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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761801

ABSTRACT

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3-fatty acid, modulates multiple cellular functions. In this study, we addressed the effects of DHA on human umbilical vein endothelial cell calcium transient and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation under control and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 100 µM) stimulated conditions. Cells were treated for 48 h with DHA concentrations from 3 to 50 µM. Calcium transient was measured using the fluorescent dye Fura-2-AM and eNOS phosphorylation was addressed by western blot. DHA dose-dependently reduced the ATP stimulated Ca²⁺-transient. This effect was preserved in the presence of BAPTA (10 and 20 µM) which chelated the intracellular calcium, but eliminated after withdrawal of extracellular calcium, application of 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborane (75 µM) to inhibit store-operated calcium channel or thapsigargin (2 µM) to delete calcium store. In addition, DHA (12 µM) increased ser1177/thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS under baseline conditions but had no significant effect on this ratio under conditions of ATP stimulation. In conclusion, DHA dose-dependently inhibited the ATP-induced calcium transient, probably via store-operated calcium channels. Furthermore, DHA changed eNOS phosphorylation suggesting activation of the enzyme. Hence, DHA may shift the regulation of eNOS away from a Ca²⁺ activated mode to a preferentially controlled phosphorylation mode.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Blotting, Western , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Thapsigargin , Umbilical Veins
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4600, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011991

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the calcium influx pathways implicated in the sustained elevation of endothelial intracellular calcium concentration, required for the synthesis and release of relaxing factors. Methods: We evaluated the effect of the newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives, described as selective inhibitors for ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 and Pyr6) and TRPC3 (Pyr3 and Pyr10) channels, upon endothelium- and extracellular calcium-dependent relaxations stimulated by acetylcholine and thapsigargin, in pre-constricted rat thoracic aortic rings. Results: Acetylcholine and thapsigargin responses were completely reverted by Pyr2 and Pyr6 (1 to 3μM). Pyr3 (0.3 to 3μM) caused a rapid reversal of acetylcholine (6.2±0.08mg.s−1) and thapsigargin (3.9±0.25mg.s−1) relaxations, whereas the more selective TRPC3 blocker Pyr10 (1 to 3μM) had no effect. The recently described TRPC4/5 selective blocker, ML204 (1 to 3μM), reverted completely acetylcholine relaxations, but minimally thapsigargin induced ones. Noteworthy, relaxations elicited by GSK1016790A (TRPV4 agonist) were unaffected by pyrazole compounds or ML204. After Pyr2 and Pyr6 pre-incubation, acetylcholine and thapsigargin evoked transient relaxations similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Sodium nitroprusside relaxations as well as phenylephrine-induced contractions (denuded aorta) were not affected by any of pyrazole compounds (1 to 3μM). Conclusion: These observations revealed a previously unrecognized complexity in rat aorta endothelial calcium influx pathways, which result in production and release of nitric oxide. Pharmacologically distinguishable pathways mediate acetylcholine (ORAI/TRPC other than TRPC3/TRPC4 calcium-permeable channels) and thapsigargin (TRPC4 not required) induced calcium influx.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar as vias do influxo de cálcio envolvidas no aumento sustentado da concentração intracelular de cálcio na célula endotelial, essencial para a síntese e a liberação de fatores relaxantes. Métodos: Analisamos o efeito de derivados pirazólicos sintetizados recentemente, descritos como inibidores seletivos para canais ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 e Pyr6) e TRPC3 (Pyr3 e Pyr10), nos relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio e cálcio extracelular, produzidos por acetilcolina e tapsigargina, em anéis pré-contraídos da aorta torácica de rato. Resultados: As respostas de acetilcolina e tapsigargina foram completamente revertidas por Pyr2 e Pyr6 (1 a 3μM). Pyr3 (0,3 a 3μM) produziu reversão rápida dos relaxamentos de acetilcolina (6,2±0,08mg.s−1) e tapsigargina (3,9±0,25mg.s−1), enquanto o bloqueador mais seletivo para TRPC3, Pyr10 (1 a 3μM), não apresentou efeito. ML204 (1 a 3μM), bloqueador seletivo de TRPC4, descrito há pouco tempo, reverteu os relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina de forma completa, mas afetou minimamente aqueles produzidos por tapsigargina. Os derivados pirazólicos ou ML204 não afetaram os relaxamentos estimulados com GSK1016790A (TRPV4-agonista). Ainda, após pré-incubação com Pyr2 e Pyr6, acetilcolina e tapsigargina provocaram relaxamentos transitórios semelhantes em magnitude e cinética àqueles observados na ausência de cálcio extracelular. Os relaxamentos do nitroprussiato de sódio e as contrações induzidas pela fenilefrina (aorta sem endotélio) não foram afetados pelos compostos pirazólicos (1 a 3μM). Conclusão: Essas observações revelaram uma complexidade desconhecida das vias de influxo de cálcio no endotélio da aorta de rato, que resultam na produção e na liberação de óxido nítrico. Vias distinguíveis farmacologicamente medeiam o influxo estimulado por acetilcolina (ORAI TRPC, diferentes de TRPC3 TRPC4) e tapsigargina (TRPC4 não requerido).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Calcium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/drug effects , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740082

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in cellular signaling processes as a cause of oxidative stress. According to recent studies, ROS and RNS are important signaling molecules involved in pain transmission through spinal mechanisms. In this study, a patch clamp recording was used in spinal slices of rats to investigate the action mechanisms of O₂˙⁻ and NO on the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neuron. The application of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound, a ROS donor, induced inward currents and increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) in slice preparation. The application of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DLpenicillamine (SNAP), a RNS donor, also induced inward currents and increased the frequency of sEPSC. In a single cell preparation, X/XO and SNAP had no effect on the inward currents, revealing the involvement of presynaptic action. X/XO and SNAP induced a membrane depolarization in current clamp conditions which was significantly decreased by the addition of thapsigargin to an external calcium free solution for blocking synaptic transmission. Furthermore, X/XO and SNAP increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses, suggesting the involvement of postsynaptic action. According to these results, it was estblished that elevated ROS and RNS in the spinal cord can sensitize the dorsal horn neurons via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, ROS and RNS play similar roles in the regulation of the membrane excitability of SG neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Oxidative Stress , Posterior Horn Cells , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spinal Cord , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxides , Synaptic Transmission , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
4.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 63-71, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739310

ABSTRACT

Purinergic receptors play an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that regulate GI smooth muscle activity. We studied the functional roles of external adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) on pacemaker activity in cultured ICCs from mouse small intestines by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and intracellular Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]ᵢ) imaging. External ATP dose-dependently depolarized the resting membrane and produced tonic inward pacemaker currents, and these effects were antagonized by suramin, a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist. ATP-induced effects on pacemaker currents were suppressed by an external Na⁺-free solution and inhibited by the nonselective cation channel blockers, flufenamic acid and niflumic acid. The removal of external Ca²⁺ or treatment with thapsigargin (inhibitor of Ca²⁺ uptake into endoplasmic reticulum) inhibited the ATP-induced effects on pacemaker currents. Spontaneous [Ca²⁺]ᵢ oscillations were enhanced by external ATP. These results suggest that external ATP modulates pacemaker activity by activating nonselective cation channels via external Ca²⁺ influx and [Ca²⁺]ᵢ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, it seems that activating the purinergic P2 receptor may modulate GI motility by acting on ICCs in the small intestine.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Flufenamic Acid , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Intestine, Small , Membranes , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Niflumic Acid , Pacemaker, Artificial , Receptors, Purinergic , Receptors, Purinergic P2 , Suramin , Thapsigargin
5.
Immune Network ; : e26-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716243

ABSTRACT

Thapsigargin (TGN) is a potent and selective inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic Ca²⁺-ATPase, leading to rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Previous reports have shown that TGN increases the production of various cytokines from macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we examine the effects of TGN on murine T cells. Nanomolar concentrations of TGN are a significant inducer of IL-2 production with full activity at 50 nM. Micromolar concentrations of TGN, however, are inhibitory to IL-2 production and T cell proliferation. The IL-2 production-inducing activity of TGN is much more prominent when T cells are primed with concanavalin A or anti-CD3 mAb, and is due to the increase of cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ concentration. TGN at 50 nM does not affect interferon-gamma or IL-4 production from T cells. Thus, the present study shows that low nanomolar concentrations of TGN could be useful in potentiating IL-2 production from antigen-primed T cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Concanavalin A , Cytokines , Cytoplasm , Dendritic Cells , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Macrophages , T-Lymphocytes , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate , Thapsigargin
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717999

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive collection of proteins senses local changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i) and transduces these signals into responses to agonists. In the present study, we examined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on modulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells. To measure [Ca²⁺](i) levels in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells, we used a fluorescence microscopy with the Fura-2 loading method. S1P produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in the cells. Pretreatment with EGTA, an extracellular Ca²⁺ chelator, decreased the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i), and an L-type Ca²⁺-channel blocker, nimodipine, decreased the effect of S1P. This indicates that Ca²⁺ influx may be required for muscle contraction by S1P. When stimulated with thapsigargin, an intracellular calcium chelator, or 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an InsP₃ receptor blocker, the S1P-evoked increase in [Ca²⁺](i) was significantly decreased. Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i)-protein, suppressed the increase in [Ca²⁺](i) evoked by S1P. These results suggest that the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells occurs upon the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent release of Ca²⁺ from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that S1P utilized extracellular Ca²⁺ via the L type Ca²⁺ channel, which was dependent on activation of the S1P₄ receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G(i) protein, via phospholipase C-mediated Ca²⁺ release from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Cats , Egtazic Acid , Fura-2 , Methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nimodipine , Pertussis Toxin , Phospholipases , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Thapsigargin , Type C Phospholipases
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728575

ABSTRACT

Intracellular calcium (Ca²⁺) oscillation is an initial event in digestive enzyme secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species are known to be associated with a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders including pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on intracellular Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of H₂O₂ at 300 µM resulted in additional elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and termination of oscillatory Ca²⁺ signals induced by carbamylcholine (CCh) in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. Antioxidants, catalase or DTT, completely prevented H₂O₂-induced additional Ca²⁺ increase and termination of Ca²⁺ oscillation. In Ca²⁺-free medium, H₂O₂ still enhanced CCh-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and thapsigargin (TG) mimicked H₂O₂-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ increase. Furthermore, H₂O₂-induced elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels was abolished under sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase-inactivated condition by TG pretreatment with CCh. H₂O₂ at 300 µM failed to affect store-operated Ca²⁺ entry or Ca²⁺ extrusion through plasma membrane. Additionally, ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uniporter blocker, failed to attenuate H₂O₂-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ elevation. These results provide evidence that excessive generation of H₂O₂ in pathological conditions could accumulate intracellular Ca²⁺ by attenuating refilling of internal Ca²⁺ stores rather than by inhibiting Ca²⁺ extrusion to extracellular fluid or enhancing Ca²⁺ mobilization from extracellular medium in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Carbachol , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Extracellular Fluid , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Ion Transport , Mice , Pancreatitis , Perfusion , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Ruthenium Red , Thapsigargin
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 721-730, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829257

ABSTRACT

The main challenge in the control of malaria has been the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of drug-resistant Plasmodium sp. has raised the need for new antimalarial drugs. Molecular modelling techniques have been used as tools to develop new drugs. In this study, we employed virtual screening of a pyrazol derivative (Tx001) against four malaria targets: plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, falcipain-II, and PfATP6. The receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were established for each molecular target. The AUC values obtained for plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, and falcipain-II were 0.64, 0.92, and 0.94, respectively. All docking simulations were carried out using AutoDock Vina software. The ligand Tx001 exhibited a better interaction with PfATP6 than with the reference compound (-12.2 versus -6.8 Kcal/mol). The Tx001-PfATP6 complex was submitted to molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum implemented on an NAMD program. The ligand Tx001 docked at the same binding site as thapsigargin, which is a natural inhibitor of PfATP6. Compound TX001 was evaluated in vitro with a P. falciparum strain (W2) and a human cell line (WI-26VA4). Tx001 was discovered to be active against P. falciparum (IC50 = 8.2 µM) and inactive against WI-26VA4 (IC50 > 200 µM). Further ligand optimisation cycles generated new prospects for docking and biological assays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/chemistry , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Thapsigargin/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728433

ABSTRACT

Neurofi brillary tangles (NFTs) of microtubule-associated protein tau are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been known to be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the exact role of ER stress in tau pathology has not yet been clearly elucidated. In present study, the possible relationship between tau pathology and ER stress was examined in terms of sorcin, which is a calcium binding protein and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Our previous yeast two hybrid study showed that sorcin is a novel tau interacting protein. Caspase-3-cleaved tau (T4C3) showed significantly increased tau-sorcin interaction compared to wild type tau (T4). Thapsigargin-induced ER stress and co-expression of constitutively active GSK3β (GSK3β-S9A) also exhibited significantly increased tau-sorcin interactions. T4C3-expressing cells showed potentiated thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis compared to T4-expressing cells. Overexpression of sorcin signifi cantly attenuated thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and disruption of calcium homeostasis. In contrary, siRNA-mediated knock-down of sorcin showed significantly increased thapsigargin-induced apoptosis and disruption of calcium homeostasis. These data strongly suggest that sequestration of sorcin by aberrant forms of tau compromises the function of sorcin, such as calcium homeostasis and cellular resistance by ER stress, which may consequently result in the contribution to the progression of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Apoptosis , Calcium , Carrier Proteins , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Homeostasis , Pathology , Thapsigargin , Yeasts
10.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-8, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) cation channels are ubiquitously expressed by multiple cells and have an important regulatory role in calcium-dependent cell signalling to help maintain cellular homeostasis. TRPM3 protein expression has yet to be determined on Natural Killer (NK) cells and B lymphocytes. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported in TRPM3 genes from isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, NK and B cells in Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients and have been proposed to correlate with illness presentation. The object of the study was to assess TRPM3 surface expression on NK and B lymphocytes from healthy controls, followed by a comparative investigation examining TRPM3 surface expression, and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium influx in CD19+ B cells, CD56bnght and CD56dim cell populations from CFS/ME patients. RESULTS: TRPM3 cell surface expression was identified for NK and B lymphocytes in healthy controls (CD56bright TRPM3 35.72 % ± 7.37; CD56dim 5.74 % ± 2.00; B lymphocytes 2.05 % ± 0.19, respectively). There was a significant reduction of TRPM3 surface expression on CD19+ B cells (1.56 ± 0.191) and CD56bright NK cells (17.37 % ± 5.34) in CFS/ME compared with healthy controls. Anti-CD21 and anti-IgM conjugated biotin was cross-linked with streptavidin,and subsequently treatment with thapsigargin. This showed a significant reduction in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration in CD19+ B lymphocytes. CD56bright NK cells also had a significant decrease in cytoplasmic calcium in the presence of 2-APB and thapsigargin in CFS/ME patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this preliminary investigation identify, for the first time, TRPM3 surface expression on both NK and B lymphocytes in healthy controls. We also report for the first time, significant reduction in TRPM3 cell surface expression in NK and B lymphocytes, as well as decreased intracellular calcium within specific conditions in CFS/ME patients. This warrants further examination of these pathways to elucidate whether TRPM3 and impaired calcium mobilisation has a role in CFS/ME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/blood , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Reference Values , Calcium Channels/blood , Case-Control Studies , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Immunophenotyping/methods , Thapsigargin/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry/methods
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4800, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766979

ABSTRACT

β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Parasympatholytics/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42181

ABSTRACT

Nitric Oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in the nociceptive process. Our previous study suggested that high concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, induce a membrane hyperpolarization and outward current through large conductances calcium-activated potassium (BKca) channels in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. In this study, patch clamp recording in spinal slices was used to investigate the sources of Ca2+ that induces Ca2+-activated potassium currents. Application of SNP induced a membrane hyperpolarization, which was significantly inhibited by hemoglobin and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (c-PTIO), NO scavengers. SNP-induced hyperpolarization was decreased in the presence of charybdotoxin, a selective BKCa channel blocker. In addition, SNP-induced response was significantly blocked by pretreatment of thapsigargin which can remove Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum, and decreased by pretreatment of dentrolene, a ryanodine receptors (RyR) blocker. These data suggested that NO induces a membrane hyperpolarization through BKca channels, which are activated by intracellular Ca2+ increase via activation of RyR of Ca2+ stores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Charybdotoxin , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitroprusside , Potassium , Rats , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Ryanodine , Substantia Gelatinosa , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication.


Subject(s)
Actins , Apoptosis , Bacteria , Cholera Toxin , Curcuma , Curcumin , Electrophysiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Intestines , Membranes , NF-kappa B , Skeleton , Thapsigargin , Tight Junctions
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727826

ABSTRACT

The etiology of periodontal disease is multifactorial. Exogenous stimuli such as bacterial pathogens can interact with toll-like receptors to activate intracellular calcium signaling in gingival epithelium and other tissues. The triggering of calcium signaling induces the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 as part of the inflammatory response; however, the exact mechanism of calcium signaling induced by bacterial toxins when gingival epithelial cells are exposed to pathogens is unclear. Here, we investigate calcium signaling induced by bacteria and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival epithelial cells. We found that peptidoglycan, a constituent of gram-positive bacteria and an agonist of toll-like receptor 2, increases intracellular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Peptidoglycan-induced calcium signaling was abolished by treatment with blockers of phospholipase C (U73122), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, indicating the release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores. Peptidoglycan-mediated interleukin-8 expression was blocked by U73122 and 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester). Moreover, interleukin-8 expression was induced by thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, when thapsigargin was treated alone or co-treated with peptidoglycan. These results suggest that the gram-positive bacterial toxin peptidoglycan induces calcium signaling via the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway, and that increased interleukin-8 expression is mediated by intracellular calcium levels in human gingival epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacterial Toxins , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Inflammation , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors , Interleukin-8 , Peptidoglycan , Periodontal Diseases , Phospholipases , Reticulum , Thapsigargin , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptors , Type C Phospholipases
15.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 548-553, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294631

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the activity of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its effect on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) in inflammatory microenvironment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PDLSC were obtained from the primary culture of the human tooth and cloned with limited diluted method. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to examine the different expression of thapsigargin (TG) treated PDLSC and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated PDLSC. Real-time RT-PCR, alizarin red staining and cetyl pyridine chloride quantitative analyze were used to examine the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, TG + PDLSC, LPS + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC + 4-PBA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Protein kinase receptor like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), transcription activation factor 4(ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA expression in group PDLSC + TG in 6 h were respectively 1.49 ± 0.24, 2.77 ± 0.60, 1.75 ± 0.16, 2.16 ± 0.32, which were all greater than that in group PDLSC (P < 0.05). PERK, CHOP mRNA expression reached the peak at 6 h (1.76 ± 0.08, 2.31 ± 0.17) and were greater than group PDLSC (P < 0.05). ERS could suppress osteogenic differentiation of TG + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC. The runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression of group TG + PDLSC was respectively 0.73 ± 0.06, 0.01 ± 0.00, 0.20 ± 0.06 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group LPS + PDLSC was respectively 0.80 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group PDLSC + TG + 4-PBA was respectively 1.10 ± 0.09, 0.74 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.13, which were greater higher than that of group LPS + PDLSC (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ERS was activated in PDLSC and suppressed osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, which can simulate inflammatory microenvironment in vitro. This effect can be recovered by using ERS inhibitor 4-PBA.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Metabolism , Butylamines , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cellular Microenvironment , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Physiology , Humans , Osteocalcin , Metabolism , Osteogenesis , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Stem Cells , Physiology , Thapsigargin , Pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a peripheral neuropathy mainly divided into CMT type 1 (CMT1) and CMT2 according to the phenotype and genotype. Although molecular pathologies for each genetic causative have not been revealed in CMT2, the correlation between cell death and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Schwann cells is well documented in CMT1. Establishment of in vitro models of ER stress-mediated Schwann cell death might be useful in developing drug-screening systems for the treatment of CMT1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To develop high-throughput screening (HTS) systems for CMT1, we generated cell models using transient expression of mutant proteins and chemical induction. RESULTS: Overexpression of wild type and mutant peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) induced ER stress. Similar results were obtained from mutant myelin protein zero (MPZ) proteins. Protein localization revealed that expressed mutant PMP22 and MPZ proteins accumulated in the ER of Schwann cells. Overexpression of wild type and L16P mutant PMP22 also reduced cell viability, implying protein accumulation-mediated ER stress causes cell death. To develop more stable screening systems, we mimicked the ER stress-mediated cell death in Schwann cells using ER stress inducing chemicals. Thapsigargin treatment caused cell death via ER stress in a dose dependent manner, which was measured by expression of ER stress markers. CONCLUSION: We have developed genetically and chemically induced ER stress models using Schwann cells. Application of these models to HTS systems might facilitate the elucidation of molecular pathology and development of therapeutic options for CMT1.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cell Survival , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Genotype , Mass Screening , Mutant Proteins , Myelin P0 Protein , Myelin Sheath , Pathology, Molecular , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Phenotype , Schwann Cells , Thapsigargin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine (PE) produces tonic contraction through involvement of various calcium channels such as store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) and voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs). However, the relative contribution of each calcium channel to PE-induced contraction has not been investigated in isolated rat aorta of early acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings from rats 3 days after AMI or sham-operated (SHAM) rats were prepared in an organ chamber with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution for isometric tension recording. We assessed the PE dose-response relationships in 2.5 mM calcium medium for both groups. The same procedure was repeated using rings pretreated with the SOCC inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, sarco/endoplasmic-reticulum calcium ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (TG), diacyl glycerol lipase inhibitor RHC80267, and sodium-calcium exchanger inhibitor 3,4-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride for 30 minutes before addition of calcium. When ongoing tonic contraction was sustained, dose-response curves to the VOCC inhibitor nifedipine were obtained to assess the relative contribution of each calcium channel under various conditions. RESULTS: The effect of SOCC induction with TG pretreatment on PE-induced contraction was significantly lower in the AMI group compared to the SHAM group. In addition, there were significant decreases in the sensitivity and efficacy of the VOCC inhibitor nifedipine on PE-induced contraction in the AMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the change of vascular reactivity of PE in rat aorta 3 days after AMI is characterized by a decreased contribution of L-type VOCCs. The enhanced VOCC-independent calcium entry mechanisms after AMI can be mediated by enhanced capacitative calcium entry through the activation of SOCCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Glycerol , Lipase , Myocardial Infarction , Nifedipine , Phenylephrine , Rats , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Thapsigargin
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116979

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are implicated in cellular signaling processes and as a cause of oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that ROS and RNS are important signaling molecules involved in nociceptive transmission. Xanthine oxidase (XO) system is a well-known system for superoxide anions (O2(.-)) generation, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a representative nitric oxide (NO) donor. Patch clamp recording in spinal slices was used to investigate the role of O2(.-) and NO on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neuronal excitability. Application of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound induced membrane depolarization. Low concentration SNP (10 microM) induced depolarization of the membrane, whereas high concentration SNP (1 mM) evoked membrane hyperpolarization. These responses were significantly decreased by pretreatment with phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN; nonspecific ROS and RNS scavenger). Addition of thapsigargin to an external calcium free solution for blocking synaptic transmission, led to significantly decreased X/XO-induced responses. Additionally, X/XO and SNP-induced responses were unchanged in the presence of intracellular applied PBN, indicative of the involvement of presynaptic action. Inclusion of GDP-beta-S or suramin (G protein inhibitors) in the patch pipette decreased SNP-induced responses, whereas it failed to decrease X/XO-induced responses. Pretreatment with n-ethylmaleimide (NEM; thiol-alkylating agent) decreased the effects of SNP, suggesting that these responses were mediated by direct oxidation of channel protein, whereas X/XO-induced responses were unchanged. These data suggested that ROS and RNS play distinct roles in the regulation of the membrane excitability of SG neurons related to the pain transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Ethylmaleimide , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Nitroprusside , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxides , Suramin , Synaptic Transmission , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 783-794, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757650

ABSTRACT

Upon glucose elevation, pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In diabetic animal models, different aspects of the calcium signaling pathway in beta-cells are altered, but there is no consensus regarding their relative contributions to the development of beta-cell dysfunction. In this study, we compared the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) via Ca(2+) influx, Ca(2+) mobilization from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores, and the removal of Ca(2+) via multiple mechanisms in beta-cells from both diabetic db/db mice and non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice. We refined our previous quantitative model to describe the slow [Ca(2+)]i recovery after depolarization in beta-cells from db/db mice. According to the model, the activity levels of the two subtypes of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump, SERCA2 and SERCA3, were severely down-regulated in diabetic cells to 65% and 0% of the levels in normal cells. This down-regulation may lead to a reduction in the Ca(2+) concentration in the ER, a compensatory up-regulation of the plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) and a reduction in depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) influx. As a result, the patterns of glucose-stimulated calcium oscillations were significantly different in db/db diabetic beta-cells compared with normal cells. Overall, quantifying the changes in the calcium signaling pathway in db/db diabetic beta-cells will aid in the development of a disease model that could provide insight into the adaptive transformations of beta-cell function during diabetes development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Cell Membrane Permeability , Cells, Cultured , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Metabolism , Glucose , Pharmacology , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Potassium Chloride , Pharmacology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Metabolism , Thapsigargin , Pharmacology , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728465

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids have an ability to suppress various ion channels. We determined whether one of flavonoids, cyanidin-3-glucoside, affects adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling using digital imaging methods for intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Treatment with ATP (100microM) for 90 sec induced [Ca2+]i increases in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside (1micro g/ml to 100microg/ml) for 30 min inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increases in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=15.3microg/ml). Pretreatment with cyanidin-3-glucoside (15microg/ml) for 30 min significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses following removal of extracellular Ca2+ or depletion of intracellular [Ca2+]i stores. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited the relatively specific P2X2 receptor agonist 2-MeSATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the thapsigargin or ATP-induced store-operated calcium entry. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses in the presence of nimodipine and omega-conotoxin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside also significantly inhibited KCl (50 mM)-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Cyanidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibited ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM or the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter inhibitor RU360 blocked the ATP-induced mitochondrial depolarization in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. Cyanidin-3-glucoside blocked ATP-induced formation of ROS. BAPTA-AM further decreased the formation of ROS in the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside. All these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced calcium signaling in PC12 cells by inhibiting multiple pathways which are the influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the nimodipine and omega-conotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In addition, cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits ATP-induced formation of ROS by inhibiting Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarization.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Flavonoids , Ion Channels , Ion Transport , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Nimodipine , omega-Conotoxins , PC12 Cells , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Purinergic P2X2 , Thapsigargin
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