Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 101
Filter
1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 662-673, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009791

ABSTRACT

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common genetic cause of human male infertility. However, the effect of the extra X chromosome on different testicular cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we profiled testicular single-cell transcriptomes from three KS patients and normal karyotype control individuals. Among the different somatic cells, Sertoli cells showed the greatest transcriptome changes in KS patients. Further analysis showed that X-inactive-specific transcript ( XIST ), a key factor that inactivates one X chromosome in female mammals, was widely expressed in each testicular somatic cell type but not in Sertoli cells. The loss of XIST in Sertoli cells leads to an increased level of X chromosome genes, and further disrupts their transcription pattern and cellular function. This phenomenon was not detected in other somatic cells such as Leydig cells and vascular endothelial cells. These results proposed a new mechanism to explain why testicular atrophy in KS patients is heterogeneous with loss of seminiferous tubules but interstitial hyperplasia. Our study provides a theoretical basis for subsequent research and related treatment of KS by identifying Sertoli cell-specific X chromosome inactivation failure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Female , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Endothelial Cells , Testis/metabolism , X Chromosome/metabolism , Mammals/genetics
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 230-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970992

ABSTRACT

Puberty is a pivotal biological process that completes sexual maturation to achieve full reproductive capability. It is a major transformational period of life, whose timing is strongly affected by genetic makeup of the individual, along with various internal and external factors. Although the exact mechanism for initiation of the cascade of molecular events that culminate in puberty is not yet known, the process of pubertal onset involves interaction of numerous complex signaling pathways of hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis. We developed a classification of the mechanisms involved in male puberty that allowed placing many genes into physiological context. These include (i) hypothalamic development during embryogenesis, (ii) synaptogenesis where gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form neuronal connections with suprahypothalamic neurons, (iii) maintenance of neuron homeostasis, (iv) regulation of synthesis and secretion of GnRH, (v) appropriate receptors/proteins on neurons governing GnRH production and release, (vi) signaling molecules activated by the receptors, (vii) the synthesis and release of GnRH, (viii) the production and release of gonadotropins, (ix) testicular development, (x) synthesis and release of steroid hormones from testes, and (xi)the action of steroid hormones in downstream effector tissues. Defects in components of this system during embryonic development, childhood/adolescence, or adulthood may disrupt/nullify puberty, leading to long-term male infertility and/or hypogonadism. This review provides a list of 598 genes involved in the development of HPT axis and classified according to this schema. Furthermore, this review identifies a subset of 75 genes for which genetic mutations are reported to delay or disrupt male puberty.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Male , Humans , Adult , Child , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins/metabolism , Hypogonadism , Testis/metabolism , Puberty/physiology , Sexual Maturation
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 375-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981946

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A is a common environmental factor and endocrine disruptor that exerts a negative impact on male reproductive ability. By exploring bisphenol A-induced testicular cell death using the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model, we found that a ferroptosis phenomenon may exist. Mice were divided into six groups and administered different doses of bisphenol A via intragastric gavage once daily for 45 consecutive days. Serum was then collected to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde. Epididymal sperm was also collected for semen analysis, and testicular tissue was collected for ferritin content determination, electron microscope observation of mitochondrial morphology, immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis. Exposure to bisphenol A was found to decrease sperm quality and cause oxidative damage, iron accumulation, and mitochondrial damage in the testes of mice. In addition, bisphenol A was confirmed to affect the expression of the ferroptosis-related genes, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) in mouse testicular tissues. Accordingly, we speculate that bisphenol A induces oxidative stress, which leads to the ferroptosis of testicular cells. Overall, the inhibition of ferroptosis may be a potential strategy to reduce male reproductive toxicity caused by bisphenol A.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Testis/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Semen , Oxidative Stress
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 314-321, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981945

ABSTRACT

Mammalian testis exhibits remarkably high transcriptome complexity, and spermatogenesis undergoes two periods of transcriptional cessation. These make the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) the utmost importance during male germ cell development. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RBPs implicated in many steps of RNA processing; however, their roles in spermatogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of 12 hnRNP family members in mouse testes and found that most detected members are highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, we found that most of the detected hnRNP proteins (hnRNPD, hnRNPK, hnRNPQ, hnRNPU, and hnRNPUL1) display the highest signals in the nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids, and Sertoli cells, whereas hnRNPE1 exclusively concentrates in the manchette of elongating spermatids. The expression of these hnRNP proteins showed both similarities and specificity, suggesting their diverse roles in spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Testis/metabolism , Spermatids/metabolism , Sertoli Cells , Spermatocytes/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Mammals
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 322-330, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981941

ABSTRACT

Continuous self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is vital for maintenance of adult spermatogenesis. Although several spermatogonial stem cell regulators have been extensively investigated in rodents, regulatory mechanisms of human SSC self-renewal and differentiation have not been fully established. We analyzed single-cell sequencing data from the human testis and found that forkhead box P4 (FOXP4) expression gradually increased with development of SSCs. Further analysis of its expression patterns in human testicular tissues revealed that FOXP4 specifically marks a subset of spermatogonia with stem cell potential. Conditional inactivation of FOXP4 in human SSC lines suppressed SSC proliferation and significantly activated apoptosis. FOXP4 expressions were markedly suppressed in tissues with dysregulated spermatogenesis. These findings imply that FOXP4 is involved in human SSC proliferation, which will help elucidate on the mechanisms controlling the fate decisions in human SSCs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4901-4914, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008067

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of gene editing technology, the study of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) holds great significance in understanding spermatogenesis and its regulatory mechanism, developing transgenic animals, gene therapy, infertility treatment and protecting rare species. Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 1 (BLOC1S1) is believed to have anti-brucella potential. Exploring the impack of BLOC1S1 on goat SSCs not only helps investigate the ability of BLOC1S1 to promote SSCs proliferation, but also provides a cytological basis for disease-resistant breeding research. In this study, a BLOC1S1 overexpression vector was constructed by homologous recombination. The BLOC1S1 overexpression cell line of goat spermatogonial stem cells was successfully constructed by lentivirus packaging, transfection and puromycin screening. The overexpression efficiency of BLOC1S1 was found to be 18 times higher using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, the results from cell growth curve analysis, flow cytometry for cell cycle detection, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining showed that BLOC1S1 significantly increased the proliferation activity of goat SSCs. The results of RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting analyses revealed up-regulation of proliferation-related genes (PCNA, CDK2, CCND1), and EIF2S3Y, a key gene regulating the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells. These findings strongly suggest that the proliferative ability of goat SSCs can be enhanced through the EIF2S3Y/ERK pathway. In summary, this study successfully created a goat spermatogonial stem cell BLOC1S1 overexpression cell line, which exhibited improved proliferation ability. This research laid the groundwork for exploring the regulatory role of BLOC1S1 in goat spermatogonia and provided a cell platform for further study into the biological function of BLOC1S1. These findings also establish a foundation for breeding BLOC1S1 overexpressing goats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Goats , Stem Cells , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Flow Cytometry , Testis/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4108-4122, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008015

ABSTRACT

Meiotic initiation is a critical step in gametogenesis. Recently, some genes required for meiotic initiation have been identified. However, meiosis-initiating factors and the underlying mechanisms are far from being fully understood. We have established a long-term culture system of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and an in vitro model of meiotic initiation using mouse SSCs. Our previous study revealed that the RNA-binding protein RBFOX2 may regulate meiotic initiation, but the role and the mechanism need to be further elucidated. In this study, we constructed RBFOX2 knockdown SSC lines by using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery method, and found that the knockdown SSCs underwent normal self-renewal, mitosis and differentiation. However, they were unable to initiate meiosis when treated with retinoic acid, and they underwent apoptosis. These results indicate that RBFOX2 plays an essential role in meiotic initiation of spermatogonia. This work provides new clues for understanding the functions of RNA-binding proteins in meiotic initiation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Meiosis/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Mitosis , Testis/metabolism
8.
Biol. Res ; 56: 2-2, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The testes are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation at all stages of life. Exposure to these threats mainly occurs during cancer treatment and as an occupational hazard in radiation centers. The present study investigated the regenerative ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) against the adverse effects of cisplatin on the structure and function of the testes. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits (N = 15) were divided into three groups of five: a negative control group (no treatment), a cisplatin group (single dose of cisplatin into each testis followed three days later by a PBS injection), and a cisplatin + ADMSCs group (cisplatin injection followed three days later by an ADMSC injection). On day 45 post-treatment, serum testosterone levels were evaluated, and the testes and epididymis were collected for histology, oxidative stress examination, and epididymal sperm analysis. RESULTS: Cisplatin caused damage to the testicular tissue and decreased serum testosterone levels, epididymal sperm counts, and oxidants. An antioxidant imbalance was detected due to increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in testicular tissue. The ADMSC-treated group displayed a moderate epididymal sperm count, adequate antioxidant protection, suitable hormone levels, and enhanced testicular tissue morphology. CONCLUSIONS: ADMSCs treatment repaired damaged testicular tissue, enhanced biochemical parameters, and modified pathological changes caused by cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rabbits , Azoospermia/chemically induced , Azoospermia/metabolism , Azoospermia/pathology , Semen , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Spermatozoa/pathology , Testis/metabolism , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Biol. Res ; 56: 4-4, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are critical for sustaining spermatogenesis. Even though several regulators of SSC have been identified in rodents, the regulatory mechanism of SSC in humans has yet to be discovered. METHODS: To explore the regulatory mechanisms of human SSCs, we analyzed publicly available human testicular single-cell sequencing data and found that Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 9 (ASB9) is highly expressed in SSCs. We examined the expression localization of ASB9 using immunohistochemistry and overexpressed ASB9 in human SSC lines to explore its role in SSC proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we used immunoprecipitation to find the target protein of ASB9 and verified its functions. In addition, we examined the changes in the distribution of ASB9 in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients using Western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The results of uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) clustering and pseudotime analysis showed that ASB9 was highly expressed in SSCs, and its expression gradually increased during development. The immunohistochemical and dual-color immunofluorescence results displayed that ASB9 was mainly expressed in nonproliferating SSCs. Overexpression of ASB9 in the SSC line revealed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We predicted the target proteins of ASB9 and verified that hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha inhibitor (HIF1AN), but not creatine kinase B-type (CKB), has a direct interaction with ASB9 in human SSC line using protein immunoprecipitation experiments. Subsequently, we re-expressed HIF1AN in ASB9 overexpressing cells and found that HIF1AN reversed the proliferative and apoptotic changes induced by ASB9 overexpression. In addition, we found that ABS9 was significantly downregulated in some NOA patients, implying a correlation between ASB9 dysregulation and impaired spermatogenesis. CONCLUSION: ASB9 is predominantly expressed in human SSCs, it affects the proliferation and apoptotic process of the SSC line through HIF1AN, and its abnormal expression may be associated with NOA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Testis/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Cell Line , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 619-626, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385649

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that homeobox proteins play an important role in the formation and development of tissues and organs in the embryonic period. In our study, the distribution of Dlx-5 and TLX proteins, which are members of the homeobox family, in the testis, epididymis and ductus deferens ducts of some cat breeds were investigated. For this purpose, in the study, 18 testes younger than six months (immature) and older than one year (mature) were examined under a light microscope using an immunohistochemical method (indirect streptavidin-biotin complex). While it was determined that Dlx-5 and TLX1 proteins were expressed at varying levels in cells in immature and mature cat testicles, epithelial cells of ductus epididymis and ductus deferens, and smooth muscle cells of ductus deferens, no differences were observed between cat breeds. Dlx-5 immunoreactivity was more intense in the testes, epididymis and deferens ducts of immature and mature compared to TLX1. These results suggested that both proteins play important roles in the development of male feline genital organs and in the secretion and differentiation of cells, and also further observation of Dlx-5 expression suggested that this protein may be more effective than TLX1 in testicular development and physiological processes.


RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que las proteínas homeobox juegan un papel importante en la formación y desarrollo de tejidos y órganos en el período embrionario. En nuestro estudio, se investigó la distribución de las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX, que son miembros de la familia homeobox, en los testículos, en el epidídimo y en los conductos deferentes de algunas razas de gatos. En el estudio fueron examinados, 18 testículos de animales menores de seis meses (inmaduros) y mayores de un año (maduros) bajo un microscopio óptico utilizando un método inmunohistoquímico (complejo indirecto de estreptavidina-biotina). Si bien se determinó que las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX1 se expresaron en niveles variables en las células de los testículos de gatos inmaduros y maduros, las células epiteliales del epidídimo y del conducto deferente y las células del músculo liso del conducto deferente, no se observaron diferencias entre las razas de gatos. La inmunorreactividad de Dlx-5 fue más intensa en los testículos, epidídimo y conductos deferentes de gatos inmaduros y maduros en comparación con TLX1. Estos resultados sugieren que ambas proteínas tienen un rol importante en el desarrollo de los órganos genitales felinos masculinos y en la secreción y diferenciación de células, y también la observación de la expresión de Dlx-5 sugirió que esta proteína puede ser más efectiva que TLX1 en el desarrollo testicular y en los procesos fisiológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cats , Testis/growth & development , Testis/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 266-272, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928525

ABSTRACT

Gene expression analyses suggest that more than 1000-2000 genes are expressed predominantly in mouse and human testes. Although functional analyses of hundreds of these genes have been performed, there are still many testis-enriched genes whose functions remain unexplored. Analyzing gene function using knockout (KO) mice is a powerful tool to discern if the gene of interest is essential for sperm formation, function, and male fertility in vivo. In this study, we generated KO mice for 12 testis-enriched genes, 1700057G04Rik, 4921539E11Rik, 4930558C23Rik, Cby2, Ldhal6b, Rasef, Slc25a2, Slc25a41, Smim8, Smim9, Tmem210, and Tomm20l, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. We designed two gRNAs for each gene to excise almost all the protein-coding regions to ensure that the deletions in these genes result in a null mutation. Mating tests of KO mice reveal that these 12 genes are not essential for male fertility, at least when individually ablated, and not together with other potentially compensatory paralogous genes. Our results could prevent other laboratories from expending duplicative effort generating KO mice, for which no apparent phenotype exists.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Fertility/genetics , Gene Editing , Mice, Knockout , Testis/metabolism
12.
Biol. Res ; 55: 33-33, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiations (IR) have widespread useful applications in our daily life; however, they have unfavorable effects on reproductive health. Maintaining testicular health following IR exposure is an important requirement for reproductive potential. The current study explored the role of melatonin (MLT) in mitigating IR-induced injury in young adult rat testis. METHODS: Rats were given daily MLT (25 mg/kg) for 3 and 14 days after receiving 4 Gy γ-radiation. RESULTS: Serum MLT levels and other antioxidants, including glutathione content, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the testis of the irradiated rats were remarkably maintained by MLT administration in irradiated rats. Hence, the hydrogen peroxide level declined with remarkably reduced formation of oxidative stress markers, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the testis of irradiated animals after MLT administration. The redox status improvement caused a remarkable regression of proapoptotic protein (p53, Cyto-c, and caspase-3) in the testis and improved inflammatory cytokines (CRP and IL-6), and anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin IL-10) in serum. This is associated with restoration of disturbed sex hormonal balance, androgen receptor upregulation, and testicular cell proliferation activity in irradiated rats, explaining the improvement of sperm parameters (count, motility, viability, and deformation). Consequently, spermatogenic cell depletion and decreased seminiferous tubule diameter and perimeter were attenuated by MLT treatment post irradiation. Moreover, the testis of irradiated-MLT-treated rats showed well-organized histological architecture and normal sperm morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that radiation-induced testicular injury is mitigated following IR exposure through synergistic interdependence between the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-DNA damage actions of MLT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Melatonin/pharmacology , Radiation, Ionizing , Semen/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Biol. Res ; 55: 30-30, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation has been primarily performed using fresh donor tissue to study testicular development for about 20 years, and whether the cultured tissue would be a suitable donor is unclear. In this study, we combined testicular culture and xenotransplantation into an integrative model and explored whether immature testicular tissue would survive and continue to develop in this model. METHODS: In the new integrative model group, the testes of neonatal rats on postnatal day 8 (PND 8) were cultured for 4 days ex vivo and then were transplanted under the dorsal skin of castrated nude mice. The xenografted testes were resected on the 57th day after xenotransplantation and the testes of rats in the control group were harvested on PND 69. The survival state of testicular tissue was evaluated from morphological and functional perspectives including H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining of 8-OH-dG, immunofluorescence staining, TUNEL assay, ultrastructural study, gene expression and protein analysis. RESULTS: (a) We found that complete spermatogenesis was established in the testes in the new integrative model group. Compared with the control in the same stage, the seminiferous epithelium in some tubules was a bit thinner and there were vacuoles in part of the tubules. Immunofluorescence staining revealed some ACROSIN-positive spermatids were present in seminiferous tubule of xenografted testes. TUNEL detection showed apoptotic cells and most of them were germ cells in the new integrative model group. 8-OH-dG immunohistochemistry showed strongly positive-stained in the seminiferous epithelium after xenotransplantation in comparison with the control group; (b) Compared with the control group, the expressions of FOXA3, DAZL, GFRα1, BOLL, SYCP3, CDC25A, LDHC, CREM and MKI67 in the new integrative model group were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), indicating that the testicular tissue was in an active differentiated and proliferative state; (c) Antioxidant gene detection showed that the expression of Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1 and SOD1 in the new integrative model group was significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05), and DNA methyltransferase gene detection showed that the expression of DNMT3B was significantly elevated as well (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The new integrative model could maintain the viability of immature testicular tissue and sustain the long-term survival in vivo with complete spermatogenesis. However, testicular genes expression was altered, vacuolation and thin seminiferous epithelium were still apparent in this model, manifesting that oxidative damage may contribute to the testicular development lesion and it needs further study in order to optimize this model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Testis/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Spermatogenesis , Acrosin/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1709-1718, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385520

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies have shown the adverse effects of epileptic seizures on reproductive health. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes, apoptosis and GABA localization in the testis tissue of genetic absence epilepsy rats. Testis tissues of GAERS and Wistar rats were processed for paraffin embedding and electron microscopy. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome and periodic acid-Schiff reaction. GABA immunohistochemistry was applied for determining the alterations in GABA levels. GABA immunoreactivity was observed in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial areas of both GAERS and Wistar rats. GABA immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in GAERS compared to Wistar group. Electron microscopic observations showed that GABA was present in manchette microtubules, sperm tail and neck at different phases of spermiogenesis. Qualitative observations revealed that testis tissues of GAERS showed reduced sperm in the seminiferous tubules compared to the Wistar controls. In conclusion, we demonstrated GABAergic system in the seminiferous tubules of control and GAERS rats, in parallel with the previous studies; and there were alterations in this system in GAERS. We suggest that these alterations in absence epilepsy may also affect the gonadal system, resulting in decreased sperm production.


RESUMEN: Los estudios han demostrado los efectos adversos de las convulsiones epilépticas sobre la salud reproductiva. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los cambios morfológicos, la apoptosis y la localización de GABA en el tejido testicular de ratas con epilepsia de ausencia genética. Se procesaron tejidos testiculares de ratas GAERS y Wistar para inclusión en parafina y microscopía electrónica. Las secciones se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina, tricrómico de Masson y reacción de ácido peryódico de Schiff. Se aplicó inmunohistoquímica de GABA para determinar las alteraciones en los niveles de GABA. Se observó inmunorreactividad de GABA en los túbulos seminíferos y las áreas intersticiales de las ratas GAERS y Wistar. Se encontró que la inmunorreactividad de GABA estaba disminuida en GAERS en comparación con el grupo Wistar. Las observaciones microscópicas electrónicas mostraron que GABA estaba presente en los microtúbulos, la cola y el cuello del espermatozoide en diferentes fases de la espermiogénesis. Las observaciones cualitativas revelaron que los tejidos testiculares de GAERS mostraron una reducción de los espermatozoides en los túbulos seminíferos en comparación con los controles Wistar. En conclusión, demostramos el sistema GABAérgico en los túbulos seminíferos de ratas control y GAERS, en paralelo con estudios previos; y además se observaron alteraciones en este sistema en GAERS. Sugerimos que estas alteraciones en epilepisa de ausencia genética también pueden afectar el sistema gonadal, resultando en una disminución de la producción de semen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Testis/metabolism , Epilepsy, Absence , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism , Testis/ultrastructure , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 18-24, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385293

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels and it causes complications in many systems, including the reproductive system. As a result of diabetic conditions, one of the mechanisms that can cause repression of reproductive activity is testicular oxidant stress. The identification of diabetes on the cell signaling molecules axis is still under discussion. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Transforming Growth Factor (TGFβ), Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB), Heat-schock 90β (HSP90β) signal pathways and E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule on infertility in diabetic rat testicular tissue. In our study, includes histological, molecular and biochemical analysis of testicular tissue removed at the end of the 2 weeks experiment period. A total of 14 adult male rats were divided as control and diabetes. No intervention was given to 7 male rats in the control group. For the diabetic group, 7 male rats were injected by intraperitoneal with a single dose of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). TGFβ, NF-kB, HSP90β and E-cadherin proteins were immunohistochemically studied to investigate possible tissue damage, inflammatory process, cell stabilization and integrity due to diabetes. In order to determine oxidant stress, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) analyzes were performed. Fibrosis, inflammatory changes and loss of spermatogenetic series are prominent findings in the diabetic group. On analysis of all the samples with immunostaining, in the diabetic group, TGFβ and NF-kB immunoexpression significantly increased, while Hsp90β and E-cadherin immunoexpression significantly decreased compared with control groups. Experimental diabetes was found to cause fibrosis, inflammation, disrupting cell adhesion and stabilization in testicular tissue. These results suggest that cellular therapy studies are needed for possible damage.


RESUMEN: La diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica caracterizada por niveles altos de azúcar en sangre y causa complicaciones en muchos sistemas, incluido el sistema reproductivo. Como resultado de las condiciones diabéticas, uno de los mecanismos que puede causar alteraciones en la actividad reproductiva es el estrés oxidativo testicular. La identificación de la diabetes en el eje de las moléculas de señalización celular aún está en discusión. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del factor de crecimiento transformante (TGFβ), el factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB), las vías de señalización de Heat-Schock 90b (HSP90β) y la molécula de adhesión celular de E-cadherina sobre la infertilidad en testículo de rata diabética. Al término de dos semanas se realizaron análisis histológico, molecular y bioquímico del tejido testicular extraído. Las 7 ratas macho del grupo control no fueron intervenidas. Para el grupo de diabéticos, 7 ratas macho fueron inyectadas por vía intraperitoneal con una dosis única de 55 mg / kg de estreptozotocina (STZ). Se estudiaron inmunohistoquímicamente las proteínas TGFβ, NF-kB, HSP90β y E-cadherina para investigar el posible daño tisular, el proceso inflamatorio, la estabilización celular y la integridad debido a la diabetes. Para determinar el estrés oxidativo, se realizaron análisis del producto de peroxidación lipídica malondialdehído (MDA), glutatión (GSH) y glutatión peroxidasa (GPx). La fibrosis, los cambios inflamatorios y la pérdida de series espermatogenéticas son hallazgos destacados en el grupo de ratas diabéticas. En el análisis de todas las muestras con inmunotinción, en el grupo diabético, la inmunoexpresión de TGFβ y NF-kB aumentó significativamente, mientras que la inmunoexpresión de Hsp90β y e-cadherina disminuyó significativamente en comparación con los grupos control. Se encontró que la diabetes experimental causa fibrosis, inflamación, alteración de la adhesión celular y estabilización en el tejido testicular. Estos resultados sugieren que son necesarios estudios de terapia celular para verificar posibles daños.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism , Cadherins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 761-765, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098317

ABSTRACT

Oligozoospermia is a common infertility disease, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year. Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used medicine for the treatment of oligozoospermia in Chinese medicine. Flavonoids are its main component. GM-CSF is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in the inflammatory response. In this paper, we performed HE staining and immunohistochemical staining on the testis of rats with oligozoospermia. We intend to study the expression changes of GM-CSF in rats with oligospermia and the effect of flavonoids on the expression of GM-CSF in testis of rats with oligozoospermia.


La oligozoospermia es una enfermedad común de infertilidad, con una tasa de incidencia que aumenta año tras año. Cuscuta chinensis es un medicamento de uso común para el tratamiento de la oligozoospermia en la medicina china. Los flavonoides son su componente principal. GM-CSF es una citocina multifuncional que tiene un rol importante en la respuesta inflamatoria. En este trabajo, realizamos tinción con hematoxilina y eosina y tinción inmunohistoquímica en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia. TNuestro objetivo fue estudiar los cambios de expresión de GM-CSF en ratas con oligozoospermia y el efecto de los flavonoides en la expresión de GM-CSF en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oligospermia/metabolism , Oligospermia/drug therapy , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Cuscuta , Testis/drug effects , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 100-105, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009740

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles during the spermatogenesis. However, little is known about the altered miRNA profiles of testicular tissues in nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Using microarray technology, the miRNA expression profiles of testicular biopsies from patients with NOA and of normal testicular tissues were determined. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the enriched biological processes and functions of identified miRNAs. The microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the results of which were then validated with a larger sample size. Correlations between the miRNA expression levels and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic ability of miRNAs for azoospermia. Hierarchical clustering showed that 129 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the NOA and control groups. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in spermatogenesis, cell cycle, and mitotic prometaphase. In the subsequent qRT-PCR assays, the selected miRNA expression levels were consistent with the microarray results, and similar validated results were obtained with a larger sample size. Some clinical characteristics were significantly associated with the expression of certain miRNAs. In particular, we identified a combination of two miRNAs (miR-10b-3p and miR-34b-5p) that could serve as a predictive biomarker of azoospermia. This study provides altered miRNA profiles of testicular biopsies from NOA patients and examines the roles of miRNAs in spermatogenesis. These profiles may be useful for predicting and diagnosing the presence of testicular sperm in individuals with azoospermia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Azoospermia/genetics , Biopsy , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Luteinizing Hormone/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Testis/metabolism , Testosterone/metabolism , Tissue Array Analysis
18.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 169-176, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009739

ABSTRACT

Spermatogonial development is a vital prerequisite for spermatogenesis and male fertility. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the behavior of spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal and spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation, are not fully understood. Recent studies demonstrated that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in spermatogonial development, but whether MTOR itself was also involved in any specific process of spermatogonial development remained undetermined. In this study, we specifically deleted Mtor in male germ cells of mice using Stra8-Cre and assessed its effect on the function of spermatogonia. The Mtor knockout (KO) mice exhibited an age-dependent perturbation of testicular development and progressively lost germ cells and fertility with age. These age-related phenotypes were likely caused by a delayed initiation of Mtor deletion driven by Stra8-Cre. Further examination revealed a reduction of differentiating spermatogonia in Mtor KO mice, suggesting that spermatogonial differentiation was inhibited. Spermatogonial proliferation was also impaired in Mtor KO mice, leading to a diminished spermatogonial pool and total germ cell population. Our results show that MTOR plays a pivotal role in male fertility and is required for spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Fertility/genetics , Mice, Knockout , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Spermatogonia/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 201-207, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009653

ABSTRACT

High-fat diets affect male reproduction and sexual function. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged resveratrol administration on the metabolic, sperm, and testicular parameters of rats fed a cafeteria diet. Male Wistar rats were divided at weaning into control (C, n = 20) and cafeteria (CAF, n = 16) groups. At 3 months, half of them were given daily supplementations of resveratrol (C-R, n = 10; CAF-R, n = 8) at a dosage of 30 mg kg-1 body mass for 2 months. Animals were killed at 5 months of age, and blood, spermatozoa, and testes were collected for further analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The CAF diet promoted hyperglycemia (P < 0.0001), and treatment with resveratrol reversed this condition (P < 0.0001). The CAF diet reduced sperm viability and motility, while resveratrol improved these parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding testicular morphology, the height of the seminiferous epithelium was reduced in the CAF group compared with that of the C group (P = 0.0007). Spermatogenic cell proliferation was also reduced in the CAF group compared with that of the C group. However, the CAF-R showed an increase in cell proliferation rate compared with that of the untreated CAF group (P = 0.0024). Although it did not modify body mass, the consumption of a CAF diet promoted hyperglycemia, adverse testicular morphology remodeling, and abnormal sperm, which were attenuated by treatment with resveratrol, thus suggesting a protective effect of this antioxidant on spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Rats, Wistar , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 345-350, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009652

ABSTRACT

While it is known that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) initiate the production of male germ cells, the mechanisms of SSC self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation remain poorly understood. We have previously identified Strawberry Notch 1 (SBNO1), a vertebrate strawberry notch family protein, in the proteome profile for mouse SSC maturation and differentiation, revealing SBNO1 is associated with neonatal testicular development. To explore further the location and function of SBNO1 in the testes, we performed Sbno1 gene knockdown in mice to study the effects of SBNO1 on neonatal testicular and SSC development. Our results revealed that SBNO1 is required for neonatal testicular and SSC development in mice. Particularly, in vitro Sbno1 gene knockdown with morpholino oligonucleotides caused a reduction of SSCs and inactivation of the noncanonical Wnt pathway, through Jun N-terminal kinases. Our study suggests SBNO1 maintains SSCs by promoting the noncanonical Wnt pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adult Germline Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Proteome , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL