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Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 761-765, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098317


Oligozoospermia is a common infertility disease, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year. Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used medicine for the treatment of oligozoospermia in Chinese medicine. Flavonoids are its main component. GM-CSF is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in the inflammatory response. In this paper, we performed HE staining and immunohistochemical staining on the testis of rats with oligozoospermia. We intend to study the expression changes of GM-CSF in rats with oligospermia and the effect of flavonoids on the expression of GM-CSF in testis of rats with oligozoospermia.

La oligozoospermia es una enfermedad común de infertilidad, con una tasa de incidencia que aumenta año tras año. Cuscuta chinensis es un medicamento de uso común para el tratamiento de la oligozoospermia en la medicina china. Los flavonoides son su componente principal. GM-CSF es una citocina multifuncional que tiene un rol importante en la respuesta inflamatoria. En este trabajo, realizamos tinción con hematoxilina y eosina y tinción inmunohistoquímica en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia. TNuestro objetivo fue estudiar los cambios de expresión de GM-CSF en ratas con oligozoospermia y el efecto de los flavonoides en la expresión de GM-CSF en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia.

Animals , Male , Rats , Oligospermia/metabolism , Oligospermia/drug therapy , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Cuscuta , Testis/drug effects , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Biol. Res ; 52: 41, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019505


BACKGROUND: Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting substance. We investigated the adverse effect of DBP on testis of male rat and reveal its potential mechanism of MAPK signaling pathway involved this effect in vivo and in vitro. Gonadal hormone, sperm quality, morphological change and the activation status of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 was determined in vivo. Primary Sertoli cell was established and cultivated with JNK, ERK1/2 inhibitors, then determine the cell viability, apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, p-ERK1/2. Data in this study were presented as mean ± SD and determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's test. Difference was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In vivo experiment, DBP impaired the normal structure of testicular tissue, reduced testosterone levels in blood serum, decreased sperm count and increased sperm abnormality, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in rat testicular tissue increased in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies, DBP could decrease the viability of Sertoli cells and increase p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK. Cell apoptosis in SP600125 + DBP group was significantly lower than in DBP group (P < 0.05). p-JNK was not significantly decreased in SP600125 + DBP group, while p-ERK1/2 was significantly decreased in U0126 + DBP group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DBP can lead to testicular damage and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways, the JNK signaling pathway may be primarily associated with its effect.

Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/injuries , Testis/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Dibutyl Phthalate/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology
Biol. Res ; 50: 10, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838959


BACKGROUND: The muskrat is a seasonal breeder. Males secrete musk to attract females during the breeding season. The testosterone binding to the androgen receptor (AR) in musk glands of muskrat may play an important role conducting the musk secretion process. METHODS: The musk gland, testis and blood samples of musk rats are collected in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. Some part of the samples are kept in liquid nitrogen for transcriptome analysis and Western blotting test. Some part of the samples are kept in 70% alcohol for histology experiment, blood samples are kept at -20 °C for the serum testosterone measurement experiment. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that the quantity of secreted musk, the volume of the musk glands, the diameter of the gland cells and AR expression are all higher during the breeding season than at other times (p < 0.01). StAR, P450scc and 3ß-HSD expression in the Leydig cells of the testis were also higher during this season, as was serum testosterone. AR was also observed in the gland cells of two other musk-secreting animals, the musk deer and small Indian civet, in their musk glands. These results suggest that the testes and musk glands co-develop seasonally. CONCLUSION: The musk glands' seasonal development and musk secretion are regulated by the testes, and testosterone plays an important role in the seasonal development of musk glands.

Animals , Male , Scent Glands/growth & development , Scent Glands/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism , Organ Size , Reference Values , Reproduction/physiology , Scent Glands/anatomy & histology , Seasons , Testis/growth & development , Testosterone/blood , Breeding , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Arvicolinae , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Leydig Cells/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1218-1222, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840870


Spermatogenesis is associated with considerable fluid secretion or absorption in the male reproductive tract. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane protein channels that allow the rapid movement of water through epithelium. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was utilized to localize the expression of AQP 1, AQP2 in the testis and prostate of adult bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Results show that AQP1 have intense reaction in rete testis, efferent ducts, vessels, seminiferous duct and in the prostate, AQP2 was found minor expression in the rete testis, vessels and prostate, which suggesting that AQP1 may have the main role in the absorption of the large amount of testicular fluid in male camel reproductive tract. Investigations of AQPs biology in camel could be relevant with technologies for assisted procreation in animal husbandry and aquaculture.

La espermatogénesis se asocia con la secreción de una cantidad considerable de líquido o absorción en el tracto reproductor masculino. Las acuaporinas (ACPs) son canales de proteínas de membrana que permiten el movimiento rápido de agua a través del epitelio. En el presente estudio, se utilizó inmunohistoquímica para localizar la expresión de ACP 1, ACP2 en el testículo y la próstata del camello bactriano adulto (Camelus bactrianus). Los resultados muestran que ACP1 tiene una reacción intensa en la rete testis, conductos eferentes, vasos, conductos seminíferos y en la próstata. La expresión ACP2, de menor importancia, se observó en la rete testis, vasos y próstata, lo que sugiere que ACP1 puede tener el papel principal en la absorción de gran cantidad de líquido testicular en el tracto reproductivo masculino del camello. Las investigaciones de la biología del ACP en camello podrían ser relevantes para las tecnologías de reproducción asistida de la ganadería y la acuicultura.

Animals , Male , Aquaporin 1/metabolism , Aquaporin 2/metabolism , Camelus , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Prostate/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 411-416, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785016


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of metformin on testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=6), as follows: Sham, I/R, and Metformin. 1-hour ischemia was induced by the left testicular artery and vein clipping followed by 7 days of reperfusion. Metformin (100 mg/kg) was administrated orally for 7 days via oral gavage after ischemic period. At the end of trial, the left testis was removed for histological analysis and oxidative stress measurement. RESULTS: I/R reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and testicular Johnsen's scores accompanied by an elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in comparison with the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared to I/R group, metformin restored testicular Johnsen's scores, SOD activity, MDA and MPO levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin has a protective effect against I/R injury on the testis.

Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(1): 79-84, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774624


SUMMARY The male hypogonadism-related bone mass loss is often under diagnosed. Peak bone mass is severely affected if the hypogonadism occurs during puberty and is left untreated. We present an interesting; almost bizarre case of a male with non-functional testes early during childhood and undiagnosed and untreated hypogonadism until his fifth decade of life. Forty six year male is referred for goitre, complaining of back pain. Phenotype suggested intersexuality: gynoid proportions, micropenis, no palpable testes into the scrotum, no facial or truncal hair. His medical history had been unremarkable until the previous year when primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and levothyroxine replacement was initiated. Later, he was diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, with inaugural unstable angina. On admission, the testosterone was 0.2 ng/mL (normal: 1.7-7.8 ng/mL), FSH markedly increased (56 mUI/mL), with normal adrenal axis, and TSH (under thyroxine replacement). High bone turnover markers, and blood cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed. The testes were not present in the scrotum. Abdominal computed tomography suggested bilateral masses of 1.6 cm diameter within the abdominal fat that were removed but no gonadal tissue was confirmed histopathologically. Vanishing testes syndrome was confirmed. The central DXA showed lumbar bone mineral density of 0.905 g/cm2, Z-score of -2.9SD. The spine profile X-Ray revealed multiple thoracic vertebral fractures. Alendronate therapy together with vitamin D and calcium supplements and trans-dermal testosterone were started. Four decades of hypogonadism associate increased cardiac risk, as well as decreased bone mass and high fracture risk.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /complications , Hypogonadism/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Osteoporosis/complications , Testis/abnormalities , /metabolism , Hypogonadism , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Osteoporosis , Risk Factors , Testis/metabolism , Testis , Testosterone/blood , Thyrotropin/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 569-575, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755856



To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old.

Materials and Methods:

Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant.


Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The genital fat deposits were higher in the high-fat groups (HF-S, HF-P, HF-SP) (p=0.0004). Regarding serum parameters, the animals in the HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0021). All of the hyperlipidemic groups showed hyperleptinemia (p=0.0019). Concerning the testis, the HF-S group showed a reduction on the seminiferous epithelium height (p=0.0003) and cell proliferation (p=0.0450). Seminiferous tubule diameter was lower in the HF-SP than in the SC group (p=0.0010).


The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard) alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis.


Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Leptin/blood , Organ Size , Overweight/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Spermatogenesis , Time Factors , Testosterone/blood , Triglycerides/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 576-583, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755872



The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of pentoxifylline (PTX) on remote testicular injury caused by unilateral hind limb ischemia/reperfusion of rats.

Materials and Methods

Twenty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into two groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR group) and ischemia/reperfusion + pentoxifylline (IR+PTX group). Ischemia was induced by placement of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter for 2h. Rats in IR+PTX group received PTX (40 mg/kg IP) before the reperfusion period. At 24h after reperfusion, testes were removed and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined in testicular tissues. Three rats of each group were used for wet/ dry weight ratio measurement. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically under light microscopy.


Activities of SOD and CAT in testicular tissues were decreased by ischemia/ reperfusion (P<0.05). Significantly increased MDA levels in testicular tissues were decreased by PTX treatment (P<0.05). MPO activity in testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). The wet/dry weight ratio of testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, there was a statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).


According to histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that PTX has preventive effects in the testicular injury induced by hind limb ischemia/reperfusion.


Animals , Male , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hindlimb/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Testis/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/prevention & control , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Testis/chemistry , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(1): 57-66, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742867


Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or ...

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Cryptorchidism/pathology , Cryptorchidism/therapy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Testis/pathology , Testosterone/blood , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Cryptorchidism/blood , Organ Size , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome , Testis/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 29(10): 644-650, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725295


PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p<0.001, respectively). The t-JNK immunoreactivity was unchanged in both groups (p=0.125), while p-JNK immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the diabetic group (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of androgen levels in the course of diabetes may contribute to the decrease of the immunoreactivities of t-ERK and p-ERK. JNK may be activated due to the changes in various cytokines and chemochines that participate in the oxidative stress process of diabetes. Therefore, testicular apoptosis may occur and lead to infertility associated with diabetes. .

Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Apoptosis , Biopsy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Immunohistochemistry , Infertility, Male/etiology , Infertility, Male/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Testis/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 450-456, 07/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714577


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture (Ac) and electroacupuncture (EAc) on oxidative stress and inflammation in testis torsion/detorsion (T/D) model in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups. G1 Group (Sham) served as control. The remaining groups were submitted to spermatic cord torsion (720°) for 3 hours, followed by detorsion and reperfusion for 4 hours. Before detorsion G3, G4 and G5 rats were treated with Ac, EAc 2Hz and EAc 10 Hz, respectively, applied to acupoint Gulai (S-29) bilaterally under anesthesia for 5 minutes. Next, the testes were detorsioned and reperfused for 4 hours. Afterwards, blood samples and the right testis were collected for biochemical assays: reduced Glutathione (GSH), Malonaldehyde (MDA), Myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: EAc stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) promoted significant increase in concentrations of GSH in plasma and testis of G4-G5 rats, compared with G1. There was significant increase of tissue MDA in groups G4-G5 and plasma MDA in all groups, compared with G1. There was a significant reduction in MPO activity in groups G4-G5 compared with G1. CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats subjected to testicular torsion/detorsion. .

Animals , Male , Acupuncture Points , Electroacupuncture/methods , Oxidative Stress , Spermatic Cord Torsion/therapy , Glutathione/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde/blood , Peroxidase/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Testis/blood supply , Testis/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950748


BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed sequence 101 (TEX101) was found to be highly expressed in testis and involved in acrosome reaction in previous studies. Recently, the metastasis suppressor function of TEX101 in cancer was disclosed, but the comprehensive investigation of its expression has rarely been reported. In this study, the expression features of TEX101 in normal human organs and seminoma were systematically analyzed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense staining of TEX101 in human testis tissues; however, its expression in 27 other types of normal human organs, including the ovary, was negligible. Higher expression of TEX101 was observed in the spermatocytes and spermatids of the testis, but relatively lower staining was detected in spermatogonia. Western blotting showed a single TEX101 band of 38 kDa in human testis, but it did not correspond to the predicted molecular weight of its mature form at 21 KDa. Furthermore, we examined seminoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and found that none of the 36 samples expressed TEX101. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed TEX101 to be a testis protein that could be related to the maturation process of male germ cells. The lack of TEX101 in seminoma indicated its potential role in tumor progression. This characteristic expression of TEX101 could provide a valuable reference for understanding its biological functions.

Humans , Male , Female , Seminiferous Epithelium/metabolism , Testicular Neoplasms/metabolism , Seminoma/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Organ Specificity/physiology , Ovary/metabolism , Seminiferous Epithelium/pathology , Sperm Maturation/physiology , Spermatozoa/growth & development , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Differentiation , Blotting, Western , Seminoma/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Epithelium/metabolism , Lymphoid Tissue/metabolism , Nerve Tissue/metabolism
IJRM-Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2014; 12 (3): 205-208
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157701


Septins are an evolutionary conserved group of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins that have diverse cellular roles. An increasing body of data implicates the septin family in the pathogenesis of diverse states including cancers, neurodegeneration, and male infertility. The objective of the study was to evaluate the expression pattern of Septin14 in testis tissue of men with and without spermatogenic failure. The samples retrieved accessible random between infertile men who underwent diagnostic testicular biopsy in Royan institute. 10 infertile men with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis and 20 infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia were recruited for real-time reverse transcription [RT]-PCR analysis of the testicular tissue. Total RNA was extracted with trizol reagent. Comparison of the mRNA level of septin14 revealed that in tissues with partial [n=10] or complete spermatogenesis [n=10], the expression of septin 14 was significantly higher than sertoli cell only tissues. The testicular tissues of men with hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and sertoli cell only had lower levels of septin 14 transcripts than normal men. These data indicates that Septin 14 expression level is critical for human spermatogenesis

Humans , Male , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Reverse Transcription , Testis/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Azoospermia/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sertoli Cells/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 28(7): 518-522, July 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679084


PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of FAS ligand (FASL) in ipsilateral and contralateral testicles of rats submitted to ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n=21) distributed into groups control (GC), n=5, testicular exposure; ischemia (GI), (n=8), Torsion in the left testicular Cord (TCT) for three hours followed by orchiectomy without distortion and orchietomy of the contralateral testicle after 24 hours; and reperfusion (GR), (n=8), left TCT for 3 hours and distortion and repositioning on the scrotum and bilateral orchiectomy after 24 hours. Quantification of the FASL expression by immune-histochemistry. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed similarity between GC and GI (p>0.05), differences detected are concentrated on the GR (p<0.05), increase in immunoexpression of FASL in the subgroups Right GR (406.8+-61.5) and Left GR (135.3 +-28.9) with significant predominance in the GR subgroup. CONCLUSION: Ischemia/reperfusion increased the FASL expression significantly in contralateral testicles in GR, in rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Fas Ligand Protein/analysis , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Orchiectomy , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Testis/blood supply
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(4): 804-809, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-647677


Determinou-se o desenvolvimento testicular de caprinos pré-púberes alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata) na dieta. Foram utilizados 19 cabritos ¾ Boer, recém-desmamados, com média de idade de três meses. Os animais, submetidos a um período de 75 dias de confinamento, receberam alimentação composta por: farelo de milho, farelo de soja, feno picado de tifton 85 e de óleo de licuri com base na matéria seca. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: sem lipídio adicional (n= 5); com 1,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 5); com 3,0% de óleo de licuri (n= 5); e com 4,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 4). As avaliações de peso corporal e de biometria testicular foram realizadas quinzenalmente. Após o período de confinamento, os animais foram abatidos para determinação do peso dos testículos, peso dos epidídimos e índice gonadossomático. A adição de óleo de licuri em até 4,5% na dieta de caprinos pré-púberes não alterou o desenvolvimento testicular com base nas características da biometria e morfometria testicular, indicando que a inclusão de até 4,5% de óleo de licuri na dieta pode ser utilizada.

A trial was carried out to identify the best level of licury (Syagrus coronata) oil in the diet of goats. Nineteen ¾ Boer male goats at three months of age were kept in individual pens. These animals were submitted to 75 days of confinement. The rations were composed of corn and soybean meal, Tifton 85 chopped hay and levels of licury oil (dry matter base). The animals were arranged in four groups according to the addition of licury oil to the diet: 0.0 (no oil inclusion, n= 5); or addition of 1.5 (n= 5); 3.0 (n= 5); or 4.5% licury oil. The evaluations of mean body weight and testicular biometry were performed weekly. After confinement, animals were slaughtered and the weight of the left and right testicles, left and right epididymal weight; and gonadosomatic index were determined. The addition of licury oil up to 4.5% to the diet of prepuberal male goats has not change the testicular development based on its biometrical and morphometrical parameters. It is suggested that licury oil can be added up to 4.5% to the diet of male goats.

Animals , Biometry/methods , Epididymis , Testis/metabolism , Body Weight
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(12): 1243-1250, Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606548


To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each): control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor) in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01). We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis.

Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Testis/ultrastructure , Weightlessness Simulation/adverse effects , /analysis , Hindlimb Suspension/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , /analysis
Biocell ; 35(3): 81-89, Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653211


Junctional devices in Sertoli cells conform the blood-testis barrier and play a key role in maturation and differentiation of germ cells. The spacial distribution of ectoplasmic specializations of Sertoli cells was studied by beta-actin immunolabelling, using laser confocal and transmission electron microscopy. For confocal microscopy, beta-actin immunolabelling of ectoplasmic specializations was studied over the background of either prosaposin or glutaredoxin immunolabelling of the Sertoli cytoplasm. Labelling was found near the basal lamina, surrounding early spermatocytes (presumably in leptotene-zygotene) or at one of two levels in the seminiferous epithelium: (1) around deep infoldings of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, in tubular stages before spermiation, and (2) in the superficial part of the seminiferous epithelium, in tubular stages after or during spermiation. For transmission electron microscopy, beta-actin immunolabelling of ectoplasmic specializations was also used. Ectoplasmic specializations were found at two different levels of the seminiferous epithelium. We also used freeze fracture to analyze the characteristics of tubulo-bulbar complexes, a known component of apical ectoplasmic specializations. Also, these different approaches allowed us to study the complex arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton of Sertoli cells branches, which surround germ cells in different stages of the spermatogenic cycle. Our results show a consistent labelling for beta-actin before, during and after the release of spermatozoa in the tubular lumen (spermiation) suggesting a significant role of the actin network in spermatic cell differentiation. In conclusion, significant interrelations among the beta-actin network, the junctional complexes of the blood-testis barrier and the ectoplasmic specializations were detected at different stages of the seminiferous cycle.

Animals , Male , Rats , Actins/metabolism , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Blood-Testis Barrier/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Sertoli Cells/ultrastructure , Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar , Testis/cytology , Testis/ultrastructure
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135763


Background & objectives: Hyperprolactinaemia affects testicular functions by influencing hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis at various levels. Available literature on the level of defect, time course of improvement of gonadal functions and its relation with decline in prolactin levels is scanty. We carried out this study to evaluate the HPT axis in patients with macroprolactinomas, before and six months after cabergoline therapy. Methods: Fifteen men with macroprolactinomas underwent gonadotropin and testosterone response to their respective stimuli before and after six months of cabergoline therapy. Results: Serum prolactin levels decreased after six months of therapy. Pretreatment, mean lutenizing and follicle stimulating hormones (LH and FSH) levels were 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.4 ± 0.2 IU/l, respectively. However, LH and FSH responses to GnRH were preserved in majority of the patients and LH peaked to 12.1 ± 2.3 IU/l (P<0.01), while FSH to 2.9 ± 0.4 IU/l suggesting the influence of hyperprolactinaemia at the level of hypothalamus with preserved gonadotrope reserve. After cabergoline therapy, there was an increase in basal as well as stimulated LH and FSH levels, though these were not statistically significant when compared to respective pretherapy levels. Basal testosterone (T) levels significantly improved after therapy, but peak T response to hCG was similar at both pre- and post treatment. A significant correlation was observed between peak LH and peak T at baseline (r=0.53, P<0.01) and it further strengthened after therapy (r=0.70, P<0.01). After cabergoline therapy, there was significant improvement in seminal volume, sperm count and motility and sperm count correlated with peak FSH response (r=0.53, P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Hyperprolactinaemia affects testicular functions probably by influencing at the level of hypothalamus resulting in subnormal basal secretion of gonadotropins required for optimal testicular functions.

Analysis of Variance , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ergolines/pharmacology , Ergolines/therapeutic use , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/pharmacology , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pituitary Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Prolactin/blood , Prolactinoma/drug therapy , Prolactinoma/pathology , Radioimmunoassay , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Testis/metabolism , Testosterone/blood , Time Factors
Arch. venez. farmacol. ter ; 30(3): 58-60, jul.-sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706172


The aim of this study was to describe a case of pathology of the testicle after long-term anabolic steroid treatment in a Thoroughbread horse. Were study an equine Thoroughbread with cryptorchidism from Venezuela, male of 5 years old. With history of lameness chronic and subfertility. Necropsy was performed and samples of testicle tissue were collected. The tissue samples were fixed in formalin and processed by conventional H&E techniques. Additionally, the special staining procedure of Tricromico de Gomory and Blue VonKossa were also carried out. Samples of blood and urine were recollected for toxicological by competitive ELISA. The left testicle was diameter testicle 6cm. and cryptorchidism (testicle right). Macroscopic were observed bilateral fibrosis parenchyma testicle and atrophic. The histological study revealed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and interstitial fibrosis increases in collagen fibres in the lamina propria of seminiferous tubules and testicular interstitium. Lamina propria surrounding atrophic tubules was thickened by an increase in collagen type IV and elastic fibres and by proliferation of bizarre myoid cells. Basal lamina was also thickened but had decreased for collagen type IV. Special stain Tricromico of Gomory (+) showed fibrosis interstitium severed and VonKossa (-) no evidence mineral. Toxicological studies allowed the detection of boldenona and dexamethasone generic in blood and urine samples. To conclude, we detected the presence of pathology of the testicle associated a after long-term anabolic steroid treatment in a Thoroughbred horse.

Animals , Anabolic Agents/therapeutic use , Steroids/therapeutic use , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Horses , Veterinary Medicine
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(8): 934-945, nov. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-537029


Androgens are steroid hormones that play key roles in the development and maintenance of male phenotype and reproductive function. These hormones also affect the function of several non-reproductive organs, such as bone and skeletal muscle. Endogenous androgens exert most of their effects by genomic mechanisms, which involve hormone binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, resulting in the modulation of gene expression. AR-induced non-genomic mechanisms have also been reported. A large number of steroidal and non-steroidal AR-ligands have been developed for therapeutic use, including the treatment of male hypogonadism (AR agonists) and prostate diseases (AR antagonists), among other pathological conditions. Here, the AR gene and protein structure, mechanism of action and AR gene homologous regulation were reviewed. The AR expression pattern, its in vivo regulation and physiological relevance in the developing and adult testis and epididymis, which are sites of sperm production and maturation, respectively, were also presented.

Os androgênios são hormônios esteroides com papel fundamental no desenvolvimento e na manutenção do fenótipo masculino e da função reprodutiva. Esses hormônios também afetam a função de diversos tecidos não reprodutivos, como, por exemplo, o ósseo e musculoesquelético. Os androgênios endógenos exercem a maioria de suas funções por mecanismo genômico, que envolve a ligação do hormônio ao receptor de androgênio (RA), um fator de transcrição ativado por ligante, o que resulta no controle da expressão gênica. Mecanismos não genômicos também têm sido associados aos efeitos induzidos pelo RA. Um grande número de ligantes do RA, esteroidais e não esteroidais, tem sido desenvolvido para o uso terapêutico, incluindo o tratamento do hipogonadismo masculino (agonistas do RA) e de doenças da próstata (antagonistas do RA), entre outras condições patológicas. Neste trabalho, foram discutidas as características estruturais básicas do RA (gene e proteína), os mecanismos de ação desse receptor, bem como aspectos relacionados à sua regulação homóloga. O padrão de expressão do RA, sua regulação in vivo e relevância fisiológica durante o desenvolvimento e a vida adulta na função do testículo e epidídimo, tecidos responsáveis pela produção e maturação de espermatozoides, respectivamente, também foram discutidos.

Adult , Humans , Male , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , Age Factors , Epididymis/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Testis/metabolism