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1.
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [95]-[103], mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129692

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with important comorbidities. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a three times increased risk of hip fracture but reports describing potential associations with vertebral fractures (VF) are contradictory. Our objective was to evaluate the factors involved in the prevalent VF in women with and without T2DM. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional design was used and the relationship between morphometric VF and T2DM in adult women was evaluated. The cases were adult women with morphometric VF and the controls were adult women without VF. Thoracic and spinal radiographs in lateral and antero-posterior projections were obtained. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine (L-BMD) were measured by DXA. Results. A greater number of women with T2DM were found in the VF group (61% vs 31.5%). Non-T2DM women with VF were significantly older and with lower L-BMD than non-T2DM without VF. We observed a negative correlation between age and L-BMD (r=-0.463) in non-T2DM women, but not in the T2DM with FV group. T2DM was a risk factor for prevalent VF with OR of 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusion. Our study showed a higher prevalence of T2DM in the VF group. T2DM women with VF were younger and had higher L-BMD than non-T2DM women, L-BMD did not correlate with age and VF were not distributed according to BMD-L and age. (AU)


Introducción. La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica asociada con comorbilidades importantes. La diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) se asocia con un riesgo tres veces mayor de fractura de cadera pero la asociación con fracturas vertebrales (FV) es contradictoria. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los factores involucrados en las FV prevalentes en mujeres adultas con y sin DM2. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un diseño transversal y se evaluó la relación entre FV morfométrica y DM2 en mujeres adultas. Los casos fueron mujeres adultas con FV morfométricas y los controles fueron mujeres adultas sin FV. Se obtuvieron radiografías torácicas y espinales en proyecciones lateral y anteroposterior. Los valores de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de la columna lumbar (DMO-L) se midieron por DXA. Resultados. Se observó un mayor número de mujeres con DM2 en el grupo de FV (61% frente a 31.5%). Las mujeres sin DM2 con FV eran significativamente mayores y con una DMO-L más baja que las mujeres sin DM2 sin FV. Observamos una correlación negativa entre la edad y la DMO-L (r= -0.463) en mujeres sin DM2 y FV, pero no en DM2 con FV. La DM2 fue un factor de riesgo para FV prevalente con un OR 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusión. Nuestro estudio demostró una mayor prevalencia de DM2 en el grupo de FV. Las mujeres con DM2 y FV eran más jóvenes y tenían mayor DMO-L que las mujeres sin DM2, la DMO-L no correlacionó con la edad y las FV no se distribuyeron de acuerdo a la DMO-L y edad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spinal Fractures/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Osteoporosis/complications , Vitamin D/blood , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures/chemically induced , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Age Factors , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , PPAR gamma/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Rosiglitazone/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811151

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity in Asia is of epidemic proportions, with an estimated 1 billion overweight/obese individuals in the region. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are overweight/obese, which increases the risk of cardiorenal outcomes in these patients; hence, sustained reductions in body weight and visceral adiposity are important management goals. However, most of the glucose-lowering therapies such as insulin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and thiazolidinediones induce weight gain, which makes the management of overweight/obese T2DM patients challenging. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are the only oral glucose-lowering agents that have been shown to reduce body weight and visceral adiposity. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors therapy reduces ectopic fat deposition and improves adipose tissue function and weight-related quality of life. In this article, we aim to consolidate the existing literature on the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in Asian patients with T2DM and to produce clinical recommendations on their use in overweight or obese patients with T2DM. Recommendations from international and regional guidelines, as well as published data from clinical trials in Asian populations and cardiovascular outcomes trials are reviewed. Based on the available data, SGLT-2 inhibitors represent an evidence-based therapeutic option for the management of overweight/obese patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Asia , Asians , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Insulin , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Overweight , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Thiazolidinediones , Weight Gain
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 139-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766252

ABSTRACT

Patients with hyperglycemia are at a high risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Diabetes patients also have poor outcomes after cerebrovascular disease development. Several classes of drugs are used for diabetes management in clinical practice. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) was introduced in the late 1990s, and new antidiabetic agents have been introduced since 2000. After issues with rosiglitazone in 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration strongly recommended that trials investigating cardiovascular risk associated with new antidiabetic medications should be conducted before drug approval in the United States, to prove the safety of these new drugs and to determine their superiority to previous medications. Currently, results are available from two studies with TZD focusing on cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, and from 12 cardiovascular outcome trials focusing on major adverse cardiovascular events associated with new antidiabetic agents (four with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, three with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and five with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues). These studies showed different results for primary cardiovascular outcomes and stroke prevention. It is important to determine whether prescription of TZD or new antidiabetic medications compared to conventional treatment, such as sulfonylurea or insulin, is better for stroke management. Furthermore, it is unclear whether drugs in the same class show greater safety and efficacy than other drugs for stroke management.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Approval , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Prescriptions , Stroke , Thiazolidinediones , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 142-148, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761491

ABSTRACT

For patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lifestyle modifications including medical nutrition therapy, weight control, physical activity, smoking cessation, and avoidance of alcohol abuse should be initiated. Metformin must be considered as the first-line oral glucose-lowering therapy, but other drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, sulfonylureas, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin can be considered based on patient circumstances. If the initial HbA1c level of a patient is ≥ 7.5% or the HbA1c target is not achieved within three months of initiating monotherapy, dual combination therapy can be considered. If the HbA1c target is not achieved within 3 months of initiating dual therapy, a third agent with a complementary mechanism of action can be added for triple combination therapy. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in T2DM patients with cardiovascular risk factors have been incorporated into the updated recommendations.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Life Style , Metformin , Motor Activity , Nutrition Therapy , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Thiazolidinediones
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 162-169, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950215

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pioglitazone has been widely used as an insulin-sensitizing agent for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, cardiovascular risk and protective effects of pioglitazone remain controversial. Objectives: In this study, we investigated whether pioglitazone affects cardiomyocyte apoptosis and hypertrophy by regulating the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. Methods: Cardiomyocytes were enzymatically isolated from 1- to 3-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat ventricles. Effects of pioglitazone and the VEGFR-2-selective inhibitor apatinib on cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate was determined using flow cytometry, and hypertrophy was evaluated using [3H]-leucine incorporation. The protein expressions of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated VEGFR-2, Akt, P53, and mTOR were determined by Western-Blotting. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the differences between groups. Results: Pioglitazone and VEGFR-2-selective inhibitor apatinib reduced rat cardiomyocyte viability and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II in vitro. Furthermore, in the same in vitro model, pioglitazone and apatinib significantly increased the expression of Bax and phosphorylated P53 and decreased the expression of phosphorylated VEGFR-2, Akt, and mTOR, which promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusions: These findings indicate that pioglitazone induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by modulating the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway.


Resumo Fundamento: A pioglitazona tem sido amplamente utilizada como droga sensibilizadora da insulina para melhorar o controle glicêmico em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. No entanto, o risco cardiovascular bem como os efeitos protetores da pioglitazona ainda são controversos. Objetivos: Neste estudo, investigamos se os efeitos da pioglitazona sobre a apoptose e a hipertrofia de cardiomiócitos ocorrem via regulação da via de sinalização do VEGFR-2. Métodos: os cardiomiócitos foram isolados enzimaticamente dos ventrículos de ratos Sprague-Dawley de 1-3 anos de vida. Os efeitos da pioglitazona e do inibidor seletivo de VEGFR-2 apatinib sobre a taxa de apoptose dos cardiomiócitos foram avaliados por citometria de fluxo, e a hipertrofia avaliada por incorporação de leucina-[3H]. As expressões de VEGFR-2, Akt, P53, e mTOR fosforiladas e não fosforiladas foram determinadas por Western Blotting. Análise de variância (ANOVA) foi usada para avaliar diferenças entre os grupos. Resultados: a pioglitazona e o apatinib reduziram a viabilidade e a hipertrofia de cardiomiócitos induzida por angiotensina II in vitro. Além disso, no mesmo modelo in vitro, a pioglitazona e o apatinib aumentaram significativamente a expressão de Bax e P53 fosforilada, e diminuiu a expressão de VEGFR-2, Akt, e mTOR, que promove hipertrofia de cardiomiócitos. Conclusões: Esses resultados indicam que a pioglitazona induz a apoptose e inibe a hipertrofia de cardiomiócitos pela modulação da via de sinalização de VEGFR-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/drug effects , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Pioglitazone , Hypertrophy/chemically induced , Hypertrophy/pathology , Animals, Newborn
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713177

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease affecting 30% of the general population and 40% to 70% of obese individuals. Adipose tissue plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis, as it produces and secretes pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines called adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have well-determined actions in terms of NAFLD pathophysiology. Adiponectin deficiency is associated with a pro-inflammatory condition, as it is observed in obesity and other metabolic disorders. On the other hand, increased leptin levels, above the normal levels, act as a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Regarding other adipokines (resistin, visfatin, chemerin, retinol-binding protein 4, irisin), data about their contribution to NAFLD pathogenesis and progression are inconclusive. In addition, pharmacological agents like thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), that are used in the management of NAFLD exert favourable effects on adipokine levels, which in turn may contribute to the improvement of liver function. This review summarizes the current knowledge and developments in the association between adipokines and NAFLD and discusses possible therapeutic implications targeting the modulation of adipokine levels as a potential tool for the treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Hand , Leptin , Liver , Liver Diseases , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Resistin , Thiazolidinediones
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813203

ABSTRACT

To explore the protective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms.
 Methods: A rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by clamping the left and middle lobe of liver with noninvasive vascular clamp. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, an HIRI group, and a RGZ group (10 rats in each group). Two hours after reperfusion, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were examined. HE staining was used to observe liver pathological morphology. The liver peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), p-PPAR-γ, nuclear factor related factor 2 (Nrf-2), antioxidant response element (ARE), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) were detected by Western blot.
 Results: Compared with the HIRI group, the levels of ALT, AST, LDH and MDA in the RGZ group were significantly decreased (all P0.05).
 Conclusion: PPAR-γ agonist RGZ can attenuate HIRI, which may be related to activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and enhancement of antioxidant ability.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Catalase , Blood , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase , Blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Ligation , Liver , Metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Blood , Rosiglitazone , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood , Thiazolidinediones , Therapeutic Uses
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716971

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of fracture, which has been reported in several epidemiological studies. However, bone mineral density in T2D is increased and underestimates the fracture risk. Common risk factors for fracture do not fully explain the increased fracture risk observed in patients with T2D. We propose that the pathogenesis of increased fracture risk in T2D is due to low bone turnover caused by osteocyte dysfunction resulting in bone microcracks and fractures. Increased levels of sclerostin may mediate the low bone turnover and may be a novel marker of increased fracture risk, although further research is needed. An impaired incretin response in T2D may also affect bone turnover. Accumulation of advanced glycosylation endproducts may also impair bone strength. Concerning antidiabetic medication, the glitazones are detrimental to bone health and associated with increased fracture risk, and the sulphonylureas may increase fracture risk by causing hypoglycemia. So far, the results on the effect of other antidiabetics are ambiguous. No specific guideline for the management of bone disease in T2D is available and current evidence on the effects of antiosteoporotic medication in T2D is sparse. The aim of this review is to collate current evidence of the pathogenesis, detection and treatment of diabetic bone disease.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Bone Diseases , Bone Remodeling , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemiologic Studies , Glycosylation , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Incretins , Osteocytes , Risk Factors , Thiazolidinediones
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726884

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more prevalent in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic subjects, because the two diseases share a common pathophysiological mechanism. Associated abnormalities can be observed from the pre-diabetic stage. Lifestyle intervention, including diet, exercise, and weight loss, is the primary recommended therapy for NAFLD. Among the therapeutic drugs for NAFLD treatment, anti-diabetic agents are aimed at improving or slowing the progression of NAFLD in addition to lowering blood glucose. In this paper, we systemically review the evidence surrounding antidiabetic medications and their ability to improve disease progression in patients with NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet , Disease Progression , Humans , Incretins , Life Style , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Thiazolidinediones , Weight Loss
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e00049, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974404

ABSTRACT

Allergic asthma is a chronic, complex inflammatory disease of the airway. Despite extensive studies on the immunomodulation of T helper (Th) cell pathways (i.e., Th1 and Th2) in asthma, little is known about the effects of Th17 pathway modulation, particularly that involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In response, two new thiazolidinedione derivatives-namely, LPSF-GQ-147 and LPSF-CR-35 were synthesized and evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects on Th17-related cytokines, including interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin IL-6, IL-17, and IL-22 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asthmatic children. Both compounds were nontoxic even at high concentrations (i.e., 100 µM). The LPSF-CR-35 compound significantly reduced the levels of IL-17A (p = .039) and IFNγ (p = .032) at 10 µM. For IL-22 and IL-6, significant reduction occurred at 100 µM (p = .039 and p = .02, respectively). Conversely, LPSF-GQ-147 did not significantly inhibit the production of the tested cytokines, the levels of all of which were more efficiently reduced by LPSF-CR-35 than methylprednisolone, the standard compound. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed that LPSF-GQ-147 has significant PPARγ modulatory activity. Such data indicate that both LPSF-CR-35 and LPSF-GQ-147 are promising candidates as drugs for treating inflammation and asthma


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Asthma/complications , Child , Thiazolidinediones/analysis , Cytokines/adverse effects , Th17 Cells
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6812, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889024

ABSTRACT

Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (Card9) is located upstream of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inflammatory pathways. This study investigated the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism of pioglitazone in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). SAP was induced by a retrograde infusion of 5.0% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct of Sprague Dawley rats (n=54), which were then treated with pioglitazone. Blood and pancreatic tissues were harvested at 3, 6, and 12 h after SAP induction. Pancreatic pathological damage was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum amylase, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of Card9 mRNA and protein in pancreatic tissues was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Pioglitazone had a therapeutic effect in treating rats with SAP by decreasing the level of amylase activity, ameliorating pancreatic histological damage, decreasing serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and tissue MPO activity, and downregulating the expression of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and Card9 mRNAs and proteins (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated that the inhibition of Card9 expression could reduce the severity of SAP. Card9 has a role in the pathogenic mechanism of SAP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancreatitis/pathology , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/blood , Treatment Outcome , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pioglitazone , Amylases/drug effects , Amylases/blood , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 19(1/2): 13-17, ene.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900881

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM-2) es un equivalente de riesgo cardiovascular. Existe una gran variedad de fármacos para el control de la glicemia en los pacientes con DM-2, los cuales tienen diferencias en su perfil cardiovascular, unos han demostrado un beneficio en la reducción de riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares, otros tienen un efecto neutro, y en el caso de otros fármacos como las sulfonilureas y las tiazolinedionas existe dudas sobre su seguridad cardiovascular. Sien do DM-2 un equivalente de riesgo coronario, es fundamental tomar en cuenta el perfil de riesgo cardiovascular de estos medicamentos a la hora de iniciar alguna de estas drogas y no solo su eficacia para controlar los niveles de glicemia. El objetivo de esta revisión es comentar sobre los estudios más recientes que evalúan el riesgo cardiovascular con el uso de los distintos antidiabéticos orales.


Abstract Cardiovascular Safety of Oral Antidiabetics Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM-2) is an equivalent of cardiovascular risk. There is a wide variety of drugs for the glycemic control in patients with DM-2, which have differences in their cardiovascular profile, some have shown a benefit in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events, others have a neutral effect, and in the case of other drugs such as sulfonylurea and thiazolidinedione, there are doubts about their cardiovascular safety. Being DM-2 an equivalent of coronary risk, it is essential to consider the cardiovascular risk profile of these medicines when starting any of these drugs and not only their effectiveness in controlling glycaemia levels. The objective of this review is to comment on the most recent studies evaluating cardiovascular risk with the use of different oral antidiabetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Glucose , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Rosiglitazone/therapeutic use , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Glipizide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin/therapeutic use
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 259-264, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840964

ABSTRACT

Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a member of the family of Kruppel transcription factors, this plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Rosiglitazone is a PPARy agonist drug, its antitumor effect has been described in models of breast and colon cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of expression of KLF6 in Caco2 cells treated with Avandia. For this a Immunofluorescence was performed, the Caco2 cells were cultured and treated with Rosiglitazone, another group was treated with Rosiglitazone and GW-9662, inhibitor for Immunofluorescence an anti-KLF6 antibody and a secondary antibody coupled to Alexa-488 was used . Cells were observed in a fluorescence microscope and images were processed. The results show that KLF6 is expressed in the cytoplasm of cells Caco2. Compared to treatment with Avandia, KLF6 increases its expression in the cytoplasm. When cells were treated with GW-9662 inhibitor, an expression of KLF6 in the nucleus was observed. KLF6 expression in the cytoplasm of cells Caco2, could be explained by the knowledge of splicing variants SV1 and SV2, these abnormally accumulate in the cytoplasm and promotes cell growth. It is concluded that in untreated Caco 2 cells, KLF6 is expressed in the cytoplasm. Compared to treatment with Rosiglitazone, KLF6 upregulated in the cytoplasm and compared to treatment with the inhibitor, KLF6 is expressed in the nucleus of Caco 2 cells.


Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a member of the family of Kruppel transcription factors, this plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Rosiglitazone is a PPARy agonist drug, its antitumor effect has been described in models of breast and colon cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of expression of KLF6 in Caco2 cells treated with Avandia. For this a Immunofluorescence was performed, the Caco2 cells were cultured and treated with Rosiglitazone, another group was treated with Rosiglitazone and GW-9662, inhibitor for Immunofluorescence an anti-KLF6 antibody and a secondary antibody coupled to Alexa-488 was used . Cells were observed in a fluorescence microscope and images were processed. The results show that KLF6 is expressed in the cytoplasm of cells Caco2. Compared to treatment with Avandia, KLF6 increases its expression in the cytoplasm. When cells were treated with GW-9662 inhibitor, an expression of KLF6 in the nucleus was observed. KLF6 expression in the cytoplasm of cells Caco2, could be explained by the knowledge of splicing variants SV1 and SV2, these abnormally accumulate in the cytoplasm and promotes cell growth. It is concluded that in untreated Caco 2 cells, KLF6 is expressed in the cytoplasm. Compared to treatment with Rosiglitazone, KLF6 upregulated in the cytoplasm and compared to treatment with the inhibitor, KLF6 is expressed in the nucleus of Caco 2 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123920

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Thiazolidinediones
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was to examine the effect of lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione, on the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A 24-week, double-blinded phase was followed by a 28-week, open-label phase, in which the placebo group also started to receive lobeglitazone. A total of 170 patients aged 34 to 76 years were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive lobeglitazone 0.5 mg or a matching placebo orally, once daily. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at week 24 and at the end of the study (week 52). RESULTS: During the double-blinded phase, the femur neck BMD showed decreasing patterns in both groups, without statistical significance (−0.85%±0.36% and −0.78%±0.46% in the lobeglitazone and placebo groups, respectively). The treatment difference between the groups was 0.07%, which was also not statistically significant. Further, minimal, nonsignificant decreases were observed in both groups in the total hip BMD compared to values at baseline, and these differences also did not significantly differ between the groups. During the open-label phase, the BMD was further decreased, but not significantly, by −0.32% at the femur neck and by −0.60% at the total hip in the lobeglitazone group, and these changes did not significantly differ compared with the original placebo group switched to lobeglitazone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with lobeglitazone 0.5 mg over 52 weeks showed no detrimental effect on the BMD compared to the placebo.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Double-Blind Method , Femur Neck , Hip , Humans , Thiazolidinediones
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications through the activation of oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, or a thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, on glycemic variability and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this open label, randomised, active-controlled, pilot trial, individuals who were inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy were assigned to either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily, n=17) or pioglitazone (15 mg once daily, n=14) treatment groups for 16 weeks. Glycemic variability was assessed by calculating the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), which was obtained from continuous glucose monitoring. Urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F₂α, serum oxidised low density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were used as markers of oxidative stress or inflammation. RESULTS: Both vildagliptin and pioglitazone significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin and mean plasma glucose levels during the 16-week treatment. Vildagliptin also significantly reduced the MAGE (from 93.8±38.0 to 70.8±19.2 mg/dL, P=0.046), and mean standard deviation of 24 hours glucose (from 38±17.3 to 27.7±6.9, P=0.026); however, pioglitazone did not, although the magnitude of decline was similar in both groups. Markers of oxidative stress or inflammation including urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F₂α did not change after treatment in both groups. CONCLUSION: In this 16-week treatment trial, vildagliptin, but not pioglitazone, reduced glycemic variability in individuals with type 2 diabetes who was inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy, although a reduction of oxidative stress markers was not observed.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , C-Reactive Protein , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Inflammation , Lipoproteins , Metformin , Oxidative Stress , Pilot Projects , Thiazolidinediones
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone strength is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite an increase in bone mineral density (BMD). Thiazolidinedione (TZD), a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist, promotes adipogenesis, and suppresses osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, its use is associated with an increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of lobeglitazone, a new TZD, on bone. METHODS: MC3T3E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells were cultured in osteogenic medium and exposed to lobeglitazone (0.1 or 1 µM), rosiglitazone (0.4 µM), or pioglitazone (1 µM) for 10 to 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red staining, and osteoblast marker gene expression were analyzed. For in vivo experiments, 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, one of two doses of lobeglitazone, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone. BMD was assessed using a PIXImus2 instrument at the baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: As expected, in vitro experiments showed that ALP activity was suppressed and the mRNA expression of osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and osteocalcin was significantly attenuated after rosiglitazone treatment. By contrast, lobeglitazone at either dose did not inhibit these variables. Rosiglitazone-treated mice showed significantly accelerated bone loss for the whole bone and femur, but BMD did not differ significantly between the lobeglitazone-treated and vehicle-treated mice. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lobeglitazone has no detrimental effects on osteoblast biology and might not induce side effects in the skeletal system.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Biology , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Femur , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Infant , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin , Peroxisomes , RNA, Messenger , Thiazolidinediones , Transcription Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67291

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Thiazolidinediones
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