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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 208-215, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842843


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are no laboratory tests or sensitive and specific molecular markers for the early diagnosis of leprosy. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with leprosy and investigate their immunological profile, comparing this with the type of lesion and the presence or absence of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar. METHODS: Statistical analyzes were performed by employing comparative tests (Pearson´s chi-square) to evaluate the variables in different clinical forms, considering significance at the 5% level. RESULTS: The study identified a predominance of lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) in patients aged between 34-53 years. Caucasians predominantly had borderline tuberculoid (BT) clinical forms (42%); a predominance of males with borderline lepromatous (19%) and lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) forms was observed; and the presence of BCG vaccination scars (27.5%) and lower limb nerves were more affected (38%) predominantly in the BT clinical form. Significant differences were identified, which included hypochromic lesions predominantly in the BT clinical form (24%); diffuse-type lesions predominantly in the tuberculoid (TT) clinical form (28%); ill-defined lesion border dominance in lepromatous leprosy (LL) clinical forms (30%); an irregular lesion limit predominantly in LL clinical forms (32%); and a predominant Th1 immune response in the BT clinical form (41.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the immunological profile in leprosy patients may contribute to the more detailed diagnosis and possibly better characterization of the prognosis for these individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/diagnosis , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/immunology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Leprosy, Multibacillary/classification , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/classification , Middle Aged
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 234-241, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747177


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the efficacy of the Nursing Process in an Intensive Care Unit using indicators generated by software. METHOD: cross-sectional study using data collected for four months. RNs and students daily registered patients, took history (at admission), performed physical assessments, and established nursing diagnoses, nursing plans/prescriptions, and assessed care delivered to 17 patients using software. Indicators concerning the incidence and prevalence of nursing diagnoses, rate of effectiveness, risk diagnoses, and rate of effective prevention of complications were computed. RESULTS: the Risk for imbalanced body temperature was the most frequent diagnosis (23.53%), while the least frequent was Risk for constipation (0%). The Risk for Impaired skin integrity was prevalent in 100% of the patients, while Risk for acute confusion was the least prevalent (11.76%). Risk for constipation and Risk for impaired skin integrity obtained a rate of risk diagnostic effectiveness of 100%. The rate of effective prevention of acute confusion and falls was 100%. CONCLUSION: the efficacy of the Nursing Process using indicators was analyzed because these indicators reveal how nurses have identified patients' risks and conditions, and planned care in a systematized manner. .

OBJETIVO: analisar a eficácia do Processo de Enfermagem em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, utilizando indicadores gerados por um software. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, cujos dados foram coletados durante quatro meses. Enfermeiros e acadêmicos realizaram, diariamente, cadastro e anamnese (na admissão), exame físico, diagnósticos de enfermagem, planejamento/prescrição de enfermagem e avaliação da assistência de 17 pacientes, utilizando um software. Calculou-se os indicadores incidência e prevalência de diagnósticos de enfermagem, taxa de efetividade diagnóstica de risco e taxa de efetividade na prevenção de complicações. RESULTADOS: o Risco de desequilíbrio na temperatura corporal foi o diagnóstico mais incidente (23,53%) e o menos incidente foi o Risco de constipação (0%). O Risco de integridade da pele prejudicada foi prevalente em 100% dos pacientes, enquanto o Risco de confusão aguda foi o menos prevalente (11,76%). Risco de constipação e Risco de integridade da pele prejudicada obtiveram taxa de efetividade diagnóstica de risco de 100%. A taxa de efetividade na prevenção de confusão aguda e de queda foi de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: analisou-se a eficácia do Processo de Enfermagem utilizando indicadores, pois retratam como o enfermeiro tem identificado os problemas e riscos do paciente, e planejado a assistência de forma sistematizada. .

OBJETIVO: analizar la eficacia del Proceso de Enfermería en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, utilizando indicadores generados por un software. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, cuyos datos fueron recolectados durante cuatro meses. Enfermeros y académicos realizaron, diariamente, registro y anamnesis (en la admisión), examen físico, diagnósticos de enfermería, planificación/prescripción de enfermería y evaluación de la asistencia en 17 pacientes, utilizando un software. Se calculó los indicadores incidencia y prevalencia de diagnósticos de enfermería, la tasa de efectividad diagnóstica de riesgo y la tasa de efectividad en la prevención de complicaciones. RESULTADOS: el Riesgo de desequilibrio en la temperatura corporal fue el diagnóstico más prevalente (23,53%) y el menos prevalente fue el Riesgo de constipación (0%). El Riesgo de integridad de la piel perjudicada fue prevalente en 100% de los pacientes, en cuanto el Riesgo de confusión aguda fue el menos prevalente (11,76%). El Riesgo de constipación y el Riesgo de integridad de la piel perjudicada obtuvieron una tasa de efectividad diagnóstica de riesgo de 100%. La tasa de efectividad en la prevención de confusión aguda y de caída fue de 100%. CONCLUSIÓN: se analizó la eficacia del Proceso de Enfermería utilizando indicadores, ya que retratan cómo el enfermero ha identificado los problemas y riesgos del paciente, y planificado la asistencia de forma sistematizada. .

Animals , Male , Mice , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Freund's Adjuvant/pharmacology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , /metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/cytology , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Lipids/immunology , Lipids/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/radiation effects , Transplantation, Homologous , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(2): 110-118, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699778


The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

Animals , Female , Mice , Cytokines/metabolism , Orf virus/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , DNA, Complementary/biosynthesis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Parapoxvirus/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Time Factors , Th1 Cells/virology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(4): 276-282, Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581490


The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), present on the surface of hematopoietic cells, can regulate some events of the immune responses. This modulatory action is associated with the capacity of SLAM to interact with an intracytoplasmic adapter, such as SLAM-associated protein (SAP). SLAM is constitutively expressed in most of these cells, is rapidly induced after antigenic or inflammatory stimuli, and participates in the immunological synapse. Defects in the function of the SLAM-SAP pathway contribute to immunological abnormalities, resulting in autoimmune diseases, tumors of the lymphoid tissues and inadequate responses to infectious agents. Initially, the role of SLAM was investigated using an anti-SLAM monoclonal antibody (α-SLAM mAb) identified as an agonist of the SLAM-SAP pathway, which could induce the production of interferon-γ and could redirect the immune response to a T helper 1 (Th1) cell profile. However, in this review we postulate that the SLAM-SAP pathway primarily induces a Th2 response and secondarily suppresses the Th1 response.

Humans , Antigens, CD/physiology , /metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Lymphocyte Activation , Receptors, Cell Surface/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , /immunology , /metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181122


Regulatory T cells, which stimulate or inhibit the effector functions of distinct T cell subsets, are critical in the control of the immune response. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta and IL-10 on T cell subsets according to the Th1/Th2 immune status. Sixty-two patients with asthma and 38 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Allergy skin tests, tuberculin tests, and chest radiography were performed. The levels of circulating IL-4, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta1, and IL-10 were measured using ELISA. The level of TGF-beta1 was higher in patients with asthma than in those with tuberculosis, but the IL-10 levels were the same between the asthma and tuberculosis groups. Atopy was unrelated to the tuberculin response. The IFN-gamma level was correlated with the IL-10 level, and the level of IL-4 was unrelated to the IL-10 or TGF-beta1 level. The level of IL-10 was higher in the negative tuberculin reactors than in the positive tuberculin reactors among patients with asthma, and TGF-beta1 was higher in the positive tuberculin reactors than in the negative tuberculin reactors among patients with tuberculosis. These results demonstrate that the regulatory effects of circulating TGF-beta and IL-10 on T cell cytokines may be different between Th2-type asthma and Th1 tuberculosis.

Adult , Asthma/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Respiratory Function Tests , Skin Tests , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood , Tuberculin Test , Tuberculosis/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173475


The family of T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (TIM) proteins is identified to be expressed on T cells. A member of Tim family, Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3) is selectively expressed on the surface of differentiated Th1 cells. Tim-3 might have an important role in the induction of autoimmune diseases by regulating macrophage activation and interacts with Tim-3 ligand to regulate Th1 responses. To determine the variation sites in the coding and promoter region of human Tim-3 gene, we performed variation scanning by direct sequencing using the genomic DNA isolated from the patients with asthma or allergic rhinitis and healthy controls without asthma and allergic rhinitis. We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including one novel SNPs (-1541C>T) and two variation sites (-1292_-1289delTAAA and -1282_-1278dupTAAAA) in the coding and promoter region of human Tim-3 gene in both the patients and healthy groups.

Asthma/genetics , Exons/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/genetics , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/genetics , Th1 Cells/metabolism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 35(4): 365-375, jul.-aug. 2002.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-331743


Leprosy, whose etiologic agent Mycobacterium leprae, is an illness of ample clinical and immunopathological spectrum. Its clinical manifestations are correlated with distinct immunologic forms, varying from a vigorous immune response mediated by cells to M. leprae, with Th1 standard in the tuberculoid polar region, to an absence of specific cellular response to antigens of M. leprae in the lepromatous polar region, with predominance of Th2 response and exacerbation of humoral response. It is probable that different polymorphic genes determine susceptibility to M. leprae. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the complex interactions between cytokines and the role of the phenotypic diversity of cells network that contribute to the host defense. The comprehension of such mechanisms will provide new insights for the identification of agonists and/or antagonists for pro- or anti-inflammatory effects, and also will indicate possible situations for its appropriate use in immunologic and/or immunotherapeutic interventions.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Leprosy/immunology , Mycobacterium leprae , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , /immunology , /metabolism , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Leprosy/classification , Leprosy/pathology , Immunity, Cellular , Mycobacterium leprae
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 89-101, Sept. 2001. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295895


T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection

Humans , Animals , Child , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/classification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antigens, Helminth , Cell Line , Clone Cells/classification , Clone Cells/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Parasite Egg Count , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/classification , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/classification , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Titrimetry