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Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4409, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039728


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the chest tube drainage by the same thoracotomy intercostal space with the traditional approach in patients undergoing muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Methods We evaluated 40 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent elective muscle sparing thoracotomies. Patients were divided into two groups of 20 patients. One group underwent thoracic drainage by the same intercostal space of thoracotomy and the other by traditional chest drainage approach. Results The mean length of hospital stay for the intercostal drainage group in the intensive care unit was 1.5 day (1.0 to 2.0 days) and 2.0 days (25.1 to 3.0 days) for the traditional chest drainage group (p=0.060). The intercostal drainage group had mean length of hospital stay (p=0.527) and drainage (p=0.547) of 4 days, and the traditional chest drainage group and 2 and 5.5 days, respectively. Dipirona and tramadol doses did not differ between groups (p=0.201 and p=0.341). The mean pain scale values on first postoperative was 4.24 in the drainage by the same intercostal group and 3.95 in the traditional chest drainage (p=0.733). In third postoperative day, mean was 3.18 for the first group and 3.11 for the traditional group (p=0.937). In the 15th day after surgery, drainage by the incision was 1.53 and the traditional chest drainage was 2.11 (p=0.440), 30th days after drainage by incision was 0.71 and traditional chest drainage was 0.84 (p=0.787). Complications, for both groups were similar with 30% in proposed drainage and 25% in traditional approach (p=0.723). Conclusion Drainage by the same thoracotomy intercostal space was feasible and results 30 days after surgery were not inferior to those of the traditional chest drainage approach.

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a drenagem torácica pela mesma intercostotomia à drenagem tradicional em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia poupadora lateral. Métodos Foram avaliados 40 pacientes maiores de 18 anos submetidos a toracotomias poupadoras laterais eletivas. Eles foram separados em dois grupos de 20 pacientes cada, sendo um submetido à drenagem torácica pelo mesmo espaço intercostal da toracotomia e o outro à drenagem tradicional. Resultados No grupo da drenagem pela mesma intercostotomia, a mediana de tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 1,5 dia (1,0 a 2,0 dias) e de 2,0 dias (1,25 a 3,0 dias) na drenagem tradicional (p=0,060). As medianas do tempo de internação (p=0,527) e de drenagem (p=0,547) foram ambas de 4 dias, no primeiro grupo, e de 2 e 5,5 dias, no grupo com drenagem tradicional. As doses utilizadas de dipirona e de tramadol não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos (p=0,201 e p=0,341). As médias da escala de dor foram 4,24 no primeiro dia pós-operatório do grupo com a drenagem proposta e 3,95 nos drenados da forma tradicional (p=0,733); no terceiro pós-operatório, foi de 3,18 para o grupo drenado pela incisão e de 3,11 nos drenados da forma tradicional (p=0,937). No 15º dia após a cirurgia, a drenagem pela incisão foi de 1,53 e a tradicional de 2,11 (p=0,440); no 30º pós-operatório, foi de 0,71 e 0,84, respectivamente, para a incisão e a forma tradicional (p=0,787). Em relação às complicações, os grupos foram semelhantes, com 30% na drenagem proposta e 25% na drenagem tradicional (p=0,723). Conclusão A drenagem pelo mesmo espaço intercostal foi exequível e não apresentou inferioridade à técnica tradicional no período pós-operatório estudado de 30 dias.

Humans , Thoracotomy/methods , Chest Tubes , Drainage/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Pain Measurement , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Analgesia, Epidural , Drainage/statistics & numerical data , Dipyrone/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Length of Stay
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 404-417, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958432


Abstract Introduction: Acute post-operative pain remains a troublesome complication of cardiothoracic surgeries. Several randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a single or as an adjuvant agent before, during and after surgery. However, no evidence-based conclusion has been reached regarding the advantages of dexmedetomidine over the other analgesics. Objective: To review the effect of dexmedetomidine on acute post-thoracotomy/sternotomy pain. Methods: Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were used to search for randomized controlled trials that investigated the analgesia effect of dexmedetomidine on post-thoracotomy/sternotomy pain in adults' patients. The outcomes were postoperative pain intensity or incidence, postoperative analgesia duration, and the number of postoperative analgesic requirements. Results: From 1789 citations, 12 trials including 804 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Most studies showed that pain score was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group up to 24 hours after surgery. Two studies reported the significant lower postoperative analgesia requirements and one study reported the significant lower incidence of acute pain after surgery in dexmedetomidine group. Ten studies found that the total consumption of narcotics was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group. The most reported complications of dexmedetomidine were nausea/vomiting, bradycardia and hypotension. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine can be used as a safe and efficient analgesic agent for reducing the postoperative pain and analgesic requirements up to 24 hours after cardiothoracic surgeries. However, further well-designed trials are needed to find the optimal dosage, route, time, and duration of dexmedetomidine administration.

Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Procedural/drug therapy , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
Rev. cuba. cir ; 56(3): 1-7, jul.-set. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900985


Se presenta paciente con historia familiar de neurofibromatosis (NF) tipo I, con síntomas y signos sugestivos de esta enfermedad que refiere dolor torácico paravertebral izquierdo al cual mediante estudios de imagen se le diagnostica lesión tumoral en mediastino posterior. Es de notar la presencia de manchas cutáneas características de la neurofibromatosis, localizadas solo en un dermatoma del cuerpo sin neurofibromas en ninguna otra localización. Se intervino quirúrgicamente el enfermo, se resecó una gran masa mediastinal que se confirmó histológicamente ser un neurofibroma. La evolución posquirúrgica fue satisfactoria. Se discuten las singularidades de este enfermo sobre la base de criterios diagnósticos de neurofibromatosis tipo I, pero sin neurofibromas periféricos hasta ese momento. La posibilidad de una neurofibromatosis segmentaria tampoco se descarta. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de resección de cualquier lesión tumoral en el contexto de este síndrome genético por la frecuencia de lesiones malignas asociadas a la neurofibromatosis y a la progresión hacia la malignidad de lesiones primariamente benignas(AU)

A patient with a family history of Neurofibromatosis type I was presented. The patient referred symptoms and signs suggestive of that disease and complaint of left paravertebral chest pain. Imaging investigations were done and a posterior mediastinal tumor was diagnosed. It is important to highlight the presence of characteristics spot of neurofibromatosis localized only in one dermatome without neurofibromas in any other part of the body. The patient underwent a surgical intervention and a left thoracotomy was done, a large posterior mediastinal tumor was found and totally resected. The histology confirmed a neurofibroma. The postoperative evolution was satisfactory. The singularities of this patient were discussed, especially diagnosis criteria for neurofibromatosis type I, and the lack of peripheral neurofibromas until that moment. The possibility for a segmental neurofibromatosis also was considered. We pointed out about the necessity to remove any neoplastic lesion in the background of this genetic syndrome due to the high frequency of malignancies associated with neurofibromatosis, and also related with the malignant degeneration these tumors can develop(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Mediastinum/injuries , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neurofibroma/surgery , Thoracotomy/adverse effects
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(4): 280-284, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792824


ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Post-thoracotomy pain is a severe and intense pain caused by trauma to ribs, muscles and peripheral nerves. The current study aimed to compare subpleural analgesia (SPA) with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in patients undergoing thoracotomy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized study at Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, in Turkey. METHODS: Thirty patients presenting American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III were scheduled for elective diagnostic thoracotomy. The patients were randomized to receive either patient-controlled SPA or patient-controlled TEA for post-thoracotomy pain control over a 24-hour period. The two groups received a mixture of 3 µg/ml fentanyl along with 0.05% bupivacaine solution through a patient-controlled analgesia pump. Rescue analgesia was administered intravenously, consisting of 100 mg tramadol in both groups. A visual analogue scale was used to assess pain at rest and during coughing over the course of 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: In the SPA group, all the patients required rescue analgesia, and five patients (33%) required rescue analgesia in the TEA group (P < 0.05). Patients who received subpleural analgesia exhibited higher visual analogue scores at rest and on coughing than patients who received thoracic epidural analgesia. None of the patients had any side-effects postoperatively, such as hypotension or respiratory depression. CONCLUSION: Thoracic epidural analgesia is superior to subpleural analgesia for relieving post-thoracotomy pain. We suggest that studies on effective drug dosages for providing subpleural analgesia are necessary.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Dor pós-toracotomia é severa e intensa, causada por trauma de nervos periféricos, músculos e costelas. O objetivo foi comparar analgesia subpleural (SPA) com analgesia epidural torácica (TEA) em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo randomizado no Hospital Educação e Pesquisa de Numune, em Ancara, Turquia. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes com o estado físico I-III da Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologistas foram agendados para toracotomia diagnóstica eletiva e escolhidos aleatoriamente para receber, num período de 24 horas, SPA ou TEA, ambas controladas pelo próprio paciente, para controle da dor pós-toracotomia. Os dois grupos receberam mistura de 3 ug/ml de fentanil com solução de 0,05% de bupivacaína por meio de bomba de analgesia controlada pelo paciente. Foi administrada analgesia de resgate por via intravenosa, com 100 mg de tramadol, nos dois grupos. No pós-operatório, a escala visual analógica foi utilizada para medir presença de dor durante a tosse ou em repouso, ao longo de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: No grupo SPA, todos os pacientes necessitaram de analgesia de resgate. Cinco pacientes (33%) necessitaram de analgesia de resgate no grupo TEA (P < 0,05). Os pacientes com SPA exibiram pontuações superiores na escala visual analógica, em repouso e ao tossir, em comparação aos que receberam TEA. Nenhum dos pacientes teve quaisquer efeitos secundários no pós-operatório, como hipotensão ou depressão respiratória. CONCLUSÃO: A analgesia peridural torácica é superior à analgesia subpleural no alívio da dor pós-toracotomia. Consideramos que estudos sobre a dosagem de drogas eficazes para proporcionar analgesia subpleural são necessários.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled/methods , Interpleural Analgesia/methods , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cough/complications , Drug Combinations , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206908


The levels of pain, duration of approaching and closure, and surgical exposure associated with intercostal thoracotomy were compared between muscle-sparing and traditional techniques in 20 dogs. Postoperative pain was assessed based on numerical pain scores using behavioral observation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and wound palpation. Time for approaching and closure were measured, and the extent of intrathoracic organ exposure for the surgical procedures was described for each technique. There were significant differences in numerical pain scores at 2 h as well as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after surgery between the two groups (p < 0.0001). There was no significant (p = 0.725) difference in times for approaching and closure between the two groups. Compared to the traditional method, the muscle-sparing technique also achieved the desired exposure without compromising exposure of the target organs. Our results suggest that the muscle-sparing technique is more effective than the traditional method for providing a less painful recovery during the first 7 days after intercostal thoracotomy. Additionally, the muscle-sparing technique is as effective as the traditional modality for providing an appropriate time for approaching and closure during intercostal thoracotomy as well as adequate organ exposure for the surgical procedures.

Animals , Dog Diseases/etiology , Dogs , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Thoracotomy/adverse effects
Rev. cuba. cir ; 53(2): 176-181, abr.-jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740896


El linfoma pulmonar primario es de presentación poco frecuente y representa solo el 0,5 a 1 por ciento de los procesos tumorales malignos del pulmón. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico histológico de linfoma tipo MALT de pulmón, ingresado y operado en el Hospital Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba. El paciente fue seguido por consulta de cirugía y oncología con más de 3 años de intervalo libre de enfermedad. El linfoma tipo Malt es una entidad poco frecuente, con diagnóstico preoperatorio prácticamente nulo, lo que dificulta su manejo adecuado(AU)

Primary pulmonary lymphoma is very uncommon, representing only 0.5 - 1 percent of malignant lung tumoral malignancies. Here is a patient with histologically confirmed lung MALT lymphoma, who was operated on at Saturnino Lora Torres hospital in Santiago de Cuba province. The patient was followed up by the surgery and oncology service and he was disease-free for over three years. Malt-type lymphoma is rare, its diagnosis before surgery is practically non-existent, which hinders proper management of a case(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/surgery , Pneumonectomy/methods , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Bibliographies as Topic , Review
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(2): 164-170, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709757


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the acute pain experienced during in-hospital recovery from thoracotomy can be effectively reduced by the use of intraoperative measures (dissection of the neurovascular bundle prior to the positioning of the Finochietto retractor and preservation of the intercostal nerve during closure). METHODS: We selected 40 patients who were candidates for elective thoracotomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were randomized into two groups: conventional thoracotomy (CT, n = 20) and neurovascular bundle preservation (NBP, n = 20). All of the patients underwent thoracic epidural anesthesia and muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, as well as by monitoring patient requests for/consumption of analgesics. RESULTS: On postoperative day 5, the self-reported pain intensity was significantly lower in the NBP group than in the CT group (visual analog scale score, 1.50 vs. 3.29; p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the number of requests for/consumption of analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing thoracotomy, protecting the neurovascular bundle prior to positioning the retractor and preserving the intercostal nerve during closure can minimize pain during in-hospital recovery. .

OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a dor aguda na recuperação intra-hospitalar devido a toracotomia pode ser efetivamente reduzida pelo uso de medidas intraoperatórias (dissecção do feixe neurovascular antes da colocação do afastador de Finochietto e preservação do nervo intercostal durante o fechamento). MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 40 pacientes candidatos à toracotomia eletiva na Disciplina de Cirurgia Torácica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina, em São Paulo (SP), os quais foram randomizados em dois grupos de 20 pacientes: grupo toracotomia convencional (TC) e grupo de preservação do feixe (PF) neurovascular. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anestesia peridural torácica e técnica de toracotomia poupadora da musculatura. A intensidade da dor foi determinada utilizando-se uma escala visual analógica no 1º, 3º e 5º dias pós-operatórios, assim como a medida do consumo de analgésicos por demanda do paciente. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diminuição significativa da intensidade da dor relatada somente no 5º dia pós-operatório no grupo PF quando comparado ao grupo TC (escore da escala analógica visual, 1,50 vs. 3,29; p = 0,04). Não houve diferenças significativas no consumo de analgésicos por demanda nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia, a proteção do feixe neurovascular antes da colocação do afastador e a preservação do nervo intercostal no fechamento da toracotomia podem minimizar a dor no período intra-hospitalar. .

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Pain/prevention & control , Intercostal Nerves/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Thoracotomy/methods , Analgesia , Analgesia, Epidural , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Pain Measurement , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Wound Closure Techniques
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(5): 433-442, set.-out. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691381


INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Toracotomia é um procedimento associado à dor pós-operatória de forte intensidade. O bloqueio peridural (BPD) é considerado o padrão-ouro para o seu controle. O bloqueio paravertebral (BPV) é uma opção para o controle da dor pós-operatória. O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer metanálises focadas nas comparações entre as analgesias com bloqueio peridural torácico ou paravertebral contínuos quanto à eficácia relativa no controle da dor pós-toracotomia e à incidência de efeitos adversos. MÉTODOS: O estudo seguiu o protocolo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Foram analisados desfechos, primário (dor pós-operatória em repouso), e secundários (retenção urinária, náuseas e vômitos e hipotensão arterial). A diferença média ponderada foi estimada para as variáveis contínuas e as razões de chances para as variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos oito estudos prospectivos controlados de alocação aleatória. As metanálises não demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas técnicas quanto ao desfecho da dor pós-operatória em repouso nos momentos 4h, 8h, 12h, 16h, 20h, 24h, 36h e 48h. A incidência de retenção urinária foi maior no grupo submetido ao BPD (RC = 7,19; IC95 = 1,87-27,7). A ocorrência de hipotensão foi maior no grupo submetido ao BPD (RC = 10,28; IC95 = 2,95-35,77). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação ao desfecho náuseas/vômitos (RC=3,00; IC95=0,49-18,45). CONCLUSÃO: Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes quanto ao alívio da dor pós-toracotomia quando comparados os tratamentos BPD e BPV. O tratamento BPV mostrou menor incidência de efeitos colaterais com redução na frequência de retenção urinária e hipotensão.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracotomy is a procedure associated with postoperative severe pain. Epidural block (EB) is considered the gold standard for its control. Paravertebral block (PVB) is an option for the management of postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate by meta-analyses the effectiveness of continuous thoracic epidural and paravertebral blocks for pain management after thoracotomy and the incidence of adverse effects. METHOD: The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. We analyzed primary (postoperative pain at rest) and secondary outcomes (urinary retention, nausea, vomiting, hypotension). We estimated the weighted mean difference for continuous variables and odds ratios for categorical variables. RESULTS: We included eight prospective, randomized, controlled studies. Meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the two techniques regarding the outcomes of postoperative pain at rest at four, eight, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Incidence of urinary retention was higher in EP group (OR = 7.19, CI95 = 1.87 to 27.7). The occurrence of hypotension was higher in PVB group (OR = 10.28, 95 = 2.95 to 35.77). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding the outcome nausea/vomiting (OR = 3.00, CI95 = 0.49 to 18.45). CONCLUSION: There were no statistically significant differences in pain relief after thoracotomy between EB and PVB. PVB showed a lower incidence of side effects with reduced frequency of urinary retention and hypotension.

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La toracotomía es un procedimiento asociado con el dolor postoperatorio de fuerte intensidad. El bloqueo epidural (BEP) se le considera como el estándar oro para su control. El bloqueo paravertebral (BPV) es una opción para el control del dolor postoperatorio. El objetivo de este estudio fue hacer un meta-análisis centrándose en las comparaciones entre analgesia pos-toracotomía con bloqueo epidural torácico o paravertebral continuos, en cuanto a la eficacia relativa en el control del dolor pos-toracotomía y a la incidencia de los efectos adversos. MÉTODOS: El estudio secundó el protocolo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Se analizaron los resultados primarios (dolor Postoperatorio en reposo) y secundarios (retención urinaria, náuseas y vómitos e hipotensión arterial). La diferencia promedio ponderada se estimó para las variables continuas y las razones de chances para las variables categóricas. RESULTADOS: Fueron incluidos ocho estudios prospectivos controlados de ubicación aleatoria. Los meta-análisis no arrojaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las dos técnicas en cuanto al resultado del dolor postoperatorio en reposo en los momentos 4h, 8h, 12h, 16h, 20h, 24h, 36h y 48h. La incidencia de retención urinaria fue mayor en el grupo sometido al BEP (RC = 7,19; IC95 = 1,87-27,7). El surgimiento de hipotensión aumentó en el grupo sometido al BEP (RC = 10,28; IC95 = 2,95-35,77). No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los dos grupos con relación al resultado náuseas/vómitos (RC=3,00; IC95=0,49-18,45). CONCLUSIONES: No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto al alivio del dolor pos-toracotomía cuando se compararon los tratamientos BEP y BPV. El tratamiento BPV mostró una menor incidencia de efectos colaterales con una reducción en la frecuencia de retención urinaria e hipotensión.

Humans , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects
Clinics ; 68(1): 1-4, Jan. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665910


OBJECTIVES: We described the treatment of dehiscence of thoracotomy incisions in patients who underwent thoracic surgery in the present study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with either partial or complete dehiscence of their thoracotomy incisions were included in the study from 2005 to 2010. The patients were evaluated regarding their age, sex, indication for thoracotomy, and surgical approaches. We also described our method of re-closure. RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 17/7. The youngest and oldest patients were 15 and 75 years old, respectively, and the mean age was 43 years. Among the indications for thoracotomy, empyema was the most common reason (determined in eight [33%] patients), followed by vertebral surgery (determined in six [25%] patients). Bacterial growth was detected in the wound site cultures from 13 (54%) patients. For the patients with dehiscence of their thoracotomy incisions, an en block approximation technique with debridement was performed under general or local anesthesia in 16 (66%) and eight (33%) of the cases, respectively. Three patients exhibited an open thorax with dehiscence of the thoracotomy incision. Thoracoplasty was required in two patients. Using this method, successful closure was obtained in 91.7% (n = 22) of the patients with dehiscence of their thoracotomy incisions. CONCLUSION: Dehiscence of the thoracotomy incision is an important complication that causes concern in patients and their thoracic surgeons and strongly affects the success of the surgery. An en block approximation technique with significant debridement that enables removal of the necrotic tissues from the wound site can successfully be applied to patients with dehiscence of their thoracotomy incisions.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/surgery , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Debridement/methods , Necrosis/pathology , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy/methods , Skin/pathology , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2013; 17 (1): 22-27
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142491


Optimum pain relief after thoracotomy is essential to reduce atelectasis and postoperative pneumonias. The aim of this prospective, double blind, randomised controlled trial was to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of three concentrations of fentanyl with 0.2% ropivacaine in thoracic epidural in patients undergoing thoracotomy and thoracomyolpasty. After getting approval from Ethical Committee, this study was performed in 60 patients of either sex, aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anaesthesiology [ASA] grade I to III. Informed consent was taken from all of the patients, who were recruited and divided into three groups of 20 patients in each group. Patients scheduled for elective thoracotomy surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients with preexisting motor and sensory deficit, addicted to hypnosedative drugs, on chronic opioid or analgesic therapy, sensitive to local anaesthetic or study medication, or having contraindications to regional anesthesia were excluded from this study. In patients, with whom communication difficulties prevented reliable assessment, were also excluded. Patients received either 2.5micro g/ml [Group I], 5.0micro g/ml [Group II] or 7.5micro g/ml of fentanyl [Group III] respectively, with ropivacaine 0.2% via thoracic epidural. Postoperatively, pain at rest, on coughing and with ambulation was assessed using a visual analogue scale [VAS] and observer verbal ranking score [OVRS] at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Sedation scores were also noted. Adverse effects were simultaneously assessed. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the three groups. The number of patients with episodes of unsatisfactory pain relief, i.e. a VAS scores >40 and OVRS >2, at each of the four assessments postoperatively, was higher in Group I than with Group II or Group III [p < 0.05]. In Group III, four [20%] patients had a sedation score >3 compared with one [5%] in Group II. No patient in Group I had a sedation score >3 [p < 0.05]. In addition, all patients experienced pruritus in Group I compared with 10% and 5% in Group II and Group I respectively. 30% of the patients had emetic symptoms in Group III, compared to 20% and 5% in Group II and Group I respectively [p < 05]. We conclude that a thoracic epidural bolus of 10 ml ropivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl 5.0 micro g/ml provides the optimal balance between pain relief and sedation

Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Fentanyl , Amides , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Comparative Study , Prospective Studies , Pain Measurement
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 27(1): 75-87, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-638654


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS) sobre a dor e a função pulmonar no pós-operatório de cirurgias torácicas por meio de uma revisão sistemática e metanálise de estudos randomizados. MÉTODOS: A busca incluiu as bases MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE e LILACS, além de busca manual, do início até agosto de 2011. Foram incluídos estudos randomizados comparando TENS associada ou não a analgesia farmacológica vs. TENS placebo associada ou não a analgesia farmacológica ou vs. analgesia farmacológica controlada, que avaliaram dor (por meio de escala analógica visual - EAV) e/ou função pulmonar representada pela capacidade vital forçada (CVF) em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia torácica (pulmonar ou cardíaca com abordagem por toracotomia ou esternotomia). RESULTADOS: Dos 2.489 artigos identificados, 11 estudos foram incluídos. Na abordagem por toracotomia, a TENS associada à analgesia farmacológica reduziu a dor comparada com TENS placebo associada à analgesia farmacológica (EAV -1,29; IC95%: -1,94 a - 0,65). Na abordagem por esternotomia, a TENS associada à analgesia farmacológica também reduziu a dor comparada a TENS placebo associada à analgesia farmacológica (EAV -1,33; IC95%: -1,89 a -0,77) e comparada à analgesia farmacológica controlada (EAV-1,23; IC95%: -1,79 a -0,67). Não foi observada melhora significativa na CVF (0,12 L; IC95%: -0,27 a 0,51). CONCLUSÃO: A TENS associada à analgesia farmacológica promoveu maior alívio da dor comparada a TENS placebo em pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgia torácica, tanto na abordagem por toracotomia quanto por esternotomia. Na esternotomia, também se mostrou mais efetiva que a analgesia farmacológica controlada no alívio da dor, porém sem efeito significativo na função pulmonar.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain and pulmonary function during the postoperative period after thoracic surgery by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. METHODS: The search strategy included MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS, besides a manual search, from inception to August, 2011. Randomized trials were included, comparing TENS associated or not with pharmacological analgesia vs. placebo TENS associated or not with pharmacological analgesia or vs. pharmacological analgesia alone to assess pain (visual analog scale - VAS) and/or pulmonary function represented by forced vital capacity (FVC) in postoperative thoracic surgery patients (pulmonary or cardiac with approach by thoracotomy or sternotomy). RESULTS: Of the 2.489 articles identified, 11 studies were included. In the approach by thoracotomy, TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia reduced pain compared to the placebo TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia (VAS -1.29; CI95%: -1.94 to - 0.65). In the approach by sternotomy, TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia also reduced pain compared to the placebo TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia (VAS -1.33; 95%CI: -1.89 to 0.77) and compared to pharmacological analgesia alone (VAS -1.23; 95%CI: -1.79 to -0.67). There was no significant improvement in FVC (0.12 L; 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.51). CONCLUSION: TENS associated with pharmacological analgesia provides pain relief compared to the placebo TENS in postoperative thoracic surgery patients both approached by thoracotomy and sternotomy. In the sternotomy it also provides more effective pain relief compared to pharmacological analgesia alone, but has no significant effect on pulmonary function.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Pain, Postoperative/physiopathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Vital Capacity/physiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 133-137, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617037


O sequestro pulmonar é definido como uma massa de tecido pulmonar separada da árvore traqueobrônquica e irrigada por uma artéria sistêmica anômala. Sua associação com neoplasias pulmonares é rara. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos com o diagnóstico de tumor carcinoide localizado no brônquio intermediário, associado a alterações caracterizadas como bronquiectasias em lobo inferior direito. A paciente foi submetida à toracotomia para ressecção da área acometida e, durante a cirurgia, apresentou hemorragia importante decorrente da transecção da artéria anômala que nutria o sequestro pulmonar intralobar localizado em lobo inferior direito, não identificado nos exames pré-operatórios.

Pulmonary sequestration is defined as a mass of lung tissue separated from the tracheobronchial tree and irrigated by an anomalous systemic artery. It is rarely seen in conjunction with lung neoplasms. We report the case of a 39-year-old female patient diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor, located in the intermediate bronchus and accompanied by bronchiectasis in the right lower lobe. The patient underwent thoracotomy for the resection of the affected area. During surgery, she presented with significant hemorrhage resulting from the transection of the anomalous artery that irrigated an intralobar pulmonary sequestration, which was located in right lower lobe and had not been identified in pre-operative examinations.

Adult , Female , Humans , Aorta, Thoracic/injuries , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/pathology , Carcinoid Tumor/surgery , Incidental Findings , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2011 May; 14(2): 111-114
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139583


Pericardial tamponade limits diastolic filling of the heart; therefore, a high venous pressure is required to fill the ventricle. In presence of cardiac tamponade, therapeutic agents and manoeuvres that results in venodilation or vasodilation can severely compromise diastolic filling of the heart and might result in rapid cardiac decompensation. Equalization of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure or equalization of pressures in all four chambers during diastole confirms cardiac tamponade. Transthoracic echocardiography can detect the site of tamponade and assist in pericardiocentesis. We describe acute pericardial tamponade in a young man who underwent left posterolateral thoracotomy for left upper lobectomy. Intraoperatively, mobilization of the left upper lobe was frequently associated with hypotension. Postoperatively, the patient suffered two more episodes of hypotension. The episodes of hypotension were attributed to surgical manipulation and epidural blockade. Hemodynamics normalized after discontinuing epidural infusion, volume resuscitation and lobectomy. On third postoperative day, the patient developed cardiovascular collapse; arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure were 70/50 and 12 mmHg. Investigations showed haziness of left lung, and severe respiratory acidosis. On opening of the left thoracotomy wound, pericardial tamponade was diagnosed. A pericardial window was created and tamponade was released with that the hemodynamics normalized. Episodes of unexplained hypotension after left upper lobectomy suggest a cardiac etiology and acute pericardial tamponade is a possibility which should be released immediately otherwise it can result in fatal outcome.

Anesthesia, General , Aspergillosis/surgery , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnosis , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/therapy , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Critical Care , Lung/surgery , Lung Diseases, Fungal/surgery , Male , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/methods , Shock/complications , Thoracotomy/adverse effects
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(6): 707-715, nov.-dez. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-570645


OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco para complicações pulmonares em pacientes com sarcoma após serem submetidos a toracotomia para a ressecção de nódulos pulmonares. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 68 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de sarcomas e submetidos a 174 toracotomias para a ressecção de nódulos pulmonares. A variável dependente foi definida como a ocorrência de qualquer complicação pulmonar pós-operatória. As variáveis independentes foram relacionadas com o paciente, o diagnóstico de base e o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico. Os dados foram analisados segundo um modelo multivariado de estimação de equações generalizadas, com uma função de ligação logística e uma estrutura de correlação simétrica. RESULTADOS: Houve 24 complicações (13,8 por cento; IC95 por cento: 9,0-19,8), incluindo um óbito. Os pacientes que apresentaram complicações pós-operatórias tiveram um tempo médio de internação duas vezes superior àqueles sem complicações (18,8 ± 10,0 dias vs. 8,6 ± 6,0 dias; p < 0,05). As variáveis que se correlacionaram com o desfecho foram o tipo de ressecção (em cunha ou anatômica; OR = 3,6; IC95 por cento: 1,5-8,8), necessidade de transfusão sanguínea (OR = 9,8; IC95 por cento: 1,6-60,1) e número de nódulos ressecados (OR = 1,1; IC95 por cento: 1,0-1,1). O modelo multivariado obtido exibiu uma área sob a curva ROC de 0,75 (IC95 por cento: 0,65-0,85). CONCLUSÕES: As complicações pulmonares pós-operatórias após a ressecção de nódulos pulmonares em pacientes com sarcoma não foram raras, ocorrendo em cerca de 10 por cento dos procedimentos. A ocorrência dessas complicações pode ser antecipada pelo uso de ressecção não em cunha, necessidade de hemotransfusão e maior número de nódulos ressecados. Assim, já no pós-operatório imediato, é possível identificar pacientes de risco, que devem ser estritamente monitorizados durante o período pós-operatório imediato. Para esses pacientes, todas as medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for pulmonary complications after thoracotomy for the resection of pulmonary nodules in patients with sarcoma. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 68 consecutive patients diagnosed with sarcoma and submitted to a total of 174 thoracotomies for the resection of pulmonary nodules. The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence of any postoperative pulmonary complications. The independent variables were related to the patient, underlying diagnosis, and type of surgical procedure. We analyzed the data using a multivariate generalized estimating equations model with logistic link function and a symmetric correlation structure. RESULTS: Complications were observed in 24 patients (13.8 percent, 95 percent CI: 9.0-19.8), and there was one death. The mean length of hospital stay was twice as long in the patients with postoperative complications as in those without (18.8 ± 10.0 days vs. 8.6 ± 6.0 days; p < 0.05). The variables that correlated with the outcome measure were the type of resection (wedge vs. anatomic; OR = 3.6; 95 percent CI: 1.5-8.8), the need for blood transfusion (OR = 9.8; 95 percent CI: 1.6-60.1), and the number of nodules resected (OR = 1.1; 95 percent CI: 1.0-1.1). The multivariate model showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (95 percent CI: 0.65-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pulmonary complications were common after pulmonary nodule resection in patients with sarcoma, occurring in approximately 10 percent of the procedures. The occurrence of such complications can be expected when techniques other than wedge resection are employed, when blood transfusion is required, and when a great number of nodules are resected. Therefore, it is possible to identify patients at risk for pulmonary complications, who should be closely monitored in the immediate postoperative period. In such patients, all preventive measures should be taken.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Sarcoma/surgery , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/surgery , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Epidemiologic Methods , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/pathology , Thoracotomy/methods
Rev. cuba. cir ; 49(4): 52-57, oct.-dic. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-584330


Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 64 años de edad que acudió al cuerpo de guardia con dolor torácico agudo localizado en hemitórax derecho y disnea intensa. La persistencia del neumotórax sin que se lograra la reexpansión pulmonar con la pleurotomía y el drenaje torácico obligó a una toracotomía. Se encontró una bulla enfisematosa gigante rota, y se realizó una bilobectomía superior y media. El diagnóstico histológico fue carcinoma bronquioalveolar. La coincidencia de un cáncer de pulmón en una bulla enfisematosa no es excepcional, pero la aparición y persistencia de un neumotórax como manifestación inicial de un cáncer de pulmón es poco frecuente(AU)

This is the case of a patient aged 64 seen in the emergency room due to a acute thorax pain located in right hemithorax and intense dyspnea. The persistence of pneumothorax without to achieve a pulmonary re-expansion with a pleurotomy and thoracic drainage be necessary a thoracotomy. A ruptured giant emphysematous bulla was found thus the superior and middle bilobectomy. The histological diagnosis was a bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Coincidence of a lung cancer in a emphysematous bulla isn't exceptional and the persistence of pneumothorax as initial manifestation of lung cancer is not frequent(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 25(3): 322-325, jul.-set. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564997


INTRODUÇÃO: A toracotomia ântero-lateral direita tem sido utilizada como uma alternativa para a abordagem cirúrgica da valva mitral. Nestes casos, a canulação femoral continua sendo utilizada, possibilitando a ocorrência de complicações. OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica e os resultados do tratamento da valva mitral via toracotomia ântero-lateral direita, utilizando a canulação aórtica para instalação da circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Entre 1983 e 2008, 100 pacientes consecutivos, com média de idade 35 13 anos, 96 (96 por cento) do sexo feminino, foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico da valva mitral no InCor-HC-FMUSP, através da toracotomia ântero-lateral direita associada à canulação aórtica. Destes, 80 (80 por cento) pacientes apresentavam etiologia reumática e 84 (84 por cento) classe funcional III ou IV. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas 45 (45 por cento) comissurotomias, 38 (38 por cento) plásticas, sete (7 por cento) substituições da valva mitral, sete (7 por cento) re-comissurotomias e três (3 por cento) substituição de prótese mitral. Cirurgia conservadora foi realizada em 90 (90 por cento) dos pacientes. O tempo médio de CEC e pinçamento foi 57 27 min e 39 19 min, respectivamente. Não ocorreram óbitos hospitalares, reoperações por sangramento ou conversão para esternotomia. Complicações intraoperatórias foram relacionadas à dissecção cardíaca (5 por cento), principalmente nas reoperações (3 por cento). As principais complicações pós-operatórias foram relacionadas ao sistema pulmonar (11 por cento), seguidas de fibrilação atrial (10 por cento), porém sem repercussões sistêmicas graves. A média de internação hospitalar foi de 8 3 dias. O seguimento foi 6.038 pacientes/mês. A sobrevida atuarial e livre de reoperação foi de 98,0 ± 1,9 por cento e 81,4 ± 7,8 por cento em 180 meses, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da toracotomia ântero-lateral direita associada a canulação aórtica na abordagem cirúrgica da valva mitral é uma técnica simples, reprodutível e segura.

INTRODUCTION: The right anterolateral thoracotomy is an alternative technique for surgical approach of mitral valve. In these cases, femoral-femoral bypass still has been used, rising occurrence of complications related to femoral cannulation. Objective: Describe the technique and results of mitral valve treatment by right anterolateral thoracotomy using aortic cannulation for cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: From 1983 e 2008, 100 consecutive female patients, with average age 35 ±13 years, 96 (96 percent) underwent mitral valve surgical treatment in the Heart Institute of São Paulo. A right anterolateral thoracotomy approach associated with aortic cannulation was used for CPB. Eighty (80 percent) patients had rheumatic disease and 84 (84 percent) patients presented functional class III or IV. RESULTS: Were performed 45 (45 percent) comissurotomies, 38 (38 percent) valve repairs, 7(7 percent) mitral valve replacements, seven (7 percent) recomissurotomies and three (3 percent) prosthesis replacement. Sparing surgery was performed in 90 (90 percent) patients. The average CPB and clamp time were 57 ± 27 min e 39 ± 19 min, respectively. There were no in-hospital death, reoperation due to bleeding and convertion to sternotomy. Introperative complications were related to heart harvest (5 percent), especially in reoperations (3 percent). The most important complications in postoperative period were related to pulmonary system (11 percent), followed by atrial fibrilation (10 percent) but without major systemic repercussions. The mean inhospital length of stay was 8 ± 3 days. Follow-up was 6.038 patients/month. Actuarial survival was 98.0 ± 1.9 percent and freedom from reoperation was 81.4 ± 7.8 percent in 180 months. CONCLUSION: The right anterolateral thoracotomy associated with aortic cannulation in mitral valve surgery is a simple technique, reproducible and safety.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Thoracotomy/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation , Follow-Up Studies , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Severity of Illness Index , Thoracotomy/adverse effects
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(2): 122-128, fev. 2009. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-507327


OBJETIVO: Comparar los resultados de la toracotomía con la video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, cirugía torácica video-asistida) en el tratamiento de las recurrencias del neumotórax espontáneo primario. MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes con neumotórax primario recurrente dividiéndose en dos grupos: pacientes sometidos a toracotomía (n = 53, grupo toracotomía) y pacientes sometidos a VATS (n = 47, grupo VATS). RESULTADOS: La morbilidad fue mayor en el grupo A. Sin mortalidad en ninguno de los dos grupos. La duración de la hospitalización fue similar. Los pacientes del grupo toracotomía necesitaron más dosis de narcóticos durante períodos más largos de tiempo que los del grupo VATS (p < 0.05). Se presentó una recurrencia en el grupo toracotomía (3 por ciento). El 68 por ciento de los pacientes del grupo VATS y el 21 por ciento del grupo toracotomía clasificaron su dolor como insignificante transcurrido un mes de la cirugía (p < 0.05). A los tres años, el 97 por ciento de los sometidos a VATS se consideraron totalmente recuperados comparado con el 79 por ciento del grupo de toracotomía (p < 0.05). El 90 por ciento del grupo toracotomía y el 3 por ciento del grupo VATS se quejaban de dolor necesitando analgésicos por más de una vez al mes, 13 por ciento de los sometidos a toracotomía requirieron la asistencia de la clínica del dolor. CONCLUSIONES: La VATS es la primera elección en el tratamiento de la recidiva del neumotórax espontáneo primario.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. METHODS: Medical records of patients presenting recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent conservative thoracotomy (n = 53, thoracotomy group); and those who underwent VATS (n = 47, VATS group). RESULTS: Although there were no deaths in either group and the length of hospital stays was similar between the two, there was greater morbidity in the thoracotomy group. Patients in the thoracotomy group required more pain medication for longer periods than did those in the VATS group (p < 0.05). In the thoracotomy group, the rate of recurrence was 3 percent. Pain was classified as insignificant at one month after the operation by 68 percent of patients in the VATS group and by only 21 percent of those in the thoracotomy group (p < 0.05). At three years after the surgical procedure, 97 percent of the VATS group patients considered themselves completely recovered from the operation, compared with only 79 percent in the thoracotomy group (p < 0.05). Chronic or intermittent pain, requiring the use of analgesics more than once a month, was experienced by 90 percent of the thoracotomy group patients and 3 percent of the VATS group patients. In addition, 13 percent of the thoracotomy group patients required clinical pain management. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend VATS as the first-line surgical treatment for patients with recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Patient Satisfaction , Pneumothorax/surgery , Quality of Life , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/standards , Thoracotomy/standards , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Drainage , Length of Stay , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pneumothorax/prevention & control , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/psychology , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Thoracotomy/psychology , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69851


Atelectasis can impair arterial oxygenation and decrease lung compliance. However, the effects of atelectasis on endotoxemic lungs during ventilation have not been well studied. We hypothesized that ventilation at low volumes below functional residual capacity (FRC) would accentuate lung injury in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-pretreated rats. LPS-pretreated rats were ventilated with room air at 85 breaths/min for 2 hr at a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg with or without thoracotomy. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was applied to restore FRC in the thoracotomy group. While LPS or thoracotomy alone did not cause significant injury, the combination of endotoxemia and thoracotomy caused significant hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The injury was observed along with a marked accumulation of inflammatory cells in the interstitium of the lungs, predominantly comprising neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemistry showed increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in mononuclear cells accumulated in the interstitium in the injury group. Pretreatment with PEEP or an iNOS inhibitor (1400 W) attenuated hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lung. In conclusion, the data suggest that atelectasis induced by thoracotomy causes lung injury during mechanical ventilation in endotoxemic rats through iNOS expression.

Animals , Blood Pressure , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cardiac Output , Combined Modality Therapy , Endotoxemia/complications , Functional Residual Capacity , Immunohistochemistry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/enzymology , Lung Compliance , Lung Volume Measurements , Male , Neutrophils/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Oxygen/blood , Positive-Pressure Respiration/adverse effects , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thoracotomy/adverse effects