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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 344-348, 20210000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358874

ABSTRACT

La hipomelanosis macular progresiva es un trastorno adquirido de la pigmentación que aparece con más frecuencia en mujeres, adolescentes y adultas jóvenes. Se caracteriza por máculas hipopigmentadas asintomáticas, mal delimitadas, no descamativas, simétricas y de predominio en región lumbar. El estudio histopatológico evidencia disminución del contenido de melanina en la epidermis afectada, con número y distribución de los melanocitos conservados. En su etiopatogenia interviene el Cutibacterium acnes tipo III, bacteria responsable de la característica fluorescencia rojiza de distribución folicular que se observa con la lámpara de Wood. Por este motivo, los tratamientos propuestos incluyen el uso de tetraciclinas por vía oral y tratamientos tópicos como el peróxido de benzoílo, asociados a fototerapia UVA o UVB de banda angosta. Se presenta una paciente con hipomelanosis macular progresiva del tronco que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con doxiciclina vía oral


Progressive macular hypomelanosis is an acquired pigmentation disorder that occurs mostly in adolescent and young women. It is characterized by asymptomatic, poorly defined, non-scaly, symmetrical hypopigmented macules localized predominantly in the lumbar area. Histopathology shows a decrease in melanin content with preserved number and distribution of melanocytes in the affected epidermis. Cutibacterium acnes type III appears to be the responsible for the dermatosis and for the characteristic reddish fluorescence of follicular distribution observed with Wood´s lamp. Treatment include oral tetracyclines and topical benzoyl peroxide associated with UVA or narrow band UVB phototherapy. We present a patient with progressive macular hypomelanosis of the trunk with excellent response to treatment with oral doxycycline


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phototherapy , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Hypopigmentation/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Melanosis/therapy
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0015, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The authors present a case of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , a rare skin disease of unknown etiology, which may cause unaesthetic scarring due to its difficult treatment. The histopathological examination of epithelioid granulomas with caseating necrosis, together with the clinical features, are important for diagnosis and early treatment with better results. Despite difficult and unsatisfactory treatment, there are ongoing studies on therapy to improve aesthetic and social impairment. This case report describes an initial misdiagnosis delaying appropriate treatment, and highlights the value of physical examination and clinical judgment for another pathological examination, whenever necessary, aiming at better treatment outcomes in daily practice.


RESUMO Os autores apresentam um caso de lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei , uma dermatose rara, de etiologia desconhecida, que pode deixar cicatrizes não estéticas, pela dificuldade de tratamento. O exame histopatológico de granulomas compostos por células epitelioides, com necrose caseosa, e as características clínicas, são importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento precoce, com melhores resultados. Apesar do tratamento difícil e insatisfatório, há estudos em andamento sobre terapias para melhorar o comprometimento estético e social. Este relato de caso descreve um diagnóstico inicial errôneo, que atrasou o tratamento adequado, e destaca o valor do exame físico e raciocínio clínico para solicitar outro exame anatomopatológico, quando necessário, de forma a obter melhores desfechos com o tratamento, na prática diária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eyelid Diseases/pathology , Eyelid Diseases/drug therapy , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Facial Dermatoses/drug therapy , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Cicatrix , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Rosacea/pathology , Rosacea/drug therapy , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Granuloma/pathology , Granuloma/drug therapy , Lupus Vulgaris/pathology , Lupus Vulgaris/drug therapy , Minocycline/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
4.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(2): 124-133, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126928

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La terapia antimicrobiana después del raspado y alisado radicular en el anciano no ha sido evaluada en la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada", de Santiago de Cuba. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la tetraciclina y azitromicina en el tratamiento del raspado y alisado radicular en el adulto mayor. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental de intervención terapéutica, realizado entre 2018-2019, en 30 pacientes con 60 y más años y con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica. Se crearon tres grupos con 10 casos mediante el método aleatorio simple. El Grupo 1 tratado con la técnica convencional y los Grupos 2 y 3, después de la técnica, se aplicó una concentración subgingival de tetraciclina y azitromicina respectivamente y la colocación de cemento quirúrgico por siete días. Se emplearon variables como edad, sexo, cuadro clínico, evolución de signos y síntomas al séptimo día, 1 y 3 meses, y efectividad de curación. La validación estadística fue a través de la prueba Chi-cuadrado, con un 95 % de confiabilidad y la efectividad antimicrobiana, mediante el Análisis de Varianza ANOVA. Resultados: Predominio del grupo 65-69 años y sexo femenino, persistencia de inflamación gingival en el 30,0 % del Grupo 1 al tercer mes, disminuyó la profundidad al sondaje y hubo ganancia de inserción clínica, mejorando sus medias en el tiempo. Se logró un 100,0 % de efectividad de curación en los Grupos 2 y 3. Conclusiones: Elevada efectividad de la aplicación tópica subgingival de tetraciclina y azitromicina con cemento quirúrgico, sobre aquellos tratados con raspado y alisado radicular convencional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Antimicrobial therapy after scaling and root planing treatment in the elderly has not been evaluated at the "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching Stomatology Clinic in Santiago de Cuba. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of tetracycline and azithromycin in the treatment of scaling and root planing in the elderly. Method: Quasi-experimental study of therapeutic intervention, carried out between 2018 and 2019, on 30 patients with the age of 60 and over and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Three groups with 10 cases were created using the simple randomized method. Group 1 treated with the conventional technique and groups 2 and 3, after using the same technique, a subgingival concentration of tetracycline and azithromycin was applied respectively and surgical cement placement for 7 days. Variables such as age, sex, clinical picture, evolution of signs and symptoms at the seventh day, 1 and 3 months, and healing effectiveness were used. The statistical validation was through the Chi-square test, with a 95% reliability and the antimicrobial effectiveness, through the Analysis of Variance ANOVA. Results: Predominance of the group age between 65 and 69 years and female sex, persistent gingival inflammation in 30,0 % of group 1 at the third month, decreased the depth of the catheterization and there was a clinical insertion gain, improving their averages in time. A 100.0% healing effectiveness was achieved in groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: High effectiveness of subgingival topical application of tetracycline and azithromycin with surgical cement, over patients treated with conventional scaling and root planing.


Subject(s)
Aged , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Dental Scaling/methods , Treatment Outcome , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents , Chronic Periodontitis/diagnosis , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 448-456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114920

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic multiresistance and the acquisition of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be one of the main pathogens in persistent endodontic infections, therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotype and resistance genotype of strains of E. faecalis isolated from teeth with persistent endodontic lesions, to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry. Thirteen strains of E. faecalis of different pulsotype were analyzed to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using the Epsilometer test (E- test) and the presence of beta-lactamases with nitrocefin test. Finally, the detection of ARG was performed with a molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and confirmed by the sequencing of the amplification products. Fisher's exact test was used, using 95 % confidence. Regarding the phenotype of resistance, the evaluated strains, independent of the pulsotype, were totally resistant to the action of metronidazole. Antibiotics with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after metronidazole include tetracycline and erythromycin. In contrast, lower MIC are applied to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. The nitrocefin test was positive only in one strain. Genotypically, two genetically distant strains isolated from a single patient, presented a genotype of resistance to erythromycin, determined by the presence of the ermB gene. No statistically significant relationship was found between phenotypic resistance and the presence of ARG in relation to erythromycin (p> 0.05). It was concluded that isolates of E. faecalis from persistent endodontic infections showed phenotypes of resistance to several antimicrobial agents, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Periodic evaluation of susceptibility to antibiotics is suggested as an important practice for the surveillance of antibiotic resistance in oral strains.


Los enterococos son importantes patógenos nosocomiales debido a su multi resistencia intrínseca y la adquisición de nuevos genes de resistencia a los antibióticos (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis es uno de los principales patógenos en infecciones endodónticas persistentes, por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar el fenotipo y el genotipo de resistencia de cepas de E. faecalis aisladas de dientes con lesiones endodóncicas persistentes, a los antibióticos comúnmente recetados en odontología. Se analizaron 13 cepas de E. faecalis de diferentes pulsotipos para evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos, amoxicilina, amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico, tetraciclina, eritromicina y metronidazol, utilizando la prueba de Epsilometría (E-test) y la presencia de beta-lactamasas con prueba de nitrocefina. Finalmente, la detección de ARG se realizó con una técnica molecular de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y se confirmó mediante la secuenciación de los productos de amplificación. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, con un 95 % de confianza. En cuanto al fenotipo de resistencia, las cepas evaluadas, independientes del pulsotipo, fueron totalmente resistentes a la acción del metronidazol. Los antibióticos con los valores más altos de concentración mínima inibitoria (CMI) después del metronidazol incluyen tetraciclina y eritromicina. En contraste, las CMI mas bajas se aplican a la combinación de amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico. La prueba de nitrocefina fue positiva solo en una cepa. Genotípicamente, dos cepas distantes genéticamente, aisladas de un mismo paciente fueron positivas para el gen ermB. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la resistencia fenotípica y la presencia de ARG en relación con la eritromicina (p> 0,05). Se concluyó que los aislamientos de E. faecalis de infecciones endodónticas persistentes mostraron fenotipos de resistencia a varios agentes antimicrobianos, todos los cuales fueron susceptibles a amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico. Se sugiere una evaluación periódica de la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos como una práctica importante para la vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos en las cepas orales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clavulanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole
7.
Infectio ; 23(4): 382-387, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1019865

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evolution of bacterial resistance is generating a serious public health problem due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, the application of non-optimal doses, the irregularity in the taking of medicines sent by the health professional, factors that have affected the increase in the rate of antimicrobial resistance; It is important to generate strategies that contribute to diminishing it, including the rational use of antibiotics and the constant research of new therapeutic alternatives such as teixobactin, which is a product of the Gram negative bacterium called Eleftheria terrae, related to the genus Aquabacterium, is a microorganism that presents extremophile conditions, for which, a multichannel system of semipermeable membranes called Ichip was developed for its isolation. Eravacycline is a new fully synthetic bacteriostatic antibiotic of the tetracycline family, is a potent inhibitor based on the mechanism of the bacterial ribosome and exerts potent activity against a broad spectrum of susceptible and multiresistant bacteria.


Resumen La evolución de la resistencia bacteriana ha generado un serio problema de salud pública debido al uso indiscriminado antibioticos, la aplicación de dosis no óptimas, la irregularidad en la toma de medicinas prescritas por el profesional de la salud han llevado a un aumento en la tasa de resistencia antimicrobiana; por ello es importante generar estrategias que contribuyan a disminuirla incluyendo el uso racional de anitibioticos y la búsqueda constante de nuevos antibioticos. La teixobactina es un producto de bacterias gram negativas llamadas Eleftheria terrae, relacionadas con el género Aquabacterium, el cual es un microorganismo que presenta condiciones extremofilas. Para el aislamiento de este nuevo compuesto se utilizó un sistema multicanal de membranas semipepermeables llamadas Ichip. Eravaciclina es un nuevo antibiotico síntetico bacteriostatico de la familia de las tetraciclinas y es un potente inhibidor de la maquinaria ribosomal bacteriana, con una potente actividad contra un amplio espectro de bacterias multirresistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Tetracycline , Tetracyclines , Bacteria , Public Health , Health Strategies
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 361-366, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile remains as a public and private health-care system's challenge, with a prevalence of the infection over 70%. Nowadays, antibiotic treatment of the infection is mandatory to prevent the arising of severe associated diseases but failures in the eradication therapy mainly due to clarithromycin resistance has been observed worldwide and first line eradication therapy seems to be not effective anymore in several geographical areas. Thus, health-care systems are committed to maintain an epidemiological surveillance upon the evolution of the antibiotic resistance of this priority 2 pathogen. OBJECTIVE: This work reports a 10 years surveillance of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates at the Biobío region-Chile, and the evolution of resistance toward amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline among the species. METHODS: H. pylori strains were investigated during the periods 2005-2007 (1435 patients analysed) and 2015-2017 (220 patients analysed) by inoculating a saline homogenate biopsy onto the surface of Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells plus DENT inhibitor (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - following by incubation at 37ºC under 10% CO2 atmosphere for five days. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion test in Müeller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells followed by incubation for further three days under 10% CO2 atmosphere. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS v22 software and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 41% of 1435 patients were detected to be infected with H. pylori by bacteriological culture in 2005-2007 period, meanwhile 32.7% from 220 patients were also infected in 2015-2017 period. The clinical isolates of H. pylori are mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (both over 98% of strains), but less susceptible to levofloxacin in both periods analysed (over 79% of the strains). On the other hand, metronidazole continuous showing the highest score of resistant isolates (over 40% of resistant strains), although an 18% fewer resistant strains were observed in 2015-2017 period. Clarithromycin, the key antibiotic in eradication therapies, has an increased frequency of resistant strain isolated in the decade (22.5% in 2005-2007 and 29.2% in 2015-2017). Multidrug resistant strains (two, three and four antibiotics) were also detected in both periods with the highest scores for simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin-metronidazole (18%) and clarithromycin-metronidazole-levofloxacin (12.5%) resistant strains. According to gender, the isolates resistant to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were more frequent in female, with a specific increment in amoxicillin and clarithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The frequency of clarithromycin resistance (29.2%) detected in 2015-2017 suggests that conventional triple therapy is no longer effective in this region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção por Helicobacter pylori no Chile permanece como um desafio do sistema de saúde público e privado, com prevalência da infecção acima de 70%. Hoje em dia, o tratamento antibiótico da infecção é obrigatório para prevenir o surgimento de graves doenças associadas, mas falhas na terapia de erradicação, principalmente devido à resistência à claritromicina, têm sido observadas em todo o mundo, e a terapia de erradicação de primeira linha parece não ser mais eficaz em várias áreas geográficas. Assim, os sistemas de saúde estão comprometidos em manter uma vigilância epidemiológica sobre a evolução da resistência aos antibióticos deste patógeno prioritário tipo 2. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho relata uma vigilância de 10 anos da resistência antibiótica primária de isolados clínicos de H. pylori na região do Biobío-Chile, e a evolução da resistência em relação à amoxicilina, claritromicina, levofloxacina, metronidazol e tetraciclina entre as espécies. MÉTODOS: As cepas de H. pylori foram investigadas durante os períodos 2005-2007 (1435 pacientes analisados) e 2015-2017 (220 pacientes analisados) inoculando uma biópsia de homogeneizado fisiológico na superfície do agar Columbia (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos do cavalo mais o inibidor de DENTE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - seguindo pela incubação em 37ºC a atmosfera de 10% de CO2 por cinco dias. O padrão de resistência aos antibióticos dos isolados foi avaliado utilizando-se o teste de difusão em disco em agar Müeller-Hinton suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos de cavalo seguidos de incubação por mais três dias a atmosfera de 10% de CO2. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o software SPSS V22 e os valores de P<0,5 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 41% dos 1435 pacientes foram detectados como contaminados por H. pylori pela cultura bacteriológica no período 2005-2007, ao mesmo tempo 32,7% de 220 pacientes foram contaminados igualmente no período 2015-2017. Os isolados clínicos de H. pylori são principalmente suscetíveis à amoxicilina e tetraciclina (tanto mais de 98% das cepas), mas menos suscetíveis à levofloxacina em ambos os períodos analisados (mais de 79% das cepas). Por outro lado, o metronidazol permaneceu mostrando a maior pontuação de resistentes isolados (mais de 40% de cepas resistentes), embora tenham sido observados 18% menos cepas resistentes no período de 2015-2017. A claritromicina, o antibiótico-chave em terapias de erradicação, tem uma frequência aumentada de cepa resistente isolada na década (22,5% em 2005-2007 e 29,2% em 2015-2017). Cepas multirresistentes (dois, três e quatro antibióticos) também foram detectadas em ambos os períodos com os maiores escores de resistência simultânea à claritromicina-metronidazol (18%) e claritromicina-metronidazol-levofloxacina (12,5%) cepas resistentes. De acordo com o sexo, os isolados resistentes à amoxicilina, claritromicina e metronidazol foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino, com incremento específico em amoxicilina e resistência à claritromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de resistência à claritromicina (29,2%) detectada em 2015-2017 sugere que a terapia tripla convencional não é mais efetiva nesta região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Population Surveillance , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Levofloxacin , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 979-992, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094102

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La infección por helicobacter pylori afecta aproximadamente al 50% de la población mundial, es causante de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica, cáncer gástrico y linfoma del tejido linfoide asociado a la mucosa. Desde su descubrimiento, la erradicación ha sido uno de los más importantes retos en Gastroenterología. En muchos países se desconoce la prevalencia de resistencia primaria del microorganismo a los diferentes antibióticos que empíricamente se utilizan, y por no realizar pruebas de rutina que verifican su erradicación en la práctica diaria, se ignora la efectividad de los esquemas prescritos. El incremento progresivo de la resistencia a la claritromicina y metronidazol, unido a una ausencia de antibioticoterapia alternativa, desafía la capacidad para eliminar de manera efectiva a ésta bacteria. El subcitrato de bismuto ha resurgido y su adición en la terapia ha permitido aumentar las tasas de curación por encima del 90%. Actualmente se invoca que para mejorar la eficacia en el tratamiento se debe combinar una supresión potente del ácido gástrico en tratamientos combinados cuádruples con una duración de 14 días, para la mayoría de los casos. La adherencia al tratamiento es crucial para obtener buenos resultados terapéuticos.


ABSTRACT The infection for helicobacter pylori affects approximately to the world population's 50%, it is causing of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and linfoma associated to the mucous one. From their discovery, the eradication has been one of the most important challenges in Gastroenterología. In many countries the prevalencia of primary resistance is ignored from the microorganism to the different antibiotics that empirically they are used, and for not carrying out routine tests that verify its eradication in the daily practice, the effectiveness of the prescribed outlines it is ignored. The progressive increment of the resistance to the claritromicina and metronidazol, together to an absence of alternative antibioticotherapy, challenges the capacity to eliminate from an effective way to this bacteria. The bismuth subcitrato has resurged and its addition in the therapy has allowed to increase the cure rates above 90%. At the moment it is invoked that to improve the effectiveness in the treatment, that is should combine a potent suppression of the gastric acid in combined quadruple treatments with a duration of 14 days, for most of the cases. The adherence to the treatment is crucial to obtain therapeutic good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Risk Factors , Helicobacter Infections/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Disease Eradication , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Clarithromycin , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/diagnosis , Acidity Regulator , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Metronidazole , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(1): 49-54, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003722

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Ureaplasma urealyticum es el agente más frecuentemente aislado en infección intraamniótica. Los macrólidos son los antimicrobianos de primera elección en embarazadas. Se ha descrito el aumento de resistencia, pudiendo limitar las opciones terapéuticas durante la gestación. El propósito del estudio es evaluar susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Ureaplasma urealyticum aislado en mujeres en edad fértil, que se atienden en Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucanía, Chile. METODO: Se estudian todas las muestras de orina y flujo vaginal para cultivo de U. urealyticum, de pacientes entre 18 y 40 años, recibidas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica Alemana Temuco, en período Abril 2013 a Enero 2015. Se procesan las muestras con kit Mycoplasma IST 2 de Biomerieux. En las que resultan positivas, se estudia susceptibilidad a macrólidos, tetraciclinas y quinolonas. RESULTADOS: 426 muestras de orina y flujo vaginal (390 pacientes). 197 pacientes resultaron positivas para U. urealyticum. (50,5%). La susceptibilidad fue 88,4% (174 pctes) a Eritromicina, 87,9% (173 pctes) a Claritromicina y 91,9% (181 pctes) a Azitromicina (NS). 15 de 197 pacientes (7,6%) fueron resistentes a los 3 macrólidos. La susceptibilidad a Quinolonas fue 55,3% a Ciprofloxacino, y 94% a Ofloxacino. El 100% resultó susceptible a Tetraciclinas. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca del 10% de U. urealyticum aislados en nuestra serie son resistentes a macrólidos, contribuyendo a la no erradicación de la infección en tratamientos empíricos. Dentro de ellos, azitromicina aparece con la mayor efectividad. El aumento de resistencia limitará opciones terapéuticas, con gran impacto perinatal en futuro. La vigilancia de susceptibilidad en cada hospital es fundamental para elección terapéutica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ureaplasma urealyticum is the most frequently isolated microorganism in intra-amniotic infection. The macrolides are the first choice antimicrobials for treat this infection in pregnancy. The increasing resistance has been described worldwide, seriously limiting therapeutic options in pregnancy. The aim of the study is to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum aislated in fertile-age women in Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucania region, Chile. METHOD: Urine and vaginal samples were analyzed for U. urealyticum, from every 18 to 40 years old patients, received at Microbiology Laboratory of Clínica Alemana Temuco, between April 2013 to January 2015. The samples are processed with Mycoplasma IST 2 kit of Biomerieux. If they became positives, susceptibility to macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones was studied. RESULTS: 426 urine and vaginal samples were collected (390 patients). 197 patients were positive for U. urealyticum (50.5%). The susceptibility was 88.4% (174 pts) to Erythromicyn, 87.9% (173 pts) to Clarithromycin and 91.9% (181 pts) to Azithromycin (NS). Resistance to all macrolides was observed in 15 out of 197 patients (7.6%). The susceptibility to Quinolones was 55.3% to Ciprofloxacin, and 94% to Ofloxacin. The 100% was susceptible to Tetracyclines. DISCUSSION: Near to 10% of isolated Ureaplasma spp in our serie were resistant to some macrolide, being a factor for failing to eradicate the infection in empirical treatment. Azithromycin was the most effective. The increasing resistance will limit therapeutic options, with great perinatal impact in the future. Susceptibility surveillance in each hospital is very important for therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ureaplasma urealyticum/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Urogenital System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(2): 107-111, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990246

ABSTRACT

Pasteurella (P.) multocida is the causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in swine, which is commonly associated with the final stages of enzootic pneumonia or porcine respiratory disease complex. Although this syndrome is one of the most common and important diseases of pigs, data on antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida isolates are uncommon in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Brazilian P. multocida isolated from pigs with lesions of pneumonia or pleuritis during two-time periods. Historical isolates (period of 1981 to 1997; n=44) and recent isolates (period of 2011 to 2012; n=50) were used to determine the MIC of amoxicillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol and tetracycline by microbroth dilution. Florfenicol had the lowest level of resistance for both historical and recent isolates (0% and 6%, respectively), while tetracycline had the highest (20.5% and 34%, respectively). Multi-drug resistance (MDR) to amoxicillin/florfenicol/tetracycline was observed in 6% of recent isolates. There was a significant increase (p˂0.05) in resistance for amoxicillin and enrofloxacin in recent isolates compared with historic isolates (3.8% and 18%, respectively), most likely due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial usage to treat and prevent P. multocida infections. The results of this study showed an increase of isolates resistant to important drugs used in treatment of P. multocida infections in pigs, demonstrating the need for the implementation of rational use of antimicrobials in Brazilian swine industry.(AU)


Pasteurella (P.) multocida é o agente da pasteurelose pneumônica em suínos, a qual é comumente associada com o estágio final da pneumonia enzoótica suína ou complexo das doenças respiratórias dos suínos. Apesar de ser uma das doenças mais comuns e importantes na suinocultura, dados sobre suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de P. multocida são raros no Brasil. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi realizado para determinar e comparar o perfil de suscetibilidade de isolados de P. multocida de suínos com lesões de pneumonia ou pleurite no Brasil durante dois períodos. Isolados históricos (período de 1981 a 1997; n=44) e contemporâneos (período de 2011 a 2012; n=50) foram usados para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de amoxicilina, enrofloxacina, florfenicol e tetraciclina através do teste de microdiluição em caldo. Florfenicol apresentou o menor nível de resistência para ambos os isolados históricos e contemporâneos (0% e 6%, respectivamente), enquanto que tetraciclina apresentou o maior nível de resistência (20.5% e 34%, respectivamente). Resistência a múltiplos antimicrobianos (amoxicilina, florfenicol e tetraciclina) foi observada em 6% dos isolados recentes. Foi observado aumento significativo (p˂0.05) na resistência a amoxicilina e enrofloxacina em isolados recentes comparado com isolados históricos (3.8% e 18%, respectivamente), provavelmente devido à pressão de seleção de antimicrobianos usados no tratamento e prevenção de infecções causadas por P. multocida. Os resultados deste trabalho demostraram o aumento de isolados resistentes a importantes drogas utilizadas no tratamento de infecções causadas por P. multocida em suínos, evidenciando a necessidade da implementação do uso racional de antimicrobianos na suinocultura brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Tetracycline , Amoxicillin
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180266, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phytochemical content of plant extracts can be used effectively to reduce the metal ions to nanoparticles in one-step green synthesis process. In this study, six plant extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biologically synthesized AgNPs was characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The individual and combined effects of AgNPs and tetracycline against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were assessed. Ginger, onion and sidr extracts supported AgNPs formation while arak, garlic and mint extracts failed to convert the silver ions to AgNPs. The present findings revealed significant differences between the tested plant extracts in supporting AgNPs synthesis. AgNPs synthesized by ginger showed the highest individual and combined activity against tested strains followed by AgNPs prepared by sidr then that synthesized by onion. AgNPs significantly enhanced tetracycline activity (p≤0.05) against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that the combination of tetracycline and biologically synthesized AgNPs presented a useful therapeutically method for the treatment of bacterial infection and counterattacking bacterial resistance.


Subject(s)
Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tetracycline/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Spectrophotometers/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-497, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763878

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is the most important factor leading to the failure of eradication regimens. This review focuses on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug in Vietnam. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Vietnamese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Vietnamese Biomedical databases from January 2000 to December 2016. The search terms included the following: H. pylori infection, antibiotic (including clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug) resistance in Vietnam. The data were summarized in an extraction table and analyzed manually. Finally, Excel 2007 software was used to create charts. Ten studies (three studies in English and seven in Vietnamese) were included in this review. A total of 308, 412, 523, 408, 399, and 268 H. pylori strains were included in this review to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance, respectively. Overall, the primary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 15.0%, 34.1%, 69.4%, 27.9%, 17.9% and 48.8%, respectively. Secondary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 9.5%, 74.9%, 61.5%, 45.7%, 23.5% and 62.3%, respectively. In Vietnam, primary and secondary resistance to H. pylori is increasing over time and affects the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bismuth , Clarithromycin , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Levofloxacin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Tetracycline , Vietnam
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistant continues to pose a threat to public health. Therefore, rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is very important. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the MicroScan system (Beckman Coulter, USA) with newly developed Korean Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Panels (KSCM panels) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) against clinical isolates in South Korea. METHODS: Three KSCM panels were designed in this study. For the performance evaluation, a total of 1,325 clinical isolates including 1,027 of Gram-negative bacilli and 298 Gram-positive cocci collected from eight general hospitals in South Korea were used. The results by KSCM panels were compared with those by conventional methods. RESULTS: By KSCM-1 panel for Gram-positive cocci, the rates of categorical agreement (CA) were >90% in all the antimicrobials tested in this study. The rates of major error (ME) were also 90%, ME rates <3%, and VME rates <1.5%. CONCLUSION: The newly developed three KSCM panels for MicroScan system (Beckman Coulter) showed excellent performance in AST against a large number of clinical isolates, and they are applicable to clinical microbiology laboratories.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Enterobacteriaceae , Gram-Positive Cocci , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, Teaching , Korea , Public Health , Tetracycline
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and C. jejuni genotype from diarrhea patients in Busan, Korea. METHODS: A total of 97 C. jejuni were isolated from diarrhea patients during five food-borne outbreaks from 2014 to September 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by the broth microdilution method for ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol, azithromycin (AZI), erythromycin (ERY), streptomycin (STR), gentamicin, and telithromycin. To investigate C. jejuni genotypes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis was performed. RESULTS: The isolation rate of C. jejuni was 2.0% for the last 4 years and increased annually. Antimicrobial resistance rates of C. jejuni were shown to be in the order of NAL (90.9%), CIP (89.4%), TET (13.6%), AZI (3.0%), ERY (3.0%), and STR (1.5%). The proportion of multidrug-resistance was 18.2%, and they commonly contained quinolones (CIP-NAL). Analysis of PFGE patterns of SmaI-restricted DNA of C. jejuni isolates showed 17 clusters; cluster 11 was the major genotype pattern. CONCLUSION: This study will provide useful data for the proper use of antimicrobials and the management of resistant C. jejuni. Also it will help to provide data for the epidemiological investigation of foodborne diseases caused by C. jejuni, which is expected to increase in the future.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , DNA , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Erythromycin , Foodborne Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Genotype , Gentamicins , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Nalidixic Acid , Quinolones , Streptomycin , Tetracycline
17.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-201, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cronobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen is considered as a major concern to infants and neonates fed on reconstituted powdered infant milk formula. In conjunction with many other factors, biofilm forming capacity adds to its pathogenic potential. In view of the facts that infants are at highest risk to C. sakazakii infections, and emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogens, it is imperative to evaluate probiotic cultures for their efficacy against C. sakazakii. Therefore, pure probiotic strains were isolated from commercial probiotic products and tested for their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against C. sakazakii. METHODS: A total of 6 probiotic strains were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility followed by antimicrobial activity using cell-free supernatant (CFS) against C. sakazakii. The inhibitory activity of CFS against biofilm formation by C. sakazakii was determined using standard crystal violet assay and microscopic observations. RESULTS: All the probiotic strains were sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin and carbenicillin whereas most of the strains were resistant to erythromycin and novobiocin. Four of the 6 probiotic derived CFS possessed antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii at a level of 40 μL. A higher biofilm inhibitory activity (>80%) was observed at initial stages of biofilm formation with weaker activity during longer incubation upto 48 hours (50%–60%). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the efficacy of isolated commercial probiotics strains as potential inhibitor of biofilm formation by C. sakazakii and could be further explored for novel bioactive molecules to limit the emerging infections of C. sakazakii.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Biofilms , Carbenicillin , Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Erythromycin , Gentian Violet , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Milk , Novobiocin , Probiotics , Tetracycline , Vancomycin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758952

ABSTRACT

The emergence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in livestock animals have become a worldwide public health concern. While the prevalence and genetic profiles of MRSA strains in pigs and pork meat have been actively studied, livestock-associated MSSA strains have only been characterized in a few small-scale studies. In this investigation, we assessed the nationwide prevalence of MSSA in the Korean pig production chain, including pig farms, slaughterhouses, and retail markets. Among the 41 MSSA strains, the predominant clonal lineages were sequence type (ST) 398 (n = 15, 37%) and ST5 (n = 13, 32%). Although the overall prevalence of MSSA (2.58%) was low and mostly restricted to pig farms, ST398 MSSA strains showed higher level of multidrug resistance phenotype versus non-ST398 MSSA strains. In addition to the MDR phenotype, all of the ST398 MSSA strains exhibited resistance to tetracycline as they harbored the tet(K), tet(L), and/or tet(M) genes. However, ST398 MSSA strains did not exhibit increased resistance to zinc compared with the non-ST398 strains. This study is the first to provide evidence of ST398 MSSA emergence in livestock animals in Korea. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the potential of ST398 MSSA strains for human transmission. Our findings suggest that the MDR phenotype and high levels of tetracycline resistance may have played an important role in the emergence and prevalence of ST398 MSSA in pig farms in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Agriculture , Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Humans , Korea , Livestock , Meat , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Phenotype , Prevalence , Public Health , Red Meat , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Swine , Tetracycline , Tetracycline Resistance , Zinc
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758912

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause lameness in broiler chickens, resulting in serious economic losses worldwide. Virulence of Enterococcus spp. is associated with several putative virulence genes including fsr, efm, esp, cylA, cad1, ace, gelE, and asa1. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of these virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. was developed, and detection limits for E. faecium, E. faecalis, and E. hirae were 64.0 pg/µL, 320.0 pg/µL, and 1.6 ng/µL DNA, respectively. Among 80 Enterococcus isolates tested, efm and cad1 were detected in all 26 E. faecium samples, and only cad1 was observed in E. hirae. Additionally, the presence of virulence genes in 25 E. faecalis isolates were 100% for cad1, 88.0% for gelE, 64.0% for fsr, 44.0% for asa1, 16.0% for cylA, and 4.0% for esp. No virulence genes were found in E. gallinarum isolates. A total of 49 isolates were resistant to tigecycline and to at least 2 different classes of antibiotics. The most prevalent resistance was to ciprofloxacin (73.5%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (55.1%), and tetracycline (49.0%). No strains were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. This is the first multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect eight virulence genes in Enterococcus spp., and the method provides diagnostic value for accurate, rapid, and convenient detection of virulence genes. Additionally, we report the prevalence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus isolates from commercial broiler chickens suffering lameness.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chickens , Ciprofloxacin , DNA , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus , Limit of Detection , Linezolid , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Tetracycline , Vancomycin , Virulence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758895

ABSTRACT

Isolates of 24 enterococci, 5 Enterococcus casseliflavus and 19 Enterococcus gallinarum, possessing vanC genes and showing low-level resistance to vancomycin were obtained from mice from commercial mouse breeding companies. Since some of these isolates showed resistance to other antibiotics, the purpose of this study was to clarify the resistant profiles of these isolates. One E. casseliflavus isolate showed resistance to erythromycin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 μg/mL and also showed apparent resistance to fluoroquinolones with an MIC of 32 μg/mL for ciprofloxacin. The MICs of 2 other fluoroquinolone-resistant E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum isolates were 3 and 6 μg/mL, respectively. These 3 resistant isolates showed an absence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant genes, including amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance determining regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Resistance to tetracycline was detected in 2 E. gallinarum isolates that were highly resistant, exhibiting MICs of 48 and 64 μg/mL and possessing tet(O) genes. The results indicate that antibiotic-resistant enterococci are being maintained in some laboratory mouse strains that have never been treated with an antibiotic.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Breeding , Ciprofloxacin , DNA Gyrase , DNA Topoisomerase IV , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus , Erythromycin , Fluoroquinolones , Mice , Tetracycline , Vancomycin
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