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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 149-152, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder caused by ornithine aminotransferase enzyme deficiency that leads to characteristic progressive, degenerative chorioretinal findings. Patients complain mostly of low vision, night blindness, and peripheral vision loss. Posterior subcapsular cataract, myopia, choroid neovascularization, and intraretinal cysts may be accompanying factors related to vision loss. We encountered a patient with vision loss secondary to posterior subcapsular cataract and intraretinal cysts. After treatment with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac (and without any diet mo dification and/or supplementation), we observed 143- and 117-mm macular thickness resolutions with 2 and 1 Snellen lines of visual gain in his right and left eyes, respectively. Also, we detected a novel homozygous mutation in the ornithine aminotransferase gene: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and/or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can control macular edema in patients with gyrate atrophy-associated intraretinal cysts. The genetic variants may also be a determinant in the responsiveness to the therapy type.


RESUMO A atrofia girata é um distúrbio autossômico recessivo metabólico raro causado pela deficiência da enzima ornitina ami notransferase, que leva a achados degenerativos coriorretinianos progressivos característicos. Os pacientes queixam-se principalmente de baixa visão, cegueira noturna e perda de vi são periférica. A catarata subcapsular posterior, a miopia, a neovascularização da coróide e os cistos intrarretinianos podem ser fatores associados à perda da visão. Encontramos um paciente com perda de visão secundária à catarata subcapsular posterior e cistos intrarretinianos. Após o tratamento com brinzolamida tópica e nepafenaco (e sem modificação e/ou suplementação da dieta), observamos resoluções de espessura macular de 143 e 117 mm e com 2 e 1 linhas de Snellen de ganho visual nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. Além disso, detectamos uma nova mutação homozigótica no gene da ornitina aminotransfera se: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Inibidores da anidrase carbônica e/ou drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteróides podem controlar o edema macular em pacientes com cistos intrarretinianos associados à atrofia girata. As variantes genéticas também podem ser determinantes na responsividade ao tipo de terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Phenylacetates/administration & dosage , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Gyrate Atrophy/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Benzeneacetamides/administration & dosage , Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase/genetics , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Fluorescein Angiography , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Administration, Ophthalmic , Mutation
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 135-139, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839128

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on bone quantity and quality were investigated for years. However, there is lack of information on the impact of NSAIDs on the quality of tooth-supporting alveolar bone in absence of periodontal inflammation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate histometrically the influence of a selective COX-2 NSAID (Meloxicam) on the inter-radicular bone mineral density in rats. Forty-nine adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Subcutaneous injection of 0.9% sterile saline for 15 days (G1; n=12) and 45 days (G2; n=11); and subcutaneous injection of Meloxicam for 15 days (G3; n=13) and 45 days (G4; n=13). Mineral density was histometrically determined in the inter-radicular area of the 1st mandibular molars and data analysis performed by two-way ANOVA (a=5%). Results showed no interaction between time and treatment (p>0.05) and that meloxicam did not affect the alveolar bone density. In contrast, it was found that inter-radicular alveolar bone density increased with time (91.88±3.08% and 92.86±2.38% for groups 15 and 45 days, respectively) (p<0.05). Within the limits of this study, daily administration of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (Meloxicam) did not affect the quality of the inter-radicular alveolar bone in absence of periodontal infection.


Resumo Os efeitos dos fármacos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs) sobre a quantidade e qualidade óssea tem sido investigados ao longo dos anos.Entretanto, há falta de informação sobre o impacto dos AINEs na qualidade do osso alveolar de suporte na ausência de inflamação periodontal. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, histometricamente, a influência de um AINE seletivo para COX-2 (Meloxicam) na densidade mineral óssea inter-radicular em ratos. Quarenta e nove ratos Wistar, machos e adultos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais: injeções subcutâneas de 0,9% de solução salina estéril por 15 dias (G1, n=12) e 45 dias (G2, n=11); e injeções subcutâneas de Meloxicam por 15 (G3, n=13) e 45 dias (G4, n=13). A densidade mineral foi determinada histometricamente na área inter-radicular dos primeiros molares mandibulares e a análise dos dados realizada por meio de ANOVA (a=5%). Os resultados mostraram nenhuma interação entre tempo e tratamento (p>0,05) e que o meloxicam não afetou a densidade óssea alveolar. Em contraste, foi encontrado que a densidade óssea alveolar inter-radicular aumentou ao longo do tempo (91,88±3,08% e 92,86±2,38% para os grupos 15 e 45 dias, respectivamente) (p<0,05). Dentro dos limites deste estudo, a administração diária de um inibidor seletivo para COX-2 (Meloxicam) não afetou a qualidade do osso alveolar inter-radicular na ausência de infecção periodontal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Tooth/drug effects , Bone Density/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 249-255, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839133

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the action of ionizing radiation and the possible radioprotective effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam on the bone physiology of rat mandibles by assessing the alveolar socket healing and bone strength. Forty male Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups (n=10): control (CG), irradiated (IG), meloxicam (MG), meloxicam irradiated (MIG). A dose of 0.2 mg/kg meloxicam was administered to MG and MIG. After this, IG and MIG were irradiated with 15 Gy radiation dose in the mandible. Forty days after the above procedures, the mandibular first molars were extracted and the animals were killed after 15 or 30 days (n=5). Micro-computed tomography and bending test were used to evaluate alveolar socket healing and bone strength, respectively. At 15 days, bone volume, bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness were higher in the CG and MG than in the IG and MIG; and trabecular separation was higher in the IG compared with the others. At 30 days, there was a difference only in trabecular separation, which was higher in IG than in CG and MG, and MIG did not differ from the others. Bone strength was lower in IG compared with CG and MG, and MIG did not differ from the others. In conclusion, the ionizing radiation affected the bone physiology of rat mandibles, delaying the alveolar socket healing and reducing the bone strength. Moreover, the meloxicam had a positive effect on the trabecular separation in alveolar socket healing and on the bone strength.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a ação da radiação ionizante e o possível efeito radioprotetor do anti-inflamatório não esteroide meloxicam na fisiologia óssea de mandíbulas de rato por meio da análise da reparação alveolar e da resistência óssea. Quarenta ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=10): controle (GC), irradiado (GI), meloxicam (GM), meloxicam irradiado (GMI). Administrou-se uma dose única de 0,2 mg/kg de meloxicam no GM e GMI. Posteriormente, o GI e GMI foram irradiados com dose de 15 Gy na região de mandíbula. Decorridos 40 dias dos procedimentos acima, extraiu-se os primeiros molares inferiores dos animais, que foram mortos após 15 e 30 dias (n=5). Utilizou-se a microtomografia computadorizada e o teste de flexão para avaliação da reparação alveolar e da resistência óssea, respectivamente. Aos 15 dias, o volume ósseo, a fração de volume ósseo e a espessura trabecular foram maiores no GC e GM comparados ao GI e GMI; já a separação trabecular foi maior no GI em relação aos demais. Aos 30 dias, houve diferença apenas na separação trabecular, que foi maior no GI em comparação ao GC e GM, não tendo o GMI diferido dos demais. A resistência óssea no GI foi menor em relação ao GC e GM, não tendo o GMI diferido dos demais. Concluiu-se que a radiação ionizante afetou a fisiologia óssea das mandíbulas de rato, promovendo atraso na reparação alveolar e redução da resistência óssea; além disso, o meloxicam, apresentou efeito positivo na separação trabecular da reparação alveolar e na resistência óssea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Mandible/drug effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , X-Ray Microtomography
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 320-326, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To compare ileal anastomoses in the immediate postoperative healing period after meloxicam use. METHODS: Forty two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of 21, COX and control group. To COX meloxicam in combination with morphine was given in 3 days period. Control group received only morphine during the same period. Each group was divided into three sub-groups of 7, which were euthanized at 5, 10, and 21 days postoperatively. Comparison was based in histological evaluation of collagen type I and III using sirius red, immunohistochemical through vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9. RESULTS: Healing process in scheduled periods did not show significant differences (p>0.05) between the COX and control groups during any of the periods. CONCLUSION: The use of meloxicam in the postoperative period following ileal anastomosis did not affect healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ileum/surgery , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Anastomosis, Surgical , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Models, Animal , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/drug effects , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/metabolism , Ileum/blood supply
5.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 467-470, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323792

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the clinical efficacy on knee osteoarthritis (KOA) at the early and middle stage between electroacupuncture (EA) and meloxicam.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety patients of KOA at the early and middle stage were randomized into an EA group and a meloxicam group, 45 cases in each one. In the EA group, EA was applied to Dubi (ST 35), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Liangqiu (ST 34), Heding (EX-LE 2), Xuehai (SP 10), Yan- glingquan (GB 34) and Zusanli (ST 36); the needles were retained for 20 min and EA was applied once every two days. In the meloxicam group, the meloxicam tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 7. 5 mg, once a day. The treatment lasted for 6 weeks in the two groups. The Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, rectus femoris muscle tension, the 8-foot walking test and 5-time sit-to-stand test were adopted to observe and compare the effects in the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment, every item score in WOMAC was reduced after treatment (all P < 0.05), but the difference was not significant between the two groups (all P > 0.05). In the EA group, the rectus femoris tension after treatment was reduced as compared with that before treatment (P < 0.05) and the reducing result was much more apparent as compared with that in the meloxicam group (P < 0.05). For the 8-foot walking test and 5-time sit-to-stand test, the time was shortened after treatment in the two groups (all P < 0.05) and the result in the EA group was much more obvious than that in the meloxicam group (both P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both EA and meloxicam are effective in the treatment of KOA at the early and middle stage. EA improves rectus femoris tension and recovers the internal mechanics balance and the efficacy is better than that of meloxicam.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acupuncture Points , Electroacupuncture , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Drug Therapy , Therapeutics , Thiazines , Therapeutic Uses , Thiazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 893-899, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to define the role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2i) in reducing hepatic fibrosis in pediatric patients with chronic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2009 to September 2010, patients over 2 years old who visited our outpatient clinic for follow-up to manage their chronic liver disease after Kasai portoenterostomy for biliary atresia, were included in this study. Volunteers were assigned to the study or control groups, according to their preference. A COX-2i was given to only the study group after obtaining consent. The degree of hepatic fibrosis (liver stiffness score, LSS) was prospectively measured using FibroScan, and liver function was examined using serum analysis before and after treatment. After 1 year, changes in LSSs and liver function were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (18 females and 7 males) were enrolled in the study group. The control group included 44 patients (26 females and 18 males). After 1 year, the least square mean values for the LSSs were significantly decreased by 3.91±0.98 kPa (p=0.004) only in the study group. Serum total bilirubin did not decrease significantly in either group. CONCLUSION: COX-2i treatment improved the LSS in patients with chronic liver disease after Kasai portoenterostomy for biliary atresia.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Biliary Atresia/complications , Chronic Disease , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Portoenterostomy, Hepatic , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(4): 690-696, jul.-ago. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761096

ABSTRACT

RESUMOInsuficiência cardíaca (IC) é causa frequente de internação exigindo do enfermeiro precisão na conduta clínica e adequado julgamento dos diagnósticos de enfermagem.Objetivo:verificar acurácia na determinação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem fadiga, intolerância à atividade e débito cardíaco diminuído em paciente com IC hospitalizados.Método:estudo descritivo aplicado aos enfermeiros experientes em diagnósticos de enfermagem NANDA-I e/ou IC. Avaliação da acurácia foi realizada a partir do cálculo das medidas: eficácia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) e tendência (T). Foram aptos os enfermeiros com inspeção aceitável para dois diagnósticos.Resultados:o diagnóstico de enfermagem fadiga foi o mais erroneamente identificado pelos enfermeiros avaliadores.Discussão:a busca pelo aperfeiçoamento da acurácia diagnóstica reafirma a necessidade de treinamento contínuo e específico para a melhora da capacidade diagnosticadora do enfermeiro.Conclusão:o treinamento permitiu o exercício do raciocínio clínico e melhor acurácia dos enfermeiros.


RESUMENInsuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es causa frecuente de ingresos hospitalarios exigindo del enfermero precisión en la conducta clínica y adecuado juzgamiento de los diagnósticos de enfermería.Objetivo:verificar la precisión en la determinación de los diagnósticos de enfermería fatiga, disminuición del gasto cardíaco e intolerancia a la actividad en pacientes con IC ingresos en hospitales.Método:estudio observacional, con enfermeros docentes y experientes en diagnósticos de enfermería NANDA-I y/o IC. Evaluación y precisión fueron realizadas por através del cálculo: eficacia (E), falso negativo (FN), falso positivo (FP) y tendecia (T). Fueron aptos los enfermeros con inspección aceptable para dos diagnósticos.Resultados:el diagnóstico de enfermería fatiga fue identificado erróneamente como por evaluadores enfermeras.Discusión:la búsqueda de la mejora de la precisión diagnóstica reafirma la necesidad de una formación continua y específica a la mejora de la capacidad del diagnosticador enfermera.Conclusión:la capacitación permitió el ejercicio del raciocínio y mejor precisión de los enfermeros.


ABSTRACTHeart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalization and requires accuracy in clinical judgment and appropriate nursing diagnoses.Objective:to determine the accuracy of nursing diagnoses of fatigue, intolerance to activity and decreased cardiac output in hospitalized HF patients.Method:descriptive study applied to nurses with experience in NANDA-I and/or HF nursing diagnoses. Evaluation and accuracy were determined by calculating effi cacy (E), false negative (FN), false positive (FP) and trend (T) measures. Nurses who showed acceptable inspection for two diagnoses were selected.Results:the nursing diagnosis of fatigue was the most commonly mistaken diagnosis identifi ed by the nursing evaluators.Discussion:the search for improving diagnostic accuracy reaffi rms the need for continuous and specifi c training to improve the diagnosis capability of nurses.Conclusion:the training allowed the exercise of clinical judgment and better accuracy of nurses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chickens/injuries , Fractures, Bone/veterinary , Motor Activity/drug effects , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(2): 135-144, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-746539

ABSTRACT

The mandible condylar process cartilage (CP) of Wistar rats is a secondary cartilage and acts as a mandibular growth site. This phenomenon depends on adequate proteins intake and hormone actions, including insulin. Objectives The present study evaluated the morphological aspects and the expression of the insulin receptor (IR) in the cartilage of the condylar process (CP) of rats subjected to protein undernourishment. Material and Methods The nourished group received a 20% casein diet, while the undernourished group (U) received a 5% casein diet. The re-nourished groups, R and RR, were used to assess the effects of re-nutrition during puberty and adulthood, respectively. CPs were processed and stained with picro-sirius red, safranin-O and azocarmine. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results The area of the CP cartilage and the number of cells in the chondroblastic layer decreased in the U group, as did the thickness of the CP layer in the joint and hypertrophic layer. Renourishment during the pubertal stage, but not during the adult phase, restored these parameters. The cell number was restored when re-nutrition occurred in the pubertal stage, but not in the adult phase. The extracellular matrix also decreased in the U group, but was restored by re-nutrition during the pubertal stage and further increased in the adult phase. IR expression was observed in all CPs, being higher in the chondroblastic and hypertrophic cartilage layers. The lowest expression was found in the U and RR groups. Conclusions Protein malnutrition altered the cellularity, the area, and the fibrous cartilage complex, as well as the expression of the IRs. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism , /metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/metabolism , Piroxicam/analogs & derivatives , Thiazines/metabolism , Thiazoles/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Arginine/chemistry , Arginine/genetics , Arginine/metabolism , Binding Sites , Catalytic Domain , Cyclooxygenase 1/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , /chemistry , /genetics , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/genetics , Leucine/metabolism , Mutation , Piroxicam/chemistry , Piroxicam/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary , Serine/chemistry , Serine/genetics , Serine/metabolism , Thiazines/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry , Tyrosine/chemistry , Tyrosine/genetics , Tyrosine/metabolism , Water
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 367-373, mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745634

ABSTRACT

Background: The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. Aim: To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. Material and Methods: A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. Results: More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners/administration & dosage , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity/epidemiology , Students , Body Mass Index , Chile/epidemiology , Geography , Guatemala/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , Panama/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Photography , Protective Factors , Risk , Sex Factors , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Sucrose/analogs & derivatives , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage , Thiazines/administration & dosage
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 120-126, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741028

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil on jaw defects repair in Wistar rats treated with bioglass or adipose tissue. METHODS: A jaw defect was randomly created in forty-two rats and filled with bioglass or adipose tissue. The two groups (Gbio and Gcell) were subdivided in three subgroups with seven animals each according to gavage administration: control (distillated water), oil (copaiba oil) and melox (meloxicam). Euthanasia was performed after forty post-operative days. The bone formation was analyzed regarding the histological aspects. RESULTS: The osteoclasts activity was observed only in four subgroups (p=0.78). Regarding the osteoblasts presence, it was very similar between the subgroups, the difference was due to Gcell-melox (p=0.009) that presented less osteoblastic activity. The inflammatory cells were more evident in Gcell-melox subgroup, however, there was no difference in comparison with the other subgroups (p=0.52). Bone formation was observed in all subgroups, just two animals showed no bone formation even after 40 days. More than 50% of bone matrix mineralization was observed in 56% (23 animals) of the analyzed areas. The bone matrix mineralization was not different between subgroups (p=0.60). CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups that received copaiba oil showed bone repair, although not statistically significant in comparison to subgroups treated whit meloxicam or controls. Copaiba oil administered by gavage had no effect on bone repair in this experimental model. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Jaw/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Adipose Tissue/transplantation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Ceramics/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Jaw Abnormalities/drug therapy , Jaw Abnormalities/physiopathology , Jaw/physiopathology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoblasts/physiology , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1167-1173, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257011

ABSTRACT

The association rate constant and dissociation rate constant are important parameters of the drug-cyclodextrin supermolecule systems, which determine the dissociation of drugs from the complex and the further in vivo absorption of drugs. However, the current studies of drug-cyclodextrin interactions mostly focus on the thermodynamic parameter of equilibrium constants (K). In this paper, a method based on quantitative high performance affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to determine the apparent dissociation rate constant (k(off,app)) of drug-cyclodextrin supermolecule systems. This method was employed to measure the k(off,app) of meloxicam and acetaminophen. Firstly, chromatographic peaks of drugs and non-retained solute (uracil) on β-cyclodextrin column at different flow rates were acquired, and the retention time and variance values were obtained via the fitting the peaks. Then, the plate heights of drugs (H(R)) and uracil (H(M,C)) were calculated. The plate height of theoretical non-retained solute (H(M,T)) was calculated based on the differences of diffusion coefficient and the stagnant mobile phase mass transfer between drugs and uracil. Finally, the k(off,app) was calculated from the slope of the regression equation between (H(R)-H(M,T)) and uk/(1+k)2, (0.13 ± 0.00) s(-1) and (4.83 ± 0.10) s(-1) for meloxicam and acetaminophen (control drug), respectively. In addition, the apparent association rate constant (k(on,app)) was also calculated through the product of K (12.53 L x mol(-1)) and k(off,app). In summary, it has been proved that the method established in our study was simple, efficiently fast and reproducible for investigation on the kinetics of drug-cyclodextrin interactions.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Chemistry , Chromatography, Affinity , Drug Interactions , Kinetics , Mass Spectrometry , Thermodynamics , Thiazines , Chemistry , Thiazoles , Chemistry , beta-Cyclodextrins , Chemistry
12.
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2015; 65 (2): 225-227
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153771

ABSTRACT

Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe [stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose], if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat. This review article aims to cover the health benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives


Subject(s)
Stevia , Thiazines , Aspartame , Dipeptides , Saccharin , Sucrose
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (1): 103-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153884

ABSTRACT

Meloxicam [MLX] is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]. The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry [DSC], Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR], and Scan Electron Microscope [SEM] were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium [pH 7.4] compared to that of the unprocessed MLX [15% in 60 min]. Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX


Subject(s)
Thiazines , Drug Liberation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Thiazines/administration & dosage
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 366-378, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726786

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El accidente cerebrovascular es la segunda causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en el mundo, y más de 85 % es de origen isquémico. Objetivo. Evaluar en un modelo de infarto cerebral por embolia arterial el efecto de la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, sobre la respuesta neuronal, los astrocitos y la microglia. Materiales y métodos. Se sometieron ratas Wistar a embolia de la arteria carótida y a tratamiento con meloxicam y atorvastatina, administrados por separado y conjuntamente, a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se evaluó la reacción de las proteínas COX-2, GFAP y OX-42 en las neuronas, los astrocitos y la microglia mediante inmunohistoquímica y estudios morfológicos y de densitometría. Los datos obtenidos se evaluaron por medio de un análisis de varianza y de pruebas no paramétricas de comparación múltiple. Resultados. La isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial incrementó significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción de los astrocitos y la microglia, en tanto que la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, la redujeron. La isquemia produjo acortamiento de las proyecciones de los astrocitos, engrosamiento celular, ruptura de las expansiones protoplásmicas (clasmatodendrosis) y cambios morfológicos en la microglia propios de diversas etapas de actividad. En las zonas circundantes del foco se incrementó la reacción inmunológica de la COX-2 y se redujo en el foco isquémico, en tanto que el meloxicam y la atorvastatina redujeron significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción inmunológica en la zona circundante del foco, restableciendo la marcación de la ciclooxigenasa en el foco isquémico. Conclusión. La combinación de meloxicam y atorvastatina atenúa la respuesta de los astrocitos y la microglia en el proceso inflamatorio posterior a la isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial, reduciendo la degeneración neuronal y restableciendo el equilibrio morfológico y funcional del tejido nervioso.


Introduction: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the first cause of disability in the world, with more than 85% of the cases having ischemic origin. Objective: To evaluate in an embolism model of stroke the effect of atorvastatin and meloxicam on neurons, astrocytes and microglia. This evaluation was done administering each medication individually and in association. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were subjected to carotid arterial embolism and treatment with meloxicam and atorvastatin at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of COX-2 protein, GFAP and OX-42 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia by densitometric and morphological studies. Data were evaluated by variance analysis and non-parametric multiple comparison. Results: Cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism increased significantly the reactivity of microglia and astrocytes (p<0.001), whereas it was reduced by atorvastatin, meloxicam and their association. Ischemia produced astrocytic shortening, cellular thickening, protoplasmic rupture expansions (clasmatodendrosis) and microglial morphological changes characteristic of various activity stages. In perifocal areas, immunoreactivity of COX-2 was increased and in the ischemic focus it was reduced, while meloxicam and atorvastatin significantly reduced (p<0.001) perifocal immunoreactivity, restoring the marking of cyclooxygenase in the ischemic focus. Conclusion: These results suggest that the meloxicam-atorvastatin association attenuates astrocytic and microglial response in the inflammatory process after cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism, reducing neurodegeneration and restoring the morphological and functional balance of nervous tissue .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intracranial Embolism/complications , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin , /analysis , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Biomarkers , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/pathology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Heptanoic Acids/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Intracranial Embolism/pathology , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/pathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1095-1100, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207153

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to explore non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) potency for pelvic floor muscle pain by measuring local concentration in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used nine NSAIDs, including nabumetone, naproxen, ibuprofen, meloxicam, piroxicam, diclofenac potassium, etodolac, indomethacin, and sulindac, and 9 groups of female Wister rats. Each group of rats was fed with one kind of NSAID (2 mg/mL) for three consecutive days. Thereafter, one mL of blood and one gram of pelvic floor muscle were taken to measure drug pharmacokinetics, including partition coefficient, lipophilicity, elimination of half-life (T1/2) and muscle/plasma converting ratio (Css, muscle/Css, plasma). RESULTS: Diclofenac potassium had the lowest T1/2 and the highest mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma (1.9 hours and 0.85+/-0.53, respectively). The mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma of sulindac, naproxen and ibuprofen were lower than other experimental NSAIDs. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac potassium had the highest disposition in pelvic floor muscle in a rat model. The finding implies that diclofenac potassium might be the choice for pain relief in pelvic muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Butanones/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Muscles/drug effects , Naproxen/therapeutic use , Pelvic Floor/pathology , Pelvic Pain/drug therapy , Piroxicam/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 371-379, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The use of proton pump inhibitors or misoprostol is known to prevent the gastrointestinal complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Rebamipide is known to increase the mucosal generation of prostaglandins and to eliminate free oxygen radicals, thus enhancing the protective function of the gastric mucosa. However, it is unknown whether rebamipide plays a role in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of rebamipide compared to misoprostol in preventing NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications in patients requiring continuous NSAID treatment. METHODS: We studied 479 patients who required continuous NSAID treatment. The patients were randomly assigned to groups that received 100 mg of rebamipide three times per day or 200 microg of misoprostol three times per day for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint of the analysis was the occurrence rate of gastric ulcers, as determined by endoscopy after 12 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: Of the 479 patients in the study, 242 received rebamipide, and 237 received misoprostol. Ultimately, 44 patients (18.6%) withdrew from the misoprostol group and 25 patients (10.3%) withdrew from the rebamipide group. There was a significant difference in withdrawal rate between the two groups (p=0.0103). The per protocol analysis set was not valid because of the dropout rate of the misoprostol group; thus, the intention to treat (ITT) analysis set is the main set for the efficacy analysis in this study. After 12 weeks, the occurrence rate of gastric ulcers was similar in the rebamipide and misoprostol groups (20.3% vs 21.9%, p=0.6497) according to ITT analysis. In addition, the therapeutic failure rate was similar in the rebamipide and misoprostol groups (13.6% vs 13.1%, p=0.8580). The total severity score of the gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly lower in the rebamipide group than in the misoprostol group (p=0.0002). The amount of antacid used was significantly lower in the rebamipide group than in the misoprostol group (p=0.0258). CONCLUSIONS: Rebamipide can prevent gastric ulcers when used with NSAIDs and can decrease the gastrointestinal symptoms associated with NSAID administration. When the possibility of poor compliance and the potential adverse effects of misoprostol are considered, rebamipide appears to be a clinically effective and safe alternative.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Arthritis/drug therapy , Butanones/adverse effects , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Gastric Mucosa , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Quinolones/administration & dosage , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Thiazines/adverse effects , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(12): 842-847, Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695968

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function in healthy dogs submitted to nonselective and preferential COX-2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy. METHODS: Twenty four healthy dogs were distributed into four groups (G) (n=6): ketoprofenG - treated with ketoprofen; nimesulideG - treated with nimesulid; meloxicanG - treated with meloxican; and etodolacG - treated with etodolaco. All the dogs received the NSAIDs for 10 days by oral route. Physical examination and renal function (urinalysis, urinary sodium and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), serum urea, creatinine, potassium and sodium, and endogenous creatinine clearance) were evaluated before, after five and ten days (T0, T5 and T10) of the treatment in all groups. RESULTS: Changes were observed in urinalysis, with a significant increase in renal cells in the urine at T5 and T10 in nimesulideG. Significant reduction in urinary sodium in nimesulideG at T5 was observed. The clearance values were lower in ketoprofenG at T10. CONCLUSIONS: Meloxicam and etodolac were the drugs that have proven to be safer for short-term therapy in healthy dogs in relation to renal function. NSAIDs ketoprofen and nimesulide should be used judiciously in dogs with renal dysfunction, since there are promoted changes in renal function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Etodolac/therapeutic use , Ketoprofen/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Creatinine/urine , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kidney/physiology , Potassium/urine , Sodium/urine , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/urine
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(5): 657-662, Sep-Oct/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695163

ABSTRACT

Purpose We aimed to compare the effect and feasibility of a combined therapy with tamsulosin hydrochloride plus meloxicam, and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia symptoms and impact on nocturia and sleep quality. Materials and Methods Four hundred male patients were included in this study between 2008 and 2011. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: one received tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg (Group 1, 200 patients) and the other tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg plus meloxicam 15 mg (Group 2, 200 patients) prospectively. Patients were evaluated for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms according to the American Urological Association clinical guidelines and sleep quality according to Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients were reevaluated after three months of treatment. The International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL), maximal urinary flow rates (Qmax), average urinary flow rates (AFR), post void residual urine volumes (PVR), nocturia and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Score (PSQS) were recorded at baseline and after three months. Results Mean age was 63.3 ± 6.6 and 61.4 ± 7.5 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.245). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups. Also, baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, creatinine, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL), maximal urinary flow rates (Qmax), average urinary flow rates (AFR), post void residual urine volumes (PVR), nocturia and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Score (PSQS) were similar in both groups. In addition, the total IPSS, IPSS-QoL, PVR, nocturia, and PSQS were significantly lower in Group 2 compared with Group 1 after treatment (p < 0.05). Qmax and AFR were higher significantly in Group 2 compared with Group 1 after treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusions Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /administration & dosage , Nocturia/drug therapy , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Sleep/drug effects , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Feasibility Studies , Quality of Life , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome , Urination/drug effects
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(6): 453-457, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675581

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:To assess whether late introduction of a specific COX-2 inhibitor (Meloxicam) can treat and/or prevent the progression of tumors in the stomach of rats submitted to duodenogastric reflux. METHODS: Seventy five male Wistar rats, weighing 150 grams, were submitted to the induction of duodenogastric reflux through the pylorus. At 36 weeks of follow-up were established three experimental groups: DGR36 sacrificed immediately, DGR54 and DGR54MLX both sacrificed at 54th week of follow-up . The animals of the latter group were fed with a rat chow premixed with Meloxicam (2.0 mg/ kg feed; 0.3 mg / kg bw / day) and the other two with standard rat chow. The lesions found in the pyloric mucosa and gastrojejunal anastomosis were analyzed macroscopically and histologically. For statistical analysis was adjusted a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution with LOGIT link function. RESULTS: No significant differences were found when comparing the incidences of benign tumor lesions (Adenomatous Hyperplasia), p=0.4915, or malignant (Mucinous Adenocarcinoma), p=0.2731, among groups. CONCLUSION: Late introduction of specific COX-2 inhibitor (Meloxicam) did not treat and was not able to prevent the progression of tumoral lesions induced by duodenogastric reflux in the rat stomachs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adenocarcinoma/prevention & control , /administration & dosage , Duodenogastric Reflux/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Disease Progression , Duodenogastric Reflux/surgery , Medical Illustration , Pylorus/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1253-1258, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74275

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritic pain is largely considered to be inflammatory pain. Sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee have been shown to be significantly damaged in rat models of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in which the subchondral bone junction is destroyed, and this induces neuropathic pain (NP). Pregabalin was developed as a pain killer for NP; however, there are no reports on pregabalin use in OA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pregabalin for pain in OA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine knee OA patients were evaluated in this randomized prospective study. Patients were divided into meloxicam, pregabalin, and meloxicam+pregabalin groups. Pain scores were evaluated before and 4 weeks after drug application using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Pain scales among groups were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Before drug application, there was no significant difference in VAS and WOMAC scores among the three groups (p>0.05). Significant pain relief was seen in the meloxicam+pregabalin group in VAS at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and WOMAC score at 4 weeks, compared with the other groups (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Meloxicam+pregabalin was effective for pain in OA patients. This finding suggests that OA pain is a combination of inflammatory and NP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/administration & dosage
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