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1.
Femina ; 51(7): 390-399, 20230730. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512437

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Apresentar a atualização das recomendações do Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem, da Sociedade Brasileira de Mastologia e da Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia para o rastreamento do câncer de mama no Brasil. Materiais e Métodos: Foram feitas buscas das evidências científicas publicadas nas bases Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, CINAHL e Lilacs, entre janeiro de 2012 e julho de 2022. As recomendações foram baseadas nessas evidências, mediante consenso da comissão de especialistas das três entidades. Recomendações: O rastreamento mamográfico anual é recomendado para as mulheres de risco habitual entre 40 e 74 anos. Acima de 75 anos, deve ser reservado para as que tenham expectativa de vida maior que sete anos. Mulheres com risco maior que o habitual, entre elas as com mamas densas, com história pessoal de hiperplasia lobular atípica, carcinoma lobular in situ clássico, hiperplasia ductal atípica, tratamento de câncer de mama ou de irradiação no tórax antes dos 30 anos ou, ainda, portadoras de mutação genética ou com forte história familiar, beneficiam-se do rastreamento complementar, sendo consideradas de forma individualizada. A tomossíntese é uma evolução da mamografia e deve ser considerada no rastreamento, sempre que acessível e disponível. (AU)


Objective: To present the update of the recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology, the Brazilian Society of Mastology and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Associations for breast cancer screening in Brazil. Materials and Methods: Scientific evidence published in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Cinahl and Lilacs between January 2012 and July 2022 was searched. Recommendations were based on this evidence, by consensus of the expert committee of the three entities. Recommendations: Annual mammographic screening is recommended for women aged between 40 and 74 years old. Above 75 years should be reserved for those with a life expectancy greater than seven years. Women at higher than usual risk, including those with dense breasts, a personal history of atypical lobular hyperplasia, classic lobular carcinoma in situ, atypical ductal hyperplasia, treatment for breast câncer, chest irradiation before age 30, carriers of genetic mutation or with a strong family history, benefit from complementary screening, being considered individually. Tomosynthesis is an evolution of mammography and should be considered in screening, whenever accessible and available. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Thorax/radiation effects , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mammography , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Cohort Studies , Women's Health , Systematic Review
2.
FEMINA ; 51(5): 292-296, 20230530.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512407

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE • A incidência de câncer durante a gestação tem aumentado devido à tendência das mulheres em postergar a gravidez. O câncer de colo de útero é a terceira neoplasia mais comumente diagnosticada durante o período gestacional. • O rastreamento e o diagnóstico devem se dar como nas pacientes não gestantes; a citologia oncótica cervical é o exame obrigatório do pré-natal, e a colposcopia com biópsia pode ser realizada em qualquer período da gestação. • A gestação complicada pelo diagnóstico de um câncer deve sempre ser conduzida em centro de referência e por equipe multidisciplinar. • A interrupção da gestação em situações específicas, para tratamento-padrão, é respaldada por lei. • A quimioterapia neoadjuvante é uma alternativa segura de tratamento durante a gestação, para permitir alcançar a maturidade fetal. Apresenta altas taxas de resposta, sendo relatada progressão neoplásica durante a gestação em apenas 2,9% dos casos. O risco de malformações fetais decorrentes da quimioterapia é semelhante ao da população geral. Contudo, a quimioterapia está associada a restrição de crescimento intraútero, baixo peso ao nascer e mielotoxicidade neonatal. • Na ausência de progressão de doença, deve-se levar a gestação até o termo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Women's Health , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/prevention & control , Prenatal Diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Congenital Abnormalities/embryology , Bone Marrow/abnormalities , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Colposcopy/methods , Conization/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Fetal Growth Retardation , Watchful Waiting/methods , Trachelectomy/methods , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 437-444, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440312

ABSTRACT

Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron primero evaluar la asociación de dimensiones antropométricas de tórax y tronco con índices espirométricos, segundo, ajustar una ecuación de predicción con dimensiones antropométricas de tronco y tercero, comparar nuestro modelo predictivo con dos ecuaciones diagnósticas. Se evaluaron 59 estudiantes universitarios entre 20 y 40 años, de ambos sexos, sin hábito tabáquico. Las variables consideradas fueron: edad, sexo, peso, estatura, diámetro transverso de tórax, diámetro anteroposterior de tórax, perímetro de tórax, altura de tórax, altura de tronco, flujo espiratorio máximo (FEM), volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) y capacidad vital forzada (CVF). Se utilizó el análisis de regresión múltiple para estimar los valores espirométricos en función de las variables demográficas y antropométricas. La CVF y el VEF1 tienen asociación lineal directa con el diámetro transverso de tórax, altura de tórax, perímetro de tórax y altura de tronco. Se ajustó una ecuación de regresión lineal múltiple que indicó que es posible estimar la CVF y el VEF11 en función de la altura de tronco y el perímetro de tórax para ambos sexos. Estas variables son capaces de explicar el 74 % de los valores de CVF y el 68 % de los valores de VEF1. Al comparar los valores obtenidos por nuestras ecuaciones predictivas con las ecuaciones de referencia nacional observamos que nuestros resultados son más cercanos a los de Quanjer et al. (2012) que a los de Knudson et al. (1983). La altura de tronco y el perímetro de tórax tienen asociación directa con el VEF1 y CVF y son buenos predictores del VEF1 y CVF en estudiantes universitarios. Nuestros valores estimados son más cercanos a las ecuaciones de Quanjer et al. (2012) en comparación a las estimaciones de Knudson (1983).


SUMMARY: The purposes of the present study were first to evaluate the association between anthropometric dimensions of the thorax and trunk with spirometric indices, second, to fit a prediction equation with anthropometric dimensions of the trunk, and third, to compare our predictive model with two diagnostic equations. Fifty-nine university students between 20 and 40 years old, of both sexes and non-smokers were recruited. Variables considered were age, sex, weight, height, chest transverse diameter, chest anteroposterior diameter, chest perimeter, chest height, trunk height, maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate spirometric values based on demographic and anthropometric variables. FVC and FEV1 have a direct linear association with chest transverse diameter, chest height, chest circumference, and trunk height. A multiple linear regression equation was fitted, indicating that it is possible to estimate FVC and FEV1 as a function of trunk height and chest girth for both sexes. These variables can explain 74% of the FVC values and 68% of the FEV1 values. Comparing the values obtained by our predictive equations with the national reference equations, we observe that our results are closer to those of Quanjer et al. (2012) than to those of Knudson et al. (1983). Trunk height and chest circumference have a direct association with FEV1 and FVC and are good predictors of FEV1 and FVC in university students. Our estimated values are closer to Quanjer et al. (2012) than Knudson et al. (1983) prediction equations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spirometry , Anthropometry , Torso/anatomy & histology , Torso/physiology , Thorax/anatomy & histology , Thorax/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Regression Analysis
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los neumatoceles y las bulas pulmonares son lesiones que se observan en los niños casi siempre asociadas a neumonías infecciosas, aunque sus causas pueden ser diversas. La importancia clínica de estos procesos radica en el peligro de crecimiento progresivo, que puede comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias derivadas del proceso de diagnóstico por imágenes y del tratamiento invasivo de casos atendidos. Presentación de los casos: Desde finales de 2021 y durante un período de un año, se atendieron, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Cienfuegos, cinco niños con neumonías extensas, que desarrollaron bulas de gran tamaño varios días después del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado. Estas necesitaron drenaje y aspiración percutáneos debido a su magnitud y a la presencia de síntomas cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las bulas que aparecieron como complicación de la neumonía en el niño pueden presentarse con una frecuencia no despreciable, y hay que mantenerse atentos a su evolución, porque, a diferencia de los neumatoceles, pueden crecer progresivamente y comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. El drenaje percutáneo y aspiración continua por cinco días resultó un método seguro y eficaz para tratar estos procesos(AU)


Introduction: Pneumoatoceles and pulmonary bullae are lesions that are observed in children almost always associated with infectious pneumonia, although their causes may be diverse. The clinical importance of these processes lies in the danger of progressive growth, which can compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Objective: To describe the experiences derived from the imaging process and the invasive treatment of treated cases. Presentation of the cases: Since the end of 2021 and for a period of one year, five children with extensive pneumonia were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit of the University Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos, who developed large bullae several days after appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The bullae required percutaneous drainage and aspiration due to their magnitude and the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusions: The bulla that appeared as a complication of pneumonia in the child can occur with a not negligible frequency, and it is necessary to be attentive to their evolution, because, unlike pneumoatoceles, can grow progressively and compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Percutaneous drainage and continuous aspiration for five days was a safe and effective method to treat these processes(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pleural Effusion/drug therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Asthenia/etiology , Tachycardia/complications , Residence Characteristics , Blister/etiology , Back Pain , Cough , Thoracentesis/methods , COVID-19 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage/instrumentation , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anemia
5.
African journal of emergency medicine (Print) ; 13(1): 15-19, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1413332

ABSTRACT

Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in individuals between the ages of 1 and 44 years and it is the third commonest cause of death regardless of age. Thoracic trauma is a relatively common cause of preventable death among trauma patients. The spectrum of injuries after blunt chest trauma presents a challenging problem to the emergency physician. This study is intended to discuss the epidemiology, severity and initial management strategies in chest trauma patients, in a low income country. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study among chest trauma patients seen in the emergency room of National Hospital Trauma Centre, Abuja, Nigeria, from January 2015 to December 2017. Relevant patients' information was retrieved from the trauma registry kept in the trauma centre. Data processing and analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24. Test of significance was done where applicable using chi square and student t test, using p value less than 0.05 as significant. Results are presented in tables and figures. Results: A total of 637 patients, male to female ratio of 3.6 and mean age of 34.18 ± 11.34 were enrolled into the study. The most common mechanisms of injury were MVC (54.6%) and assault (23.5%). Blunt injuries were 3.5 times more frequent than the penetrating injuries. The RTS of 12 (76.3%) and the ISS of 1-15 category (52.3%) were the most common scores. Up to 98% of patients were managed non-operatively. Recovery rate was high (89%) with relatively low mortality rate of 4.2%. Conclusion: Majority of thoracic trauma can be managed effectively by employing simple, non-operative procedures such as needle decompression and chest tube insertion. Efforts should be made to include these procedures in the skill set of every medical officer working in the emergency room, particularly in low and middle income countries where there is paucity of emergency physicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds and Injuries , Emergency Service, Hospital , Thoracic Injuries , Thorax , Wounds, Nonpenetrating
6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 614-619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985918

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of endoscopic diaphragm incision in pediatric congenital duodenal diaphragm. Methods: Eight children with duodenal diaphragm treated by endoscopic diaphragm incision in the Department of Gastroenterology of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from October 2019 to May 2022 were enrolled in this study. Their clinical data including general conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging examinations, endoscopic procedures and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 8 children, 4 were males and 4 females. The diagnosis was confirmed at the age of 6-20 months; the age of onset was 0-12 months and the course of disease was 6-18 months. The main clinical manifestations were recurrent non-biliary vomiting, abdominal distension and malnutrition. One case complicated with refractory hyponatremia was first diagnosed with atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the endocrinology department. After treatment with hydrocortisone, the blood sodium returned to normal, but vomiting was recurrent. One patient underwent laparoscopic rhomboid duodenal anastomosis in another hospital but had recurred vomiting after the operation, who was diagnosed with double duodenal diaphragm under endoscope. No other malformations were found in all the 8 cases. The duodenal diaphragm was located in the descending part of the duodenum, and the duodenal papilla was located below the diaphragm in all the 8 cases. Three cases had the diaphragm dilated by balloon to explore the diaphragm opening range before diaphragm incision; the other 5 had diaphragm incision performed after probing the diaphragm opening with guide wire. All the 8 cases were successfully treated by endoscopic incision of duodenal diaphragm, with the operation time of 12-30 minutes. There were no complications such as intestinal perforation, active bleeding or duodenal papilla injury. At one month of follow-up, their weight increased by 0.4-1.5 kg, with an increase of 5%-20%. Within the postoperative follow-up period of 2-20 months, all the 8 children had duodenal obstruction relieved, without vomiting or abdominal distension, and all resumed normal feeding. Gastroscopy reviewed at 2-3 months after the operation in 3 cases found no deformation of the duodenal bulbar cavity, and the mucosa of the incision was smooth, with a duodenal diameter of 6-7 mm. Conclusion: Endoscopic diaphragm incision is safe, effective and less invasive in pediatric congenital duodenal diaphragm, with favorable clinical applicability.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Thorax , Endoscopy , Physical Examination , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 407-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982173

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest morbidity and mortality in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main pathological subtype of lung cancer. On April 13, 2023, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) released the third edition of the 2023 NCCN Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, which reflects the latest advances in international lung cancer research. This article will interpret the main updated contents of the new edition of the guidelines, and compare it with the third edition of the NCCN guidelines in 2022, so as to provide references about the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC for clinical medical personnel in China.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , China , Lung Neoplasms , Thorax
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 492-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981567

ABSTRACT

Non-rigid registration plays an important role in medical image analysis. U-Net has been proven to be a hot research topic in medical image analysis and is widely used in medical image registration. However, existing registration models based on U-Net and its variants lack sufficient learning ability when dealing with complex deformations, and do not fully utilize multi-scale contextual information, resulting insufficient registration accuracy. To address this issue, a non-rigid registration algorithm for X-ray images based on deformable convolution and multi-scale feature focusing module was proposed. First, it used residual deformable convolution to replace the standard convolution of the original U-Net to enhance the expression ability of registration network for image geometric deformations. Then, stride convolution was used to replace the pooling operation of the downsampling operation to alleviate feature loss caused by continuous pooling. In addition, a multi-scale feature focusing module was introduced to the bridging layer in the encoding and decoding structure to improve the network model's ability of integrating global contextual information. Theoretical analysis and experimental results both showed that the proposed registration algorithm could focus on multi-scale contextual information, handle medical images with complex deformations, and improve the registration accuracy. It is suitable for non-rigid registration of chest X-ray images.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Learning , Thorax
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e246-e254, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398301

ABSTRACT

La ecografía pulmonar (EP) ha ganado terreno en el diagnóstico de la mayoría de las patologías respiratorias presentes desde el nacimiento. Es altamente sensible a las variaciones del contenidode aire y fluidos pulmonares, y constituye un verdadero densitómetro del parénquimapulmonar con una sensibilidad superior a la de los estudios radiológicos. Es no invasiva, rápida, fácil de realizar junto a la cama del paciente y, a diferencia de la radiología convencional, no presenta riesgos de radiación. Además, nosproporciona información dinámica en tiempo real en una variedad de entornos neonatales y, al igual que las evaluaciones del corazón y el cerebro, puede ser realizada por el neonatólogo. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrarlos principales artefactos e imágenes que sepueden encontrar en la EP neonatal, así como los diferentes patrones de aireación, y destacar su utilidad en el estudio de los trastornosrespiratorios más frecuentes del neonato.


Lung ultrasound (LU) has gained ground in the diagnosis of most respiratory conditions present since birth. It is highly sensitive to variations in air content and pulmonary fluids and functions as a true densitometer of the lung parenchyma with a sensitivity superior to that of radiological studies. A LU is a non-invasive, fast and easy tool that can be used at the patient's bedside and, unlike conventional radiology, does not pose risks of radiation. In addition, a LU provides real-time dynamic information in a variety of neonatal settings and, like heart and brain examinations, can be performed by the neonatologist. The objective of this article is to describe the main artifacts and images that can be found in the neonatal LU, as well as the different aeration patterns, and to highlight their usefulness in the study of the most frequent respiratory disorders of neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia , Neonatology , Thorax , Ultrasonography , Lung/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 14-23, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395909

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Boerhaave syndrome is a spontaneous rupture of the esophageal wall caused by a sudden increase in intraesophageal pressure. It represents an incidence of approximately 15% of all esophageal perforations, which do not exceed 3.1 per 1 million inhabitants per year. Objectives: To communicate the clinical presentation and management of patients with this syndrome, as well as to reveal the different options available in our service for its treatment. Methods: Search in the statistical data of the regional Hospital of Talca for patients with a diagnosis of Boerhaave syndrome. Five patients were found. Information was obtained from their clinical records and is presented as a clinical case report with a descriptive analysis of their management. Results: Of the 5 clinical cases presented, a classic clinical presentation can be observed, most of the patients presented with vomiting that later evolved with thoracic and/or epigastric pain, associated with imaging studies suggesting esophageal perforation. Management was surgical in 100% of the cases, applying different techniques described in the literature. Discussion and Conclusion: Boerhaave syndrome is a medical-surgical emergency that requires timely management. In spite of the variety of management and the consequences of each one of them, all the patients had an evolution that allowed them to preserve their lives until nowadays. Keeping a high index of suspicion and choosing the best management will have an impact on morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases , Mediastinal Diseases/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagectomy/methods , Delayed Diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 19-26, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393195

ABSTRACT

Injuries involving the spine are frequent in dogs and knowledge of them is important to define the patient's treatment and prognosis. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the epidemiological profile of animals and lesions in the cervical (C1-5) and cervicothoracic (C6-T2) spine diagnosed through tomographic examination. Compilation of computed tomography (CT) reports for the referred regions was carried out in a diagnostic center between 01/04/2017 and 30/04/2020, with or without contrast, from the clinical routine, in order to relate the most common lesions and their locations, as well as the species, breeds and ages most affected. A total of 1164 CT scans were performed in the period, 57.56% (n=670/1164) for the spine, with 89.7% (n=601/670) reports accessed, where both regions referred to here totaled 26.95% of the studies (n=162/601). Male mixed-breed dogs (MBD) showed the most lesions. For the cervical spine, the most identified lesion was disk extrusion and the site was C3-C4, while the mean age for lesions was 8.09±3.55 years. As for cervicothoracic, disk mineralization was more frequent and the mean age for lesions was 6.96±2.93 years. It was concluded that the spine is the main target of CT scans, that lesions related to the intervertebral disk were the main ones identified, and older MBD animals are the main ones affected.


As lesões envolvendo coluna vertebral são frequentes em animais de companhia, podendo ocorrer à nível vertebral, medula espinal, disco intervertebral, meninges ou raízes nervosas, e o conhecimento das mesmas é importante para definir o tratamento e prognóstico do animal. O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos animais e das lesões em coluna vertebral cervical (C1-5) e cervicotorácica (C6-T2) diagnosticadas por meio de exame tomográfico. Realizou-se a compilação de laudos de tomografias computadorizadas para as referidas regiões realizadas em centro diagnóstico comercial, entre 01/04/2017 a 30/04/2020, contrastadas e não-contrastadas, provenientes da rotina clínica, a fim de relacionar as lesões, raças e locais mais comuns. Foram realizados 1164 exames tomográficos no período avaliado, sendo 57,56% (n=670/1164) para a coluna, com 89,7% dos laudos acessados (n=601/670), sendo que as regiões cervical e cervicotorácica somaram 26,95% dos estudos (n=162/601). Em ambas regiões, os cães sem raça definida (SRD) machos foram os que mais demonstraram lesões. Para a coluna cervical, a lesão mais identificada foi extrusão de disco e o local mais afetado foi C3-C4, enquanto a média de idade para lesões foi 8,09±3,55 anos. Já para cervicotorácica, a mineralização de disco foi mais frequente e média de idade para ocorrência de lesões foi de 6,96±2,93 anos. Concluiu-se que a coluna vertebral foi o principal alvo de tomografias, as lesões relacionadas ao disco intervertebral foram as mais identificadas, sendo animais SRD com idade avançada os mais acometidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Spinal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/abnormalities , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Cats/injuries , Dogs/injuries , Intervertebral Disc/injuries
12.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc331, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411428

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A esclerose sistêmica (ES) é uma doença autoimune do tecido conjuntivo que cursa com fibrose e disfunção microvascular. O envolvimento dos órgãos viscerais, incluindo os pulmões e o coração, é a principal causa de óbito na ES. Nesse contexto, analisamos a relação entre os parâmetros ventriculares direitos (VD) pela ecocardiografia com Doppler tecidual e o acometimento pulmonar em pacientes com ES. Métodos: Os pacientes que preencheram os Critérios de Classificação da ES de 2013 foram submetidos à ecocardiografia com Doppler tecidual para avaliação da função sistólica (fração de ejeção) ventricular esquerda (VE), enquanto a função sistólica do VD foi avaliada por meio da fração de variação de área do VD (fractional area change ­ FAC), velocidade (sistólica) do Doppler tecidual, índice de desempenho miocárdico (IDM) e excursão sistólica do plano anular tricúspide (TAPSE). A pressão sistólica pulmonar foi estimada por insuficiência tricúspide. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR) de tórax avaliou a presença de fibrose pulmonar. De acordo com os resultados da TCAR, os pacientes foram divididos em 2 subgrupos: Grupo I, incluindo pacientes com fibrose pulmonar (n=26), e Grupo II sem fibrose (n=17). Resultados: Entre os 43 pacientes com ES, a maioria era do sexo feminino (86%) com idade de 51±12 anos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam função ventricular sistólica normal, avaliada pela FEVE>55% e FAC VD>35%. Não houve diferença significativa em termos de idade ou duração da doença para os grupos. Exceto pela diminuição das velocidades do Doppler tecidual em pacientes com fibrose pulmonar, todos os índices de desempenho do VD foram semelhantes. Conclusão: Em pacientes com ES e fibrose pulmonar, o Doppler tecidual identifica acometimento miocárdico longitudinal precoce do VD, apesar do desempenho sistólico radial preservado do VD.(AU)


Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune tissue connective disease that courses with fibrosis and microvascular dysfunction. Involvement of the visceral organs, including the lungs and heart, is the main cause of death among patients with SSc. In this context, here we analyzed the relationship between right ventricle (RV) parameters assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography and lung involvement in patients with SSc. Methods: Patients fulfilling the 2013 SSc Classification Criteria underwent tissue Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function (ejection fraction) and RV fractional area change (FAC), tissue Doppler s' (systolic) velocity, myocardial performance index, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion for the assessment of RV systolic function. Pulmonary systolic pressure was estimated using tricuspid regurgitation. Chest high-resolution computed tomography was used to evaluate the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. The patients were divided into two subgroups accordingly: Group I, patients with pulmonary fibrosis (n=26); and Group II, those without fibrosis (n=17). Results: Among the 43 patients with SSc, most were female (86%), and the mean age was 51 ± 12 years. All patients had normal systolic ventricular function as evidenced by an LV ejection fraction > 55% and an RV FAC > 35%. No significant intergroup difference was noted in age or disease duration. Except for a decreased tissue Doppler s' velocity in patients with lung fibrosis, all indexes of RV performance were similar. Conclusion: In patients with SSc and pulmonary fibrosis, tissue Doppler identified early RV longitudinal myocardial involvement despite preserved RV radial systolic performance.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnosis , Ventricular Function, Right , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(1): 56-60, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412674

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 56 años, quien consulta por dolor torácico lateral izquierdo de dos días de evolución y en su radiografía de tórax tomada en preoperatorio de nódulo tiroideo aparece una pequeña banda de atelectasia plana basal izquierda. Por persistencia del dolor en el posoperatorio tardío, se realizan estudios de ultrasonido, gammagrafía ósea, TAC de tórax y RNM de tórax, encontrándose finalmente un elastofibroma dorsi como causa del dolor a partir de los estudios realizados. El elastofibroma dorsi es una entidad relativamente rara, de patogénesis desconocida, que requiere de sospecha clínica para su diagnóstico. Las imágenes pueden comprobar el diagnóstico sin requerir biopsia. La resección es necesaria por crecimiento de la lesión o dolor persistente. Se revisa la literatura pertinente.


Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female patient, who consulted for presenting left lateral chest pain of 2 days of evolution, and in her chest X-ray taken preoperatively for a thyroid nodule, a small band of flat left basal atelectasis appears. Due to persistent pain in the late postoperative period, thoracic ultrasound, bone scan, chest CT, and chest MRI studies were performed, finally finding an elastofibroma dorsi as the cause of the pain. The studies carried out are shown. Elastofibroma dorsi is a relatively rare entity of unknown pathogenesis that requires clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. Imaging can confirm the diagnosis without requiring a biopsy. Resection is necessary due to growth of the lesion or persistent pain. Relevant literature is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax , Chest Pain , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Ultrasonics , Radiography , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic
14.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 237-244, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362955

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La presencia de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso es un hallazgo común, especialmente con el uso rutinario de la tomografía computarizada. Aunque en la mayoría de los casos es secundario a una causa benigna, la posibilidad de una lesión aerodigestiva subyacente ha llevado a que se recomiende el uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos para descartarla. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia de neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso y de lesiones aerodigestivas asociadas y establecer la utilidad de la tomografía computarizada multidetector en el diagnóstico de las lesiones aerodigestivas. Métodos. Mediante tomografía computarizada multidetector se identificaron los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso en un periodo de 4 años en un Centro de Trauma Nivel I. Resultados. Fueron incluidos en el estudio 41 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso. Se documentaron en total tres lesiones aerodigestivas, dos lesiones traqueales y una esofágica. Dos de estas fueron sospechadas en tomografía computarizada multidetector y confirmadas mediante fibrobroncoscopia y endoscopia digestiva superior, respectivamente, y otra fue diagnosticada en cirugía. Conclusión. El uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos en los pacientes con neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso no está indicado cuando los hallazgos clínicos y tomográficos son poco sugestivos de lesión aerodigestiva.


Introduction.The presence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is a common finding, especially with the use of computed tomography. Although in most cases the presence of pneumomediastinum is secondary to a benign etiology, the possibility of an underlying aerodigestive injuries has led to the recommendation of the routine use of endoscopic studies to rule them out. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma and associated injuries and to establish the role of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis of aerodigestive injuries. Methods.Using multidetector computed tomography, patients with a diagnosis of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma were identified over a period of 4 years in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Results. Forty-one patients diagnosed with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma, were included in this study. Two airway ruptures were documented: two tracheal injuries and one esophageal injury. Two of them suspected on multidetector computed tomography and confirmed on bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, respectively, and another was diagnosed in surgery. Conclusion.The routine use of endoscopic studies in patients with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is not indicated when the clinical and tomographic findings are not suggestive of aerodigestive injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax , Esophageal Perforation , Trachea , Wounds and Injuries , Mediastinum
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 909-914, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405228

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El Puma concolor es uno de los carnívoros más grandes presentes en Chile, aunque su tamaño varía según la zona geográfica en la que se encuentra. Cada vez es más común encontrarlos fuera de su hábitat y más en nuestro entorno. Se conocen sus aspectos ecológicos, reproductivos y nutricionales, pero muy poco de su anatomía, lo que genera un desafío en el área morfológica veterinaria que necesita fortalecimiento. El presente estudio consistió en una descripción anatómica del esqueleto apendicular de tres ejemplares adultos de Puma concolor (3 machos) en el laboratorio de anatomía veterinaria de la Universidad San Sebastián, sede de la Patagonia Puerto Montt, lo que permitió un estudio detallado de la conformación del esqueleto de cada estructura presente en el esqueleto apendicular torácico de estos ejemplares. Esto nos permitió lograr resultados de interés morfológico y profundizar en la anatomía de esta especie.


SUMMARY: The Puma concolor is one of the largest carnivores present in Chile, although its size varies according to the geographical area in which it is found. It is increasingly common to find them outside their habitat and more in our environment. Its ecological, reproductive and nutritional aspects are known, but very little is known about its anatomy, which creates a challenge in the veterinary morphological area that needs strengthening. The present study consisted of an anatomical description of the appendicular skeleton of three adult specimens of Puma concolor (3 males) in the veterinary anatomy laboratory of the Universidad San Sebastián, headquarters of Patagonia Puerto Montt, which allowed a detailed study of the conformation of the skeleton of each structure present in the thoracic appendicular skeleton of these specimens. This allowed us to achieve results of morphological interest and delve into the anatomy of this species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Thorax/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Skeleton/anatomy & histology
16.
Ghana med. j ; 56(4): 246-258, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401984

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency with Chest X-Rays severity score and Different Inflammatory Markers in Severe and Critical COVID-19 Patients. Design: A cross-sectional study Setting: The study was conducted in COVID-19 isolation units at Mardan Medical Complex Teaching Hospital (MMCTH) and Bacha Khan Medical College, Pakistan Participants: 206 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 by PCR were included in the final analysis.Data Collection/Intervention: We collected demographic, comorbidity, laboratory, and clinical outcome data from the electronic records of admitted, deceased, or discharged patients.Main outcome measure: Frequency of symptoms, comorbidities, mortality and morbidity, chest x-ray severity scores, different inflammatory markers in Vitamin D deficient Covid-19 patients Results: 128(62.14%) were severe and 78(37.5%) were critical COVID-19 patients. The whole cohort had 82(39.80%) males and 124(60.20%) females, with a median age of 55 IQR (50-73). Study participants' median Vitamin D level was 14.01ng/ml, with a minimum of 7.5ng/ml and a maximum of 70.8ng/ml. 67/206 patients died, with a fatality ratio of 32.5%. 54/67(80.59%) suffered from one or more comorbid conditions. Conclusion: Low Vitamin D levels were linked to a higher risk of death, higher x-ray severity scores, and different inflammatory markers. Vitamin D levels greater than 30ng/ml for older patients and greater than 40ng/ml in older patients with comorbidities were associated with reduced severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax , Vitamin D Deficiency , Brain Concussion , COVID-19
17.
Vet. zootec ; 29: 1-11, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1400538

ABSTRACT

O fibrossarcoma é uma neoplasia mesenquimal maligna originada dos fibroblastos que localiza-se especificamente em tecido cutâneo, subcutâneo e cavidade oral. A ressecção cirúrgica do tumor com margem de segurança é conhecida como a principal forma de tratamento. A principal forma de metástase é a via hematógena, atingindo pulmões, e menos comum em linfonodos regionais. A análise histopatológica é o exame diagnóstico de eleição para definição do tipo de tumor e sua graduação. Os exames de imagem são fundamentais no estadiamento das neoplasias e planejamento cirúrgico. A ultrassonografia e radiografia são os métodos mais utilizados e oferecem um grande apoio a oncologia médica veterinária. O exame radiográfico possibilita o achado de neoformações ósseas ou demais alterações como o aumento de volume de tecidos moles, infiltração gordurosa, e cavitações com gás ou fluído. O exame ultrassonográfico permite o conhecimento sobre a ecotextura, organização, e localização da lesão em tecidos moles. Em três gatos com fibrosssarcoma em membro torácico, foram realizadas radiografia e ultrassonografia específica da lesão. Os achados radiográficos foram aumento de volume, radiopacidade dos tecidos moles, sem acometimento ósseo. Os achados ultrassonográficos foram lesões de ecotextura grosseira, altamente heterogêneas. Os exames citológicos e histopatológicos revelaram tratar-se de fibrossarcoma. O presente relato tem como objetivo descrever os achados radiográficos e ultrassonográficos de fibrossarcoma em membro torácico de três gatos.


Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm originating from fibroblasts, which is specifically located in the skin tissue, subcutaneous tissue and oral cavity. Surgical resection of the tumor with a safety margin is known as the main form of treatment. The main form of metastasis is the hematogenous route, reaching the lungs, and less common in regional lymph nodes. histopathological analysis is the diagnostic test of choice for defining the type of tumor and its graduation. Imaging exams are essential in the staging of neoplasms and surgical planning. Ultrasonography and radiography are the most used methods and offer great support to veterinary medical oncology. The radiographic exam allows the finding of bone neoformations or other alterations such as the increase in soft tissue volume, fatty infiltration, and cavitations with gas or fluid. The ultrasound examination allows knowledge about the echotexture, organization, and location of the soft tissue lesion. Three cats with fibrosarcoma in the thoracic limb underwent lesion-specific radiography and ultrasound. The radiographic findings of fibrosarcomas were increased soft tissue radiopacity volume, without bone involvement. And the ultrasonographic findings were gross echotexture lesions, highly heterogeneous. Cytological and histopathological examinations were performed for definitive diagnosis. The present report aims to describe the radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of fibrosarcoma in the thoracic limb of three cats.


RESUMEN El fibrosarcoma es una neoplasia mesenquimatosa maligna que se origina a partir de fibroblastos, que se localiza específicamente en el tejido cutáneo, tejido subcutáneo y cavidad oral. La resección quirúrgica del tumor con un margen de seguridad se conoce como la forma principal de tratamiento. La principal forma de metástasis es la vía hematógena, que llega a los pulmones y es menos común en los ganglios linfáticos regionales. El análisis histopatológico es la prueba diagnóstica de elección para definir el tipo de tumor y su graduación. Los exámenes por imágenes son esenciales en la estadificación de las neoplasias y la planificación quirúrgica. La ecografía y la radiografía son los métodos más utilizados y ofrecen un gran apoyo a la oncología médica veterinaria. El examen radiográfico permite encontrar neoformaciones óseas u otras alteraciones como aumento de volumen de tejidos blandos, infiltración grasa y cavitaciones con gas o líquido. El examen ecográfico permite conocer la ecotextura, organización y ubicación de la lesión de tejidos blandos. A tres gatos con fibrosarcoma en la extremidad torácica se les realizó una radiografía y una ecografía específicas de la lesión. Los hallazgos radiográficos de los fibrosarcomas fueron un aumento del volumen de radiopacidad de los tejidos blandos, sin afectación ósea. Y los hallazgos ecográficos fueron lesiones macroscópicas de ecotextura, muy heterogéneas. Se realizaron exámenes citológicos e histopatológicos para el diagnóstico definitivo. El presente informe tiene como objetivo describir los hallazgos radiográficos y ecográficos del fibrosarcoma en la extremidad torácica de tres gatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Fibrosarcoma/veterinary , Fibrosarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Ultrasonography/veterinary
18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 462-470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939613

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous pulmonary puncture guided by computed tomography (CT) is one of the most effective tools for obtaining lung tissue and diagnosing lung cancer. Path planning is an important procedure to avoid puncture complications and reduce patient pain and puncture mortality. In this work, a path planning method for lung puncture is proposed based on multi-level constraints. A digital model of the chest is firstly established using patient's CT image. A Fibonacci lattice sampling is secondly conducted on an ideal sphere centered on the tumor lesion in order to obtain a set of candidate paths. Finally, by considering clinical puncture guidelines, an optimal path can be obtained by a proposed multi-level constraint strategy, which is combined with oriented bounding box tree (OBBTree) algorithm and Pareto optimization algorithm. Results of simulation experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method, which has good performance for avoiding physical and physiological barriers. Hence, the method could be used as an aid for physicians to select the puncture path.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Punctures , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 758-762, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388897

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir características demográficas y tratamiento quirúrgico realizado a pacientes con fractura de esternón (FE) en los últimos 5 años. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes operados por fractura esternal entre enero de 2015 y enero de 2020. Se analizaron edad, sexo, antecedentes mórbidos, hemodinamia de ingreso, mecanismo causal, características de lesión esternal, lesiones asociadas, indicación quirúrgica y complicaciones. Resultados: Durante el período ingresaron a nuestro hospital 9 pacientes (7 hombres) de 21 a 91 años. Todos fueron operados. La mayoría ingresó con hemodinamia estable. El mecanismo fue siempre traumático. Las indicaciones quirúrgicas fueron: dolor intratable, alteración de la mecánica ventilatoria, tórax volante, deformidad y ayuda en la rehabilitación de un trauma raquimedular. Discusión: La FE es una patología infrecuente, siendo aún más escasa su resolución quirúrgica reportada a nivel mundial. Conclusiones: Presentamos el primer reporte de una serie de casos de FE operada en Chile. La osteosíntesis esternal permite el manejo de la FE con buenos resultados funcionales con baja tasa de morbilidad. Los resultados obtenidos son comparables a los observados en la literatura internacional.


Aim: To describe demographic characteristics and surgical treatment carried out on patients with a sternal fracture (SF) in the last 5 years. Materials and Method: Retrospective descriptive study of patients operated on for SF between January 2015 and January 2020. We analyzed age, sex, morbid history, hemodynamics on admission, causal mechanism and characteristics of sternal injury, associated injuries, surgical indication and complications. Results: During the period, 9 patients were admitted to our hospital (7 men) from 21 to 91 years old. All were operated. Most were admitted with stable hemodynamics. The mechanism was always traumatic. The surgical indications were: intractable pain, alteration of ventilatory mechanics, flail chest, deformity and aid in the rehabilitation of spinal cord trauma. Discussion: SF is an infrequent pathology, its surgical resolution reported worldwide being even scarce. Conclusions: We present the first report of a series of cases of SF operated in Chile. Sternal osteosynthesis allows the management of EF with good functional results with a low morbidity rate. The results obtained are comparable to those observed in the international literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sternum/surgery , Sternum/diagnostic imaging , Fractures, Bone/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Demography , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 771-773, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355643

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carcinoma of the mammary crease is a very rare variant of breast carcinoma, in which the skin lesions are usually the presenting sign. The authors present the case of an 88-year-old woman with an exophytic plaque in the mammary crease of approximately ten years duration. The histopathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of infiltrative breast carcinoma (carcinoma of the mammary crease variant). This case highlights the important role of the dermatologist in the early diagnosis of this rare variant of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma , Thorax , Breast
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