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Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 397-400, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922707


We reported two cases of jockeys who sustained fracture/dislocation of the mid-thoracic spine due to traumatic falls during horse racing. We examined the injury mechanism based upon the patients' diagnostic images and video footage of races, in which the accidents occurred. Admission imaging of patient 1 (a 42 years old male) revealed T5 burst fracture with bony retropulsion of 7 mm causing complete paralysis below T5/6. There existed 22° focal kyphosis at T5/6, anterolisthesis of T5 relative to T6, T5/6 disc herniation, cord edema and epidural hemorrhage from T4 through T6, and cord injury from C3 through C6. Admission imaging of patient 2 (a 23 years old male) revealed T4/5 fracture/dislocation causing incomplete paralysis below spinal level. There existed compression fractures at T5, T6, and T7; 4 mm anterior subluxation of T4 on T5; diffuse cord swelling from T3 through T5; comminuted fracture of the C1 right lateral mass; right frontal traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage; and extensive diffuse axonal injury. The injuries were caused by high energy flexion-compression of the mid-thoracic spine with a flexed posture upon impact. Our results suggest that substantially greater cord compression occurred transiently during trauma as compared to that documented from admission imaging. Video footage of the accidents indicated that the spine buckled and failed due to abrupt pocketing and deceleration of the head, neck and shoulders upon impact with the ground combined with continued forward and downward momentum of the torso and lower extremities. While a similar mechanism is well known to cause fracture/dislocation of the cervical spine, it is less common and less understood for mid-thoracic spine injuries. Our study provides insight into the etiology of fracture/dislocation patterns of the mid-thoracic spine due to falls during horse racing.

Accidental Falls , Animals , Horses , Humans , Joint Dislocations , Male , Spinal Cord Injuries/etiology , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Spinal Injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879392


OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of cement-augmented pedicle screw combined with vertebroplasty in treating Kümmell disease with type Ⅲ.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to December 2018, 37 patients with type Ⅲ Kümmell disease were retrospectively analyzed, including 11 males and 26 females, aged from 61 to 84 years old with an average of (68.6±4.2) years old, and the courses of disease ranged from 2 to 10 months with an average of(6.5±2.3) months. Nine patients were grade C, 20 patients were grade D and 8 patients were grade E according to Frankle grading. All patients were treated by cement-augmented pedicle screw combined with vertebroplasty. Operation time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, hospital stay and complicationswere observed after oeprtaion. Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry Disability Index(ODI), height of anterior vertebral body, Cobb angle before and after operation were compared.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up from 12 to 60 months with an average of (22.4±10.9) months. Operation time was (240.9±77.4) min, blood loss was (315.0±149.2) ml, postoperative drainage was (220.8±72.0) ml, hospital stay was (12.6±4.7) days. One patient occurred incision redness and 1 patient occurred infection after opertaion. No loosening of bone cement occurred. Postopertaive VAS and ODI were lower than that of before opertaion(@*CONCLUSION@#Cement-augmented pedicle screw combined with vertebroplasty is a safe and effective method for the tretament of Kümmell disease with type Ⅲ.

Aged , Bone Cements , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Infant , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Male , Pedicle Screws , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Treatment Outcome , Vertebroplasty
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 181-188, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362393


Introduction The AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification (AOSTSIC) system has been proposed to better characterize injury morphologies and improve the classification of thoracolumbar (TL) spine trauma. However, the indications for surgical treatment according to the AOSTSIC system are still debated. Additionally, the proposed Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score (AOSIS) is quite complex, which may preclude its use in daily practice. The objective of this reviewis to discuss the AOSTSIC systemand its indications for initial nonoperative versus surgical management of acute TL spine trauma. Methods We analyzed the literature for each injury type (and subtype, when pertinent) according to the AOSTSIC system as well as their potential treatment options. Results Patients with AOSTSIC subtypes A0, A1, and A2 are neurologically intact in the vast majority of the cases and initially managed nonoperatively. The treatment of A3- and A4-subtype injuries (burst fractures) in neurologically-intact patients is still debated with great controversy, with initially nonoperative management being considered an option in select patients. Surgery is recommended when there are neurological deficits or failure of nonoperativemanagement,with the role of magnetic resonance findings in the Posterior Ligamentous Complex (PLC) evaluation still being considered controversial. Injuries classified as type B1 in neurologically-intact patients may be treated, initially, with nonoperative management, provided that there are no ligamentous injury and non-displacing fragments. Due to severe ligamentous injury, type-B and type-C injuries should be considered as unstable injuries that must be surgically treated, regardless of the neurological status of the patient. Conclusions Until further evidence, we provided an easy algorithm-based guide on the spinal trauma literature to help surgeons in the decision-making process for the treatment of TL spine injuries classified according to the new AOSTSIC system.

Spinal Injuries/classification , Thoracic Injuries/classification , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 85(2): 119-124, jun. 2020. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1125548


Introducción: La acrobacia en tela es una práctica circense con muchos adeptos en la población urbana. Consiste en sostenerse en altura tomado por dos extremos de tela, para realizar posturas fijas y cambiar entre ellas mediante deslizamiento y caídas. La práctica profesional no está libre de lesiones. Objetivo: Conocer la naturaleza de la lesión, reconocer los factores predisponentes de lesión y las medidas de prevención utilizadas, evaluar la cinemática, clasificar la lesión y analizar el tratamiento. Materiales y Métodos: Se incluyeron seis pacientes. Se evaluaron la estructura física personal, la cinemática de la caída, los sistemas de protección, la clasificación de las fracturas según la nueva clasificación AO, el cuadro neurológico, el tratamiento y las complicaciones. Resultados: La muestra incluyó a 6 mujeres, con un promedio de edad de 24 años y un índice de masa corporal de 19,29. Caída de 3,08 m de altura, cuatro con colchoneta <5 cm. Las lesiones principales fueron: 6 A1, 4 B2 y 1C. No se observaron déficits neurológicos. Cuatro pacientes fueron sometidas a cirugía. Conclusiones: La práctica de acrobacia en tela es una actividad circense de reciente aparición global. Las mujeres están más expuestas a las lesiones. El entrenamiento riguroso y el empleo de elementos de seguridad son necesarios para evitar las lesiones. No se observó un patrón único de lesión, la causa fue multifactorial. El tratamiento indicado depende de la lesión vertebral. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Aerial silk is a circus practice that has become very popular in urban populations. It involves hanging from two pieces of fabric in order to make fixed positions and change between them by sliding and dropping from different heights. The professional practice is not free of injuries. Objective: To learn the nature of the injury, to recognize the injury predisposing factors and the safety measures used, to study the kinematics, to classify the injury, and to analyze the treatment. Materials and Methods: Six patients were included. The evaluation included individual body structure, drop kinematics, safety measures, classification of fractures according to the new AO classification, neurological symptoms, treatment, and complications. Results: The study included six female patients, averaging 24 years, a body mass index of 19.29 and a fall from 3.08m, 4 of which included mattress <5cm. The main injuries classification resulted in 6 A1, 4 B2 and 1 C. No neurological deficit was found. Four patients underwent surgical treatment. Conclusions: Aerial silk is a circus activity that has recently become a worldwide practice. Women are more exposed. Rigorous training and the use of safety elements are necessary to avoid injuries. We did not observe a unique pattern of injury, because of its multifactorial cause. The therapeutic decision-making is related to the spinal injury. Level of Evidence: IV

Athletic Injuries , Spinal Injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures , Gymnastics/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(4): 217-224, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284943


Resumen: Introducción: Las técnicas de fijación transpedicular percutánea son una herramienta emergente en el tratamiento del trauma espinal, sin embargo, su uso no es totalmente aceptado. Objetivo: Comparar resultados en pacientes con fractura vertebral traumática que fueron tratados con cirugía de fijación transpedicular percutánea versus fijación transpedicular abierta. Material y métodos: De Enero a Diciembre de 2016, 15 pacientes con fractura vertebral traumática fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: el grupo A fue de seis pacientes tratados con fijación transpedicular percutánea y el grupo B fue de seis pacientes tratados con fijación transpedicular con técnica abierta; tres pacientes fueron eliminados. Se evaluó el sangrado transoperatorio, el dolor postoperatorio con la escala visual análoga a las 24 horas y a las dos semanas del postoperatorio; también se evaluó el índice de discapacidad de dolor lumbar Oswestry a seis semanas, además de tres, seis, 12 y 24 meses del postoperatorio. Resultado: El seguimiento fue de 24 meses. Se reportaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el sangrado transoperatorio (p 2.43E-05), EVA al primer día (p < 0.0003), EVA a las dos semanas (p = 0.01); también en el cuestionario de discapacidad de dolor lumbar Oswestry a las seis semanas (p = 0.0007), tres meses (p = 0.005), seis meses (p = 0.005), 12 meses (p = 0.01) y 24 meses (p = 0.004). No se observaron diferencias significativas con respecto al tiempo operatorio (p = 0.12). Discusión: En nuestro trabajo encontramos que el sangrado transoperatorio, dolor postoperatorio y discapacidad funcional son significativamente menores en el grupo de fijación transpedicular percutánea.

Abstract: Introduction: Percutaneous transpedicular fixation techniques are an emerging tool in the treatment of spinal trauma, however, their use is not fully accepted. Objective: Compare results in patients with traumatic vertebral fracture, treated with percutaneous transpedicular fixation surgery versus open transpedicular fixation. Material and methods: From January to December 2016, 15 patients with traumatic vertebral fracture were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A were six treated with percutaneous transpedicular fixation, group B were treated with open technique transpedicular fixation, three patients were eliminated. Transoperative bleeding, postoperative pain with the 24-hour and two-week postoperative visual scale, the six-week Oswestry lumbar pain disability index, and three, six, 12 and 24 months of postoperative control were evaluated. Results: The follow-up was 24 months. Statistically significant differences in transoperative bleeding (p 2.43E-05), EVA on the first day (p < 0.0003), EVA at two weeks (p = 0.01) were reported in the Oswestry lumbar pain disability questionnaire at six weeks (p = 0.0007), three months (p = 0.005), six months (p = 0.005), 12 months (p = 0.01) and 24 months (p = 0.004), no significant differences were observed with respect to operating time (p = 0.12). Discussion: In our work we find that transoperative bleeding, postoperative pain and functional disability are significantly minor in the percutaneous transpedicular fixation group.

Humans , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Treatment Outcome , Lumbar Vertebrae
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(3): 216-223, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1020336


Introducción: Las lesiones del saco dural con atrapamiento de la cauda equina entre los fragmentos óseos pueden estar asociadas con fracturas toracolumbares. Objetivo: Realizar un análisis retrospectivo de las variables clínico-radiográficas y el sistema de clasificación AOSpine y la posibilidad de lesión dural asociada en una serie de fracturas toracolumbares por estallido, tratadas en nuestro Centro. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional de una serie de pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares con compromiso del muro posterior operados en nuestra institución, entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2017. Resultados: Se incluyeron 46 pacientes, 16 casos con lesión del saco dural asociada. Las variables porcentaje de ocupación del canal, distancia interpedicular, ángulo del fragmento retropulsado y déficit neurológico asociado mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas según la comparación en función de la presencia o ausencia de lesión dural (p = 0,046, p = 0,007, p = 0,046 y p = 0,004, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Según nuestros resultados, la lesión dural traumática podría ser contemplada en la planificación del tratamiento de fracturas toracolumbares ante fragmentos voluminosos del muro posterior con ángulo agudo, compromiso severo del canal raquídeo, distancia interpedicular elevada y daño neurológico asociado, tal como se propone en la bibliografía. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Fractures of the thoracolumbar spine can trigger thecal sac injuries due to the impingement of the cauda equina between bone fragments. Objective: To carry out a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological variables, the AOSpine Classification System and the possibility of secondary thecal sac injury in a series of thoracolumbar burst fractures treated at our center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study of a series of patients with thoracolumbar fractures with compromise of the posterior vertebral body wall, who underwent surgery at our center between January 2012 and December 2017. Results: Forty-six patients were included, 16 of which had secondary thecal sac injury. The differences in the variables-percentage of spinal canal involvement, interpedicular distance, angle of the retropulsed fragment, neurological deficit and type C fractures-were statistically significant according to the comparison made with the presence or absence of thecal sac injury (p=0.046, p=0.007, p=0.046, p=0.004, p=0,001 respectively). Conclusions: This study suggests that traumatic thecal sac injury could be suspected when managing burst fractures with prominent fragments in the posterior vertebral body wall, acute angle of the retropulsed fragment, severe compression of the spinal canal, wide interpedicular distance, neurological deficit and fracture displacement (fracture type C according to the AOSpine Classification System). Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Spinal Injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures/classification , Dura Mater/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries
Clinics ; 72(10): 609-617, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890680


OBJECTIVES: No studies have compared monoaxial and polyaxial pedicle screws with regard to the von Mises stress of the instrumentation, intradiscal pressures of the adjacent segment and adjacent segment degeneration. METHODS: Short-segment monoaxial/polyaxial pedicle screw fixation techniques were compared using finite element methods, and the redistributed T11-L1 segment range of motion, largest maximal von Mises stress of the instrumentation, and intradiscal pressures of the adjacent segment under displacement loading were evaluated. Radiographic results of 230 patients with traumatic thoracolumbar fractures treated with these fixations were reviewed, and the sagittal Cobb's angle, vertebral body angle, anterior vertebral body height of the fractured vertebrae and adjacent segment degeneration were calculated and evaluated. RESULTS: The largest maximal values of the von Mises stress were 376.8 MPa for the pedicle screws in the short-segment monoaxial pedicle screw fixation model and 439.9 MPa for the rods in the intermediate monoaxial pedicle screw fixation model. The maximal intradiscal pressures of the upper adjacent segments were all greater than those of the lower adjacent segments. The maximal intradiscal pressures of the monoaxial pedicle screw fixation model were larger than those in the corresponding segments of the normal model. The radiographic results at the final follow-up evaluation showed that the mean loss of correction of the sagittal Cobb's angle, vertebral body angle and anterior vertebral body height were smallest in the intermediate monoaxial pedicle screw fixation group. Adjacent segment degeneration was less likely to be observed in the intermediate polyaxial pedicle screw fixation group but more likely to be observed in the intermediate monoaxial pedicle screw fixation group. CONCLUSION: Smaller von Mises stress in the pedicle screws and lower intradiscal pressure in the adjacent segment were observed in the polyaxial screw model than in the monoaxial pedicle screw fixation spine models. Fracture-level fixation could significantly correct kyphosis and reduce correction loss, and adjacent segment degeneration was less likely to be observed in the intermediate polyaxial pedicle screw fixation group.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Pedicle Screws , Fracture Fixation, Internal/instrumentation , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Pressure , Thoracic Vertebrae/physiopathology , Thoracic Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Biomechanical Phenomena , Radiography , Trauma Severity Indices , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Range of Motion, Articular , Spinal Fractures/physiopathology , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Finite Element Analysis , Equipment Design , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/physiopathology , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(3): 348-353, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899986


La Osteogénesis imperfecta (OI) es una enfermedad hereditaria del tejido conectivo, que se caracteriza principalmente por fragilidad ósea, deformidad y alteración del crecimiento. La OI tipo I (OI tipo I) es la más frecuente, leve y clínicamente homogénea. Su mayor complicación es la presencia de fracturas vertebrales, asociadas a morbilidad esquelética y cardiopulmonar. Objetivo: Caracterizar clinicamente una cohorte de niños con OI tipo I. Pacientes y Método: Se examinó una cohorte histórica de pacientes menores de 20 años mediante la revisión de fichas clínicas, rescatando las características demográficas, clínicas, bioquímicas y radiológicas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 67 pacientes, 55% varones, 69% de la Región Metropolitana. La edad media de diagnóstico fue de 2,9 años, el 70% de los pacientes presentó fracturas vertebrales de predominio torácico, y el 50% lo hizo antes de los 5 años. Un 15% presentó fracturas al momento del diagnóstico, siendo en ellos el diagnóstico de OI tipo I cerca de los 5 años. Los parámetros metabólicos óseos estuvieron en rangos adecuados durante el seguimiento, sin cambios significativos al diagnóstico de las fracturas vertebrales, excepto una disminución de la ingesta recomendada de calcio. Conclusiones: En este estudio, la OI tipo I presenta un diagnóstico precoz, principalmente en preescolares, y se asocia a alta frecuencia de fracturas vertebrales. La disminución en la ingesta de calcio demostrada al momento de la primera fractura requiere especial atención en estos pacientes.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an hereditary disease affecting conective tissue, mainly associated to growth retardation and pathological fractures. OI type I (OI type I), is the mildest, most often, and homogeneous in its fenotype. Vertebral fractures are the most significant complications, associated to skeletical and cardiopulmonary morbidity. Objectives: To characterize clinically a cohort of children with OI type I. Patients and Methods: A cohort of OI type I children younger than 20 year old was evaluated. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiological data were registered. Results: Sixty seven patients were included, 55% male, 69% resident in the Metropolitan Region. The mean age of diagnose was 2.9 years, 70% presented vertebral fractures on follow-up, mostly thoracic, and 50% before the age of 5 years. Fifty percentage presented vertebral fractures at diagnose, which was about the age of 5 years. Bone metabolic parameters were in the normal range, without significant change at the moment of vertebral fractures. Calcium intake was found to be below American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations at the time of the first fracture. Conclusions: In this study OI type I has an early diagnose, and vertebral fractures show a high incidence, mostly in toddlers. Calcium intake was found to be below reccomended values, and should be closely supervised in these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Spinal Fractures/diagnosis , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology
Acta ortop. mex ; 31(2): 82-85, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886540


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado de la corporectomía por acceso único posterior con colocación de caja expandible y fijación transpedicular en pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en el que se evaluaron ocho pacientes con fracturas por estallido entre Mayo de 2011 y Mayo de 2014, quienes fueron tratados de manera quirúrgica mediante corporectomía, colocación de caja expandible y fijación transpedicular con abordaje posterior. El estado neurológico fue valorado a través de la escala de ASIA prequirúrgico y postquirúrgico a un año de evolución y se midió la corrección angular de las deformidades. Resultados: El estudio comprendió cinco personas de sexo masculino y tres de sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 38 años (de 24 a 58 años). Todos los pacientes presentaron fracturas por estallido del cuerpo vertebral, uno de ellos con componente rotacional. A los ocho se les realizó solamente la corporectomía de un nivel vertebral. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue de 236 minutos (rango: 195-330 min). El sangrado quirúrgico en promedio fue de 1,731 ml. Conclusión/Discusión: Los pacientes que se sometieron a corporectomía por vía posterior mostraron resultados clínicos favorables, sin presentar lesiones neurológicas o lesiones asociadas al procedimiento, por lo que esta técnica puede ser una opción terapéutica al disminuir las complicaciones de una vía anterior o de un doble abordaje.

Abstract: Objective: The objective is to evaluate the outcome of vertebral corpectomy and placement of an expandable cage in patients with thoracolumbar fractures, using a posterior-only approach. Material and methods: A retrospective, case series study in the period from May 2011 to May 2014, in which eight patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures were treated surgically with corpectomy of fractured spinal body, placement of expandable box and fixation with transpedicular system, via posterior-only approach. Neurologic examination was done pre- and postoperatively with the ASIA score in a one year span. The angular deformity correction was also measured. Results: The mean age was 38 years (24 to 58 years); five male and three female patients. All the patients had burst fracture, one of them with aggregate rotational component. Only one vertebral level was worked with corpectomy in all patients. Mean surgical time was 236 minutes (195-330 min). Mean surgical bleeding was 1,731 ml. Conclusion/Discussion: Patients who underwent posterior approach corpectomy showed favorable clinical results. None presented neurological damage or surgical-related injury. This technique can be a useful option to avoid complications related to anterior vertebral approach or double approach.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Middle Aged
Coluna/Columna ; 16(1): 56-59, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840153


ABSTRACT Objective: To test the reliability of the new AO/2013 classification compared with AO/Magerl and TLICS. Methods: Four spine surgeons retrospectively and blindly evaluated imaging and clinical data from 98 patients with thoracolumbar fractures. Results: Using the Kappa coefficient, we obtained the best reproducibility for the AO/2013 classification compared to the other two, represented by Kappa coefficient of 0.690. We could also obtain, with good reproducibility among the evaluators (Kappa 0.690), the most common subtypes of AO/2013 classification with indication for surgery. Conclusion: We believe that the new AO/2013 classification has proven to be a good communication tool among spine surgeons with good reproducibility, but more studies should be conducted in several centers in order to be consolidated and so that the prognosis between the types of injury is better understood.

RESUMO Objetivos: Testar a confiabilidade da nova classificação AO/2013 com relação às classificações AO/Magerl e TLICS. Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente exames de imagem e dados clínicos de 98 pacientes com fraturas toracolombares por quatro cirurgiões de coluna vertebral, de modo cego. Resultados: Utilizando o coeficiente Kappa, obtivemos a melhor reprodutibilidade para a classificação AO/2013 quando comparada com as outras duas, representada por um índice Kappa de 0,690. Pudemos obter também, com boa reprodutibilidade entre os avaliadores (Kappa 0,690), os subtipos mais comuns da classificação AO/2013 com indicação de cirurgia. Conclusão: Acreditamos que a nova classificação AO/2013 demonstrou ser uma ótima ferramenta de comunicação entre os cirurgiões de coluna, com boa reprodutibilidade, porém mais estudos devem ser realizados em diversos centros para que seja consolidada e que o prognóstico entre os tipos de lesão seja mais bem compreendido.

RESUMEN Objetivos: Comprobar la fiabilidad de la nueva clasificación AO/2013 en relación con las clasificaciones AO/Magerl y TLICS. Métodos: Se evaluaron de forma retrospectiva imágenes y datos clínicos de 98 pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares por cuatro cirujanos de columna, a ciegas. Resultados: Utilizando el coeficiente Kappa, se obtuvo la mejor reproducibilidad para la clasificación AO/2013 en comparación con las otras dos, representada por un índice Kappa de 0,690. Hemos sido capaces de obtener también, con buena reproducibilidad entre evaluadores (Kappa 0,690), los subtipos más comunes de la clasificación AO/2013 con indicación para cirugía. Conclusión: Creemos que la nueva clasificación AO/2013 resultó ser una gran herramienta de comunicación entre los cirujanos de columna, con buena reproducibilidad, pero más estudios deben llevarse a cabo en varios centros para que se consolide y que el pronóstico entre los tipos de lesiones sea más bien comprendido.

Humans , Spinal Fractures , Classification/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(3): 244-247, 20/09/2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-910736


Introduction A case report of a thoracic fracture-dislocation (T11­T12) without neurological deficit is presented. Objective Report the diagnosis and treatment of a traumatic severe fracture with lateral dislocation at the thoracolumbar junction without neurological deficit. Background Fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine without neurological deficit is a rare lesion. We retrieved only 15 cases reported in the literature. Surgical treatment with spinal decompression, fusion and realignment is the treatment of choice. Case A 40-year-old man suffered a bicycle accident and was admitted with severe back pain but neurologically intact. He was treated with a wide laminectomy and spinal cord decompression followed by correction of his deformity using pedicle screw instrumentation and rod maneuvers. Results After three days, the patient was able to walk, and after one month he had just mild back pain, but was neurologically intact, and was able to return to his usual daily activities. After six months, he was neurologically intact and performing routine physical activities. Conclusions Fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine without neurological deficit is a rare injury. A good outcome can be obtained with modern spinal stabilization surgical techniques, avoiding late neurological deterioration.

Introdução Apresentamos um relato de caso de fratura-luxação torácica (T11­T12) com grande deslocamento lateral entre os corpos vertebrais, sem déficit neurológico. Objetivo Relatar o diagnóstico e tratamento de uma fratura-luxação grave na junção toracolombar com preservação da função neurológica. Dados Fratura-luxação da coluna torácica sem déficit neurológico é uma lesão rara. Apenas 15 casos relatados na literatura foram encontrados em nossa revisão. O tratamento de escolha se faz com descompressão medular, realinhamento e estabilização. Caso Um homem de 40 anos sofreu um acidente de bicicleta e foi admitido com dorsalgia severa, mas neurologicamente intacto. Ele foi tratado com ampla laminectomia e descompressão medular e, depois, correção da deformidade com parafusos pediculares lombares e manobras de realinhamento. Resultados Após três dias, o paciente estava apto a caminhar, e após um mês, tinha apenas leve dorsalgia e estava neurologicamente intacto, podendo retomar suas atividades de vida diária. Após seis meses da cirurgia, mantinha-se neurologicamente estável e realizando atividades físicas regularmente. Conclusão Fratura-luxação com deslocamento vertebral grave da coluna torácica sem déficit neurológico é uma lesão rara. Um bom desfecho pode ser obtido com técnicas modernas de estabilização da coluna e redução da lesão, evitando deterioração neurológica.

Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Laminectomy
Clinics ; 71(6): 297-301, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787420


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the severity of intervertebral disc injury and the anteroposterior type of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. METHODS: Fifty-six cases of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures treated in our trauma center from October 2012 to October 2013 were included in this study. The fractures were classified by the anteroposterior classification, whereas the severity of intervertebral disc injury was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the severity of intervertebral disc injury and the anteroposterior type of thoracolumbar fractures, whereas a χ2 test was adopted to measure the variability between different fracture types and upper and lower adjacent disc injuries. RESULTS: The Spearman correlation coefficients between fracture types and the severity of the upper and lower adjacent disc injuries were 0.739 (PU<0.001) and 0.368 (PL=0.005), respectively. It means that the more complex Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classifications are the disc injury is more severe. There was also a significant difference in the severity of injury between the upper and lower adjacent discs near the fractured vertebrae (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In thoracolumbar spinal fractures, the severity of the adjacent intervertebral disc injury is positively correlated with the anteroposterior fracture type. The injury primarily involves intervertebral discs near the fractured end plate, with more frequent and severe injuries observed in the upper than in the lower discs. The presence of intervertebral disc injury, along with its severity, may provide useful information during the clinical decision-making process.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Injury Severity Score , Spinal Fractures/classification , Intervertebral Disc/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(11): e5599, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797889


We aimed to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of paraspinal-approach reduction and fixation (PARF) in a group of patients with Denis type B thoracolumbar burst fracture (TLBF) with neurological deficiencies. A total of 62 patients with Denis B TLBF with neurological deficiencies were included in this study between January 2009 and December 2011. Clinical evaluations including the Frankel scale, pain visual analog scale (VAS) and radiological assessment (CT scans for fragment reduction and X-ray for the Cobb angle, adjacent superior and inferior intervertebral disc height, and vertebral canal diameter) were performed preoperatively and at 3 days, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. All patients underwent successful PARF, and were followed-up for at least 2 years. Average surgical time, blood loss and incision length were recorded. The sagittal vertebral canal diameter was significantly enlarged. The canal stenosis index was also improved. Kyphosis was corrected and remained at 8.6±1.4o (P>0.05) 1 year postoperatively. Adjacent disc heights remained constant. Average Frankel grades were significantly improved at the end of follow-up. All 62 patients were neurologically assessed. Pain scores decreased at 6 months postoperatively, compared to before surgery (P<0.05). PARF provided excellent reduction for traumatic segmental kyphosis, and resulted in significant spinal canal clearance, which restored and maintained the vertebral body height of patients with Denis B TLBF with neurological deficits.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Paraspinal Muscles/injuries , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101612


BACKGROUND: The development of pedicle screw-based posterior spinal instrumentation is recognized as one of the major surgical treatment methods for thoracolumbar burst fractures. However, the appropriate level in posterior segment instrumentation is still a point of debate. To assesses the long-term results of two-level and three-level posterior fixations of thoracolumbar burst fractures that have load-sharing scores of 7 and 8 points. METHODS: From January 1998 to May 2009, we retrospectively analyzed clinical and radiologic outcomes of 45 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures of 7 and 8 points in load-sharing classification who were operated on using two-level posterior fixation (one segment above and one segment below: 28 patients, group I) or three-level posterior fixation (two segments above and one segment below: 17 patients, group II). Clinical results included the grade of the fracture using the Frankel classification, and the visual analog score was used to evaluate pain before surgery, immediately after surgery, and during follow-up period. We also evaluated pain and work status at the final follow-up using the Denis pain scale. RESULTS: In all cases, non-union or loosening of implants was not observed. There were two screw breakages in two-level posterior fixation group, but bony union was obtained at the final follow-up. There were no significant differences in loss of anterior vertebral body height, correction loss, or change in adjacent discs. Also, in clinical evaluation, there was no significant difference in the neurological deficit of any patient during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, two-level posterior fixation could be used successfully in selected cases of thoracolumbar burst fractures of 7 and 8 points in the load-sharing classification.

Adult , Back Pain , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Male , Middle Aged , Pedicle Screws , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/physiopathology , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 80(1): 20-29, mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754755


Introducción: El tratamiento quirúrgico de las fracturas toracolumbares es controvertido. La vía de abordaje y la cantidad de niveles de instrumentación son motivo de debate. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los resultados radiológicos y clínicos de pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares por estallido y flexión/distracción. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de una serie consecutiva de pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente entre 2004 y 2008, con seguimiento >12 meses. Se incluyeron pacientes con instrumentación y artrodesis corta de los niveles adyacentes a la lesión, abordados por vía posterior. Se tomaron en cuenta fracturas de tipo A3 y B de la clasificación AO. Se llevaron a cabo evaluaciones clínica, neurológica y radiológica. Resultados: Se registraron 25 pacientes, 3 se perdieron en el seguimiento y 22 fueron analizados. El promedio de edad fue de 37 años. La causa más frecuente fue caída de altura, seguida de accidente vehicular. El nivel más afectado fue L1. El promedio de cifosis preoperatoria fue de 14° y de 4º en el posoperatorio alejado. En la evaluación clínica, 10 pacientes tuvieron un excelente resultado; 10, bueno y 2, regular. No hubo compromiso neurológico en 21 pacientes. Conclusiones: La instrumentación corta proporciona muy buenos resultados en la mayoría de los pacientes tanto a nivel radiológico como funcional. La selección de los pacientes debe ser estricta, se debe excluir a aquellos con cifosis grave, conminución importante u otro factor que haga pensar en la necesidad de un abordaje anterior. En el seguimiento alejado, no se observa una pérdida significativa de la reducción en la cifosis. Nivel de Evidencia: IV. Serie de Casos.

Background: Surgical treatment of thoracolumbar fractures is controversial. The approach and number of levels of instrumentation are debated. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of burst fractures. Methods: Retrospective study. Consecutive series of patients treated with short instrumentation and posterior fusion between 2004 and 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Type A3 and B fractures of AO classification were included. Clinical, neurological and radiological outcomes were analyzed. Results: Twenty-five patients were included and 22 completed the follow-up. The average of age was 37 years. The most common cause was fall from high, followed by road accident and the most affected region was L1. The average of kyphosis was 14° before surgery and 4° in the remote follow-up. Clinical evaluation was excellent in 10 patients, good in 10 and regular in 2. Twenty-one patients had no neurological compromise. Conclusions: Short instrumentation and posterior arthrodesis offer very good clinical and functional result in most patients. Patient selection must be strict, excluding those with severe kyphosis, significant comminution or other factor that would suggest the need for an anterior approach. Long-term follow-up did not show significant loose of kyphosis. Level of Evidence: IV. Case series.

Adult , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Spinal Fractures , Spinal Fusion/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2015; 65 (2): 201-205
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153764


To evaluate and compare the long-term outcome of unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures treated using anterior, posterior or combined anterior and posterior approaches. The prospective randomised controlled study was conducted at the Tianjin 4[th] Centre Hospital, Tianjin, China, and comprised patients of unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture operated between July 2004 and July 2006 and followed up for five years. The patients were divided randomly into three groups of anterior, posterior and combined anterior and posterior approaches. Clinical data was analysed using SPSS 17. Of the 66 cases in the study, 45[68.18%] were male and 21[31.8%] were female, with overall age ranging from 19 to 69 years. There were 22[33.3%] patients in the anterior group, 23[35%] in the posterior group, and 21[32%] in the combined anterior and posterior group. Comparison was made between two respective groups. The combined group was found to have the longest operation time [p<0.02; p<0.01, respectively], larger blood loss [p<0.006; p<0.005, respectively], longer hospital stay [p<0.01; p<0.003, respectively] and higher hospitalisation costs [p<0.004; p<0.001, respectively]. The postoperative kyphotic angle was significantly smaller than preoperative one in all groups [p<0.01; p<0.02; p<0.01]. The anterior approach or combined anterior and posterior approach were better options in managing unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture, while the latter should be used only for the burst fracture with a significant posterior column injury

Humans , Male , Female , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 31 (2): 346-350
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168014


To compare the clinical therapeutic effects of anterior decompression and posterior decompression on thoracolumbar spine fracture [TSF] complicated with spinal nerve injury [SNI]. A total of 120 patients with TSF and SNI were selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group that were then treated by anterior decompression and posterior decompression respectively. The preoperative and postoperative motor scores, tactile scores, heights of injured vertebral body and Cobb's angles, as well as surgical times and intraoperative blood losses were recorded and compared. Before surgeries, the motor score, tactile score, height of injured vertebral body and Cobb's angle of the treatment group were similar to those of the control group [P>0.05]. After surgeries, the values of the treatment group were significantly different from those of the control group [P<0.05]. The two groups also had significantly different intraoperative blood losses and surgical times [P<0.05]. Compared with posterior decompression, anterior decompression improved spinal cord function better and relived spinal cord compression more effectively with a more reasonable mechanics of internal fixation. Although this protocol caused more blood loss, the overall therapeutic effects were more satisfactory

Humans , Male , Female , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Spinal Fractures , Spinal Nerves/injuries
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22479


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inter-reader and intra-reader reliabilities using the thoracolumbar injury classification system and severity score (TLICS) and to analyze the effects of reader experience on reliability and the possible reasons for discordant interpretations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six radiologists (two senior, two junior radiologists, and two residents) independently scored 100 MRI examinations of thoracolumbar spine injuries to assess injury morphology and posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) integrity according to the TLICS. Inter-reader and intra-reader agreements were determined and analyzed according to the number of years of radiologist experience. RESULTS: Inter-reader agreement between the six readers was moderate (k = 0.538 for the first and 0.537 for the second review) for injury morphology and fair to moderate (k = 0.440 for the first and 0.389 for the second review) for PLC integrity. No significant difference in inter-reader agreement was observed according to the number of years of radiologist experience. Intra-reader agreements showed a wide range (k = 0.538-0.822 for injury morphology and 0.423-0.616 for PLC integrity). Agreement was achieved in 44 for the first and 45 for the second review about injury morphology, as well as in 41 for the first and 38 for the second review of PLC integrity. A positive correlation was detected between injury morphology score and PLC integrity. CONCLUSION: The reliability of MRI for assessing thoracolumbar spinal injuries according to the TLICS was moderate for injury morphology and fair to moderate for PLC integrity, which may not be influenced by radiologist' experience.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Ligamentum Flavum/pathology , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Injuries/classification , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Thoracic Wall/pathology , Young Adult
Clinics ; 69(12): 804-808, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732394


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical results of a partial vertebrectomy with titanium mesh implantation and pedicle screw fixation using a posterior approach to reconstruct the spine in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures. METHOD: From January 2006 to August 2008, 20 patients with severe thoracolumbar fractures were treated.For vertebral bodies associated with one injured intervertebral disk, subtotal vertebrectomy surgery and single-segment fusion were performed. For vertebral bodies with two injured adjacent intervertebral disks, partial vertebrectomy surgery and two-segment fusion were performed. RESULTS: All 20 patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months (average of 18 months). There were no complications such as wound infections, hemopneumothorax or abdominal infections in any of the patients. The neurological status of all of the patients was improved by at least one American Spinal Injury Association grade by the last follow-up. The anterior vertebral body height was an average of 50.77% before surgery, 88.51% after surgery and 87.86% at the last follow up; the sagittal Cobb angle was improved, on average, from 26.15° to 5.39° and was 5.90° at the last follow up. The percentage of spinal stenosis was improved, on average, from 26.07% to 4.93%° and was 6.15% at the last follow up. There were significant differences ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Pedicle Screws , Surgical Mesh , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Titanium/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Lumbar Vertebrae , Operative Time , Reproducibility of Results , Severity of Illness Index , Spinal Fractures , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Thoracic Vertebrae
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 32(1)mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-677808


Objetivos: Apresentar o perfil epidemiológico e os fatores de risco para déficit neurológico de 52 pacientes com fratura traumática da coluna torácica e lombar tratados cirurgicamente no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Métodos: Trata-se de trabalho retrospectivo de pacientes com fratura da coluna torácica e lombar tratados cirurgicamente no período de julho de 2007 a julho de 2012. Resultados: Predomínio do sexo masculino (78,8%); faixa etária mais comum é 20-40 anos (57,6%); segmento fraturado: T1-T10 (19,2%), T11-L2 (61,5%), L3-L5 (19,3%); 48% dos indivíduos tinham déficit neurológico; fratura tipo A é mais comum (42,3%); mecanismo do trauma: acidente automobilístico (23%), queda de altura (42,3%), motociclístico (26,9%); predomínio da fratura tipo C no segmento torácico 45,4% e tipo A no lombar 63,3% (p < 0,01); déficit neurológico: torácico 81,8%, lombar 23,3% (p < 0,05); déficit neurológico toracolombar: tipo A 31,8%, tipo B 47,3%, tipo C 81,8% (p = 0,02). Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino e adulto jovem. Cerca de 48% apresentavam déficit à admissão hospitalar e tinham a junção T11-L2 como principal local de ocorrência. A fratura tipo A da AO foi mais encontrada entre as lesões lombares e a tipo C entre as torácicas. O principal mecanismo do trauma foram os acidente...

Objective: We present the epidemiological and risk factors for neurological deficit of 52 patients with traumatic fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine were surgically treated in the neurosurgery service at the Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília-Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine treated surgically in the period July 2007 to July 2012. Results: Predominantly male (78.8%) is the most common age group 20-40 years (57.6%); fractured segment: T1-T10 (19.2%), T11-L2 (61.5% ) L3-L5 (19.3%), 48% of subjects had neurologic deficit; fracture type A is the most common (42.3%), mechanism of injury: motor vehicle accidents (23%), falls (42.3%), motorcycle (26.9%); predominance of type C fractures in the thoracic segment (45.4%) inin lumbar type A (63.3%) (p < 0.01); neurological deficit: 81.8% thoracic, lumbar 23.3% (p < 0.05); neurologic deficit thoracolumbar: 31.8% type A, type B 47.3% and 81.8% type C (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Most patients were male and young adult. About 48% had deficits on admission and had the junction T11-L2 as the main place of occurrence. The fracture of AO type A was more frequently found among back injury and type C between chest. The main mechanism of injury were traffic accidents. Chest injuries and type C fractures are risk factors for neurological injury...

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries