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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1870-1880, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528799

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to reveal the gonadoprotective effects of myricetin (MYC), which has many biological properties, on cisplatin (CP)-induced testicular damage in rats. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups as Control (group given no treatment), MYC (group given 5 mg/kg/i.p myricetin for 7 days), CP (group given 7 mg/kg/i.p cisplatin at 7th day) and MYC + CP (group given 5 mg/kg/i.p myricetin for 7 days before 7 mg/kg/i.p cisplatin injection). After administrations, testicular tissues of animals were extracted and processed according to tissue processing protocol. Hematoxylin & Eosin staining were performed to evaluate the histopathological changes and Johnsen'sTesticular Biopsy Score (JTBS) was applied and mean seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTD) were measured to compare experimental groups in terms of histopathological changes. Moreover, TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 and HSP90 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemical staining and the density of immunoreactivity were measured to determine the difference in the expression levels of these factors among groups. Additionally, testicular apoptosis was detected via TUNEL assay. JTBS and MSTD data were significantly lower in CP group compared to other groups and MYC administrations significantly protects testicular tissue against CP-induced damage. Moreover, TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 and HSP90 expressions and apoptotic cells significantly increased in the CP group (p<0.05). However, MYC administrations exerted a strong gonadoprotective effect on testicular tissue in terms of these parameters in MYC+CP group (p<0.05). According to our results, we suggested that MYC can be considered as a protective agent against cisplatin-induced testicular damage.


El objetivo de este estudio es revelar los efectos gonadoprotectores de la miricetina (MYC), que tiene muchas propiedades biológicas, sobre el daño testicular inducido por cisplatino (CP) en ratas. Para este propósito, se dividieron 40 ratas albinas Wistar macho en 4 grupos: Control (grupo que no recibió tratamiento), MYC (grupo que recibió 5 mg/kg/i.p de miricetina durante 7 días), CP (grupo que recibió 7 mg/kg/i.p de cisplatino al séptimo día) y MYC + CP (grupo que recibió 5 mg/ kg/i.p de miricetina durante 7 días antes de la inyección de 7 mg/ kg/i.p de cisplatino). Después de las administraciones, se extrajeron y procesaron tejidos testiculares de animales según el protocolo de procesamiento de tejidos. Se realizó tinción con hematoxilina y eosina para evaluar los cambios histopatológicos y se aplicó la puntuación de biopsia testicular de Johnsen (JTBS) y se midieron los diámetros medios de los túbulos seminíferos (MSTD) para comparar los grupos experimentales en términos de cambios histopatológicos. Además, los niveles de expresión de TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 y HSP90 se detectaron mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica y se midió la densidad de inmunorreactividad para determinar la diferencia en los niveles de expresión de estos factores entre los grupos. Además, se detectó apoptosis testicular mediante el ensayo TUNEL. Los datos de JTBS y MSTD fueron significativamente más bajos en el grupo CP en comparación con otros grupos y las administraciones de MYC protegen significativamente el tejido testicular contra el daño inducido por CP. Además, las expresiones de TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 y HSP90 y las células apoptóticas aumentaron significativamente en el grupo CP (p<0,05). Sin embargo, las administraciones de MYC ejercieron un fuerte efecto gonadoprotector sobre el tejido testicular en términos de estos parámetros en el grupo MYC+CP (p<0,05). Según nuestros resultados, sugerimos que MYC puede considerarse como un agente protector contra el daño testicular inducido por cisplatino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Testis/injuries , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/toxicity , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , NF-kappa B , Rats, Wistar , Heat-Shock Response , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Inflammation , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1596-1602, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528809

ABSTRACT

El ácido valproico (VPA) es un fármaco antiepiléptico teratógenico que, al ser administrado durante etapas tempranas del embarazo, puede producir alteraciones en el desarrollo embriofetal, las que se manifiestan tanto a nivel del sistema nervioso como del testículo. No obstante, se ha reportado que la administración de vitamina E (VE) podría revertir dichas alteraciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto protector de la VE a nivel testicular en fetos y ratones púberes expuestos a VPA durante la fase embrionaria de su desarrollo. Se utilizó un total de 30 ratones hembra adultas gestantes (Mus musculus) cepa BALB/c, las cuales se dividieron en 6 grupos. El estudio contempló el análisis de fetos machos a los 17,5 días post-coital (dpc) y machos juveniles a las 6 semanas post-natal. A los grupos 1 y 4 se les administró 0,3 mL de solución fisiológica (grupos control para 17,5 dpc y 6 semanas postnatal, respectivamente). A los grupos 2 y 5 se les suministró la cantidad de 600 mg/kg de VPA (grupos VPA), en tanto que a los grupos 3 y 6 se les aplicó la misma dosis de VPA complementada con 200 UI de VE (grupos VPA+VE). Se describió la histología normal y patológica del compartimento peritubular del testículo. En los grupos VPA se evidenció una degeneración de la pared peritubular, y atrofia de túbulos seminíferos, así como exfoliación de las células germinales. Por el contrario, en los grupos VPA+VE tales signos no fueron observados y la morfología presentó aspecto normal solo con algunas alteraciones focales. Estos resultados corroboran el hecho que la administración de VE contrarresta en parte, los efectos deletéreos que ocasiona el VPA.


SUMMARY: Valproic acid (VPA) is a teratogenic antiepileptic drug that, when administered during the early stages of pregnancy, can produce alterations in embryo-fetal development, which manifest both at the level of the nervous system and the testicle. However, it has been reported that the administration of vitamin E (VE) could reverse these alterations. The study aimed to determine the protective effect of VE at the testicular level in fetuses and pubertal mice exposed to VPA during the embryonic phase of their development. 30 pregnant adult female mice (Mus musculus) BALB/c strain were used, which were divided into 6 groups. The study included the analysis of male fetuses at 17.5 days post-coital (dpc) and juvenile males at 6 weeks post-natal. Groups 1 and 4 were administered 0.3 mL of physiological solution. Groups 2 and 5 were given 600 mg/kg of VPA (VPA groups), while groups 3 and 6 were given the same dose of VPA supplemented with 200 IU of VE (VPA+VE). The normal and pathological histology of the peritubular compartment of the testis was described. In the VPA groups, degeneration of the peritubular wall, and atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, as well as exfoliation of the germ cells, were evident. On the contrary, in the VPA+VE groups such signs were not observed and the morphology presented a normal appearance with only some focal alterations. These results corroborate the fact that the administration of VE partially counteracts the deleterious effects caused by VPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Testis/drug effects , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Valproic Acid/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Seminiferous Tubules/cytology , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Testis/cytology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Anticonvulsants/toxicity
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1537-1549, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521025

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin (Cis) is an important chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Males exposed to Cis were reported to exhibit testicular toxicity. Cis-induced testicular toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation, testosterone inhibition and apoptosis. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective roles of infliximab (IFX), which is an anti- TNF-a agent, and of white tea (Camellia sinensis), which is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects, against Cis-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups as follows: control group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) treatment group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg) treatment group, cisplatin + white tea (WT) treatment group, and Cisplatin+ WT+IFX combined treatment group. In the present study, Cis exposure reduced the sperm count. It also increased testicular oxidative stress as well as the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Histopathological assays supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with IFX and/or WT restored testicular histology, preserved spermatogenesis, suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, and significantly ameliorated Cis-induced damage. It was concluded that white tea and infliximab could potentially serve as therapeutic options for the protection of testicular tissue against the harmful effects of Cis.


El cisplatino (Cis) es un importante agente quimioterapéutico utilizado en el tratamiento del cáncer. Se informó que los hombres expuestos a Cis exhibieron toxicidad testicular. La toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis está mediada por el estrés oxidativo, la inflamación, la inhibición de la testosterona y la apoptosis. En consecuencia, este estudio se realizó para evaluar las posibles funciones protectoras de infliximab (IFX), un agente anti-TNF-α, y del té blanco (Camellia sinensis), conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes, antiapoptóticas y anti-TNF-α -efectos inflamatorios, contra la toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis en ratas. Cinco grupos de ratas se asignaron al azar de la siguiente manera: grupo control, grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/ kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino + té blanco (WT), y grupo de tratamiento combinado Cisplatino+ WT+IFX. En el presente estudio, la exposición a Cis redujo el conteo de espermatozoides. También aumentó el estrés oxidativo testicular, así como los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y apoptóticos. Los ensayos histopatológicos respaldaron los hallazgos bioquímicos. El tratamiento con IFX y/o WT restauró la histología testicular, preservó la espermatogénesis, suprimió el estrés oxidativo y la apoptosis, y mejoró significativamente el daño inducido por Cis. Se concluyó que el té blanco y el infliximab podrían potencialmente servir como opciones terapéuticas para la protección del tejido testicular contra los efectos nocivos de Cis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tea/chemistry , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Infliximab/pharmacology , Sperm Count , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/analysis , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde/analysis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1492-1500, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521050

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present work was to study the closer effect of clomiphene citrate on the ultrastructure of the testis of adult albino rats to provide a basis for optimizing this drug in the treatment of male infertility. The testes were removed from both groups under anesthesia and then prepared for examination by light using hematoxylin and eosin stains and a transmission electron microscope. Semithin sections were cut into 1 µm thick sections, stained with toluidine blue, and examined by light microscopy for a survey. The desired areas were placed in the center, and other areas were trimmed. Primary spermatocytes showed marked nuclear changes (pyknosis), and their nuclear membranes were ill-defined and disrupted. The cytoplasm showed widespread degeneration of mitochondria and lysosomes and focal degeneration of the rough endoplasmic reticulum compared with the control group. The spermatids were pale, and the two phases of spermatogenesis were distinctly identifiable in the control group but were confused in the treated group. Some spermatids had interrupted nuclear membranes, also containing degenerated mitochondria, focal fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. Spermatozoa in the treated group appeared deformed compared to the control, where they had deformed head caps. Leydig cells of the treated group have an irregularly shaped nucleus, with focal chromatin aggregation and peripheral chromatin condensation on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. The observations of the present work indicate a possible causal relationship between testicular affection and ingestion of clomiphene citrate, which can be avoided by close medical observations using ultrasonography, semen analysis, or testicular biopsy to detect early malignant changes. Furthermore, the drug should not be used for more than three to six cycles and should be stopped for at least three cycles before reuse. When clomiphene citrate is ineffective in the treatment of male infertility, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) administration is typically selected. However, high-dose hMG therapy is associated with a variety of adverse effects. In this work, we report the success of a modified clomiphene citrate regimen in increasing sperm count without any hazards to the testicular tissue.


El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del citrato de clomifeno sobre la estructura de los testículos de la rata albina adulta, con la finalidad de determinar la mejor manera de utilizar este fármaco en el tratamiento de la infertilidad masculina. Los testículos se extrajeron bajo anestesia y para su análisis a través de microscopio de luz se tiñeron con HE. Además, las muestras fueron preparadas para su examen con microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Por otra parte, se cortaron secciones semifinas de 1 µm de espesor, se tiñeron con azul de toluidina y se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica. Los espermatocitos primarios mostraron cambios nucleares marcados (picnosis) y sus membranas nucleares estaban mal definidas y alteradas. En el grupo experimental las células presentaban el citoplasma con degeneración generalizada de las mitocondrias y de los lisosomas y una degeneración focal del retículo endoplásmico rugoso en comparación con el grupo control. Las espermátidas estaban pálidas y las dos fases de la espermatogénesis eran claramente identificables en el grupo control, pero se confundían en el grupo tratado. Algunas espermátidas tenían membranas nucleares interrumpidas, y también contenían mitocondrias degeneradas, fragmentación focal del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y ribosomas libres. Los espermatozoides del grupo tratado se presentaban deformados en comparación con el control. Las células de Leydig del grupo tratado presentaban un núcleo de forma irregular, con agregación focal de cromatina y condensación de cromatina periférica en la superficie interna de la membrana nuclear. Las observaciones del presente trabajo indican una posible relación causal entre la afección testicular y la ingestión de citrato de clomifeno, que puede evitarse mediante observaciones médicas minuciosas a través de ecografía, análisis de semen o biopsia testicular para detectar cambios malignos tempranos. Además, el medicamento no debiera ser usado durante más de tres a seis ciclos y debe suspenderse durante al menos tres ciclos antes de volver a usarlo. Cuando el citrato de clomifeno es ineficaz en el tratamiento de la infertilidad masculina, normalmente se selecciona la administración de gonadotropina menopáusica humana (hMG). Sin embargo, la terapia con hMG en dosis altas se asocia con una variedad de efectos adversos. En este trabajo, informamos el éxito de un régimen modificado con citrato de clomifeno para aumentar el recuento de espermatozoides sin riesgo para el tejido testicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Clomiphene/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(2): 188-196, set 2023. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516244

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hansen's disease, or leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), is a major public health problem in developing countries, and affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. However, M. leprae can also affect bone tissue, mucous membranes, liver, eyes, and testicles, producing a variety of clinical phenotypes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been expressed in the various clinical forms of leprosy and could potentially be used for its diagnosis. Objective: in silico design of the molecular structure of miRNAs expressed in leprosy. Methodology: we performed a nucleotide sequence search of 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy, designing in silico the molecular structure of the following miRNAs: miRNA-26a, miRNA-27a, miRNA-27b, miRNA-29c, miRNA-34c, miRNA-92a-1, miRNA- 99a-2, miRNA-101-1, miRNA-101-2, miRNA-125b-1, miRNA-196b, miRNA-425-5p, miRNA-452, miRNA-455, miRNA-502, miRNA-539, and miRNA-660. We extracted the nucleotides were from the GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information genetic sequence database. We aligned the extracted sequences with the RNA Folding Form, and the three-dimensional molecular structure design was performed with the RNAComposer. Results: we demonstrate the nucleotide sequences, and molecular structure projection of miRNAs expressed in leprosy, and produces a tutorial on the molecular model of the 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy through in silico projection processing of their molecular structures. Conclusion: we demonstrate in silico design of selected molecular structures of 17 miRNAs expressed in leprosy through computational biology.


Introdução: a doença de Hansen, ou hanseníase é causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), é um grande problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento e afeta, a pele e os nervos periféricos. Entretanto, o M. leprae também pode comprometer o tecido ósseo, membranas mucosas, fígado, olhos e testículos, produzindo uma variedade de fenótipos clínicos. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) têm sido expressos nas várias formas clínicas da hanseníase e podem ser potencialmente utilizados para seu diagnóstico. Objetivo: objetivou-se com esse experimento modelar computacionalmente a estrutura molecular dos miRNAs expressos na hanseníase. Metodologia: realizou-se como metodologia uma pesquisa das sequências nucleotídicas de 17 miRNAs expressos na hanseníase, desenhando em modelo computacional a estrutura molecular dos seguintes miRNAs: miRNA-26a, miRNA-27a, miRNA-27b, miRNA- 29c, miRNA-34c, miRNA-92a-1, miRNA-99a-2, miRNA-101-1, miRNA-101-2, miRNA-125b-1, miRNA-196b, miRNA-425-5p, miRNA-452, miRNA-455, miRNA-502, miRNA-539, e miRNA-660. Extraiu-se os nucleotídeos do banco de dados do GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information . Alinhou-se as sequências extraídas com o RNA Folding Form, e o projeto da estrutura molecular tridimensional foi realizado com o RNAComposer. Resultados: demonstrou-se como resultados as sequências dos nucleotídeos e a projeção da estrutura molecular dos miRNAs expressos na hanseníase, e produzimos um tutorial sobre o modelo molecular dos 17 miRNAs expressos em hanseníase através do processamento de suas estruturas moleculares em projeção computacional. Conclusão: foi demonstrado computacionalmente o projeto de estruturas moleculares selecionadas de 17 miRNAs expressos em hanseníase através da biologia computacional.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves , Skin , Biomarkers , MicroRNAs , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae , Testis , Bone and Bones , Eye , Liver , Mucous Membrane
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39033, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428168

ABSTRACT

The effects of systemic insulin administration at different concentrations on the testicular tissue of diabetic adult rats, induced by streptozotocin, are evaluated by the morphological analysis of spermatogenic process. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into 1) Control Group: they received citrate buffer, by intraperitoneal injection; 2) Diabetic Group: induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. kg-1 of body weight); 3) Insulin 50%: induced diabetes treated with half of standard dosage of insulin; 4) Insulin 100%: induced diabetes treated with standard dose of insulin. After eight weeks, animals were weighted and anesthetized; testicles were removed and processed in resin. Body and testicular weight of diabetic rats decreased when compared to that of control. Parameters increased with insulin therapy. Testosterone levels were low in diabetic animals but rates recovered after insulin therapy. Nuclear diameter and volume of Leydig cells decreased in diabetic rats although they significantly increased after insulin therapy. Results showed that the administration of insulin in diabetic rats promoted a protective effect of testicular parenchyma, enhancing efficient recovery on testosterone levels and increase in daily sperm production.


Subject(s)
Seminiferous Tubules , Testis , Convulsive Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Leydig Cells
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39038, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428173

ABSTRACT

Gum Arabic (Acacia nilotica L.) is a respected plant that has many nutrients and curative practices. It hinders, improves, or manages many disorders. The radio-protective activity of Acacia nilotica was investigated against γ-rays-induced testicle damage in rats. Twenty-four rats were correspondingly distributed into 4 groups; control, Acacia nilotica (15mg/kg, daily for 30 days), γ-irradiated (5Gy γ-rays, single dose) and Acacia nilotica plus γ-rays treated groups. The plasma testosterone and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated. Lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), also glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), were determined in the testicle tissues. A testis weight, sperm count and motility, peripheral-blood and bone-marrow micronuclei (PMN and BMN), and frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were scored. A significant decline in the levels of plasma testosterone with TAS observed in the γ-irradiated rats. The results also showed significantly increased levels of testicle MDA, inflammatory markers, PMN, BMN and CAs frequencies and decrease in testes weight, sperm count and motility and levels of testicle antioxidants markers in gamma irradiated group. All these biochemical and fertility indices results were significantly enhanced in the Acacia nilotica plus γ-rays treated groups. However, the possible alleviate activity of Acacia nilotica on γ-rays-induced testicle injury in rats has not previously conversed, and this is the topic of this study.


Subject(s)
Radiation-Protective Agents , Rats , Testis/pathology , Acacia , Gamma Rays
8.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1145-1154, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of total saponins from Panax japonicus (TSPJ) against high-fat dietinduced testicular Sertoli cell junction damage in mice.@*METHODS@#Forty male C57BL/6J mice were randomized into normal diet group, high-fat diet group, and low-dose (25 mg/kg) and high-dose (75 mg/kg) TSPJ treatment groups (n=10). The mice in the normal diet group were fed a normal diet, while the mice in the other groups were fed a high-fat diet. After TSPJ treatment via intragastric administration for 5 months, the testes and epididymis of the mice were collected for measurement of weight, testicular and epididymal indices and sperm parameters. HE staining was used for histological evaluation of the testicular tissues and measurement of seminiferous tubule diameter and seminiferous epithelium height. The expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin11, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin in Sertoli cells were detected with Western blot, and the localization and expression levels of ZO-1 and β-catenin in the testicular tissues were detected with immunofluorescence assay. The protein expressions of LC3B, p-AKT and p-mTOR in testicular Sertoli cells were detected using double immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with TSPJ significantly improved high-fat diet-induced testicular dysfunction by reducing body weight (P < 0.001), increasing testicular and epididymal indices (P < 0.05), and improving sperm concentration and sperm viability (P < 0.05). TSPJ ameliorated testicular pathologies and increased seminiferous epithelium height of the mice with high-fat diet feeding (P < 0.05) without affecting the seminiferous tubule diameter. TSPJ significantly increased the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin (P < 0.05) but did not affect claudin11 expression in the testicular tissues. Immunofluorescence assay showed that TSPJ significantly increased ZO-1 and β-catenin expression in the testicular tissues (P < 0.001), downregulated LC3B expression and upregulated p-AKT and p-mTOR expressions in testicular Sertoli cells.@*CONCLUSION@#TSPJ alleviates high-fat diet-induced damages of testicular Sertoli cell junctions and spermatogenesis possibly by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and inhibiting autophagy of testicular Sertoli cells.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Testis , Sertoli Cells , beta Catenin , Diet, High-Fat , Occludin , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Seeds , Cadherins , Intercellular Junctions
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 577-584, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of quercetin against testicular oxidative damage induced by a mixture of 3 commonly used phthalates (MPEs) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, MPEs exposure group, and MPEs with low-, median- and high-dose quercetin treatment groups. For MPEs exposure, the rats were subjected to intragastric administration of MPEs at the daily dose of 900 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days; Quercetin treatments were administered in the same manner at the daily dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg. After the treatments, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular malondialdeyhde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected, and testicular pathologies of the rats were observed with HE staining. The expressions of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH2 associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the testis were detected using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats with MPEs exposure showed significant reductions of the anogenital distance, weight of the testis and epididymis, and the coefficients of the testis and epididymis with lowered serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (P < 0.05). Testicular histological examination revealed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic arrest, and hyperplasia of the Leydig cells in MPEs-exposed rats. MPEs exposure also caused significant increments of testicular Nrf2, MDA, SOD, CAT and HO-1 expressions and lowered testicular Keap1 expression (P < 0.05). Treatment with quercetin at the median and high doses significantly ameliorated the pathological changes induced by MPEs exposure (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin treatment inhibits MPEs-induced oxidative testicular damage in rats possibly by direct scavenging of free radicals to lower testicular oxidative stress and restore the regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Testosterone/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone
10.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 401-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986039

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) exposure on testicular autophagy levels and blood-testis barrier integrity in prepubertal male SD rats and testicular sertoli (TM4) cells. Methods: In July 2021, 9 4-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (normal saline), low dose group (1 mg/kg·bw CdCl(2)) and high dose group (2 mg/kg·bw CdCl(2)), and were exposed with CdCl(2) by intrabitoneal injection. 24 h later, HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of testis of rats, biological tracer was used to observe the integrity of blood-testis barrier, and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) -Ⅰ and LC3-Ⅱ in testicular tissue were detected. TM4 cells were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2) for 24 h to detect the toxic effect of cadmium. The cells were divided into blank group (no exposure), exposure group (10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2)), experimental group[10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2)+60.0 μmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) ] and inhibitor group (60.0 μmol/L 3-MA). After 24 h of treatment, Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of LC3-Ⅱ, ubiquitin binding protein p62, tight junction protein ZO-1 and adhesion junction protein N-cadherin. Results: The morphology and structure of testicular tissue in the high dose group were obvious changed, including uneven distribution of seminiferous tubules, irregular shape, thinning of seminiferous epithelium, loose structure, disordered arrangement of cells, abnormal deep staining of nuclei and vacuoles of Sertoli cells. The results of biological tracer method showed that the integrity of blood-testis barrier was damaged in the low and high dose group. Western blot results showed that compared with control group, the expression levels of LC3-Ⅱ in testicular tissue of rats in low and high dose groups were increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the 0 μmol/L, after exposure to 5.0, 10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2), the expression levels of ZO-1 and N-cadherin in TM4 cells were significantly decreased, and the expression level of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ were significantly increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the exposure group, the relative expression level of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ in TM4 cells of the experimental group were significantly decreased, while the relative expression levels of ZO-1 and N-cadherin were significantly increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The mechanism of the toxic effect of cadmium on the reproductive system of male SD rats may be related to the effect of the autophagy level of testicular tissue and the destruction of the blood-testis barrier integrity.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Cadmium Chloride/metabolism , Cadmium , Blood-Testis Barrier/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cadherins/metabolism , Autophagy
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 341-346, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985677

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of testicular biopsies from Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients. Methods: The testicular biopsy specimens of 87 patients with KS (a total of 107 biopsy specimens) were collected from the Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China from January 2017 to July 2022. All patients were diagnosed as KS by peripheral blood karyotyping analysis. The testicular histopathologic features, testicular volume and hormone levels were evaluated retrospectively. The histopathologic analysis was used to assess the quantity and morphology of Leydig cells, the spermatogenic state of seminiferous tubules, the thickening of the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules and the changes of stroma. Results: Leydig cell proliferative nodules were seen in 95.3% (102/107) of KS testicular biopsy tissues. The eosinophilic inclusion bodies and lipofuscin in Leydig cells were found in 52.3% (56/107) and 57.9% (62/107) of specimens, respectively. The Sertoli cell only seminiferous tubules and the hyalinized tubules were found in 66.4% (71/107) and 76.6% (82/107) of the examined tissues, respectively. The tubules with complete spermatogenic arrest were found in 15.9% (17/107) of specimens, and 5.6% (6/107) of the specimens showed low spermatogenesis or incomplete spermatogenic arrest. In 85.0% (91/107) of the specimens, increased thick-walled small vessels with hyaline degeneration were identified. Conclusions: The most common features of KS testicular specimens are Leydig cell proliferative nodules, hyaline degeneration of seminiferous tubules and proliferation of thick-walled blood vessels. Testicular biopsy specimens of KS are rare. The pathologists can make a tentative diagnosis of KS based on the histological findings, combined with the ultrasound and laboratory results, which is helpful for further diagnosis and treatment of KS.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Testis/pathology , Klinefelter Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Seminiferous Tubules/pathology , Biopsy
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 240-244, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971021

ABSTRACT

The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on male fertility have received considerable attention because human testes contain high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors, through which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter. Early studies showed decreases in semen quality during and after recovery from COVID-19. However, no semen quality studies have examined the effects of widespread subclinical and mild disease, as well as changes in lifestyle, psychosocial behavior, intake of dietary supplements, and stress. This cross-sectional study compared semen quality parameters in male partners of infertile couples between men who underwent semen analysis before the COVID-19 pandemic (prepandemic group) and men who underwent semen analysis during the pandemic period (pandemic group); the analysis sought to clarify the overall effects of the pandemic. No participants in the pandemic group had experienced clinically overt disease. Among the 239 participants, mean body weight (P = 0.001), mean body mass index (P < 0.001), median sperm concentration (P = 0.014), total sperm count (P = 0.006), and total percentages of motile (P = 0.013) and abnormal cells (P < 0.001) were significantly greater in the pandemic group (n = 137) than those in the prepandemic group (n = 102). Among abnormal cells, the percentages of cells with excess residual cytoplasm (P < 0.001), head defects (P < 0.001), and tail defects (P = 0.015) were significantly greater in the pandemic group than those in the prepandemic group. With the exception of morphology, the overall semenogram results were better in the pandemic group than those in the prepandemic group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pandemics , Infertility, Male , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Testis , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 38-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971000

ABSTRACT

The authors performed a comprehensive review of current literature to create a model comparing commonly evaluated variables in male factor infertility, for example, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular volume (TV), and testosterone (T), to better predict sperm retrieval rate (SRR). Twenty-nine studies were included, 9 with data on conventional testicular sperm extraction (cTESE) for a total of 1227 patients and 20 studies including data on microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) for a total of 4760 patients. A weighted-means value of SRR, FSH, T, and TV was created, and a weighted linear regression was then used to describe associations among SRR, type of procedure, FSH, T, and TV. In this study, weighted-means values demonstrated mTESE to be superior to cTESE with an SRR of 51.9% vs 40.1%. Multiple weighted linear regressions were created to describe associations among SRR, procedure type, FSH, T, and TV. The models showed that for every 1.19 mIU ml-1 increase in FSH, there would be a significant decrease in SRR by 1.0%. Seeking to create a more clinically relevant model, FSH values were then divided into normal, moderate elevation, and significant elevation categories (FSH <10 mIU ml-1, 10-19 mIU ml-1, and >20 mIU ml-1, respectively). For an index patient undergoing cTESE, the retrieval rates would be 57.1%, 44.3%, and 31.2% for values normal, moderately elevated, and significantly elevated, respectively. In conclusion, in a large meta-analysis, mTESE was shown to be more successful than cTESE for sperm retrievals. FSH has an inverse relationship to SRR in retrieval techniques and can alone be predictive of cTESE SRR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human , Infertility, Male , Linear Models , Semen , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatozoa , Testis/surgery
14.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 230-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970992

ABSTRACT

Puberty is a pivotal biological process that completes sexual maturation to achieve full reproductive capability. It is a major transformational period of life, whose timing is strongly affected by genetic makeup of the individual, along with various internal and external factors. Although the exact mechanism for initiation of the cascade of molecular events that culminate in puberty is not yet known, the process of pubertal onset involves interaction of numerous complex signaling pathways of hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis. We developed a classification of the mechanisms involved in male puberty that allowed placing many genes into physiological context. These include (i) hypothalamic development during embryogenesis, (ii) synaptogenesis where gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form neuronal connections with suprahypothalamic neurons, (iii) maintenance of neuron homeostasis, (iv) regulation of synthesis and secretion of GnRH, (v) appropriate receptors/proteins on neurons governing GnRH production and release, (vi) signaling molecules activated by the receptors, (vii) the synthesis and release of GnRH, (viii) the production and release of gonadotropins, (ix) testicular development, (x) synthesis and release of steroid hormones from testes, and (xi)the action of steroid hormones in downstream effector tissues. Defects in components of this system during embryonic development, childhood/adolescence, or adulthood may disrupt/nullify puberty, leading to long-term male infertility and/or hypogonadism. This review provides a list of 598 genes involved in the development of HPT axis and classified according to this schema. Furthermore, this review identifies a subset of 75 genes for which genetic mutations are reported to delay or disrupt male puberty.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Male , Humans , Adult , Child , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins/metabolism , Hypogonadism , Testis/metabolism , Puberty/physiology , Sexual Maturation
15.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 60-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study investigated the effects of bis (2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (BBOP) on the onset of male puberty by affecting Leydig cell development in rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty 35-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to five groups mg/kg bw per day that were gavaged for 21 days with BBOP at 0, 10, 100, 250, or 500 mg/kg bw per day. The hormone profiles; Leydig cell morphological metrics; mRNA and protein levels; oxidative stress; and AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, and GSK3β pathways were assessed.@*RESULTS@#BBOP at 250 and/or 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased Leydig cell number mg/kg bw per day and downregulated Cyp11a1, Insl3, Hsd11b1, and Dhh in the testes, and Lhb and Fshb mRNAs in the pituitary gland (P < 0.05). The malondialdehyde content in the testis significantly increased, while Sod1 and Sod2 mRNAs were markedly down-regulated, by BBOP treatment at 250-500 mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased AKT1/AKT2, mTOR, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and GSK3β and SIRT1 levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Finally, BBOP at 100 or 500 μmol/L induced ROS and apoptosis in Leydig cells after 24 h of treatment in vitro (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BBOP delays puberty onset by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis in Leydig cells in rats.@*UNLABELLED@#The graphical abstract is available on the website www.besjournal.com.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Leydig Cells/metabolism , Testosterone , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sexual Maturation , Testis , Oxidative Stress , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis
16.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 375-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981946

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A is a common environmental factor and endocrine disruptor that exerts a negative impact on male reproductive ability. By exploring bisphenol A-induced testicular cell death using the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model, we found that a ferroptosis phenomenon may exist. Mice were divided into six groups and administered different doses of bisphenol A via intragastric gavage once daily for 45 consecutive days. Serum was then collected to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde. Epididymal sperm was also collected for semen analysis, and testicular tissue was collected for ferritin content determination, electron microscope observation of mitochondrial morphology, immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis. Exposure to bisphenol A was found to decrease sperm quality and cause oxidative damage, iron accumulation, and mitochondrial damage in the testes of mice. In addition, bisphenol A was confirmed to affect the expression of the ferroptosis-related genes, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) in mouse testicular tissues. Accordingly, we speculate that bisphenol A induces oxidative stress, which leads to the ferroptosis of testicular cells. Overall, the inhibition of ferroptosis may be a potential strategy to reduce male reproductive toxicity caused by bisphenol A.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Testis/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Semen , Oxidative Stress
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 314-321, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981945

ABSTRACT

Mammalian testis exhibits remarkably high transcriptome complexity, and spermatogenesis undergoes two periods of transcriptional cessation. These make the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) the utmost importance during male germ cell development. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RBPs implicated in many steps of RNA processing; however, their roles in spermatogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of 12 hnRNP family members in mouse testes and found that most detected members are highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, we found that most of the detected hnRNP proteins (hnRNPD, hnRNPK, hnRNPQ, hnRNPU, and hnRNPUL1) display the highest signals in the nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids, and Sertoli cells, whereas hnRNPE1 exclusively concentrates in the manchette of elongating spermatids. The expression of these hnRNP proteins showed both similarities and specificity, suggesting their diverse roles in spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Testis/metabolism , Spermatids/metabolism , Sertoli Cells , Spermatocytes/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Mammals
18.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 322-330, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981941

ABSTRACT

Continuous self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is vital for maintenance of adult spermatogenesis. Although several spermatogonial stem cell regulators have been extensively investigated in rodents, regulatory mechanisms of human SSC self-renewal and differentiation have not been fully established. We analyzed single-cell sequencing data from the human testis and found that forkhead box P4 (FOXP4) expression gradually increased with development of SSCs. Further analysis of its expression patterns in human testicular tissues revealed that FOXP4 specifically marks a subset of spermatogonia with stem cell potential. Conditional inactivation of FOXP4 in human SSC lines suppressed SSC proliferation and significantly activated apoptosis. FOXP4 expressions were markedly suppressed in tissues with dysregulated spermatogenesis. These findings imply that FOXP4 is involved in human SSC proliferation, which will help elucidate on the mechanisms controlling the fate decisions in human SSCs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 130-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971651

ABSTRACT

Male infertility has become a problem worldwide, and recent research has emphasized the development of more effective therapy options. Among natural compounds, rutin has been widely studied for its potential to treat dysfunction related to male infertility, including a reduction in sperm quality, spermatogenesis disruption and structural disruption in the testis. A thorough review of scientific literature published in several databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus, was used to synthesize the present state of research on the role of rutin in male reproductive health. Rutin has been shown to possess antiapoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, among others, which are crucial in the management of male infertility. Numerous investigations have shown that rutin protects against male infertility and have explored the underlying mechanisms involved. The present review, therefore, assesses the therapeutic mechanisms involved in male infertility treatment using rutin. Rutin was able to mitigate the induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and related physiological processes that can cause testicular dysfunction. Please cite this article as: Rotimi DE, Elebiyo TC, Ojo OA. Therapeutic potential of rutin in male infertility: A mini review. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 130-135.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Rutin/analysis , Semen , Testis , Spermatozoa , Oxidative Stress , Infertility, Male/drug therapy
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 251-256, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the toxic effects of short-term exposure to gossypol on the testis and kidney in mice and whether these effects are reversible.@*METHODS@#Twenty 7 to 8-week-old male mice were randomized into blank control group, solvent control group, gossypol treatment group and drug withdrawal group. In the former 3 groups, the mice were subjected to daily intragastric administration of 0.3 mL of purified water, 1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose solution, and 30 mg/mL gossypol solution for 14 days, respectively; In the drug withdrawal group, the mice were treated with gossypol solution in the same manner for 14 days followed by treatment with purified water for another 14 days. After the last administration, the mice were euthanized and tissue samples were collected. The testicular tissue was weighed and observed microscopically with HE and PAS staining; the kidney tissue was stained with HE and examined for mitochondrial ATPase activity.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in the control group, the mice with gossypol exposure showed reduced testicular seminiferous epithelial cells with rounded seminiferous tubules, enlarged space between the seminiferous tubules, interstitium atrophy of the testis, and incomplete differentiation of the spermatogonia. The gossypol-treated mice also presented with complete, non-elongated spermatids, a large number of cells in the state of round spermatids, and negativity for acrosome PAS reaction; diffuse renal mesangial cell hyperplasia, increased mesangial matrix, and adhesion of the mesangium to the wall of the renal capsule were observed, with significantly shrinkage or even absence of the lumens of the renal capsules and reduced kidney mitochondrial ATPase activity. Compared with the gossypol-treated mice, the mice in the drug withdrawal group showed obvious recovery of morphologies of the testis and the kidney, acrosome PAS reaction and mitochondrial ATPase activity.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Shortterm treatment with gossypol can cause reproductive toxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice, but these toxic effects can be reversed after drug withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Gossypol/toxicity , Testis , Seminiferous Tubules , Spermatids , Spermatogenesis , Adenosine Triphosphatases/pharmacology
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