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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 100-107, Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis infection in outbreak areas where several species of Leishmania and sand flies co-exist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmania/classification , Leishmania/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , DNA, Kinetoplast/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115246

ABSTRACT

Between the years of 2010–2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005. In the future, the government is also considering integrating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the national immunization program, which may assist in the prevention of cervical cancer. By studying the statistical data of gynecologic cancer, it will be possible to formulate measures for the prevention, control and treatment of gynecologic cancer. Eventually, it will potentially improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients as well as decrease the mortality rate caused by gynecologic cancer.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Quality of Life , Thailand/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51160

ABSTRACT

Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) of malaria parasites play critical roles during the erythrocyte invasion and so are potential candidates for malaria vaccine development. However, because MSPs are often under strong immune selection, they can exhibit extensive genetic diversity. The gene encoding the merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) of Plasmodium falciparum displays 2 allelic types, K1 and 3D7. In Thailand, the allelic frequency of the P. falciparum msp-3 gene was evaluated in a single P. falciparum population in Tak at the Thailand and Myanmar border. However, no study has yet looked at the extent of genetic diversity of the msp-3 gene in P. falciparum populations in other localities. Here, we genotyped the msp-3 alleles of 63 P. falciparum samples collected from 5 geographical populations along the borders of Thailand with 3 neighboring countries (Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia). Our study indicated that the K1 and 3D7 alleles coexisted, but at different proportions in different Thai P. falciparum populations. K1 was more prevalent in populations at the Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders, whilst 3D7 was more prevalent at the Thailand-Laos border. Global analysis of the msp-3 allele frequencies revealed that proportions of K1 and 3D7 alleles of msp-3 also varied in different continents, suggesting the divergence of malaria parasite populations. In conclusion, the variation in the msp-3 allelic patterns of P. falciparum in Thailand provides fundamental knowledge for inferring the P. falciparum population structure and for the best design of msp-3 based malaria vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum/classification , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and features of non-endometrial cancers in Thai endometrial cancer (EC) patients. METHODS: EC patients treated in our institution were identified and the following data were collected: age, EC stage, histopathology, adjuvant therapy, other cancers, living status, and cause of death. RESULTS: The mean age of the 344 patients was 56.8+/-10.8 years. Fifty (14.5%) had other synchronous and metachronous cancers. Mean ages of the patients with or without other cancers were not significantly different, 55.7+/-10.04 years versus 57.1+/-11.0 years, respectively (p=0.358). History of any cancer in the family and tumor in the lower uterine segment were more frequent among the patients with other cancers (6.0% vs. 1.7%, p=0.095; 12.0% vs. 1.0%, p or =2 other cancers. Ovarian, breast, and colon were the three most common other cancers. After a median follow-up of 57.1 months, 18.3% of patients had died: 30.0% of patients with other cancers and 16.3% of those without other cancers. The corresponding EC deaths were 14.0% and 11.2%. The 5-year overall survival was significantly lower in patients who had other cancers: 79.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.3 to 90.3) vs. 86.0% (95% CI, 81.7 to 90.3) than in those without (p=0.023). However, the corresponding disease-specific survival was not significantly different: 85.1% (95% CI, 75.5 to 94.7) compared with 89.0% (95% CI, 85.1 to 92.9), respectively (p=0.514). CONCLUSION: Thai EC patients had a high incidence of other cancers. Overall survival of EC patients who had other cancers was worse than those without, while disease-specific survival was not significantly different.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/mortality , Neoplasms, Second Primary/mortality , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thailand/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83623

ABSTRACT

Hemoglobinopathy and malaria are commonly found worldwide particularly in malaria endemic areas. Thalassemia, the alteration of globin chain synthesis, has been reported to confer resistance against malaria. The prevalence of thalassemia was investigated in 101 malaria patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax along the Thai-Myanmar border to examine protective effect of thalassemia against severe malaria. Hemoglobin typing was performed using low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and alpha-thalassemia was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Five types of thalassemia were observed in malaria patients. The 2 major types of thalassemia were Hb E (18.8%) and alpha-thalassemia-2 (11.9%). There was no association between thalassemia hemoglobinopathy and malaria parasitemia, an indicator of malaria disease severity. Thalassemia had no significant association with P. vivax infection, but the parasitemia in patients with coexistence of P. vivax and thalassemia was about 2-3 times lower than those with coexistence of P. falciparum and thalassemia and malaria without thalassemia. Furthermore, the parasitemia of P. vivax in patients with coexistence of Hb E showed lower value than coexistence with other types of thalassemia and malaria without coexistence. Parasitemia, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in patients with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E were significantly lower than those without coexistence of thalassemia. Furthermore, parasitemia with coexistence of Hb E were 2 times lower than those with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E. In conclusion, the results may, at least in part, support the protective effect of thalassemia on the development of hyperparasitemia and severe anemia in malaria patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Hemoglobins/genetics , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Thalassemia/blood
6.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Apr-Jun ; 20 (2): 153-154
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Down’s syndrome is an important congenital chromosomal disorder that can be seen around the world. The antenatal screening for this disorder is an important processing in present obstetrics. OBJECTIVE: Due to the concept of first do no harm, the use of noninvasive test is recommended. The triple marker screening test has been introduced for a few years and acceptable for its effi cacy. RESULT: However, an important concern is on its costeffectiveness. Here, the author analyze and present the cost-effectiveness of the triple markers serum screening for Down’s syndrome in Thai setting. CONCLUSION: According to this work, the cost per effectiveness of triple markers serum screening is slightly lower than standard amniocentesis test.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Genetic Markers/analysis , Genetic Markers/blood , Humans , Serum/diagnosis , Thailand/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24547

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Molecular Sequence Data , Multilocus Sequence Typing/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70515

ABSTRACT

Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis although its wide application is limited by the requirement of highly experienced microscopists. PCR and serological tests provide efficient diagnostic performance and have been applied for malaria diagnosis and research. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of nested PCR and a recently developed an ELISA-based new rapid diagnosis test (RDT), NovaLisa test kit, for diagnosis of malaria infection, using microscopic method as the gold standard. The performance of nested-PCR as a malaria diagnostic tool is excellent with respect to its high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to discriminate Plasmodium species. The sensitivity and specificity of nested-PCR compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection were 71.4 vs 100%, 100 vs 98.7%, and 100 vs 95.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium genus were 89.0 vs 91.6%, respectively. NovaLisa test kit provided comparable diagnostic performance. Its relatively low cost, simplicity, and rapidity enables large scale field application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coinfection/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104581

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48~4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.11 +/- 0.57. AMP/S/TE (ampicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline) was the highest frequency antimicrobial resistance pattern found in this study. In addition, Salmonella Rissen was the primary serotype in this region. PFGE results indicated the occurrence of infection by cross contamination among pig farms. Our study showed that pork is easily contaminated with this pathogen. Farm control programs must be based on strict biosecurity and hygienic measures, which could further reduce the contamination pressure at slaughterhouses or retail shops.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Colony Count, Microbial/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Prevalence , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Serotyping/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 Oct-Dec; 50(4): 327-329
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154298

ABSTRACT

Background: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon cancer. Materials and Methods: The author performed a literature review on the reports of ACC in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this rare cancer among Thai patients. Results: According to this study, there have been at least seven reports in the literature of nine individual cases of ACC, of which none was lethal directly to ACC. Conclusions: Here, the ACC is sporadically reported in Thailand. The diagnosis of ACC is usually by detection adrenal mass using imaging technique and the confirmation for the nature of cancer is usually by histopathology. Nevertheless, among the Thai population, the prognostic outcome is usually good.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/diagnosis , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/epidemiology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65397

ABSTRACT

Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Taenia/classification , Taeniasis/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103956

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Fresh Water , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Prevalence , Snails/parasitology , Thailand/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197166

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasites/classification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197162

ABSTRACT

The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand.


Subject(s)
Ancylostoma/classification , Ancylostomiasis/epidemiology , Animals , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Necator americanus/classification , Necatoriasis/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Thailand/epidemiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197157

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterobius/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Heterophyidae/isolation & purification , Humans , Parasitology/methods , Prevalence , Taenia/isolation & purification , Thailand/epidemiology , Trematode Infections/epidemiology
16.
Cad. saúde pública ; 28(10): 1881-1892, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653887

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral diseases and condition-specific oral health-related quality of life (CS-OHRQoL) as a basis for proposing OHRQoL-based goals for the population of 15-year-olds in Thailand. Oral examinations and OHRQoL interviews were conducted with 871 15-year-olds as part of the Sixth Thailand National Oral Health Survey. The severity of oral impacts was categorized using "intensity". Associations between oral diseases and CS-OHRQoL were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression. Thirty-nine percent of 15-year-olds experienced moderate/higher levels oral impacts on quality of life. Compared to those individuals with no tooth decay, adolescents with one or four or more decaying teeth were three and seven times more likely to experience moderate/higher impacts, respectively. Adolescents with extensive gingivitis in 3 or more mouth sextants were twice as likely to experience moderate/higher CS-impacts. Based on these findings, it is proposed that goals should focus on untreated decaying teeth and extensive gingivitis. Oral health goals for 15-year-olds should include specific OHRQoL measures.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre doença bucal e a condição específica de qualidade de vida associada à saúde bucal (CS-OHRQoL), como base para propor OHRQoL metas para adolescentes tailandeses. Exame clínico bucal e entrevista foram realizados em 871 adolescentes na faixa etária de 15 anos, como parte da 6ª Pesquisa Nacional Tailandesa de Saúde Bucal. A severidade do impacto bucal foi categorizada usando-se a "intensidade". A associação entre doença bucal e CS-OHRQoL foi investigada usando-se o teste qui-quadrado e regressão lógica. Trinta e nove por cento da amostra reportaram impactos bucais de grau moderado/elevado. A probabilidade de reportar um impacto bucal de grau moderado/elevado dos adolescentes com um dente cariado e aqueles com 4 ou mais foi 3 e 7 vezes maior, respectivamente, quando comparada à dos adolescentes sem dentes cariados. A presença de gengivite severa em 3 ou mais sextantes dobrou a probabilidade de ocorrência do CS-impacto de grau moderado/elevado. Metas de saúde bucal para adolescentes devem incluir instrumentos específicos de OHRQoL.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Oral Health , Quality of Life , Tooth Diseases/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys , Prevalence , Sickness Impact Profile , Socioeconomic Factors , Thailand/epidemiology
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 88(5): 417-422, set.-out. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-656033

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre o polimorfismo genético do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e o desenvolvimento de sepse e choque séptico em pacientes pediátricos tailandeses e investigar o impacto clínico de polimorfismos do TNF-α nessa população. MÉTODOS: Para a realização deste estudo de associação genética, foram analisados prospectivamente pacientes pediátricos (idade < 18 anos) com sepse clínica/choque séptico. Todos os dados foram coletados por especialistas em terapia intensiva pediátrica e as análises genéticas foram realizadas em um laboratório central. Um polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)], localizado na região promotora 5' na posição -308, foi genotipado e os resultados foram associados a fenótipos clínicos. RESULTADOS: Foram investigados 167 indivíduos tailandeses, dos quais 66 eram pacientes pediátricos com sepse/choque séptico e 101 eram controles saudáveis. Curiosamente, não foi possível identificar associação entre sepse e o polimorfismo -308 (G→A), um dos principais SNPs anteriormente associado à sepse em várias populações caucasianas, visto que não houve diferença de frequência entre casos e controles. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, o principal polimorfismo do TNF-α -308 não esteve associado à sepse clínica/choque séptico na população tailandesa. Essa informação é importante para futuras análises que busquem identificar a função do TNF-α como risco genético para o desenvolvimento de imunopatologia subjacente a várias doenças no continente asiático.


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between the genetic polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene and the development of sepsis and septic shock in Thai pediatric patients and to investigate the clinical impacts of TNF-α polymorphisms in this population. METHODS: To perform this genetic association study, a prospective analysis of pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with clinical sepsis/septic shock was conducted. All clinical data were collected by pediatric intensive care experts, and genetic analyses were performed at a central laboratory. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 5'-promoter region at position -308 was genotyped and the results were associated with clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: A total of 167 Thai individuals were investigated, 66 of which were pediatric patients with sepsis/septic shock and 101 were healthy controls. Interestingly, we could not identify an association between sepsis and -308 (G→A) polymorphism, which have previously been demonstrated to be a major SNP associated with sepsis in several Caucasian populations, since there was no frequency difference between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, the major TNF-α polymorphism (-308) was not associated with clinical sepsis/septic shock in Thais. This information will be important for future analyses to identify the role of TNF-α as a genetic risk for the development of immunopathology underlying several diseases in Asia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Shock, Septic/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Epidemiologic Methods , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Sepsis/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Thailand/epidemiology
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 342-346
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145827

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Asia, Western/epidemiology , Democratic People's Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Dentifrices/statistics & numerical data , Bhutan/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thailand/epidemiology , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco, Smokeless/statistics & numerical data
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146185

ABSTRACT

From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean+/-SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1+/-0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2+/-0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3+/-0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3+/-1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaculture , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Gnathostoma/isolation & purification , Gnathostomiasis/epidemiology , Larva , Liver/parasitology , Parasite Load , Prevalence , Seasons , Smegmamorpha/parasitology , Thailand/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135664

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying ctxBC trait, so-called El Tor variant that causes more severe symptoms than the prototype El Tor strain, first detected in Bangladesh was later shown to have emerged in India in 1992. Subsequently, similar V. cholerae strains were isolated in other countries in Asia and Africa. Thus, it was of interest to investigate the characteristics of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated chronologically (from 1986 to 2009) in Thailand. Methods: A total of 330 V. cholerae O1 Thailand strains from hospitalized patients with cholera isolated during 1986 to 2009 were subjected to conventional biotyping i.e., susceptibility to polymyxin B, chicken erythrocyte agglutination (CCA) and Voges-Proskauer (VP) test. The presence of ctxA, ctxB, zot, ace, toxR, tcpAC, tcpAE, hlyAC and hlyAE were examined by PCR. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) - and conventional- PCRs were used for differentiating ctxB and rstR alleles. Results: All 330 strains carried the El Tor virulence gene signature. Among these, 266 strains were typical El Tor (resistant to 50 units of polymyxin B and positive for CCA and VP test) while 64 had mixed classical and El Tor phenotypes (hybrid biotype). Combined MAMA-PCR and the conventional biotyping methods revealed that 36 strains of 1986-1992 were either typical El Tor, hybrid, El Tor variant or unclassified biotype. The hybrid strains were present during 1986-2004. El Tor variant strains were found in 1992, the same year when the typical El Tor strains disappeared. All 294 strains of 1993-2009 carried ctxBC ; 237 were El Tor variant and 57 were hybrid. Interpretation & conclusions: In Thailand, hybrid V. cholerae O1 (mixed biotypes), was found since 1986. Circulating strains, however, are predominantly El Tor variant (El Tor biotype with ctxBC).


Subject(s)
Atypical Bacterial Forms/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Chimera/genetics , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/genetics , Cholera/microbiology , Cholera Toxin/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology , Vibrio cholerae O1/classification , Vibrio cholerae O1/genetics , Vibrio cholerae O1/isolation & purification
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