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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249158, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339346


Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters' turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens' present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.

Resumo O conhecimento da morfologia testicular e ovariana de uma determinada espécie de peixe é de suma importância, pois através destas análises é possível o desenvolvimento de estudos e técnicas visando o melhoramento de sua reprodução, manejo e comercialização e até mesmo auxiliar em sua conservação. Este estudo realizou a caracterização ovariana e testicular do peixe Amazônico ornamental Serrapinnus kriegi. Um total de três machos e três fêmeas tiveram suas gônadas analisadas através de microscopia óptica. As fêmeas apresentam ovários preenchidos por oócitos em desenvolvimento assincrônico, indicando desova parcelada da espécie. Além disso, observou-se a formação de micrópila e célula micropilar em oócitos em crescimento primário, representando o desenvolvimento precoce do oócito; a zona radiata nos oócitos vitelogênicos finais é mais espessa em comparação a outras espécies relacionadas, evidenciando o desenvolvimento de uma melhor proteção aos embriões, em função das águas turbulentas que caracterizam seu local de desova nos córregos amazônicos. Os machos apresentam testículos do tipo tubular anastomosado com espermatogônias irrestritas, espalhadas por todo o túbulo seminífero. Os dados apresentados elucidam a dinâmica da espermatogênese e oogênese de uma espécie de peixe ornamental amazônica, por meio da descrição das células germinativas masculinas e femininas.

Animals , Male , Female , Characidae , Oocytes , Oogenesis , Ovary , Testis , Gonads
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 619-626, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385649


SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that homeobox proteins play an important role in the formation and development of tissues and organs in the embryonic period. In our study, the distribution of Dlx-5 and TLX proteins, which are members of the homeobox family, in the testis, epididymis and ductus deferens ducts of some cat breeds were investigated. For this purpose, in the study, 18 testes younger than six months (immature) and older than one year (mature) were examined under a light microscope using an immunohistochemical method (indirect streptavidin-biotin complex). While it was determined that Dlx-5 and TLX1 proteins were expressed at varying levels in cells in immature and mature cat testicles, epithelial cells of ductus epididymis and ductus deferens, and smooth muscle cells of ductus deferens, no differences were observed between cat breeds. Dlx-5 immunoreactivity was more intense in the testes, epididymis and deferens ducts of immature and mature compared to TLX1. These results suggested that both proteins play important roles in the development of male feline genital organs and in the secretion and differentiation of cells, and also further observation of Dlx-5 expression suggested that this protein may be more effective than TLX1 in testicular development and physiological processes.

RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que las proteínas homeobox juegan un papel importante en la formación y desarrollo de tejidos y órganos en el período embrionario. En nuestro estudio, se investigó la distribución de las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX, que son miembros de la familia homeobox, en los testículos, en el epidídimo y en los conductos deferentes de algunas razas de gatos. En el estudio fueron examinados, 18 testículos de animales menores de seis meses (inmaduros) y mayores de un año (maduros) bajo un microscopio óptico utilizando un método inmunohistoquímico (complejo indirecto de estreptavidina-biotina). Si bien se determinó que las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX1 se expresaron en niveles variables en las células de los testículos de gatos inmaduros y maduros, las células epiteliales del epidídimo y del conducto deferente y las células del músculo liso del conducto deferente, no se observaron diferencias entre las razas de gatos. La inmunorreactividad de Dlx-5 fue más intensa en los testículos, epidídimo y conductos deferentes de gatos inmaduros y maduros en comparación con TLX1. Estos resultados sugieren que ambas proteínas tienen un rol importante en el desarrollo de los órganos genitales felinos masculinos y en la secreción y diferenciación de células, y también la observación de la expresión de Dlx-5 sugirió que esta proteína puede ser más efectiva que TLX1 en el desarrollo testicular y en los procesos fisiológicos.

Animals , Male , Cats , Testis/growth & development , Testis/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 336-346, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364946


ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the incidence of epididymal anomalies (EAs) associated to spermatic obstruction in patients with undescended testis (UT) according to testicular position and age. Materials and Methods: We studied 87 patients (110 testis) with cryptorchidism and analyzed the presence of EAs correlated with the testicular position, age and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis we considered three situations: (a) Normal pattern: the epididymis was attached to the testis at the head and tail and epididymis totally attached to the testis; (b) EAs: when the epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head (Figure-1A) and (c) EAs associated to spermatic obstruction: epididymis was attached to the testis only at the tail (Figure-1B) and when there are no visible connection between testis and epididymis (Figure-1C). We used the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test for contingency analysis (p <0.05). Results: The mean age of the patients was 5.18 years (SD=2.867). Of 110 testes analyzed, 14 were abdominal (12.72%); 83 inguinal (75.45%) and 13 suprascrotal (11.81%). Normal relationships between testis and epididymis were observed in 54 patients (62.1%) with no significant differences in relation to the patient's age (p=0.666). Epididymal tail disjunction was observed in 23 patients (26.44%), with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.59). EAs associated to spermatic obstruction were observed in 16 patients (18.4%), also with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.684). We did not observe significant correlation between the testis position and the incidence of EAs (p=0.119). We did not observe significant correlations between patency of the PV (64.7%) and incidence of EAs (p=0.742). Conclusions: Epididymal anomalies associated with spermatic obstruction are present in almost 20% of undescended testes, without significant correlation with age, testicular position and patency of the PV. This information needs to be correlated to the infertility risk of this congenital anomaly.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Cryptorchidism/complications , Testis/abnormalities , Incidence , Epididymis/abnormalities , Inguinal Canal
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 8-17, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356298


ABSTRACT Objectives: In this review we will describe the testicular vessels anatomy and the implications of these vessels in surgical treatment of high undescended testis. Material and Methods: We performed a narrative review of the literature about the role of the testicular arteries anatomy in the treatment of high undescended testis. We also studied two human testes to illustrate the testicular vascularization. Results: Each testis is irrigated by three arteries: testicular artery (internal spermatic artery), a branch of the right aorta; deferential artery (vasal artery), a branch of the inferior vesicle artery that originates from the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery and cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery), a branch of the inferior epigastric artery. There are important communications among the three arteries with visible anastomotic channels between the testicular and deferential arteries. Conclusions: Laparoscopic transection of the testicular vessels by dividing the spermatic vessels (Fowler-Stephens surgery) is safe in patients with high abdominal testis due to the great collateral vascular supply between testicular, vasal and cremasteric arteries; also, two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy appears to carry a higher rate of success than the single stage approach.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord/surgery , Laparoscopy , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Arteries/surgery , Testis/surgery , Orchiopexy
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 396-401, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939904


The testis is an immune-privileged organ susceptible to oxidative stress and inflammation, two major factors implicated in male infertility. A reduction in the concentration and activities of testicular function biomarkers has been shown to correlate with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and oxidative stress. However, the use of natural products to ameliorate these oxidative stress-induced changes may be essential to improving male reproductive function. Quercetin possesses several pharmacological activities that may help to combat cellular reproduction-related assaults, such as altered sperm function and reproductive hormone dysfunction, and dysregulated testicular apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Studies have shown that quercetin ameliorates testicular toxicity, largely by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species, with the aid of the two antioxidant pharmacophores present in its ring structure. The radical-scavenging property of quercetin may alter signal transduction of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, prevent inflammation, and increase sperm quality in relation to the hormonal concentration. In this review, the therapeutic potential of quercetin in mediating male reproductive health is discussed.

Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Oxidative Stress , Quercetin/pharmacology , Semen , Testis
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 274-286, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928554


Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) refers to the failure of spermatogenesis, which affects approximately 1% of the male population and contributes to 10% of male infertility. NOA has an underlying basis of endocrine imbalances since proper human spermatogenesis relies on complex regulation and cooperation of multiple hormones. A better understanding of subtle hormonal disturbances in NOA would help design and improve hormone therapies with reduced risk in human fertility clinics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research on the endocrinological aspects of NOA, especially the hormones involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis (HPTA), including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, and leptin. For the NOA men associated with primary testicular failure, the quality of currently available evidence has not been sufficient enough to recommend any general hormone optimization therapy. Some other NOA patients, especially those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, could be treated with hormonal replacement. Although these approaches have succeeded in resuming the fertility in many NOA patients, the prudent strategies should be applied in individuals according to specific NOA etiology by balancing fertility benefits and potential risks. This review also discusses how NOA can be induced by immunization against hormones.

Azoospermia/etiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Testosterone/therapeutic use
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 266-272, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928525


Gene expression analyses suggest that more than 1000-2000 genes are expressed predominantly in mouse and human testes. Although functional analyses of hundreds of these genes have been performed, there are still many testis-enriched genes whose functions remain unexplored. Analyzing gene function using knockout (KO) mice is a powerful tool to discern if the gene of interest is essential for sperm formation, function, and male fertility in vivo. In this study, we generated KO mice for 12 testis-enriched genes, 1700057G04Rik, 4921539E11Rik, 4930558C23Rik, Cby2, Ldhal6b, Rasef, Slc25a2, Slc25a41, Smim8, Smim9, Tmem210, and Tomm20l, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. We designed two gRNAs for each gene to excise almost all the protein-coding regions to ensure that the deletions in these genes result in a null mutation. Mating tests of KO mice reveal that these 12 genes are not essential for male fertility, at least when individually ablated, and not together with other potentially compensatory paralogous genes. Our results could prevent other laboratories from expending duplicative effort generating KO mice, for which no apparent phenotype exists.

Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Fertility/genetics , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Testis/metabolism
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 85-89, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928502


Varicocele adversely affects semen parameters. However, the effect of varicocele repair on the sperm retrieval rate and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia has not been widely reported. We retrospectively assessed the sperm retrieval rates and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia who were referred to the Urology Clinic in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia) and Bunda General Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia) between January 2009 and December 2019. We compared patients who had undergone a surgical sperm retrieval procedure for assisted reproductive technology no earlier than three months after varicocele repair and those who had not undergone varicocele repair. The study included 104 patients (age range: 26-54 years), 42 of whom had undergone varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure and 62 who had not. Motile spermatozoa were found in 29 (69.1%) and 17 (27.4%) patients who had undergone varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure and those who had not undergone the repair, respectively (relative risk: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-3.96; P < 0.001). A predicted probabilities graph showed consistently higher sperm retrieval rates for patients with varicocele repair, regardless of their follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Patients who underwent varicocele repair showed higher testicular histopathological patterns (P = 0.001). In conclusion, men with nonobstructive azoospermia and clinical varicocele who underwent varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure had higher sperm retrieval rates compared to those who did not undergo varicocele repair.

Adult , Azoospermia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Varicocele/surgery
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 23-28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359362


Históricamente la sociedad ha rechazado el abuso sexual de menores de 13 años, dictándose leyes al respecto. La justicia luego de un debido proceso condenaba al victimario con reclusión incluso hasta la década del 70-80, con orquiectomía. Los adelantos en neurobiología, endocrinología, sicofarmacología y sicología se consideraron las bases para tratar al pedófilo y someterlo a libertad condicional, ahorrándose el costo financiero de la reclusión de por vida. Diversos países dictaron leyes contra la conducta pedófila. En dicha legislación ejerció gran influencia la promulgación en EE.UU. (estado de Washington "sobre el ofensor sexual" y el dictamen de la Corte Suprema en 1997 en el juicio de Kansas vs Hendricks). En Chile en los 90 el caso del pedófilo apodado "Zacarach" sacó a la luz pública el tema que no se quería ver. En esa fecha se presentó al parlamento un proyecto de Ley para "curar" la pedofilia con acetato de Medroxiprogesterona imitando legislación de EE.UU. Causó sorpresa en el medio endocrinológico que se usara terapia hormonal como "cura" de la pedofilia. Se ha utilizado en varios países la castración química producida por gestágenos o agonístas del GnRH más antiandrógenos (acetato de Ciproterona), para inhibir la secreción y acción de la testosterona disminuyendo líbido y erección. No se ha demostrado que exista curación de la orientación pedófila y existen dudas de la prevención primaria y secundaria de la pedofilia. Pese al adelanto tecnológico en neurociencias para estudio de las zonas vinculadas a la sexualidad, aún no existen marcadores que permitan diagnosticar o pronosticar futuros resultados de la terapia. El tratamiento médico de la pedofilia no garantiza curación ni prevención del delito pedofílico.

Historically, society has rejected sexual abuse of children under 13, with there having been laws enacted in this regard. The judicial system, after a due process, condemned the perpetrator with reclusion and even up until the decades of the 70s and 80s with orchiectomy. Advances in neurobiology, endocrinology, psychopharmacology and psychology were considered the basis for treating the pedophile and putting them on probation, saving the financial cost of imprisonment for life. Multiple countries have enacted laws against pedophilic behaviour. Such legislation was greatly influenced by the enactment in the USA (state of Washington "on the sex offender" and the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1997 in the trial of Kansas against Hendricks). In Chile in the 90s, the case of a pedophile nicknamed "Zacarach" brought to light an issue that nobody wanted to see. Around that time, a bill was presented to Parliament to try and "cure" pedophilia with Medroxyprogesterone acetate, imitating US legislation. It was a surprise in the endocrinological world that hormonal therapy would be used as a "cure" for pedophilia. Chemical castration produced by gestagens or GnRH agonists plus antiandrogens (Cyproterone acetate) has been used in several countries to inhibit the secretion and action of testosterone, reducing libido and erection. It has not been proven that there is a cure for pedophile orientation and there are doubts about the primary and secondary prevention of pedophilia. Despite technological advances in neurosciences for the study of the zones pertaining to sexuality, there are still no indicators that allow for diagnosis or prediction of future results of therapy. The medical treatment of pedophilia does not guarantee cure or prevention of pedophilic crime.

Humans , Male , Pedophilia/drug therapy , Castration/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pedophilia/diagnosis , Pedophilia/etiology , Pedophilia/therapy , Sex Offenses/legislation & jurisprudence , Testis/drug effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Cyproterone Acetate/therapeutic use
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604


Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.

Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410505


Objetivos: relatar um caso raro de sarcoma fibromixoide de baixo grau (SFMBG) em uma localização incomum de modo a reforçar aspectos histopatológicos e imunoistoquímicos relevantes para o reconhecimento desta entidade e o adequado diagnóstico diferencial de massas paratesticulares. Relato de caso: homem de 20 anos, com massa escrotal à direita, cuja análise histopatológica demonstrou a presença de tecido fibroso com áreas mixoides e predominância de células fusiformes. A imunoistoquímica foi positiva para vimentina, com índice de Ki67 de 2%, e negativa para S100, CD-34, beta-catenina, desmina e miogenina. Conclusões: caso raro de SFMBG na região paratesticular que reforça a importância da histopatologia e da imunoistoquímica no diagnóstico desse tumor. Apesar da característica histológica benigna, o SFMBG apresenta altas taxas de recorrência e metástases, sendo essencial o seguimento do paciente.

Objectives: to report a rare case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) in an unusual location in order to reinforce histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects relevant to the recognition of this entity and the adequate differential diagnosis of paratesticular masses. Case report: 20-year-old man, with a right scrotal mass and histopathological analysis showing the presence of fibrous tissue with myxoid areas and a predominance of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for vimentin, with a Ki67 index of 2%, and negative for S100, CD-34, beta-catenin, desmin and myogenin. Conclusions: rare case of LGFMS in the paratesticular region that reinforces the importance of histopathology and immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of this tumor. Despite the benign histological characteristic, LGFMS has high rates of recurrence and metastasis, and patient follow-up is essential.

Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma , Testis , Neoplasms
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936150


OBJECTIVE@#Androgen deficiency is common in aging males and may have unfavourable health consequences. Large-scale studies suggested low testosterone level might increse mortality and morbidity in ageing males. However, young men with low testosterone level might be neglected. Recent studies reported young men with infertility may have reduced testosterone level. To investigate the incidence of androgen deficiency in males with infertility and possible factors affecting the low testosterone level.@*METHODS@#Between January 2011 and December 2012, 407 men with infertility caused by varicocele (VC), obstructive azoospermia (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) in our center were included. The number of men in each group of OA, NOA and VC was 141, 97 and 169, respectively. All the eligible patients underwent a serum testosterone assessment by a single morning blood draw (between 8:00 to noon) to test for concentration of the total testosterone. All serum samples were determined by radioimmunoassay in our andrology laboratory. Androgen deficiency was defined as having a total testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL.@*RESULTS@#The mean age was (30.4±5.8) years. The mean testosterone level was (4.18±1.64) ng/dL (range 0.30 to 11.32 ng/dL). The overall incidence of androgen deficiency was 26.5% (108/407). The incidences of androgen deficiency in NOA, OA and VC groups were 40.2% (39/97), 19.1% (27/141) and 24.9% (42/169), respectively, which were significantly higher in the NOA than in the VC and OA groups (P < 0.001). The incidences had no difference between the VC and OA groups (P=0.229). Univariate analysis revealed the cause of infertility, FSH and the mean testis volume as possible affecting factors for androgen deficiency. However, on multivariate analysis the only cause of infertility was an independent predictor. The incidence of androgen deficiency was the highest in the NOA group [OR 0.492 (95% confidence interval 0.288-0.840)].@*CONCLUSION@#NOA and varicocele might be risk factors of androgen deficiency. Young men with NOA may have a higher possibility of low testosterone level. Testosterone level should be followed up after NOA and varicocele treatment. Androgen deficiency should be assessed in males with infertility in clinical practice.

Adult , Androgens , Azoospermia/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Testis , Testosterone , Varicocele/complications , Young Adult
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1219-1227, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340041


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a modified surgical technique for immediate intravaginal prosthesis implantation in patients undergoing orchiectomy due to testicular torsion, and to evaluate the wound healing process and patient's satisfaction. Material and methods: We prospectively analyzed 137 patients with testicular torsion admitted to our facility between April 2018 and May 2020. Twenty-five patients who underwent orchiectomy were included in this study. Fifteen had a testicular prosthesis implanted at the same time as orchiectomy using a modified intravaginal technique (summary figure) and 10 received implants 6 to 12 months after orchiectomy. Wound healing was evaluated at a minimum of four checkpoints (on days 15, 45, 90 and 180 after surgery). At the end of the study, a questionnaire was administered to measure patients' satisfaction rate. Student's t test was used for comparison of quantitative data between negative vs. positive cultures (p <0.05). The chi-square test was used to verify associations between categorical variables and immediate vs. late prosthesis implantation (p <0.05). Results: Patient's ages ranged from 13 to 23 years (mean 16.44 years). Overall time lapse from symptoms to orchiectomy ranged from 10 hours to 25 days (mean 7.92 days). Only one extrusion occurred and it happened in the late implant group. All wounds were healed in 72%, 88%, 95.8% and 100% of the cases on the 15th, 45th, 90th and 180th days after implant, respectively. At the end of the study, all patients stated they would recommend it to a friend or relative. The only patient that had prothesis extrusion asked to have it implanted again. Conclusion: There was no prosthesis extrusion using the modified intravaginal surgical technique for immediate testicular prosthesis implantation, which proved to be an easily performed and safe procedure that can avoid further reconstructive surgery in patients whose testicle was removed due to testicular torsion.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Testis/surgery , Orchiectomy , Retrospective Studies , Prosthesis Implantation
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(3): 01022105, Jul-Set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373503


RESUMO Introdução: Os tumores de células de Leydig são tumores testiculares raros e geralmente benignos. É mais comumente encontrado em pré-púberes e entre 30-60 anos. São bem delimitados, apresentando-se como massa ou nódulo testicular palpável e indolor. Apresentação do Caso: É relatado caso de paciente masculino, 56 anos, com achado ocasional de nódulo em região testicular esquerda, com realização de ultrassom e biópsia excisional para diagnóstico e posterior orquiectomia parcial e imuno-histoquímica com comprovação etiológica. Comentários: Tais tumores correspondem de 1 a 3% dos tumor testiculares em adultos, apenas e aproximadamente 10% são malignos. Em 80% são associados a distúrbios hormonais. Com tratamento de primeira linha a cirurgia. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Tumor de células de Leydig, neoplasias testiculares, testículo

ABSTRACT Introduction: Leydig cell tumors are rare and generally benign testicular tumors. They are most commonly found in prepubescent and 30-60-year-olds. They are well delimited, presenting as a painless, palpable testicular mass or nodule. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 56-year-old male patient with occasional finding of a nodule in the left testicular region, with ultrasound and excisional biopsy for diagnosis and subsequent partial orchiectomy and immunohistochemistry with etiological confirmation. Comments: Such tumors account for 1 to 3% of testicular tumors in adults, and only approximately 10% are malignant. In 80% of cases they are associated with hormonal disorders. With surgery as first-line treatment. KEYWORDS: Leydig cell tumor, testicular neoplasms, testis

Humans , Male , Testicular Neoplasms , Testis , Leydig Cell Tumor
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(3)sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387666


Abstract Introduction: Testicular histology constitutes one of the least explored aspects in frogs of the genus Atelopus. This taxonomic group shows an alarming population decline; therefore, its reproductive biology is one of the greatest topics of interest for its conservation. Objective: To describe the testicular morphology and the spermatogenetic lineage cells in adult males of Atelopus laetissimus, Atelopus nahumae, and Atelopus carrikeri in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Methods: During June - July 2017 and 2018, sampling was conducted in the localities of San Lorenzo and Páramo Cebolletas, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), to collect 15 adult males, 5 per species. Testes samples were fixed in Bouin to be processed by the standard paraffin-embedding technique. Histological sections (3 μm) were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory-Heidenhain-Azan-Gomori's. For the description and photographic register of the germ cells, the photonic microscopy technique was used with the differential interference contrast system. Results: The testes are oval organs, compact, light yellow color, and with little vascularization. Externally, they are surrounded by a thin albuginea tunic constituted by regular dense connective tissue. Inside this layer, they are composed of numerous seminiferous tubules of hexagonal contour, in which germ cell cysts are distinguished at different stages of spermatogenesis (spermatogonia I and II, spermatocyte I and II, and early and late spermatids) and spermiogenesis (spermatozoa in fascicles and free spermatozoa). Separating the seminiferous structures is the interstitial tissue in which Leydig cells and blood vessels stand out. Additionally, in the cranial part of the testis, the Bidder's organ was found, formed by two distinguishable regions, the cortex and the medulla. In the cortex, there are previtellogénic oocytes of different sizes surrounded by a monolayer of flat follicular cells. For its part, the medullary region is the connective tissue that nourishes the oocytes and is constituted by blood capillaries. Conclusions: The gonads of the three species analyzed present a cystic cellular organization similar to other anurans, where all stages of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis were identified, possibly indicating a continuous reproductive activity. Likewise, the Bidder's organ is reported for the first time in the three Atelopus species, which allows suggesting a possible sexual reversion in case of a population decrease of females as a reproductive strategy.

Resumen Introducción: La histología testicular constituye uno de los aspectos menos explorados en las ranas del género Atelopus. Este grupo taxonómico ostenta un declive poblacional alarmarte, es por ello, que su biología reproductiva resulta uno de los temas de mayor interés para su conservación. Objetivo: Describir la morfología testicular y las células del linaje espermatogénico en machos adultos de Atelopus laetissimus, Atelopus nahumae y Atelopus carrikeri en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Métodos: Durante Junio - Julio de 2017 y 2018 se realizaron muestreos en las localidades de San Lorenzo y Páramo Cebolletas, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), para recolectar 15 machos adultos, 5 por especie. Las muestras de testículo se fijaron en Bouin para ser procesadas mediante la técnica estándar de inclusión en parafina. Las secciones histológicas (3 μm) se tiñeron con Hematoxilina-eosina y Mallory-Heidenhain-Azan-Gomori's. Para la descripción y registro fotográfico de las células germinales, se utilizó la técnica de microscopía fotónica con el sistema de contraste diferencial de interferencia. Resultados: Los testículos son órganos ovalados, compactos, de color amarillo claro y con poca vascularización. Externamente, están rodeados por una delgada túnica albugínea constituida por tejido conectivo denso regular. Al interior de esta capa se componen por numerosos túbulos seminíferos de contorno hexagonal, en los que se distinguen quistes de células germinativas en diferentes etapas de la espermatogénesis (espermatogonia I y II, espermatocito I y II y espermátidas tempranas y tardías) y espermiogénesis (espermatozoides en fascículos y espermatozoides libres). Separando las estructuras seminíferas se halla el tejido intersticial en el que se destacan las células de Leydig y los vasos sanguíneos. Adicionalmente, en la parte craneal del testículo se encontró el órgano de bidder formado por dos regiones diferenciables, la corteza y la medula. En la corteza se aprecian ovocitos previtelogénicos en diferente tamaño rodeados por una monocapa de células foliculares planas. Por su parte, la región medular es el tejido conectivo que nutre los ovocitos y está constituido por capilares sanguíneos. Conclusiones: Las gónadas de las tres especies analizadas presentan una organización celular quística de manera similar con otros anuros, donde se identificó todos los estadios de la espermatogénesis y espermiogénesis indicando posiblemente una actividad reproductiva continua. Así mismo, se reporta por primera vez el órgano de bidder en las tres especies de Atelopus, lo cual permite sugerir una posible reversión sexual en caso de una disminución poblacional de las hembras como una estrategia reproductiva.

Animals , Ranidae/anatomy & histology , Testis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 763-770, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285283


The objective of this study was to determine the scrotal thermographic profile and to verify the influence of temperature and humidity of the humid tropical climate on testicular temperature and seminal quality of Mangalarga Marchador stallions. The thermal profiles of the proximal, middle, and distal zones of the testicles and total surface temperature (TSTT) were recorded using an FLIR E60bx thermal imager. The average air temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were obtained 1, 5, 9, 33, and 66 days before semen collection and showed a mean value of 26.5±2.4 and 80.4±6.0 respectively. The scrotal surface temperature was close to 34°C and there was no variation with the age of the stallion, reproductive activity, and characteristics of the ejaculate (P>0.05). The only significant correlations obtained were between TSTT and minor defects (R = 0.41; P<0.05), between TSTT and total defects (R = 0.46; P<0.01), and between TSTT and percentage of morphologically normal sperm (R = -0.46; P<0.05). It was concluded that the Mangalarga Marchador stallions maintained the testicular temperature within favorable conditions for spermatogenesis, demonstrating the efficiency of testicular thermoregulation mechanisms in the Atlantic Forest biome.

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil termográfico escrotal e verificar a influência da temperatura e da umidade do clima tropical úmido na temperatura testicular e na qualidade seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Os perfis térmicos das zonas proximal, média e distal dos testículos e a temperatura da superfície total (TSTT) foram registrados usando-se um termovisor FLIR E60bx. A temperatura média do ar (° C) e a umidade relativa (%) foram obtidas um, cinco, nove, 33 e 66 dias antes da coleta de sêmen e apresentaram valor médio de 26,5 ± 2,4 e 80,4 ± 6,0, respectivamente. A temperatura da superfície escrotal foi próxima a 34°C, e não houve variação com a idade do garanhão, a atividade reprodutiva e as características do ejaculado (P>0,05). As únicas correlações significativas obtidas foram entre TSTT e defeitos menores (R=0,41; P<0,05), entre TSTT e defeitos totais (R=0,46; P<0,01), e entre TSTT e porcentagem de espermatozoides morfologicamente normais (R=-0,46; P<0,05). Concluiu-se que os garanhões Mangalarga Marchador mantiveram a temperatura testicular dentro de condições favoráveis para a espermatogênese, demonstrando a eficiência dos mecanismos de termorregulação testicular no bioma Mata Atlântica.

Animals , Male , Spermatogenesis/radiation effects , Temperature , Testis , Body Temperature Regulation , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Humidity/adverse effects , Semen , Tropical Climate/adverse effects , Thermography/veterinary
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 251-258, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280909


Introducción. El orquidómetro de Prader es el método estándar para medir el volumen testicular (VT) en niños y adolescentes. Objetivo. Evaluar la concordancia en la estimación del VT y del inicio puberal con las técnicas de orquidometría de Prader, Chipkevitch y Sotos. Métodos. Diseño descriptivo transversal realizado en varones de entre 9 y 20 años. Se midió el VT (ml) en cada adolescente con las técnicas de Prader (método de referencia), Chipkevitch (modelo gráfico) y Sotos (medición de ancho testicular con regla plástica y fórmula equivalente a ecuación elipsoide). Se excluyeron varones con patología urogenital y enfermedades que afectan el crecimiento testicular. Para la concordancia entre métodos, se utilizó kappa para el inicio puberal, y coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) y gráficos de Bland-Altman (GBA) para el VT. Resultados. Se incluyeron 377 varones sanos. Para la concordancia en VT (ml), la comparación Prader-Chipkevitch obtuvo CCI: 0,994 y p < 0,001; y de CCI; 0,312 y p < 0,001 para la de Prader-Sotos. En los GBA se halló una media de las diferencias cercana a 0 ml en la comparación Prader-Chipkevitch y cercana a 8 ml en la de Prader-Sotos. El acuerdo en el inicio puberal obtuvo un valor de kappa 0,93 en la comparación Prader-Chipkevitch y de 0,75 en la de Prader-Sotos. Conclusión. Los orquidómetros de Prader y Chipkevitch tienen una excelente concordancia en la estimación del VT y el inicio puberal; por lo tanto, podrían intercambiarse en la atención diaria de varones adolescentes. El método de Sotos mostró una concordancia buena en la estimación del inicio puberal, pero baja en la medición del VT

Introduction. The Prader orchidometer is the standard method used to measure testicular volume (TV) in children and adolescents. Objective. To assess the concordance in the estimation of TV and puberty onset with the Prader, Chipkevitch, and Sotos orchidometric techniques. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among male children and adolescents aged 9-20 years. For each adolescent, TV was measured with the methods by Prader (gold standard), Chipkevitch (graphic model), and Sotos (measurement of testicular width with a plastic ruler and use of a formula equivalent to the ellipsoid equation). Male children and adolescents with urogenital conditions and disorders affecting testicular growth were excluded. Kappa statistics was used to determine concordance among methods for puberty onset, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman (B&A) plots for TV. Results. In total, 377 healthy males were included. Regarding the concordance for TV (mL), the Prader-Chipkevitch comparison obtained an ICC of 0.994 and a p < 0.001; while the Prader-Soto comparison obtained an ICC of 0.312 and a p < 0.001. With the B&A plots, mean differences were close to 0 mL in the Prader-Chipkevitch comparison and close to 8 mL in the Prader-Sotos comparison. Concordance for puberty onset obtained a kappa value of 0.93 and 0.75 in the Prader-Chipkevitch and Prader-Sotos comparisons, respectively. Conclusion. The Prader and Chipkevitch orchidometers show an excellent concordance in estimating TV and puberty onset; therefore, both methods could be used interchangeably in the daily care of male adolescents. The Sotos method showed a high concordance in estimating pubertal onset, but low in measuring TV.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Testis/anatomy & histology , Sexual Development , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Testis/growth & development , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Puberty
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 958-965, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346960


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and investigate the potential factors that may affect the successful sperm retrieval and timing of micro-TESE. METHODS: A total of 56 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent micro-TESE procedure between January 2017 and December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The patient age, marriage duration, infertility duration, smoking, chronic illness, varicocele status, previous scrotal surgeries, and the presence of genetic disease were noted by an urologist for all patients. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 33.28±4.4 (22-44) years. Our total sperm-retrieval rate was 55.4% (n:31). Sixteen (28.6%) pregnancies were achieved and 15 (26.8%) healthy live births could be managed. Only the marriage duration (p=0.016) and infertility duration (p=0.015) were detected to be the significant factors to manage successful sperm retrieval. Men with NOA younger than 35.2 years and having a female partner younger than 36.9 years seemed to have the best chance to have a living healthy baby. CONCLUSIONS: The fertility decreased by both male and female age and for men with NOA. The early visit to doctor seemed to have positive effect.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adult , Azoospermia , Spermatozoa , Testis , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Retrieval