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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971404


Objective: To investigate the anatomical classification of adductor magnus perforator flap and its application in head and neck reconstruction. Methods: From January 2017 to January 2020, Hunan Cancer Hospital treated 27 cases of oral tumor patients (15 cases of tongue cancer, 9 cases of gingival cancer and 3 cases of buccal cancer), including 24 males and 3 females, aged 31-56 years old. The course of disease was 1-12 months. Secondary soft tissue defects with the sizes of 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm to 11.0 cm × 8.0 cm were left after radical resection of the tumors, and were repaired with free adductor magnus perforator flaps. The flaps based on the origing locations of perforator vessels were divided into three categories: ① intramuscular perforator: vessel originated between the gracilis muscle and the adductor magnus or passed through a few adductor magnus muscles; ② adductor magnus middle layer perforator: vessel run between the deep and superficial layers of adductor magnus; ③ adductor magnus deep layer perforator: vessel run between the deep layer of adductor magnus and the semimembranous muscle. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: Perforator vessels of adductor magnus were found in all cases, with a total of 62 perforator branches of adductor magnus. The anatomical classification of the perforator vessels was as follows: 12 branches for class ①, 31 branches for class ② and 19 branches for class ③. The vascular pedicles of the free adductor major perforator flaps included type ① for 3 cases, type ② for 16 cases and type ③ for 8 cases. All 27 flaps survived and the donor sites were closed directly. In 18 cases, the perforator arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the superior thyroid arteries and veins. In 9 cases, the pedicle arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the facial arteries and veins. Follow up for 12-40 months showed that the appearances of the flaps and the swallowing and language functions of patients were satisfactory, apart from linear scars were left in the donor sites with no significant affect on the functions of thigh. Local recurrence occurred in 3 cases and radical surgeries were performed again followed by repairs with pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in 2 cases and cervical lymph node dissection was performed again. Conclusions: The adductor magnus perforator flap has soft texture, constant perforator vessel anatomy, flexible donor location and harvesting forms, and less damage to the donor site. It is an ideal choice for postoperative reconstruction in head and neck tumors.

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Thigh/surgery , Head/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 141-149, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971163


Objective: To explore the preoperative whole perforator evaluation and intraoperative eccentric design of anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) based on superficial fascial perforators by modified computed tomography angiography (CTA), and the clinical effects were observed. Methods: A prospective observational study was adopted. Twelve patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors and 10 patients with open injury of the upper limb with large soft tissue defects were hospitalized in the Department of Hand & Microsurgery and Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery of Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University from January 2021 to July 2022, with 12 males and 10 females, aged from 33 to 75 years, an average age of 56.6 years. The wounds of the patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors were reconstructed by ALTF after the extensive tumor resection and radical cervical lymph node dissection in the same stage; the wounds of the patients with skin and soft tissue defect on the upper limb were covered by ALTF in stage Ⅱ after debridement in stage Ⅰ. After debridement, the area of wound was 3.5 cm×3.5 cm-25.0 cm×10.0 cm and the area of the required flap area was 4.0 cm×4.0 cm-23.0 cm×13.0 cm. Modified CTA scan was performed on the donor site of ALTF before the operation, with the parameters of modified CTA being set to mainly reduce the tube voltage and tube current, and increase the contrast dose and the dual phase scan. The acquired image data were sent to GE AW 4.7 workstation and adopted the volume reconstruction function for visual reconstruction and evaluation of the whole perforator. The information of perforator and source artery was marked on the body surface before operation according to the above evaluation. During the operation, an eccentric flap centered on the visible superficial fascia whole perforator was designed and cut according to the desired flap area and shape. The donor sites of the flap were repaired by direct sutures or full-thickness skin grafts. The total radiation dose was compared between the modified CTA scan and the traditional CTA scan. The distribution of outlet point of perforator of double thighs, the length and direction of superficial fascia perforators based modified CTA were recorded. The type, number, and origin of the target perforator, distribution of of outlet point of perforator, and the diameter, course, and branch of the source artery observed before the operation were compared with those observed during the operation. The healing of donor site wound and the survival of flaps in recipient site were observed after operation. The texture and appearance of flap, oral and upper limb functions, and the functions of femoral donor sites were followed up. Results: The total radiation dose of modified CTA scan was lower than that of the traditional CTA scan. A total of 48 perforators of double thighs were observed, among which, 31 (64.6%) perforators went outward and downward, 9 (18.8%) perforators went inward and downward, 6 (12.5%) perforators went outward and upward, and 2 (4.2%) perforators went inward and upward, and the average length of superficial fascia perforators was 19.94 mm. The preoperative observed type, number, and source of the perforator, the distribution of the outlet point of the perforator, diameter, course, and branches of the source artery were basically consistent with the intraoperative exploration. The types of 15 septocutaneous (including musculoseptocutaneous) perforators and 10 musculocutaneous perforators observed before the operation was consistent with intraoperative exploration. The distance between the mark of the surface perforator point and the actual exit point of the perforator during operation was (0.38±0.11) mm. All flaps survived without vascular crisis. The donor site wounds of 5 cases of skin grafting and 17 cases of direct suturing wounds healed well. The postoperative follow-up was 2 months to 1 year, with an average of 8.2 months, the flaps were soft and slightly bloated; the function of diet and mouth closing was accessible in patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors, the speech function was mildly impaired in patients with tongue cancer, but they could complete basic oral communication; the wrist and elbow joints and forearm rotation function were not significantly limited in patients with upper limb soft tissue injuries; there was no obvious tightness in the donor sites, and the function of the hip and knee joints was not limited. Conclusions: The whole perforator and even the subcutaneous perforator of the donor site of ALTF can be evaluated by modified CTA, and the flap can be used in oral or maxillofacial reconstruction and repair of skin and soft tissue defects of upper limbs to achieve good results. By clarifying the type, number, and source of the perforator, the distribution of the outlet point of the perforator, diameter, course, and branches of the source artery before the operation, the eccentric design of the ALTF based on the superficial fascia perforator was realized. This study has strong guiding value.

Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Thigh , Computed Tomography Angiography , Prospective Studies , Subcutaneous Tissue , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981620


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap transplantation in the treatment of complex calf soft tissue defects.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of the patients with complicated calf soft tissue defects, who were treated with Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap (study group, 23 cases) or bridge anterolateral thigh flap (control group, 23 cases) between January 2008 and January 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. All complex calf soft tissue defects in the two groups were caused by trauma or osteomyelitis, and there was only one major blood vessel in the calf or no blood vessel anastomosed with the grafted skin flap. There was no significant difference between the two groups in general data such as gender, age, etiology, size of leg soft tissue defect, and time from injury to operation ( P>0.05). The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) was used to evaluate the sufferred lower extremity function of the both groups after operation, and the peripheral blood circulation score of the healthy side was evaluated according to the Chinese Medical Association Hand Surgery Society's functional evaluation standard for replantation of amputated limbs. Weber's quantitative method was used to detect static 2-point discrimination (S2PD) to evaluate peripheral sensation of the healthy side, and the popliteal artery flow velocity, toenail capillary filling time, foot temperature, toe blood oxygen saturation of the healthy side, and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#No vascular or nerve injury occurred during operation. All flaps survived, and 1 case of partial flap necrosis occurred in both groups, which healed after free skin grafting. All patients were followed up 6 months to 8 years, with a median time of 26 months. The function of the sufferred limb of the two groups recovered satisfactorily, the blood supply of the flap was good, the texture was soft, and the appearance was fair. The incision in the donor site healed well with a linear scar, and the color of the skin graft area was similar. Only a rectangular scar could be seen in the skin donor area where have a satisfactory appearance. The blood supply of the distal limb of the healthy limb was good, and there was no obvious abnormality in color and skin temperature, and the blood supply of the limb was normal during activity. The popliteal artery flow velocity in the study group was significantly faster than that in the control group at 1 month after the pedicle was cut, and the foot temperature, toe blood oxygen saturation, S2PD, toenail capillary filling time, and peripheral blood circulation score were significantly better than those in the control group ( P<0.05). There were 8 cases of cold feet and 2 cases of numbness on the healthy side in the control group, while only 3 cases of cold feet occurred in the study group. The incidence of complications in the study group (13.04%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (43.47%) ( χ 2=3.860, P=0.049). There was no significant difference in LEFS score between the two groups at 6 months after operation ( P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Flow-through bridge anterolateral thigh flap can reduce postoperative complications of healthy feet and reduce the impact of surgery on blood supply and sensation of healthy feet. It is an effective method for repairing complex calf soft tissue defects.

Humans , Thigh/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Leg/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Lower Extremity/surgery , Skin Transplantation/methods , Perforator Flap
Cienc. act. fis. (Talca, En linea) ; 23(2): 1-16, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421100


Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es describir el perfil de las variables del EIMP entre las dos posiciones de juego y determinar las posibles asociaciones con las características antropométricas y las cualidades físicas de un grupo de jugadores Rugby amateurs chilenos. Hipótesis: es por eso por lo que podemos plantear como hipótesis la existencia de asociaciones entre las variables de EIMP y las cualidades físicas de los jugadores de RU. Diseño metodológico: este estudio tiene un diseño de cohorte observacional, descriptivo y correlacional. Se investigó la asociación existente entre las variables de EIMP con las pruebas físicas y las variables antropométricas. Fueron evaluados treinta y dos jugadores de rugby varones de nivel amateurs chilenos (promedio ( DE, edad, 23,3 ( 5,4 años). Resultados: para la variable Masa Muscular se encontraron asociaciones grandes (r = 0.53) (p = 0.001) con la FM y asociaciones moderadas (r = 0,48) (r = 0,47) (r = 0,44) (r = 0,46) con F50, F100, F150 y F200 respectivamente. También se pueden observar las asociaciones grandes (R2 = 0,305) (R2 = 0,297) (R2 = 0,267) entre 1RM PB y F200, F100 y F150, respectivamente. Conclusión: en conclusión, este estudio puede demostrar la existencia de asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre algunas de las variables antropométricas y físicos con las variables de Fuerza de EIMP en jugadores de RU amateurs chilenos.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the profile of the EIMP variables between two playing positions and to determine its possible associations with anthropometric characteristics and physical qualities of a group of Chilean amateur rugby players. HYPOTHESIS: There are associations between the EIMP variables and the physical qualities of UR players. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN: This study has an observational, descriptive and correlational cohort design. The association between the EIMP variables, from the physical tests, and the anthropometric variables was investigated. Thirty-two Chilean amateur-level male rugby players were evaluated (mean ( SD, age, 23.3 ( 5.4 years). RESULTS: For the Muscle Mass variable, large associations were found (r=0.53) (p=0.001) to FM, and moderate associations (r=0.48) (r=0.47) (r=0.44) (r =0.46) to F50, F100, F150, and F200 respectively. Large associations (R2=0.305) (R2=0.297) (R2=0.267) between 1RM PB and F200, F100, and F150, respectively, can also be observed. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study can demonstrate the existence of statistically significant associations between some of the anthropometric and physical variables and the EIMP Strength variables in Chilean amateur UR players.

OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil das variáveis EIMP entre as duas posições de jogo e determinar as possíveis associações com as características antropométricas e qualidades físicas de um grupo de jogadores amadores de rugby chilenos. HIPÓTESE: É por isso que podemos hipotetizar a existência de associações entre as variáveis do EIMP e as qualidades físicas dos jogadores do RU. DESENHO METODOLÓGICO: Este estudo tem um desenho de coorte observacional, descritivo e correlacional. Investigou-se a associação entre as variáveis do EIMP com os testes físicos e as variáveis antropométricas. Trinta e dois jogadores de rugby masculinos de nível amador chileno foram avaliados (média ( DP, idade, 23,3 ( 5,4 anos). RESULTADOS: Para a variável Massa Muscular foram encontradas grandes associações (r=0,53ejercicio y cualidades físicos) (r=0,47) (r=0,44) (r=0,46) com F50, F100, F150 e F200 respectivamente. Grandes associações (R2=0,305) (R2=0,297) (R2=0,267) entre 1RM PB e F200, F100 e F150 respebaloncestotambém podem ser observadas. CONCLUSÃO: Em conclusão, este estudo pode demonstrar a existência de associações estatisticamente significativas entre algumas das variáveis antropométricas e físicas com as variáveis EIMP Força em jogadores amadores do RU chilenos.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Anthropometry , Exercise Test/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Rugby/physiology , Thigh/physiology , Exercise , Confidence Intervals , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Isometric Contraction/physiology
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 77-80, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935978


Objective: To explore the effects of clinical application of free anterolateral thigh perforator lobulated flap in repair of electrical burn wounds on head based on the concept of donor site protection. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. Eight patients with electrical burns with huge scalp defects and exposed skulls were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, from May 2017 to December 2019, who were all males, aged 21-57 (39±13) years, sustaining multiple deep partial thickness to full-thickness electrical burns to 5%-14% total body surface area. Among the scalp burn sites of the patients, 1 case was posterior occipital, 2 cases were parietal occipital, 4 cases were parietal temporal, and 1 case was frontotemporal. After debridement, the defect area was 10 cm×9 cm-16 cm×14 cm. The incision area of the free anterolateral thigh perforator lobulated flap was 22 cm×6 cm-30 cm×9 cm. The artery and vein of flap were anastomosed with superficial temporal artery and vein or facial artery and vein, and the other vein of skin flap was anastomosed with superficial vein of recipient area. The donor site of skin flap was closed by layer interrupted tension-reducing suture. After the operation, the survival of flop, donor site wound healing and complications were observed. The flap appearance, wound healing of donor sites, long-term complications and functional recovery of donor sites were observed on follow-up. Results: After the operation, the flaps of 8 patients survived completely without vascular crisis. The donor sites of flaps in all the patients healed well with no osteofascial compartment syndrome. Seven patients were followed up for 3 to 12 months, and 1 case was lost to follow up. During follow-up, the flaps of the patients' heads were in good appearance but with alopecia. The donor sites showed linear scars, which were well hidden. There were no significant differences in sensory and motor functions between the two sides, and no complications were found such as muscle hernia. Conclusions: Free anterolateral thigh perforator lobulated flap has a good clinical effect in the early repair of electrical burn wounds with huge scalp defect and skull exposure on head, and the donor wounds can be directly closed and sutured, greatly reducing the damage to the donor area.

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Burns, Electric/surgery , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Thigh/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378013


El osteosarcoma extraesquelético es un tumor maligno de alto grado que representa menos del 2% de los sarcomas de partes blandas y que afecta principalmente a personas entre la quinta y sexta década de la vida. Típicamente el diagnóstico es tardío, con un período síntomas-diagnóstico extenso, >6 meses en comparación con el del osteosarcoma convencional. Comunicamos el caso de un hombre de 43 años que acudió con una tumoración en la región glútea y el muslo izquierdo de un año de evolución. Luego de estudios complementarios y una biopsia no concluyentes, se procedió a la resección quirúrgica del tumor con márgenes amplios. El estudio histológico de la pieza indicó osteosarcoma extraesquelético. El paciente tuvo una evolución muy buena, sin elementos de recidiva local ni compromiso a distancia luego de 20 meses de seguimiento. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a high-grade malignant tumor that accounts for less than 2% of soft tissue sarcomas and mainly engages people between the fifth and sixth decade of life. It is typically of late diagnosis, with an extensive symptom-diagnosis period greater than 6 months compared to conventional osteosarcoma. We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who presented in our service with a 1-year-old tumor localized in the gluteal and left thigh region. After inconclusive paraclinical studies and biopsy, the tumor was surgically resected with wide margins and diagnosed as EOS after the histological analysis of the piece. The patient showed a very good clinical and paraclinical progression without signs of local or distant recurrence after 20 months of follow-up. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Thigh , Osteosarcoma/surgery
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(2): 243-248, jun./dez. 2021. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293206


Introdução: o músculo reto femoral é o músculo mais frequentemente lesado do grupo quadríceps durante chutes e corridas repetitivas, apesar de suas avulsões serem raras. A dor localizada na coxa proximal e a incapacidade de flexionar o quadril e/ou estender o joelho associado à história do paciente de contração violenta ou alongamento forçado do grupo muscular do quadríceps femoral podem indicar uma avulsão do reto femoral. Objetivo: relatar um caso e revisar a literatura acerca desta lesão incomum. Materiais e Métodos: revisão do prontuário, registro fotográfico do método diagnóstico e revisão da literatura. Resultados: homem de 46 anos com dor localizada no quadril esquerdo com irradiação para a coxa por três meses após cair no chão com a região dolorida em um jogo de futebol. A dor começou subitamente uma semana após a queda. A ressonância magnética do quadril apresentava avulsão completa do reto femoral esquerdo, distando 2 cm da espinha ilíaca anterior inferior com efusão líquida adjacente. Conclusão: este relato demonstra a dificuldade de diagnosticar essa lesão, pois o seu exame físico é inespecífico, podendo simular patologias mais complexas, necessitando de exames complementares para seu correto diagnóstico.

Introduction: the rectus femoris muscle is the most frequently injured muscle of the quadriceps group during repetitive kicking and sprinting. Avulsions of the rectus femoris are rare injuries. Pain located at the proximal thigh and disability in flexing the hip and/or extending the knee associated with a patient history of a violent contraction or forceful stretching of the quadriceps femoris muscle group can indicate an avulsion of rectus femoris. Objective: report a case and review the literature about this uncommon lesion. Materials and Methods: we reviewed medical records, photographic records of diagnostic methods, and reviews from the literature. Results: a 46-year-old man with pain located at the left anterior hip with irradiation to the thigh for three months after falling to the ground with the sore region in a soccer game. The pain started suddenly one week after the fall. The MRI of the hip featured complete avulsion of the left rectus femoris, being 2 cm distal from the anterior inferior iliac spine with adjacent liquid effusion. Conclusion: this report demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing this lesion, since its physical examination is non-specific, and it can simulate more complex pathologies, requiring complementary tests for its correct diagnosis.

Male , Middle Aged , Tendon Injuries , Thigh , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Quadriceps Muscle
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 23(1): e776, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280405


El tumor de células gigantes de hueso es un tumor raro de características benignas con un comportamiento agresivo localmente. Predomina en mujeres y por lo general se presenta en la epífisis y metáfisis de los huesos largos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar el caso de un paciente con una lesión tumoral de rodilla y muslo izquierdos de 2 años de evolución y señalar las características diagnósticas de este tumor al mismo tiempo que se revisan los métodos imagenológicos recientes para su confirmación. Se presenta a un paciente masculino de 19 años de edad, que comenzó con dolor, aumento de volumen de la rodilla y muslo izquierdos, acompañado de impotencia funcional. Se reportaron los hallazgos clínicos, radiográficos e histológicos. Debido a la demora entre el inicio de los síntomas y el diagnóstico se practicó el tratamiento quirúrgico del miembro afectado (amputación). Tras 10 meses de observación no se han presentado recidivas o metástasis. Se envió al Servicio de Oncología para valorar e tratamiento con radioterapia. El tumor de células gigantes del hueso es un tumor raro, de buen pronóstico, pero que puede recidivar y causar metástasis cuando se maligniza. Por la posibilidad de transformación en sarcoma requiere estudio y observación periódica. El tiempo para realizar el diagnóstico es fundamental y debe pensarse en este tumor en caso de lesiones líticas de hueso reportadas por imagenología(AU)

The giant cell tumor of bone is a rare benign tumor with a locally aggressive behavior. It predominates in women and usually occurs in the epiphysis and metaphysis of long bones. To present a patient with a tumor lesion left knee and thigh two years of evolution, also noted the diagnostic characteristics of this tumor while recent imaging methods are reviewed for confirmation. 19-year-old male who began with pain, increased volume of the knee and left thigh, accompanied by functional impotensia. clinical, radiological and histological findings were reported. Because of the delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis surgical treatment of the affected limb (amputation) was performed. After ten months of observation there have been no recurrences or metastases. The giant cell tumor of bone is a rare tumor with good prognosis but can recur and metastasize when it becomes malignant. The possibility of transformation in sarcoma requires periodic study and observation. The time for diagnosis is essential and should think of this tumor in case of lytic bone lesions reported by imaging(AU)

Male , Young Adult , Thigh/injuries , Wounds and Injuries , Giant Cell Tumor of Bone/complications , Early Diagnosis , Epiphyses/injuries , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/prevention & control , Giant Cell Tumor of Bone/diagnostic imaging , Amputation, Surgical
Revue Africaine de Médecine et de Santé Publique ; 4(1): 7-14, 2021. photos, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1417789


Les auteurs rapportent l'un des types rares des cancers, le sarcome alvéolaire; survenu chez un sujet masculin âgé de 32 ans, qui consulte pour une importante tuméfaction de la face antérieure de la racine de la cuisse gauche et dont les bilans biologiques et radiologiques n'avaient rien montré des particuliers. L'étude histologique avait posé le diagnostic d'un sarcome alvéolaire. Une exérèse radicale avait été pratiquée et le patient avait été mis sous chimiothérapie avec bonne tolérance. Le patient a été revu tous le trois mois pendant trois ans, puis une fois tous les six mois pendant la 4eme année sans qu'aucune récidive ni localisation métastasique n'ait été objectivée, avant que nous constations une récidive avec métastase pulmonaire à la 5eme année, ce qui emporta notre patient.

The authors report one of the rare types of cancers, alveolar sarcoma; occurred in a male subject aged 32 years, who consults for a large swelling of the anterior face of the root of the left thigh and whose biological and radiological assessments had shown nothing particular. The histological study diagnosed alveolar sarcoma. Radical excision was performed and the patient was put on chemotherapy with good tolerance. The patient was reviewed every three months for three years, then once every six months during the fourth year without any recurrence or metastatic localization was objectified, before we found a recurrence with pulmonary metastasis in the 5th year, which took away our patient.

Humans , Male , Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part , Drug Therapy , Histology , Therapeutics , Thigh
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1070-1078, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878152


BACKGROUND@#Fetal weight is an important parameter to ensure maternal and child safety. The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional (3D) limb volume ultrasound combined with fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurement to establish a model to predict fetal weight and evaluate its efficiency.@*METHODS@#A total of 211 participants with single pregnancy (28-42 weeks) were selected between September 2017 and December 2018 in the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Capital Medical University. The upper arm (AVol)/thigh volume (TVol) of fetuses was measured by the 3D limb volume technique. Fetal AC was measured by two-dimensional ultrasound. Nine cases were excluded due to incomplete information or the interval between examination and delivery >7 days. The enrolled 202 participants were divided into a model group (134 cases, 70%) and a verification group (68 cases, 30%) by mechanical sampling method. The linear relationship between limb volume and fetal weight was evaluated using Pearson Chi-squared test. The prediction model formula was established by multivariate regression with data from the model group. Accuracy of the model formula was evaluated with verification group data and compared with traditional formulas (Hadlock, Lee2009, and INTERGROWTH-21st) by paired t-test and residual analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to predict macrosomia.@*RESULTS@#AC, AVol, and TVol were linearly related to fetal weight. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.866, 0.862, and 0.910, respectively. The prediction model based on AVol/TVol and AC was established as follows: Y = -481.965 + 12.194TVol + 15.358AVol + 67.998AC, R2adj = 0.868. The scatter plot showed that when birth weight fluctuated by 5% (i.e., 95% to 105%), the difference between the predicted fetal weight by the model and the actual weight was small. A paired t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the predicted fetal weight and the actual birth weight (t = -1.015, P = 0.314). Moreover, the residual analysis showed that the model formula's prediction efficiency was better than the traditional formulas with a mean residual of 35,360.170. The combined model of AVol/TVol and AC was superior to the Lee2009 and INTERGROWTH-21st formulas in the diagnosis of macrosomia. Its predictive sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Fetal weight prediction model established by semi-automatic 3D limb volume combined with AC is of high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The prediction model formula shows higher predictive efficiency, especially for the diagnosis of macrosomia.@*TRIAL, NCT03002246;

Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia , Fetal Weight , Prospective Studies , Thigh/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942592


Objective: To compare the recovery and quality of life of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tumors treated with three kinds of free soft tissue flaps. Methods: The clinical data of 103 patients, including 66 males and 37 females, aged 26-74 years, who underwent primary repair of defects after resection of oral and oropharyngeal tumors in Sichuan Tumor Hospital from July 2014 to August 2020 were analyzed. Anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) was used in 43 patients, radial forearm free flap (RFFF) in 45 patients, and lateral arm free flap (LAFF) in 15 patients. Postoperative qualities of life of patients were evaluated by the university of Washington quality of life questionnaire and oral health impact scale (HIP-14 Chinese edition). SPSS 23.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The T staging of RFFF or LAFF group was significantly lower than that of ALTF group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mean flap areas between ALTF group ((55.87±27.38) cm2) and LAFF group ((49.93±19.44) cm2), while RFFF group had smaller mean flap area ((33.18±6.05) cm2) than ALTF group (t=5.311, P<0.001) and LAFF group (t=3.284, P=0.005). In terms of oral functions including swallowing, mastication, taste and spitmouth, there were no significant differences between LAFF group and RFFF group (P>0.05), but both groups had better oral functions than ALTF group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in appearance scores between LAFF group (75(75, 75)) and ALTF group (75(75,75) vs.75(75,75),Z=-1.532, P=0.126), and both groups had higher scores than RFFF group (50(50, 75),Z values were -3.447 and -3.005 respectively, P<0.05). RFFF group had higher speech score (100(67, 100)) than LAFF group (67(50, 76),Z=-2.480, P<0.05) and ALTF group (67(33, 67),Z=-5.414, P<0.05). ALTF group had lower mean score of quality of life than RFFF group [72(56,77) vs.79(69, 89),Z=-3.070, P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in the mean scores of qualities of life between ALTF group and LAFF group (Z=1.754, P=0.079). According to the evaluation of oral health impact scale (HIP-14 Chinese version) 1 year after surgery, individual item scores and the average score of all items in ALTF group were lower than those in RFFF and LAFF groups (P<0.05), with no significant difference between RFFF group and LAFF group (P>0.05). Conclusions: RFFF has unique advantages for small tissue defects, while ALTF is suitable for large tissue defects, such as buccal penetrating defect, whole tongue and near whole tongue defect, and LAFF is a compromise choice between ALTF and RFFF. ALTF is inferior to RFFF and LAFF in oral functional reconstruction, including swallowing, chewing, taste and spittle. ALTF and LAFF are superior to RFFF in postoperative appearance.

Female , Humans , Male , Forearm/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Thigh/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942591


Objective: To explore the classification and reconstruction strategy of defects in lateral face region after operation of malignant tumors. Methods: Eighteen cases with the reconstruction of complicated defects after resection of tumors in the region of lateral face from January 2015 to January 2018 in Hunan Cancer Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. There were 14 males and 4 females, aged from 32 to 68 years. According to the presence or absence of bony scaffold, complicated defects were divided into two main categories: soft tissue perforating defects and soft tissue defects combined with bony scaffold defects. All soft tissue perforating defects in 5 cases were repaired with free anterolateral femoral flaps. Among 13 cases with soft tissue plus bony scaffold defects, 3 were repaired with free fibular flaps, 6 with free fibular flaps combined with free anterolateral femoral flaps, and 4 with chimeric deep circumflex iliac artery perforator flaps combined with anterolateral femoral flaps. Results: All flaps survived well. Two patients complicated with fistula in floor of mouth, but the wound healed after dressing change. Transoral feeding was resumed within 2 weeks after surgery in all patients. One year follow-up evaluation showed that 14 cases had symmetrical face and 10 cases had mouth opening more than 3 transverse fingers. After 36-50 months of follow-up, 6 patients died, with an overall 3-year survival rate of 66.7%. Conclusion: The classification of defects with or without bony stent loss is conducive to the overall repair design, the recovery of facial contour stent, the effective fill of dead space and the maintain of residual occlusal relationship. Good reconstruction results require a multi flap combination of osteocutaneous and soft tissue flaps.

Female , Humans , Male , Facial Neoplasms , Free Tissue Flaps , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Thigh/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942548


Objective: To analyse the clinical application of thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps (TDAPF) in the repair of head and neck defects. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 38 patients with oral and maxillofacial head and neck malignant tumors who underwent radical resection of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma and TDAPF repair in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Head and Neck Oncology of the Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from June 2017 to November 2018. Among them, 32 were males and 6 were females, aged 30-74 years. Flap size, vessel pedicle length, diameter and number of perforators, and flap fat thickness were recorded and counted. Elasti Meter and Skin Fibro Meter were applied to measure the skin elasticity and hardness in the donor areas of 4 kinds of skin flaps before the flap preparation. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: All the flaps survived (100%). The mean elasticity of TDAPF [(41.2±12.9) N/m] was significantly lower than that of anterolateral thigh [(77.6±23.3) N/m, χ²=88.89, P<0.05], anterolateral thigh [(62.6±17.7) N/m, χ²=59.99, P<0.05] and or forearm flap [(51.7±8.6) N/m, χ²=37.82, P<0.05]. The hardness of TDAPF [(0.037±0.016) N] was also significantly lower than that of anterolateral femoral [(0.088±0.019) N, F=93.27, P<0.05], anteromedial femoral [(0.059±0.020) N, F=25.71, P<0.05] or forearm flap [(0.062±0.016) N, F=29.11, P<0.05]. Follow-up period ranged from 2 to 14 months. The 38 patients treated with TDAPF had a good recovery of the functions in the recipient areas, and the scars of the donor areas were not obvious after surgery, without serious complications. Conclusion: TDAPF is suitable for reconstruction of head and neck defect, with ductile texture and good recovery of the morphology and function of head and neck.

Female , Humans , Male , China , Femoral Artery/surgery , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Thigh/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942443


Objective: To study the effects of superficial temporal artery and vein as recipient vessels for the free anterolateral thigh flap on the appearance and functions after maxillectomy. Methods: Clinical data of 21 patients with malignant maxillary tumors in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2014 to November 2019, who were treated by free anterolateral thigh flap with temporal superficial vessels as the recipient vessels were analyzed retrospectively. There were 18 males and 3 females, with the age ranging from 29 to 73 years old, including 19 cases of squamous carcinoma, 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma and 1 case of osteosarcoma. Of those 7 patients underwent primary surgery, 14 patients received resurgery, and 6 patients had a history of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Among 14 patients with resurgery, 13 had recurrent ipsilateral second site tumor and 1 had recurrent tumor, and all of them received the maxillectomy and reconstructive surgery with the free anterolateral thigh flap. Patients were evaluated with water swallow test and speech intelligibility score in 1, 3 and 6 months after operation. The data were statistically analyzed with SPSS 22.0 statistical software. Water swallow test results before and after operation were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The mean speech intelligibility scores before and after operation were compared by the paired t test. Results: Patients were followed up for 10-60 months. All free flaps survived after operation. No diplopia occurred. Breathing, swallowing and speaking functions were normal. No movement disorders caused by the donor of thigh flap. Water swallow test showed no phenomenon of water flowing into the nasal cavity or oral and nasal leakage with level Ⅰ for 4 cases, level Ⅱ for 13 cases, level Ⅲ for 3 cases and level Ⅳ for 1 case. The mean speech intelligibility scores before surgery and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery were 4.31±0.13, 1.46±0.21, 2.15±0.45 and 2.87±0.76 respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the mean speech intelligibility scores between 1 and 6 months after surgery (F=78.456, P<0.05). Conclusion: It is safe and reliable to use the superficial temporal vessels as recipient vessels for free anterolateral thigh flap in the reconstruction of defect after maxillectomy in malignant tumors, with good outcomes of functions and a satisfactory restoration of outward appearance.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Free Tissue Flaps , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Thigh/surgery
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200095, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340174


Abstract Mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are rare and are usually secondary to colonization of an atherosclerotic plaque during an episode of bacteremia. We describe the case of a 68 year-old diabetic male who presented to the Emergency Department with pyrexia and a painful expanding mass in the left thigh. He had a history of diarrhea and had been treated 16 days earlier for an SFA pseudoaneurysm that had been excluded with a covered stent with no adjunctive antibiotic therapy. Angio CT showed an abscess surrounding femoral vessels and stent thrombosis. Under general anesthesia, we performed extensive debridement, removal of the endovascular material, SFA ligation, and empirical antibiotic therapy. Blood and tissue cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. At the 3-months follow up visit, the patient reported he had no claudication. In selected patients, mycotic pseudoaneurysms can be treated by SFA ligation.

Resumo Pseudoaneurismas micóticos da artéria femoral superficial (AFS) são raros, e geralmente são secundários à colonização de uma placa aterosclerótica durante bacteremia. Relatamos o caso de um paciente masculino diabético de 68 anos que chegou ao Serviço de Emergência com pirexia e massa expansiva dolorosa na coxa esquerda. Apresentava histórico de diarreia e havia sido tratado 16 dias antes para pseudoaneurisma da AFS, que foi excluído com stent coberto e sem antibioticoterapia adjuvante. A angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou um abscesso ao redor dos vasos femorais e trombose do stent. Sob anestesia geral, realizamos desbridamento extenso, remoção do material endovascular, ligadura de AFS e antibioticoterapia empírica. Culturas de sangue e tecidos foram positivas para Escherichia coli. Na consulta de seguimento aos 3 meses, o paciente negou claudicação. Em pacientes selecionados, pseudoaneurismas micóticos podem ser tratados com ligadura de AFS.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aneurysm, Infected , Aneurysm, False , Femoral Artery , Thigh , Stents , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Endovascular Procedures , Fever
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0269-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155566


Abstract Reactivation of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) has been reported. The patient presented with a 2-week history of two painful erythematous, infiltrated plaques with central ulceration and necrotic crust on the left thigh. She had a history of chronic indeterminate Chagas disease (CD) and had received a kidney transplant before 2 months. Skin biopsies revealed lobular panniculitis with intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi. The patient was diagnosed with CD reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole significantly improved her condition. CD reactivation should be suspected in SOTRs living in endemic areas with clinical polymorphism of skin lesions.

Humans , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi , Panniculitis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Thigh
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(4): e37416, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389655


Resumen: Introducción: la equinococosis quística músculo-esquelética es poco frecuente, pudiendo determinar retrasos diagnósticos y errores terapéuticos. Reporte de caso: presentamos el caso de un paciente con un quiste hidático primario único a nivel de la región femoral posterior derecha, infectado. Discusión: se realizó una revisión en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS sobre el diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico de los quistes hidáticos músculo-esqueléticos primarios. Conclusiones: la equinococosis quística músculo-esquelética debe ser tenida en cuenta dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de tumoraciones de partes blandas en pacientes provenientes de zonas endémicas. La tomografía computada y/o resonancia magnética cumplen un rol diagnóstico y de planificación terapéutica. El tratamiento es quirúrgico, a medida del paciente y del quiste, en función de su topografía, tamaño y fundamentalmente relaciones vasculo nerviosas y musculares. Otros factores a tener en cuenta son las futuras secuelas funcionales y resultados estéticos.

Summary: Introduction: musculoskeletal cystic echinococcosis is rather an unusual condition, what may result in delayed diagnosis and therapeutic mistakes. Case report: the study presents the case of a patient with a single primary hydatid cyst in the right posterior femoral region, which is infected. Discussion: a review of PubMed and LILACS was performed to learn about diagnosis and therapeutic handling of the primary musculoskeletal hydatid cysts. Conclusions: musculoskeletal cystic echinococcosis needs to be considered among differential diagnosis of soft tissues tumors in patients coming from endemic areas. A CT scan and RMI play an important role in diagnosis and the planning of treatment. Treatment involves surgery that must be adapted to the patient and the cyst, considering its topography and size, and in particular in view of muscular and nervous vessels relationship. Other factors to bear in mind are renal sequels and esthetic aspects.

Resumo: Introdução: a equinococose cística musculoesquelética é rara e pode determinar atrasos em seu diagnóstico e erros terapêuticos. Relato do caso: apresentamos o caso de uma paciente com cisto hidrático primário único ao nível da região femoral posterior direita, infectado. Discussão: foi realizada uma revisão nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS sobre o diagnóstico e manejo terapêutico dos cistos hidráticos osteomusculares primários. Conclusões: a equinococose cística musculoesquelética deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de partes moles em pacientes de áreas endêmicas. A tomografia computadorizada e / ou a ressonância magnética desempenham um papel no planejamento diagnóstico e terapêutico. O tratamento é cirúrgico, adaptado ao paciente e ao cisto, dependendo de sua topografia, tamanho e, fundamentalmente, das relações vascular-nervosas e musculares. Outros fatores a serem considerados são as sequelas funcionais futuras e os resultados estéticos.

Humans , Female , Thigh/pathology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Echinococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 16-21, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090412


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a formação do arco longitudinal do pé interfere na distribuição da pressão plantar e na flexibilidade dos músculos posteriores da coxa. O método de estudo foi transversal e as impressões plantares foram obtidas usando o plantígrafo e analisadas segundo o método Viladot. A distribuição plantar e a flexibilidade foram avaliadas pela baropodometria e pelo banco de Wells, respectivamente. Foi observado que crianças com pés cavos apresentam maior flexibilidade quando comparadas às que têm o pé normal (p=0,02); e também que pés cavos apresentam maior pressão, ou seja, maior sobrecarga em calcâneo quando comparados àqueles com o arco plantar normal (p=0,02 membro inferior direito e p=0,03 membro inferior esquerdo). A avaliação do arco longitudinal medial mostra que crianças com pés cavos apresentam maior flexibilidade dos músculos posteriores de membro inferior. Os pés cavos também estão associados com maior descarga de peso em região de calcâneo.

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la formación del arco longitudinal del pie interfiere con la distribución de la presión plantar y la flexibilidad de los músculos posteriores del muslo. El método de estudio fue transversal y las huellas plantar se obtuvieron utilizando el plantigraph y se analizaron según el método de Viladot. La distribución plantar y la flexibilidad se evaluaron mediante baropodometría y el banco de Wells, respectivamente. Se observó que los niños con pies huecos tienen mayor flexibilidad en comparación con aquellos con pies normales (p=0,02); y también que los pies huecos tienen una mayor presión, es decir, una mayor sobrecarga del talón en comparación con aquellos con arco plantar normal (p=0,02 miembro inferior derecho y p=0,03 miembro inferior izquierdo). La evaluación del arco longitudinal medial muestra que los niños con pies huecos tienen una mayor flexibilidad en los músculos posteriores de la extremidad inferior. Los pies huecos también están asociados con una mayor descarga de peso en la región del talón.

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether the formation of the longitudinal arch of the foot interferes with the distribution of plantar pressure and the pliability of the posterior thigh muscles. Methodology: a cross-sectional study and the footprints were obtained using the footprinting mat and analyzed according to the Viladot method. Plantar distribution and pliability were assessed by baropodometry and Wells' bank, respectively. Results: It was observed that children with cavus feet present greater pliability when compared to those with normal feet (p=0.02). Also, the cavus feet exhibit higher pressure, that is, a greater heel overload compared to those with normal plantar arch (p=0.02 lower right limb and p=0.03 lower left limb). Conclusions: The evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch shows that children with cavus feet have greater pliability of the lower limb posterior muscles. The cavus feet are also associated with higher pressure in the calcaneal region.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Thigh/physiology , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Foot/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Body Height , Body Weights and Measures , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Weight-Bearing/physiology , Postural Balance/physiology , Talipes Cavus/physiopathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828986


Objective@#The objective of this report was to demonstrate the clinical application of free flow-through anterolateral thigh flaps for the treatment of high-tension electrical wrist burns.@*Methods@#We collected the data of 8 patients with high-tension electrical wrist burns admitted to Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from January 2014 to December 2018. The clinical and pathological data were extracted from electronic hospital medical records. We obtained follow-up information through clinic visits.@*Results@#The injury sites for all 8 patients were the wrists, specifically 5 right and 3 left wrists, all of which were on the flexor side. Five patients had ulnar artery embolism necrosis and patency, with injury to the radial artery. Two patients had ulnar and radial arterial embolization and necrosis. The last patient had ulnar arterial embolization and necrosis with a normal radial artery. After debridement, the wound area ranged from 12 cm × 9 cm to 25 cm × 16 cm. The diagnoses for the eight patients were type II to type III high-tension electrical wrist burns. Free flow-through anterolateral thigh flaps (combined with great saphenous vein transplantation if necessary) were used to repair the wounds. The prognosis for all patients was good after six months to one year of follow-up.@*Conclusion@#Treating wrist types II and III high-tension electrical burns is still challenging in clinical practice. The use of free flow-through anterolateral thigh flaps (combined with great saphenous vein transplantation if necessary) to repair the wound and to restore the blood supply for the hand at the same time is a good choice for treating severe wrist electrical burns.

Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Beijing , Burns, Electric , General Surgery , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Flaps , Thigh , Wound Healing , Wrist Injuries , General Surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828256


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical efficacy of silver needle lumbar and sacral spine approach in treating gluteal muscle syndrome.@*METHODS@#Eighty-seven patients with gluteal muscle syndrome treated with silver needles in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of our hospital from September 2017 to September 2019 were selected. Except for symptoms of waist and hip pain and discomfort, all selected patients were examined by CT or MRI to confirm pathological imaging changes such as inflammatory exudation of the gluteal muscle. The 87 patients with gluteal muscle syndrome were divided into 2 groups according to the digital table method, and 42 patients in the lumbosacral approach group, including 19 males and 23 females, aged (50.70±12.45) years old, and disease duration of (1.63±1.27) years;45 cases in the buttock approach group, including 20 males and 25 females, aged (52.80±12.18) years old, with a course of disease of (1.78±1.22) years. The lumbosacral approach group was treated with spinal L to S bilateral articular process joints and L transverse process acupuncture needles, and the buttock approach group was treated with the gluteus medulla wing starting point and femoral trochanter stop. The VAS scores, soft tissue tenderness thresholds, and hip abductor muscle strength of the affected group were measured before and 4 weeks after treatment in the two groups. The clinical efficacy was also evaluated 4 weeks after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After 4 weeks, the VAS score of the lumbosacral approach group was 1.26±0.70, and the buttock approach group was 1.18±0.74, which were significantly lower than those before treatment, but there was no statistical difference between the groups (>0.05). The soft tissue tenderness threshold and ipsilateral hip abductor muscle strength were (5.51±0.70) kg and (10.34±2.19) kg in the lumbosacral approach group, and (4.78±1.05) kg, (9.33±1.42) kg in the buttock approach group. The results in the lumbosacral approach group was better than those in the buttock approach group(<0.05). The clinical efficacy of the lumbosacral approach group:16 cases got an excellent result, 20 good, 5 fair and 1 poor;in the buttock approach group, 13 excellent, 17 good, 12 fair and 3 poor. The clinical efficacy between the two groups had statistical difference (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In the treatment of gluteus medius syndrome with silver needle, lumbosacral approach and buttock approach can effectively relieve the pain. Compared with the improvement of soft tissue tenderness threshold and hip abductor muscle strength, the upper lumbosacral approach is more prominent, and the overall clinical effect is more significant.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Buttocks , Muscle, Skeletal , Needles , Silver , Thigh