3 (n = 57) and all influenza B were B/Victoria (n = 76). Patients who tested positive for influenza presented fewer comorbidities (p = 0.012), except for the elderly, in whom influenza was more common in patients with comorbidities (p = 0.050). Disease evolution was generally favorable under antiviral treatment. The length of hospital stay was slightly longer in patients with influenza-like illness who tested patients negative for influenza (p = 0.031). Conclusions: Distinctive co-circulation of A/H3 and B/Victoria in Bucharest, Romania in the 2016/17 influenza season was found. While the A/H3 subtype was predominant throughout Europe that season, B/Victoria appears to have circulated specifically in Romania and the Eastern European region, predominantly affecting preschoolers and school children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Seasons , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Romania/epidemiology , Time Factors , Comorbidity , Population Surveillance , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Age Distribution , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 273-277, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Candidemia is the most frequent invasive fungal disease in hospitalized patients, and is associated with high mortality rates. The main objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the epidemiology of candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in a 21-year period. Methods We evaluated all episodes of candidemia diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Brazil. We arbitrarily divided the study period in 3: 1996-2002 (period 1), 2003-2009 (period 2) and 2010-2016 (period 3). Incidence rates were calculated using hospital admissions as denominator. Results We observed 331 episodes of candidemia. The incidence was 1.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, with no significant change over time. Candida albicans (37.5%), C. tropicalis (28.1%), C. parapsilosis (18.4%) and C. glabrata (6.9%) were the most frequent species. The proportion of patients receiving treatment increased (65.5%, 79.4% and 74.7% in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p= 0.04), and the median time from candidemia to treatment initiation decreased from 4 days in period 1 (range 0-32 days) to 2 days in period 2 (range 0-33 days) and 2 days in period 3 (range 0-14 days, p< 0.001). We observed a significant decrease in the use of deoxycholate amphotericin B (47.4%, 14.8% and 11.9%), and an increase in the use of echinocandins (0%, 2.8% and 49.1%; p< 0.001). The APACHE II score increased over time (median 16, 17.5, and 22, p< 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 58.9%, and did not change significantly over the study period. Conclusions There was an improvement in patient care, with an increase in the proportion of patients receiving treatment and a decrease in the time to treatment initiation, but no improvement in the outcome, possibly because the proportion of sicker patients increased over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Incidence , Hospital Mortality/trends , Candidemia/mortality , Candidemia/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 452-459, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950083

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study was conducted to assess the serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy controls and to identify its association with aggressive breast cancer phenotypes. Materials and methods: Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels of 78 breast cancer patients and 78 matched healthy controls were estimated using ELISA. The cases and controls were matched with respect to age, menopausal status, parity, weight, height and co-morbidities. Prognostic factors like grade of tumour, hormone receptor status, HER2 neu status and lymphovascular invasion were compared with 25-OH vitamin D levels. Results: The mean serum 25-OH vitamin D levels of cases were significantly lower compared to the controls (22.33 ± 8.19 vs. 37.41 ± 12.9 ng/mL; p = 0.0001). Patients with higher grades of tumour, non-luminal types of breast cancer and breast cancers with estrogen receptor negativity had significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels than their opposing groups. Patients with excellent and good Nottingham's prognostic Index (NPI) had significantly higher serum 25-OH vitamin D levels than the moderate and poor NPI groups. Conclusion: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients have significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels than healthy controls. Lower level of serum 25-OH vitamin D correlates with aggressive breast cancer phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Breast Neoplasms/blood , Phenotype , Prognosis , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Neoplasm Grading , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , India
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 364-370, Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome, whose advanced forms have a poor prognosis, which is aggravated by the presence of comorbidities. Objective: We assessed the impact of infection in patients with decompensated HF admitted to a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in the city of São Paulo. Methods: This study assessed 260 patients consecutively admitted to our unit because of decompensated HF. The presence of infection and other morbidities was assessed, as were in-hospital mortality and outcome after discharge. The chance of death was estimated by univariate logistic regression analysis of the variables studied. The significance level adopted was P < 0.05. Results: Of the patients studied, 54.2% were of the male sex, and the mean age ± SD was 66.1 ± 12.7 years. During hospitalization, 119 patients (45.8%) had infection: 88 (33.8%) being diagnosed with pulmonary infection and 39 patients (15.0%), with urinary infection. During hospitalization, 56 patients (21.5%) died, and, after discharge, 36 patients (17.6%). During hospitalization, 26.9% of the patients with infection died vs 17% of those without infection (p = 0.05). However, after discharge, mortality was lower in the group that had infection: 11.5% vs 22.2% (p = 0.046). Conclusions: Infection is a frequent morbidity among patients with HF admitted for compensation of the condition, and those with infection show higher in-hospital mortality. However, those patients who initially had infection and survived had a better outcome after discharge.


Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome cujas formas avançadas têm mau prognóstico, que é mais agravado pela presença de comorbidades. Objetivo: Avaliamos o impacto da infecção em pacientes com IC descompensada que internaram em hospital universitário terciário de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudamos 260 pacientes consecutivos que internaram em nossa unidade com IC descompensada. Avaliamos a presença de infecção e de outras morbidades. Avaliaram-se mortalidade hospitalar e evolução após a alta. A chance de óbito foi estimada pela análise de regressão logística univariada para as variáveis estudadas. Considerou-se P < 0,05 significativo. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados, 54,2% eram homens, sendo a idade média ± DP de 66,1 ± 12,7 anos. Durante a internação, 119 pacientes (45,8%) apresentaram infecção: 88 (33,8%) tiveram diagnóstico de infecção pulmonar e 39 (15%), de infecção urinária. A mortalidade hospitalar ocorreu em 56 pacientes (21,5%) e, após a alta, 36 pacientes (17,6%) morreram no seguimento. Durante a internação, 26,9% do grupo com infecção morreu vs 17% do grupo sem infecção (p = 0,05). Entretanto, após a alta, a mortalidade foi menor no grupo com infecção: 11,5% vs 22,2% (p = 0,046). Conclusões: Infecção é uma comorbidade frequente entre os pacientes com IC internados para compensação, causando um aumento da mortalidade durante a hospitalização. Entretanto, após a alta, os pacientes inicialmente com infecção apresentaram melhor evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Prognosis , Stroke Volume/physiology , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cohort Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data
20.
Clinics ; 73: e325, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Discharge/standards , Pharmacists/psychology , Directive Counseling , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacists/standards , Brazil , Cardiology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Professional Role/psychology , Medication Adherence/psychology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/mortality
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