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2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1343, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hiperglucemia de ayuno es un factor pronóstico en cirugía. Encontrar el umbral de riesgo mayor en cirugía cardiovascular es una necesidad en la práctica médica actual. Objetivo: Estimar el umbral glucémico ideal de ayuno para un mejor pronóstico en la evolución clínica de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca, en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de enero a junio del año 2017. La muestra quedó constituida por 191 pacientes, a todos los pacientes se les determinó glucemia de ayuno. Se empleó la prueba de independencia Ji-cuadrado (X2) para evaluar la asociación entre variables. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para identificar el efecto independiente de las variables estudiadas. Además, se construyó una curva Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (por sus siglas en inglés) en la que se graficaron especificidad 1 y sensibilidad para cada punto de corte definido para los valores glucémicos. Resultados: La edad de los pacientes predominó entre 40-69 años, el sexo masculino representó 60,7 por ciento de la muestra, el 55,5 por ciento presentó glucemias normales y solo el 1,6 por ciento presentó glucemias mayores a 15 mmol/L. El 33,5 por ciento presentó algún tipo de complicación, los pacientes que presentaron complicaciones tenían la glucemia por encima de 9,9 mmol/L en el 84,4 por ciento. En el análisis multivariado solo hubo significación estadística para la aparición de complicaciones para la glucemia mayor a 10 mmol/L. Conclusiones: La hiperglucemia de ayuno se asoció a mayor riesgo de complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Fasting hyperglycemia is a prognostic factor in surgery. Finding the highest risk threshold in cardiovascular surgery is a necessity in current medical practice. Objective: To estimate the ideal fasting glycemic threshold for a better prognosis in the clinical evolution of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, at Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital from January to June 2017. The sample consisted of 191 patients; fasting blood glucose was determined in all patients. The Chi-square (X2) test of independence was used to evaluate the association between variables. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent effect of the variables studied. In addition, a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve was constructed in which 1-specificity and sensitivity were plotted for each cut-off point defined for the glycemic values. Results: The 40-69 years age of the patients predominated, the male sex represented 60.7 percent of the sample, 55.5 percent had normal blood glucose levels and only 1.6 percent showed blood glucose levels higher than 15 mmol/L. Moreover, 33.5 percent had some type of complication; the patients with complications had blood glucose levels above 9.9 mmol/L in 84.4 percent. In the multivariate analysis, there was only statistical significance for the appearance of complications for glycaemia higher than 10 mmol/L. Conclusions: Fasting hyperglycemia was associated with higher risk of complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Hyperglycemia , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
3.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1196, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347391

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirugía torácica figura entre los procedimientos quirúrgicos más dolorosos. Objetivo: Describir los resultados de la alcoholización de nervios intercostales para analgesia postoperatoria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo de pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente por afecciones torácicas durante 2018-2019. La muestra incluyó 50 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión: operados por el autor principal, mayores de 18 años, acceso intercostal y firmaron el consentimiento informado. Se excluyeron los operados por otros cirujanos o presentaron afectación de la pared torácica. La intensidad del dolor se categorizó en cuatro grupos: leve, moderado, intenso e insoportable, según escala análogo visual. Resultados: Durante la primera noche, predominaron el dolor leve (25/50 por ciento) y moderado (9/18 por ciento). El dolor intenso se presentó en dos (4 por ciento) pacientes y 14(28 por ciento) no necesitaron medicación adicional. Al día siguiente no hubo casos con dolor intenso y solo 9 acusaron dolor moderado. La analgesia peridural solo se utilizó la primera noche y al siguiente día. La tendencia a disminuir el dolor se mantuvo al segundo y tercer día. No hubo casos con dolor insoportable. A largo plazo solo un paciente presentó dolor intenso que necesitó tratamiento con bloqueos. Conclusiones: La alcoholización disminuyó el uso adicional de analgésicos. No hubo complicaciones ni dolor insoportable, por lo que consideramos que este método podría ser una alternativa segura, sobre todo cuando no se dispone de fármacos costosos o personal entrenado en las técnicas modernas de analgesia postoperatoria(AU)


Introduction: Thoracic surgery is among the most painful surgical procedures. Objective: To describe the outcomes of the alcoholization of the intercostal nerves for postoperative analgesia. Methods: A prospective, observational and descriptive study was carried out, with patients treated surgically for thoracic conditions during 2018-2019. The sample included fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria: operated by the corresponding author, older than eighteen years, intercostal access and patients who signed the informed consent. Those operated on by other surgeons or who had chest wall involvement were excluded. Pain intensity was categorized into four groups: mild, moderate, intense and unbearable, according to the analog-visual scale. Results: During the first night, mild (25: 50 percent) and moderate (9: 18 percent) pain predominated. Severe pain occurred in two (4 percent) patients, while 14 (28 percent) did not require any additional medication. The next day, there were no cases of severe pain and only nine reported moderate pain. Epidural analgesia was only used the first night and the next day. The tendency to decrease in pain was maintained on the second and third days. There were no cases with unbearable pain. In the long term, only one patient had severe pain and required, therefore, treatment with blocks. Conclusions: Alcoholization decreased the additional use of analgesics. There were no complications or unbearable pain, a reason why we consider that this method could be a safe alternative, especially when expensive drugs or personnel trained in modern postoperative analgesia techniques are not available(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Analgesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Intercostal Nerves/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Informed Consent
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e560, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093126

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las técnicas de administración de anestesia en cirugía torácica han experimentado gran evolución y mayor fundamento científico. La anestesia intravenosa total basada en la analgesia favorece a que el período perioperatorio transcurra sin dolor y la recuperación sin complicaciones. Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad y seguridad de dos técnicas de anestesia intravenosa total en cirugía torácica electiva con remifentanilo como base analgésica. Métodos: Estudio causiexperimental, prospectivo realizado en el Hospital Docente Clínico Quirúrgico Dr. Salvador Allende, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2013 a enero de 2015, en 45 pacientes, programados para cirugía torácica electiva, divididos en dos grupos según hipnótico utilizado. Grupo A: Propofol/Remifentanil y Grupo B: Midazolam/Remifentanil. Se evaluaron variables hemodinámicas en diferentes momentos del período intraoperatorio. Variables de oxigenación (PaO2 y SaO2) durante la ventilación unipulmonar y los tiempos de recuperación anestésica. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes mayores de 60 años en los dos grupos, con estado físico ASA III. No hubo diferencias en la oxigenación arterial entre los grupos. Hubo disminución de la tensión arterial sistólica en el grupo A sin diferencias significativas. La recuperación de la anestesia fue significativamente más demorada en el grupo B. Conclusiones: La técnica de anestesia intravenosa total con remifentanil como base analgésica asociado a propofol resultó segura y efectiva en pacientes operados de cirugía torácica(AU)


Introduction: Anesthesia administration techniques in thoracic surgery have undergone great evolution and greater scientific foundation. Total intravenous anesthesia based on analgesia favors the perioperative period without pain and recovery without complications. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of two techniques of total intravenous anesthesia in elective thoracic surgery with remifentanil as an analgesic base. Methods: Prospective and causiexperimental study carried out at Dr. Salvador Allende Clinical-Surgical Teaching Hospital, in the period from January 2013 to January 2015, with 45 patients scheduled for elective thoracic surgery, who were divided into two groups according to the hypnotic drug used. Group A: propofol/remifentanil, and group B: midazolam/remifentanil. Hemodynamic variables were evaluated at different times during the intraoperative period. Oxygenation variables (PaO2 and SaO2) during unipulmonary ventilation and anesthetic recovery times. Results: Patients older than 60 years predominated in the two groups, with a physical status of ASA III. There were no differences in arterial oxygenation between the groups. There was a decrease in systolic blood pressure in group A without significant differences. The recovery of anesthesia was significantly more delayed in group B. Conclusions: The total intravenous anesthesia technique with remifentanil as an analgesic base associated with propofol was safe and effective in patients undergoing thoracic surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Propofol/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, Intravenous/methods , Prospective Studies , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Remifentanil/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(2): e496, mayo.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093108

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los protocolos de recuperación mejorada o precoz, hoy en día, constituyen un eslabón fundamental cuando se habla de mejorar la calidad de la atención perioperatoria que se brinda a los enfermos en aras de disminuir la incidencia de complicaciones. Un acápite fundamental en ellos está en relación con la evaluación, optimización y el apoyo nutricional oportuno. Objetivo: Demostrar la importancia de una adecuada valoración y un oportuno apoyo nutricional perioperatorio en los enfermos programados para procedimientos quirúrgicos cardiacos, así como exponer los aspectos esenciales a considerar en relación a esta temática. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura relacionada con el tema. Desarrollo: La desnutrición es uno de los problemas más importantes, así se evidencia en una serie de publicaciones que datan desde 1976 hasta la actualidad. La evaluación del estado nutricional se debe realizar durante todo el período perioperatorio. En sus diferentes fases se describen una serie de factores de riesgos que, cuando están presentes, obligan a instaurar un apoyo nutricional precoz e intensivo por vía parenteral y/o enteral. Conclusiones: La evaluación y la optimización preoperatoria del estado nutricional es vital para una adecuada evolución perioperatoria de los enfermos, por lo que debe constituir parte indispensable de la consulta anestesiológica. El apoyo nutricional debe de ser instaurado de forma precoz una vez identificados los indicadores de riesgo en aras de disminuir la incidencia de complicaciones perioperatorias(AU)


Introduction: Enhanced or fast-track recovery protocols, nowadays, constitute a fundamental link when it comes to improving the quality of perioperative care provided to patients for reducing the incidence of complications. A fundamental section in them is related to the evaluation, optimization and timely nutritional support. Objective: To demonstrate the importance of adequate evaluation and timely perioperative nutritional support in patients scheduled for cardiac surgical procedures. Methods: We carried out a review of the literature related to the subject. Development: Malnutrition is one of the most important problems, as evidenced by a series of publications dating from 1976 to date. The evaluation of nutritional status must be carried out throughout the perioperative period. In its different phases, a series of risk factors are described and, when present, require the introduction of early and intensive parenteral and/or enteral nutritional support. Conclusions: The evaluation and preoperative optimization of the nutritional status is vital for an adequate perioperative evolution of patients, so it must be an indispensable part of the anesthesiological consultation. Nutritional support should be established early once the risk indicators have been identified, in order to reduce the incidence of perioperative complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Nutrition Assessment , Perioperative Care/education , Perioperative Care/methods , Review , Guidelines as Topic/methods
6.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 107-116, Junio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009786

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Describir los resultados actuales en cirugía cardiovascular de pacientes portadores de cardiopatía congénita (CC) intervenidos con circulación extracorpórea (CEC) en menores de un año de vida. Métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes operados de cirugía cardiovascular (CCV) en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan en el periodo comprendido 2004-2017. Se analizaron los resultados actuales en términos de morbi-mortalidad de neonatos y lactantes menores de 1 año que requirieron cirugía precoz. Se excluyeron todos los pacientes operados que no requirieron cirugía con CEC y aquellos operados que ingresaron al Área de Neonatología. El análisis de mortalidad fue realizado por riesgo estratificado con la escala de RACHS-1. Los datos se obtuvieron de la base de datos de la Unidad de Recuperación Cardiovascular (UCI 35). Resultados: El número anual de pacientes intervenidos en cirugía cardiovascular ha presentado un incremento persistente desde sus comienzos. En el año 2004 se registraron 448 casos y a partir del año 2014, en forma persistente, los pacientes intervenidos superan las 500 cirugías anuales de cardiopatías. A inicios del 2004 el 75% de las cirugías totales eran con CEC, mostrando un ascenso significativo que alcanzo el 89% durante los últimos años. Los menores de 1 años representan más del 50% de las cirugías y en promedio un 15% son neonatos. También se evidenció un importante incremento de cirugías en cardiopatías más complejas, pero se mantuvo un número estable para aquellas cirugías de complejidad intermedia. En la escala RACHS-1, el 55% de las intervenciones correspondieron a un score >3 y más del 10% para categorías 5-6. La mortalidad global fue entre 5- 6% de las cirugías realizadas, y un 15% para la cirugía neonatal. El 10% de los fallecidos eran portadores de síndromes genéticos o presentaban asociación con otras malformaciones mayores. Conclusiones: Es notorio el incremento anual en frecuencia de patologías de mayor severidad que son enfrentadas en forma precoz logrando modificar la historia natural de las cardiopatías complejas. Aumenta el riesgo de morbimortalidad en CC asociadas a síndrome genético y condición clínica desfavorable pre quirúrgica. La intervención quirúrgica correctora precoz mejoraría los resultados en término de crecimiento y desarrollo del niño portador de CC (AU)


Objectives: To describe the current results in cardiovascular surgery of patients with congenital heart defects (CHD) who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support at less than one year of life. Methods: All patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery (CVS) at the Juan P. Garrahan Pediatric Hospital between 2004 and 2017 were included. Current results regarding morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants under 1 year who required early surgery were analyzed. Patients who did not require ECMO postoperatively and those admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were excluded. Mortality analysis was performed stratified by risk using the RACHS-1 scale. Data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Recovery Unit (ICU 35) database. Results: The annual number of patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery has steadily increased since its beginning. In 2004, 448 cases were reported and as of 2014, yearly more than 500 patients undergo heart surgery. At the beginning of 2004, 75% of all surgeries were with ECMO, significantly increasing to 89% over the last few years. Children under 1 years of age account for more than 50% of surgeries and around 15% are neonates. A significant increase in surgeries in more complex heart disease was also evident, but a stable number was maintained for those surgeries of intermediate complexity. On the RACHS-1 scale, 55% of the interventions were score >3 and more than 10% were scores 5-6. Overall mortality was between 5-6% of all surgeries performed, and 15% for neonatal surgery. Of the children who died, 10% were carriers of genetic syndromes or had other major malformations. Conclusions: There was a remarkable yearly increase in frequency of more severe conditions that are managed early, modifying the natural history of complex heart disease. In CHD associated with a genetic syndrome and an unfavorable pre-surgical clinical condition the risk of morbidity and mortality is increased. Early surgical intervention may improve outcomes in terms of the growth and development of the child with CHD (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Extracorporeal Circulation , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery
7.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(1): e536, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093096

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lesión renal aguda después de una cirugía cardíaca persiste como una causa importante de morbilidad posoperatoria y la existencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en pacientes que se remiten a este tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico, es mayor. La incidencia de lesión renal aguda depende del tipo de cirugía y de la función renal previa a la operación, pero muchos son los factores que contribuyen a la manifestación de dicha lesión. Objetivos: Ampliar los conocimientos actuales sobre el paciente con insuficiencia renal aguda en relación con los aspectos principales de su incidencia después de la cirugía cardíaca asociada o no a la circulación extracorpórea y su influencia en la conducción anestésica y la conducta posoperatoria en la aparición del referido daño renal. Métodos: Se consultaron las bases de datos bibliográficas Pubmed, Hinari, Clinical Key, Lilacs, libros de textos de la especialidad y tesis doctorales de donde se extrajeron más de 25 artículos de revisión en su mayoría actualizados. Resultados: La disminución de la morbilidad y mortalidad depende del conocimiento de los factores de riesgo asociados a la aparición de insuficiencia renal aguda en el posoperatorio de la intervención quirúrgica cardiovascular, así como la preparación de las condiciones para enfrentar las posibles complicaciones. Conclusiones: La correcta elección de la técnica anestésica, la monitorización de parámetros hematológicos y clínicos en el perioperatorio mejora la recuperación, menor estadía en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y cardiología, considerable ahorro de recursos y mayor bienestar para los pacientes(AU)


Introduction: Severe renal lesion after cardiac surgery remains as an important cause of postoperative morbidity and the occurrence of non-communicable chronic diseases in patients referred for this type of surgical procedure is higher. The incidence of the severe renal lesion depends on the type of surgery and on renal functions before the operation, but many are the factors contribution to the onset of such lesion. Objectives: To expand current knowledge about patients with acute kidney failure in relation to the main aspects of their incidence after cardiac surgery or not associated with extracorporeal circulation and its influence on anesthetic conduction and postoperative behavior in the appearance of the referred kidney damage. Methods: We consulted the bibliographic databases Pubmed, Hinari, Clinical Key, Lilacs, specialty textbooks and doctoral dissertations, from which more than 25 review articles, mostly updated, were taken Results: The decrease in morbidity and mortality depends on the knowledge about risk factors associated with the onset of acute kidney failure in the postoperative period of the cardiovascular surgical intervention, as well as the preparation of the conditions to confront the possible complications. Conclusions: The correct choice of anesthetic technique, as well as the monitoring of hematological and clinical parameters in the perioperative period improves recovery, less stay in the intensive care and cardiology units, considerable saving of resources and greater well-being for patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Anesthetics , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications
8.
Rev. mex. cardiol ; 29(3): 134-143, Jul.-Sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020712

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: EuroSCORE is a probabilistic model with good performance in the prognosis of mortality in heart surgery in many latitudes. It is recommendable to validate it in hospitals where it is employed. Objective: To validate the EuroSCORE model in adult patients at the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajío (HRAEB) of León, Guanajuato, Mexico. Material and methods: We conducted an observational transversal, and retrospective study, accomplishing this through the review of the clinical files of patients submitted to heart surgery with and without extracorporeal circulation pump from 01/01/2008 to 12/31/2013 at the HRAEB. This included mortality up to hospital discharge, utilizing the on-line calculator of the EuroSCORE program to estimate risk of death. In order to validate the EuroSCORE model, we assessed discrimination and calibration through the Area Under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and χ2 test with Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) goodness-of-fit, respectively. Results: A total of 342 patients, aged 50.02 ± 16.66 years, 181 males (52.9%) and 161 women (47.1%). The area under the ROC curve of the additive model was 0.763, and of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was 5.30, with p = 0.62. The area under the ROC curve of the logistic model was 0.761 and of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, 8.78, with p = 0.36. Conclusion: The EuroSCORE model is a reliable score for estimating the probabilities of death in adult patients submitted to heart surgery with or without the pump at the HRAEB.


Resumen: Introducción: EuroSCORE es un modelo probabilístico con buen desempeño en el pronóstico de mortalidad en cirugía cardiaca en muchas latitudes. Es recomendable validarlo en los hospitales donde se emplea. Objetivo: Validar el modelo EuroSCORE en pacientes adultos en el Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajío (HRAEB) de León, Guanajuato, México. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal y retrospectivo, que se completó con la revisión de los expedientes clínicos de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca con y sin bomba de circulación extracorpórea desde el 01/01/2008 hasta el 31/12/2013 en el HRAEB. Esto incluyó la mortalidad hasta el alta hospitalaria, utilizando la calculadora en línea del programa EuroSCORE para estimar el riesgo de muerte. Para validar el modelo EuroSCORE, evaluamos la discriminación y la calibración a través de la curva de características de operación del receptor (ROC) y la prueba de χ2 con la efectividad de ajuste de Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L), respectivamente. Resultados: Un total de 342 pacientes, de 50.02 ± 16.66 años, 181 hombres (52.9%) y 161 mujeres (47.1%). El área bajo la curva ROC del modelo aditivo fue de 0.763, y la de la prueba Hosmer-Lemeshow fue de 5.30, con p = 0.62. El área bajo la curva ROC del modelo logístico fue 0.761 y de la prueba Hosmer-Lemeshow, 8.78, con p = 0.36. Conclusión: El modelo EuroSCORE es una herramienta confiable para estimar las probabilidades de muerte en pacientes adultos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca con o sin bomba en el HRAEB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Risk Adjustment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
9.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(2): 1-11, mayo.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991026

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El concepto de protocolos de recuperación rápida o precoz fue insertado en la práctica clínica por Henrik Kehlet en 1997, con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad en los cuidados perioperatorios y disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Determinar que la implementación de los protocolos en cirugía cardiaca ya no constituye una utopía. Métodos: La búsqueda bibliográfica estuvo constituida por todos los artículos publicados que evaluaron la utilidad de los protocolos de recuperación rápida o precoz. Desarrollo: Los protocolos de recuperación precoz han sido desarrollados durante décadas y abarcan un conjunto de acciones que cubren todo el periodo perioperatorio. Para lograr la completa adherencia se necesita de un equipo multidisciplinario. Su implementación comenzó en la cirugía colorectal y fueron gradualmente expandidos y adaptados a casi todas la especialidades quirúrgicas. En la cirugía cardiaca por razones no específicas, que incluyen el uso de la circulación extracorpórea, la implementación ha sido demorada pero la evidencia científica existente, aunque no es suficiente, muestra que la adherencia a estos influye de manera positiva en la recuperación de los enfermos, por lo que surge la necesidad de estandarizarlos. Conclusiones: La implementación de estos protocolos en la cardiocirugía ya es una realidad. En abril de 2017 se constituyó la sociedad responsable de dicho proceso, cuyo lema es el de optimizar los cuidados perioperatorios a través de un análisis colaborativo, el consenso de expertos y la diseminación de las mejores prácticas(AU)


Introduction: The concept of rapid or early recovery protocols was inserted into clinical practice by Henrik Kehlet in 1997, with the aim of improving the quality of perioperative care and decreasing morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine that the implementation of protocols in heart surgery is no longer a utopia. Methods: The bibliographic search was made up of all the published articles that evaluated the usefulness of the rapid or early recovery protocols. Development: Early recovery protocols have been developed for decades and comprise a set of actions that cover the entire perioperative period. A multidisciplinary team is needed to achieve complete adherence. Its implementation began in colorectal surgery and it was gradually expanded and adapted to almost all surgical specialties. In heart surgery for non-specific reasons, including the use of extracorporeal circulation, the implementation has been delayed but the existing scientific evidence, although not enough, shows that adherence to these protocols influences positively the recovery of patients; so, the need to standardize them has arisen. Conclusions: The implementation of these protocols in heart surgery is now a reality. In April 2017, the company responsible for this process was created, whose motto is to optimize perioperative care through a collaborative analysis, consensus of experts and the dissemination of best practices(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Guidelines as Topic/policies , Anesthesia, Cardiac Procedures/methods , Anesthesia Recovery Period
10.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(2): 1-10, mayo.-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991023

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor posoperatorio es un fenómeno observado con elevada frecuencia y constituye uno de los retos más importantes en el ámbito quirúrgico. Objetivo: Describir los resultados clínicos y hemodinámicos obtenidos con la utilización de anestesia peridural torácica alta como técnica analgésica durante el período posoperatorio en los pacientes intervenidos de tórax. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, prospectivo en el Hospital Abel Santamaría Cuadrado, entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2017. La muestra estuvo conformada por 37 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: Predominaron los valores normales en los que no presentaron dolor posoperatorio, con 33 ± 5,23 y 33 ± 7,86 respectivamente. Se calculó una media de saturación de oxígeno de 99,48 por ciento y frecuencia respiratoria de 16 res/min. Se evidenció que 31 pacientes (83,78 por ciento) no presentaron complicaciones posoperatorias secundarias a la técnica analgésica. En la mayoría no fue necesaria la analgesia de rescate, elemento que representó el 89,19 por ciento. Resultó significativo que 32 pacientes (86,49 por ciento), manifestaron encontrarse satisfechos con el proceder y los resultados alcanzados. Conclusiones: La aplicación de la peridural con morfina para cirugía de tórax arrojó resultados muy efectivos como método analgésico con adecuada estabilidad, mínimas complicaciones requerimientos de rescate analgésico, lo que propició satisfacción por los pacientes(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative pain is a phenomenon that appears frequently and constitutes one of the most important challenges in the surgical field. Objective: To describe the clinical and hemodynamic results obtained with the use of high thoracic epidural as analgesic technique during the postoperative period in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective study was carried out in Abel Santamaría Cuadrado Hospital, during the period between January 2014 and January 2017. The sample consisted of 37 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In blood pressure and heart rate according to analgesic response, normal values prevailed in those without postoperative pain, with 33 ± 5.23 and 33 ± 7.86 respectively. A mean of oxygen saturation of 99.48 percent and respiratory rate of 16 res/min were calculated. It was evidenced that 31 patients (83.78 percent) did not present postoperative complications after the analgesic technique. In the majority, rescue analgesia was not necessary, an element that represented 89.19 percent. It was significant that 32 patients (86.49 percent) said they were satisfied with the procedure and the results achieved. Conclusions: The application of peridural with morphine for thoracic surgery yielded very effective results as an analgesic method with adequate stability, minimal complications and analgesic rescue requirements, which led to patient satisfaction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 31(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909374

ABSTRACT

A Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia, pelo Núcleo Vida de Ecocardiografia Transesofágica Intraoperatória (ETTI/SBA) juntamente com o Departamento de Imagem Cardiovascular da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (DIC/SBC), fez uma força-tarefa para normatizar a feitura da ecocardiografia transesofágica intraoperatória para os anestesiologistas e ecocardiografistas brasileiros com base nas evidências científicas da Sociedade dos Anestesiologistas Cardiovasculares/Sociedade Americana de Ecocardiografia (SCA/ASE) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesiology/methods , Anesthesiology/standards , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/standards , Aortic Valve , Brazil , Esophagus , Evidence-Informed Policy , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Heart , Heart Atria , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods , Mitral Valve , Prospecting Probe , Pulmonary Artery , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Tricuspid Valve
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913926

ABSTRACT

A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia mais frequentemente encontrada após cirurgia cardíaca. Embora geralmente autolimitada, representa um importante preditor de aumento de morbimortalidade e de custos aos sistemas de saúde. Numerosos estudos tentaram determinar os mecanismos associados à fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório com resultados variados. Uma fisiopatologia multifatorial é sugerida, sendo o processo inflamatório e a ativação simpática adrenérgica do período pós-operatório reconhecidos como importantes fatores de contribuição. O tratamento é dificultado pela escassez de dados relativos aos resultados de diferentes intervenções terapêuticas nessa população. Este artigo analisa a literatura cujo foco sejam as intervenções para prevenir a fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório


Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly found arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Although usually self-limiting, it represents an important predictor of increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the underlying mechanisms of postoperative atrial fibrillation with different results. A multifactorial pathophysiology is suggested, with inflammation and postoperative adrenergic activation recognized as important contributing factors. The management is complicated by a lack of data on the outcomes of different therapeutic interventions in this population. This article reviews the literature focusing on interventions to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Disease Prevention , Postoperative Period , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Oxidative Stress , Risk Factors , Sotalol/therapeutic use
13.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(1): 17-19, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905677

ABSTRACT

A cirurgia minimamente invasiva é segura e eficaz no tratamento de diversas afecções cardíacas, com evolução intra-hospitalar bastante positiva. Descrevemos aqui o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, com 72 anos de idade, portador de comunicação interatrial com shunt bidirecional e bloqueio atrioventricular avançado com síncope. Foi contraindicado o fechamento da comunicação interatrial e indicado marcapasso dupla-câmara com cabos-eletrodos epicárdicos em decorrência da presença do shunt. O procedimento foi realizado por meio de minitoracotomia direita, com implante de cabos-eletrodos atrial e ventricular direitos bipolares, com gerador implantado em loja subcutânea na região infraclavicular direita. O paciente apresentou boa evolução, recebendo alta no quarto dia de pós-operatório em boas condições


Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is safe and effective in the treatment of a wide range of cardiac diseases, with very positive in-hospital outcomes. We describe the case of a 72-year-old male patient, with atrial septal defect, bidirectional shunt and advanced atrioventricular block with syncope. The atrial septal defect closure was contraindicated and he was referred for a dual-chamber pacemaker and epicardial leads implantation due to the presence of shunt. The patient underwent a right minithoracotomy with the implantation of bipolar atrial and ventricular leads and placement of a pacemaker generator in a subcutaneous envelope in the right infraclavicular region. The patient evolved well and was discharged on the fourth postoperative day in good conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Pacemaker, Artificial , Pericardium , Thoracotomy/methods , Electrodes , Heart Atria , Heart Block/therapy , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/therapy , Thoracic Surgery/methods
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(1): f:63-l:70, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883773

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Complicações cardiovasculares e pulmonares ocorrem com frequência no período pós-operatório imediato e podem ser prevenidas e/ou tratadas através da utilização de técnicas de expansão pulmonar. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia das técnicas de expansão pulmonar nos níveis séricos de lactato arterial e oxigenação de pacientes nesta fase de recuperação cirúrgica. Método: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e analítico em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, estáveis hemodinamicamente. Medidas de nível de lactato e pressão parcial de oxigênio foram obtidas através da coleta do sangue arterial antes e após as técnicas de expansão pulmonar, como manobra de recrutamento alveolar e respiração por pressão positiva intermitente. Resultados: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes com idade média de 51,1 ± 14,9 anos, sendo que 55% eram do sexo feminino. Pode-se observar diferença estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) na comparação dos valores do baseline e pós-intervenção para o lactato arterial, índice de oxigenação, fração inspirada e na saturação de oxigênio em ambos os procedimentos. Para o desfecho pressão arterial de oxigênio, somente o grupo que realizou respiração por pressão positiva intermitente obteve melhora significativa. Conclusão: As técnicas de expansão pulmonar utilizadas contribuíram na redução do nível de lactato arterial, na melhora da oxigenação e na saturação de oxigênio desta população, mas não alterou o tempo de internamento na unidade de terapia intensiva


Background: Cardiovascular and pulmonary complications often occur in the immediate post- surgery period and may be prevented and/or treated with lung expansion techniques. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of lung expansion techniques in serum arterial lactate levels and oxygenation in patients in this surgical recovery phase. Method: A prospective and analytical study was carried out in postoperative cardiac surgery patients, hemodynamically stable. Measurements of artery lactate levels and partial pressure of oxygen were obtained from arterial blood samples drawn before and after lung expansion techniques, including alveolar recruiting maneuver and intermittent positive pressure breathing. Results: 40 patients with average age of 51.1 ± 14.9 years, 55% female, were included. It is possible to observe the statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the comparison between values of baseline and post-operative arterial lactate, oxygen level, oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen in both procedures. In relation to the outcome of oxygen blood pressure, only the group on intermittent positive pressure breathing achieved significant improvement. Conclusion: The lung expansion techniques used have contributed with the reduction of lactate level, improvement in oxygenation and oxygen saturation in this population, but did not alter intensive care unit length of stay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Oxygenation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Postoperative Care/methods , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/complications , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical
15.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 40-45, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899654

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Los pacientes intervenidos de cirugía cardíaca presentan riesgo elevado de ser transfundidos con sangre durante el postoperatorio, debido al descenso de sus cifras de hemoglobina y hematocrito. Una de las alternativas a la transfusión sanguínea es el uso del recuperador celular intraquirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar si el uso del recuperador celular intraquirúgico disminuye la tasa transfusional durante el postoperatorio inmediato. También se ven las complicaciones postquirúrgicas inmediatas en ambos grupos. Material y Métodos Estudio analítico, prospectivo con dos cohortes de pacientes distribuidos en grupo control (162) y grupo intervención (162). Se analizarón variables sociodemográficas, de sus diagnósticos y tratamientos quirúrgicos, tiempos de isquemia cardíaca, hemoglobina, hematocrito, transfusión sanguínea y hemorragias, así como variables propias del recuperador celular. Las complicaciones estudiadas fueron; hemoglobinuria, fiebre, náuseas y vómitos. Se obtuvo el consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes y se sometió los datos al paquete estadístico SPSS versión 22.0. Resultados Las cifras de hemoglobina y hematocrito de los pacientes después de ser intervenido quirúrgicamente, fueron diferentes entre los grupos respectivamente (GC, 8,3 g/dL, 22,8%. GI,10,4 g/dL, 31,1%). Coincidiendo que los mayores transfundidos fueron los del grupo control (18,2%) frente al grupo intervención (3,9%). El grupo que presentó mayor complicación fue el grupo intervención (13,6%) que eran los que utilizaron el recuperador celular. Siendo la hemoglobinuria (82%) la mayor complicación. Conclusiones Los pacientes que utilizaron el recuperador celular disminuyeron la necesidad transfusional, sin embargo, fueron los que mayor incidencia de hemoglobinuria padecieron.


Objetive Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk of being transfused with blood during the postoperative period, due to the decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. One of the alternatives to blood transfusion is the use of the intraoperative cell saver. The objective of this study was to identify whether the use of the intra-uremic cell saver decreases the transfusional rate during the immediate postoperative period. The immediate postoperative complications were also demonstrated in both groups. Material and Methods Analytical, prospective study with two cohorts of patients distributed in control group (162) and intervention group (162). Sociodemographic variables, their diagnoses and surgical treatments, time of cardiac ischemia, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood transfusion and haemorrhages, as well as variables specific to the cell saver were analyzed. The complications studied were; haemoglobinuria, fever, nausea and vomiting. The informed consent of all the patients was obtained and the data was submitted to the statistical package SPSS version 22.0. Results The haemoglobin and haematocrit values of patients after surgery were different between groups (GC, 8.3 g/dl, 22.8%, GI, 10.4 g/dl, 31.1 g %). Coinciding that the major transfused were those of the control group (18.2%) versus the intervention group (3.9%). The group that presented the greatest complication was the intervention group (13.6%) who were those who used the cell saver. Hemoglobinuria (82%) being the major complication. Conclusions Patients who used the cell saver decreased the need for transfusion, but were the ones with the highest incidence of hemoglobinuria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Blood Transfusion, Autologous/methods , Blood Transfusion , Prospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Operative Blood Salvage/methods , Observational Study , Intraoperative Period
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(4): f:307-l:312, jul.-ago 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846789

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Escores de risco avaliam risco pré-operatório e permitem definir cuidados durante a intervenção, porém a performance destes instrumentos em amostras distintas das originais é pouco investigada. Objetivos: Testar a validade externa de escores de risco cirúrgico cardíaco (STS e Euroscore) e investigar o poder preditivo de características clínicas da amostra. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo realizado entre outubro de 2010 e abril de 2015. Fatores de risco para morbidade hospitalar foram identificados através de regressão logística. A amostra foi separada para validação cruzada, com 2/3 dos pacientes usados no ajuste do modelo e 1/3 para predições. A performance do STS, do Euroscore e de variáveis clínicas na amostra foi avaliada através de estatística-C (área sob a curva ROC) e calibração através do pelo de Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L). Resultados: 72 pacientes foram operados de doença arterial coronariana no Hospital Santa Izabel da Santa Casa, BA. A idade média foi 62,8 anos e 32,5% eram mulheres. Os escores de risco não apresentaram poder discriminativo significativo para amostra. Os fatores identificados como preditores independentes para o desfecho foram: idade, revascularização prévia e creatinina prévia. O modelo ajustado apresentou valores de discriminação e calibração semelhantes no ajuste (AUROC = 0,72; IC 95% 0,59-0,84; H-L valor p: 0,410) e na validação cruzada (AUROC = 0,70; IC 95% 0,55 - 0,84; H-L valor p: 0,197). Conclusão: Escores de risco apresentaram desempenho insatisfatório. Variáveis clínicas permitiram a construção de um modelo com boa performance para predição de morbidade nos pacientes operados de revascularização


Introduction: Risk scores evaluate pre-operatory risk and present support for clinical decisions, however the performance of these tools in samples different from the original ones remains unclear. Objectives: Investigate the external validity of risk scores (STS and Euroscore) in cardiac surgery and the predictive performance of clinical features derived from the sample. Methods: Retrospective Cohort study conducted between October,2010, and April, 2015. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for hospital morbidity. The sample was divided for cross-validation, with 2/3 of the patients selected for model fitting and 1/3 for prediction testing. The performance of risk scores and clinical features was evaluated through AUROC and calibraton the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (H-L). Results: Data was retrieved from 472 patients who underwent coronary cardiac surgery in Hospital Santa Izabel da Santa Casa, BA. Mean age was 62.8 years old and 32.5% of the sample were women. Traditional surgical risk scores did not present significant discriminative performance for this sample. Factors associated with the outcome after adjusting for covariates were: age, previous myocardial revascularization and presurgical creatinine levels. The adjusted model presented similar discrimination and calibration values during training (AUROC = 0,72; IC 95% 0,59-0,84; H-L valor p: 0,41) and validation (AUROC = 0,70; IC 95% 0,55 - 0,84; H-L valor p: 0,197) Conclusion: Traditional scores may be inaccurate when applied to different environments. New risk scores with good predictive power can be developed using local clinical variables


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Age Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Data Interpretation, Statistical
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(2): f:123-l:127, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833909

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares têm aumentado em todo o mundo nas últimas décadas devido ao aumento na ocorrência de fatores desencadeantes. No período pós-operatório de cirurgia cardiovascular, os pacientes experimentam um declínio funcional, que pode ser potencializado pelo tempo de internação hospitalar. Portanto, é importante avaliar a capacidade funcional destes pacientes. Objetivo: Comparar o tempo de internação hospitalar com a velocidade da marcha em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Método: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, realizado no Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia (Incardio) da Santa Casa de Misericórdia (Feira de Santana, Bahia). Na alta hospitalar, todos os pacientes foram avaliados com o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6). O tempo de internação hospitalar no período pós-operatório foi também registrado no momento da avaliação e correlacionado com a velocidade da marcha. Utilizamos o teste de KolmogorovSmirnov para avaliar a suposição de normalidade e a correlação de Spearman para correlacionar a velocidade da marcha com a idade, tempo de hospitalização e com a duração da circulação extracorpórea (CEC) e da ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI). Todas as conclusões foram baseadas em um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Ao todo, 64 pacientes foram incluídos (33 homens [51,5%], idade média 57,2 ± 14,06 anos). A distância média percorrida pelos pacientes foi de 375,8 ± 197,6 metros, a média da velocidade da marcha foi de 0,98 ± 0,53 m/s e a média de permanência hospitalar foi de 8,2 ± 2,3 dias. Foi observada uma fraca correlação entre o tempo de internação hospitalar e a velocidade da marcha (r = 0,27 e p = 0,02). Conclusão: A duração da hospitalização mostrou uma fraca correlação com a velocidade da marcha na alta hospitalar em uma amostra de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca


Background: Cardiovascular diseases have been increasing worldwide in recent decades due to the increased occurrence of triggering factors. In the postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery, patients experience a functional decline, which may be potentiated by the length of hospital stay. Therefore, it is important to evaluate these patients' functional capacity. Objective: To compare the length of hospital stay with the gait speed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery Method: Prospective, cohort study carried out at the Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia (Incardio) at Santa Casa de Misericórdia (Feira de Santana, Bahia). Upon discharge, all patients were evaluated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The length of hospital stay in the postoperative period was also recorded at the same time and correlate with the gait speed. We used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to evaluate the assumption of normality, and Spearman's correlation to correlate the gait velocity with age, length of hospital stay, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). All conclusions were based on a significance level of 5%. Results: In all, 64 patients were included (33 males [51.5%], mean age 57.2 ± 14.06 years). The mean distance walked by the patients was 375.8 ± 197.6 meters, the mean gait speed was 0.98 ± 0.53 m/s, and the mean hospital stay was 8.2 ± 2.3 days. A weak correlation was observed between the length of hospital stay and gait speed (r = 0.27 and p = 0.02). Conclusion: The length of hospital stay correlated weakly with the gait speed upon hospital discharge in a sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Extracorporeal Circulation , Hospitalization/trends , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Outflow Velocity Measurement , Walking , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Sex Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical
18.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(1): 14-19, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836936

ABSTRACT

Com o envelhecimento populacional, o implante percutâneo de bioprótese valvular aórtica (TAVI, sigla em inglês) vem ganhando espaço no tratamento da estenose aórtica em indivíduos de maior risco operatório. A seleção do paciente para intervenção, no atual momento, leva em consideração risco cirúrgico, comorbidades, fragilidade e patologias que contraindicam o procedimento operatório, além de exames de imagem, tais como a tomografia de tórax, que tem papel importante na avaliação anatômica da válvula aórtica, aorta e seus ramos, e auxilia a escolha da via de acesso, da prótese adequada e a predição de complicações. A avaliação do Heart Team é imprescindível e desaconselha-se a realização do TAVI em locais desprovidos desse grupo. Desta forma, apesar de complexa, a avaliação e seleção do paciente adequado pode reduzir de maneira signficativa a morbidade e a mortalidade do procedimento e se faz estritamente necessária


With the aging of the population, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained popularity in the treatment of aortic stenosis in individuals with higher operative risk. The patient selection for intervention, at the present time, takes into account surgical risk, comorbidities, frailty and pathologies that contraindicate the surgical procedure, as well as imaging tests, such as computed tomography of the chest, which plays an important role in the anatomical evaluation of the aortic valve, the aorta and its branches, assisting in the choice of access route and appropriate prosthesis, and the prediction of complications. Evaluation by the Heart Team is imperative, and it is not advisable to perform TAVI in services that do not have this group. Thus, although complex, evaluation and selection of the appropriate patient can significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of the procedure, and is essential


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Patients , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy , Prognosis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods
19.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 27: [1-6], jan.-dez. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-979979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cirurgia torácica caminha para realização de procedimentos menos invasivos e mórbidos, com objetivo de poupar parênquima pulmonar. Dados da literatura sugerem que a lobectomia por VATS (videoassisted thoracic surgery) apresenta menos complicações que a cirurgia aberta. Objetivo: Analisar os aspectos táticos e técnicos relacionados a diferentes tipos de ressecção pulmonar anatômica, realizadas por videotoracoscopia. Métodos: Estudo de caso de 26 pacientes operados pela equipe de cirurgia de tórax do Hospital Luxemburgo (Instituto Mário Penna), Hospital Mater Dei em Belo Horizonte. Resultados: A taxa de conversão para operação convencional foi de 15,38%, tendo por complicação pós-operatória dois casos de pneumonia nosocomial e nenhum óbito. Conclusão: A VATS tende a se tornar um procedimento cada vez mais comum na condução de afecções do tórax, todavia, devese sempre ter disponível material para toracotomia, já que a conversão é uma opção para solucionar intercorrência. (AU)


Introduction: Thoracic surgery walks to perform less invasive, morbid and goal of saving lung parenchyma procedures. Published data suggest that VATS (video-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy for has fewer complications than open surgery. Objectives: To analyze the tactical and technical aspects related to different types of anatomical lung resection performed by thoracoscopy. Methods: A case study in 26 patients operated by the team of thoracic surgery at the Hospital Luxemburgo (Instituto Mário Penna), Hospital Mater Dei and in Belo Horizonte. Results: The conversion rate for conventional surgery was 15.38%, two cases of pneumonia and no deaths due to postoperative complications. Conclusion: VATS tends to become an increasingly common procedure in the management of chest affections, however thoracotomy material must always be available, since conversion is an option to resolve intercurrence. (AU)


Subject(s)
Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Pneumonectomy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Thoracic Surgery/instrumentation , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Thoracoscopy , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/statistics & numerical data
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(5): f:385-l:389, set.-out. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832723

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A cirurgia cardíaca pode levar a um declínio da função pulmonar e periférica. O EuroSCORE avalia o risco da cirurgia cardíaca, e a mensuração da independência funcional verifica a capacidade para desempenhar atividades funcionais. Objetivo: Identificar a correlação entre uma escala de risco cardíaco e a funcionalidade de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal prospectivo, realizado com pacientes submetidos à avaliação da funcionalidade no período pré-operatório, por meio da mensuração da independência funcional e de avaliação pelo EuroSCORE, afim de estabelecer o nível de risco para a cirurgia cardíaca. Após o procedimento cirúrgico, no primeiro dia após alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, a mensuração da independência funcional foi reavaliada e comparada com o valor inicial. Resultados: Incluímos 52 pacientes (55,8% homens) com média de idade de 56,9 ± 14,2 anos. A média da mensuração da independência funcional pré-operatória foi de 125,4 e a pós-operatória 106,78. Foi aplicado o teste t, que mostrou redução significativa entre os períodos analisados, com o valor de p = 0,000. Ao correlacionar os valores da mensuração da independência funcional pós-operatória com o risco cardíaco, observou-se relação importante, sendo p = 0,006 e r = -0.37. Conclusão: Uma avaliação pré-operatória demonstrando um maior risco cardíaco tem impacto negativo sobre a funcionalidade de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca


Background: Cardiac surgery can lead to a decline in lung and peripheral function. EuroSCORE is a scale that assesses cardiac surgery risk and the measurement of functional independence evaluates the ability to perform functional activities. Objective: To identify the correlation between a cardiac risk scale and functionality in patients undergoing CS. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study, carried out with patients submitted to functional evaluation in the preoperative period, through the measurement of functional independence and evaluation by the EuroSCORE, to establish the level of risk for cardiac surgery. After the surgical procedure, on the first day after discharge from the intensive care unit, the functional independence measurement (FIM) was reevaluated and compared to the initial value. Results: We included 52 patients (55.8% men) with a mean age of 56.9 ± 14.2 years. The mean preoperative and postoperative FIM values were 125.4 and 106.78. The t test was performed, which showed a significant reduction between the analyzed periods, with a value of p = 0.000. By correlating the postoperative FIM values with the cardiac risk, it was observed that there was an important association, with p = 0.006 and r = -0.37. Conclusion: We concluded that a preoperative assessment showing an increased cardiac risk has a negative impact on the functionality of patients undergoing cardiac surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Aortic Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve/surgery , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Patient Care/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome
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