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2.
s.l; Argentina. Ministerio de Salud, Desarrollo Social y Deportes; oct. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1348212

ABSTRACT

¿QUÉ ES LA TROMBOCITOPENIA INMUNE TROMBÓTICA INDUCIDA POR VACUNAS?: La trombocitopenia trombótica inmunitaria inducida por vacunas (VITT, por sus siglas en inglés) se define como un síndrome clínico caracterizado por todas las anomalías de laboratorio y radiológicas descritas a continuación que ocurren en individuos de 4 a 30 días después de la vacunación con Ad26.COV2 (Johnson & Johnson) o ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(Oxford-A. Zeneca). Ambas vacunas comparten la misma plataforma viral recombinante de adenovirus tipo 26 de chimpancé no replicativo. ¿CON QUE FRECUENCIA APARECE ESTE SÍNDROME?: La incidencia de este cuadro de trombosis (VITT) se estima en 14,2 por millón de dosis (1,42/100.000). Se han reportado 419 casos de eventos tromboembólicos con trombocitopenia simultánea en el resumen semanal del MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) publicado el 22 de septiembre del 2021. 3 Cabe mencionar que el riesgo de Trombosis venosa central y periférica posterior a la infección por Covid-19 es significativamente superior, ( 42,8 y 392,3 millón habitantes, respectivamente) representando un riesgo mayor. ¿EXISTE RELACIÓN CON TROMBOFILIA u OTRAS CONDICIONES COMO ESTAR ANTICOAGULADO QUE DETERMINAN CONTRAINDICACIÓN PARA RECIBIR ESTAS VACUNAS?: Los casos descriptos y su fisiopatología no se relacionan con el antecedente de trombofilia o eventos tromboembólicos previos. Est evento nuevo parece ocurrir por un mecanismo inmune gatillado por el vector viral. Por lo tanto, estos pacientes no deberían presentar mayor riesgo de un evento trombótico por la vacuna y deben recibir la vacuna para COVID-19, aún la del laboratorio Astra Zeneca disponible en el país. Esta sugerencia está sustentada por la CoNaSeVa6 .Tampoco el hecho de estar previamente anticoagulado con anticoagulantes orales debido a un evento trombótico venoso o como profilaxis de trombo-embolismo de origen cardio-embólico determina ninguna contraindicación para cualquiera de las vacunas y se pueden administrar enforma intramuscular en el músculo deltoides sin riesgo. ¿QUÉ CONDUCTA SE PUEDE RECOMENDAR A LOS EQUIPOS DE SALUD SEGÚN LA EVIDENCIA DISPONIBLE?: El NICE de Reino Unido ha emitido una recomendación estableciendo que debido a que la trombocitopenia trombótica inmunitaria inducida por vacunas ( VITT) es una afección nueva, hay "evidencia limitada disponible para informar el manejo clínico, la identificación y el manejo de la afección está evolucionando rápidamente a medida que la definición de caso se vuelve más clara." 8 . Ha publicado una guía en un entorno de actualización continua (MagiCAPP)9 que a la fecha de este informe establece pautas muy acotadas en el tratamiento del cuadro, como el uso de anticoagulantes no heparínicos (orales directos); intervenciones más complejas (transfusión, uso de fibrinógeno) requieren considerar en todo momento la condición basal del paciente y el contexto de atención del mismo (complejidad asistencial). La CONASEVA recomienda la consulta con especialista y la no administración de plaquetas. Además, el Ministerio de Salud de Mendoza indica que todo evento caracterizado de este tipo debe ser informado como Evento adverso de manera inmediata en las fichas de notificación disponibles en cada establecimiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37312, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341560

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 es una herramienta imprescindible en el combate contra la pandemia de COVID-19. La vacuna desarrollada en colaboración entre la Universidad de Oxford y el laboratorio de productos farmacéuticos AstraZeneca (AZN) ha demostrado buena eficacia, pero ha habido reporte de trombosis venosas. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, de sexo masculino, que 7 días después de la administración de la primera dosis de la vacuna AZN desarrolla trombosis venosa profunda de ambos miembros inferiores y tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide con trombocitopenia de 15.000/mm3, descenso del fibrinógeno y elevación de los D-dímeros. La situación clínica evoca el planteo de trombocitopenia trombótica inducida por vacuna (VITT). Se realizó tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona y crioprecipitados. Requirió colocación de un filtro de la vena cava inferior. Una vez mejorado el recuento plaquetario se instaló tratamiento anticoagulante con apixaban. Evolucionó favorablemente. Discusión: se trata del primer reporte nacional de VITT. Las trombosis subsiguientes a la vacuna de AZN pueden verse con las vacunas que comparten la misma plataforma vacunal (adenovirus inactivado). Se han reportado casos fundamentalmente en menores de 60 años y en topografías inhabituales. Este caso tiene la particularidad de que se trata de un paciente mayor de 60 años, que ya había tenido COVID-19 cinco meses antes y que se presenta con una trombosis en sitios habituales. El manejo terapéutico se adecuó a las pautas internacionales. El caso deja un aprendizaje relevante tanto en lo que refiere al diagnóstico precoz como al manejo terapéutico.


Abstract: Introduction: vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are an essential tool against the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccine developed in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the AstraZeneca (AZN) laboratory has proved to be effective, although venous thrombosis have been reported. Clinical case: the study presents the case of a 70 year old male patient who, 7 days after receiving the first dose of the AZN vaccination develops deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and pulmonary embolism. Simultaneously, thrombocytopenia is 15.000/mm3, fibrinogen levels drop D-dimer levels are elevated. The clinical situation leads to the suspicion of vaccine-associated immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT). The patient was treated with intravenous immune globulin, methylprednisolone and cryoprecipitates, requiring a filter to be placed in the inferior vena cava. Once platelets count improved, anti-coagulation therapy including apixaban was commenced, evolution being good. Discussion: this is the first national report on VITT. Thrombosis after the AZN vaccination may be seen in other vaccines that use the same vaccine platform (inactive adenovirus). Cases have been reported mainly in patients younger than 60 years old and in unusual topographies. In particular, this case presents a male patient that is older than 60 years old, who had already been infected with COVID-19 five months before and who currently consults with thrombosis in regular sites. Therapeutic handling observed international guidelines. The case contributes relevant data both in terms of early diagnosis and therapeutic handling.


Resumo: Introdução: a vacinação contra a SARS-CoV-2 é uma ferramenta essencial na luta contra a pandemia de COVID-19. A vacina desenvolvida pela colaboração entre a Universidade de Oxford e o laboratório farmacêutico AstraZeneca (AZN) tem demonstrado boa eficácia, mas foram relatados casos de trombose venosa. Caso clínico: apresenta-se o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 70 anos, que 7 dias após a administração da primeira dose da vacina AZN desenvolveu trombose venosa profunda de ambos os membros inferiores e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide com trombocitopenia de 15.000 / mm3, diminuição do fibrinogênio e aumento dos D-dímeros. A situação clínica lembra a trombocitopenia trombótica induzida por vacina (VITT). O tratamento foi realizado com imunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona e crioprecipitados. Foi necessário colocar um filtro de veia cava inferior. Uma vez que a contagem de plaquetas melhorou, o tratamento anticoagulante com apixaban foi instalado. O paciente favoravelmente. Discussão: este é o primeiro relatório nacional de VITT. As tromboses subseqüentes à vacina AZN podem ser vistas com vacinas que compartilham a mesma plataforma (adenovírus inativado). Os casos foram relatados principalmente em pessoas com menos de 60 anos de idade e em topografias incomuns. Este caso tem a particularidade de se tratar de um paciente com mais de 60 anos, já com COVID-19 há cinco meses e que apresenta trombose em sítios comuns. O manejo terapêutico foi adaptado às diretrizes internacionais. O caso deixa um aprendizado relevante tanto no que diz respeito ao diagnóstico precoce quanto ao manejo terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e303-e314, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280999

ABSTRACT

Las trombocitopenias de causa no inmunológica son ocasionadas por múltiples patologías; las más frecuentes son las debidas a infecciones extra- o intrauterinas y las secundarias a otras patologías involucradas en la interrelación niño-placenta-madre. En este segundo artículo, se enumeran sus causas y se describen en detalle las distintas patologías. La transfusión de plaquetas es ampliamente utilizada en neonatología, tanto para tratamiento como para profilaxis de hemorragias. Sin embargo, no hay aún consenso generalizado sobre el umbral de recuento plaquetario conveniente para indicar la transfusión ni sobre sus reales indicaciones. Se comentan artículos recientes sobre las distintas estrategias propuestas. Se enfatiza la discusión sobre los múltiples efectos adversos de las transfusiones de plaquetas, cuyo conocimiento está cambiando el paradigma relativo a sus indicaciones, lo que sugiere que se debe aplicar una política mucho más restrictiva al respect


Non-immune thrombocytopenia is caused by multiple pathologies; the most common causes are extra- or intrauterine infections, whereas secondary cases result from other pathologies involved in the fetal-placental-maternal interface. This second article lists its causes and provides details of the different pathologies. Platelet transfusion is widely used in neonatology, both as treatment and as bleeding prophylaxis. However, there is no general consensus about the platelet count threshold that is convenient to indicate a transfusion or actual indications. Recent articles are commented regarding the different proposed strategies. The emphasis is on discussing the multiple adverse effects of platelet transfusions because knowledge about them is changing the paradigm for indications, suggesting that a much more restrictive policy is required


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Platelet Transfusion/adverse effects , Hemorrhage
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 238-244, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280902

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La definición habitual de síndrome urémico hemolítico causado por Escherichia coli productora de toxina Shiga (STEC-SUH) se basa en la presencia de anemia, plaquetopenia y elevación de los niveles séricos de creatinina, acompañadas o no de proteinuria y/o hematuria. La definición estricta solo acepta como criterio renal el aumento de la creatinina sérica. La definición amplia mantiene criterios renales flexibles, aunque reemplaza la anemia por hemólisis y acepta la caída brusca del recuento plaquetario como indicador de consumo plaquetario. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y comparar la sensibilidad diagnóstica de dichas definiciones en pacientes con STEC-SUH como diagnóstico de egreso hospitalario. Población y métodos. Revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de pacientes con SUH. Se calculó la sensibilidad y el valor predictivo positivo con sus intervalos de confianza 95 % (IC95 %) de las tres definiciones en función del diagnóstico de egreso de STEC-SUH (diagnóstico de referencia). Se utilizó la prueba de McNemar. Resultados. De 208 pacientes, 107 (51,4 %) fueron identificados con la definición estricta, 133 (63,9 %) con la habitual; y 199, con la amplia (95,6 %). La sensibilidad resultó menor para la definición estricta (51,4 %; IC 95 %: 44,8-58,3), intermedia para la habitual (63,9 %; IC 95 %: 56,9-70,4) y mayor para la amplia (95,6 %; IC 95 %: 91,6-97,8); (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Las distintas definiciones de STEC-SUH presentaron diferencias significativas en la sensibilidad diagnóstica. Dado que la definición amplia alcanzó una sensibilidad superior al 95 %, su uso generalizado podría disminuir la demora diagnóstica


Introduction. The usual definition of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is based on the presence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum creatinine levels, with or without proteinuria and/or hematuria. The strict definition only considers elevated serum creatinine levels as a renal criterion. The extended definition maintains flexible renal criteria, although it replaces anemia with hemolysis and considers a sharp drop in platelet count as an indicator of platelet consumption. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the diagnostic sensitivity of these definitions in patients with STEC-HUS as hospital discharge diagnosis. Population and methods. Retrospective review of medical records of HUS patients. Sensitivity and positive predictive value, with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated for the 3 definitions based on a discharge diagnosis of STEC-HUS (reference diagnosis). The McNemar test was used. Results. Out of 208 patients, 107 (51.4 %), 133 (63.9 %), and 199 (95.6 %) were identified with the strict, usual, and extended definition, respectively. Sensitivity was lower for the strict definition (51.4 %; 95 % CI: 44.8-58.3), intermediate for the usual definition (63.9 %; 95 % CI: 56.9-70.4), and higher for the extended one (95.6 %; 95 % CI: 91.6-97.8); (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The different STEC-HUS definitions showed significant differences in diagnostic sensitivity. The extended definition reached a sensitivity above 95 %, so its generalized use may help to reduce diagnostic delays


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Acute Kidney Injury
6.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 96-100, Julio - Diciembre 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1355116

ABSTRACT

Introduccion: El Síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico (SIMS) asociado con el SARS-CoV-2 es una enfermedad aguda acompañada de un síndrome hiperinflamatorio, con falla multiorgánica y shock, asociada a la infección por SARS CoV2, que produce alta morbilidad en la población pediátrica, que hasta el momento es la afectada por este síndrome. Objetivo: Evaluar las características diferenciales del síndrome multisistémico inflamatorio asociado al SARS-COV-2 (SIMS) en niños. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. La definición de SIMS se basó en los criterios de la OMS. Los pacientes con COVID-19 relacionados temporalmente se incluyeron como controles. Resultados: se incluyeron 25 pacientes con SIMS y 75 controles. El modelo de regresión logística múltiple de las variables que mostraron ser significativas en el análisis univariado reveló que la edad ≥ 2 años (OR 24,7; IC del 95%: 1,03 -592,4; P = 0,048), la linfopenia (OR 9,03; IC del 95%: 2,05-39,7; P = 0,004), y el recuento de plaquetas <150x109 / L (OR 11,7; IC del 95%: 1,88-75,22; P = 0,009) se asociaron significativamente con SIMS. La presencia de una enfermedad subyacente pareció reducir el riesgo de SIMS (OR 0,06; IC del 95%: 0,01-0,3). Conclusión: El SIMS fue más común en pacientes mayores de 2 años y en aquellos con linfopenia o trombocitopenia. La enfermedad subyacente parece reducir el riesgo del mismo. (AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2-associated pediatric multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (PMIS) is an acute disease accompanied by a hyperinflammatory syndrome, with multiorgan failure and shock associated with SARS CoV2 infection, producing high morbidity in the pediatric population, which so far is affected by this syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the differential characteristics of SARS-COV-2-associated PMIS in children. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The definition of PMIS was based on WHO criteria. Patients with temporally related COVID-19 were included as controls. Results: 25 patients with PMIS and 75 controls were included. A multiple logistic regression model of the variables shown to be significant in univariate analysis revealed that age ≥ 2 years (OR 24.7; 95% CI: 1.03 -592.4; P = 0.048), lymphopenia (OR 9.03; 95% CI 2.05-39.7; P = 0.004), and platelet count < 150x109/L (OR 11.7; 95% CI: 1.88-75.22; P = 0.009) were significantly associated with PMIS. The presence of an underlying disease appeared to reduce the risk of PMIS (OR 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.3). Conclusion: PMIS was more common in patients older than 2 years and in those with lymphopenia or thrombocytopenia. Underlying disease appears to reduce the risk of SMIS.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Thrombocytopenia , Comorbidity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
7.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(2): 01022105, Abr. - Jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369001

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A Síndrome do Anticorpo Antifosfolípide (SAAF) é uma trombofilia mediada por autoanticorpos protrombóticos responsáveis por aumentar o risco de complicações cardiovasculares e obstétricas. O diagnóstico de SAAF requer elevação de pelo menos um dos autoanticorpos antifosfolipídeos acompanhado de pelo menos um evento de trombose vascular e/ou morbidade gestacional. A Trombocitopenia Induzida por Heparina (HIT) é uma reação medicamentosa adversa protrombótica na qual a heparina forma complexos com fator plaquetário 4, formando neoantígenos que são reconhecidos pelos autoanticorpos. Apresentamos um caso raro de HIT associado à SAAF com tromboembolismo venoso recorrente apesar de anticoagulação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide, trombose, trombocitopenia induzida por heparina


ABSTRACT Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS) is a thrombophilia mediated by prothrombotic autoantibodies responsible for increasing the risk of cardiovascular and obstetric complications. The diagnosis of APS requires elevation of at least one of the antiphospholipid autoantibodies accompanied by at least one event of vascular thrombosis and/or gestational morbidity. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic adverse drug reaction in which heparin forms complexes with platelet factor 4, forming neoantigens that are recognized by autoantibodies. We present a rare case of HIT associated with APS with recurrent venous thromboembolism despite anticoagulation. KEYWORDS: Antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombosis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome
8.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 133-140, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286692

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Carica papaya Linn. has high nutraceutical and pharmacological values. The leaves possess antimicrobial, anti-tumor and antioxidant properties. They are used to treat thrombocytopenia during dengue fever and the leaf extract is commercially available as tablets under the name Caripill™ (MicroLabs, Bengaluru). Nevertheless, platelet transfusion is recommended in severe cases of thrombocytopenia, but the platelet storage is limited to 5-7 days at 22−24 °C. Reducing oxidative stress (OS) during platelet storage might help in prolonging the shelf-life, since the OS is known to cause platelet storage lesion. Hence, this study investigated the effects of Caripill™ as an additive in Tyrode's buffer during extended platelet storage. Methods Platelets isolated from 4 months old male Wistar rats were stored with Caripill™ (50 and 100 µg/ml) at 22 °C for 12 days. Platelet functional and metabolic markers and various OS markers were analyzed on days 0, 4, 8 and 12. Results Caripill™ (50 and 100 µg/ml) maintained platelet functions and lactate dehydrogenase, elevated nitrites, reduced glucose consumption, protected proteins and up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes. However, the CP100 up-regulated catalase from day 4, elevated nitrites from day 8, prevented the formation of secondary products of lipid peroxidation and increased the total antioxidant capacity on day 4. Conclusions Caripill™ reduced platelet storage lesion up to day 8 of storage. Results suggest that a higher concentration of Caripill™ was more effective in combating the oxidative damage during platelet storage. This study throws light on the beneficial effects of Caripill™ in combating oxidative stress during platelet storage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood Platelets , Oxidative Stress , Carica , Thrombocytopenia , Rats, Wistar
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e604, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280331

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El paludismo es una enfermedad febril aguda potencialmente mortal causada por parásitos que se transmiten al ser humano por la picadura de mosquitos del género Anopheles. De los 214 millones de casos de paludismo registrados en 2016, la mayoría de ellos se producen en niños menores de cinco años en África subsahariana. La mortalidad está dada por la presencia de sus complicaciones que deben ser detectadas y tratadas precozmente. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de signos de alarma, y determinar su relación con otras variables clínicas y de laboratorio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 47 pacientes adultos con paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum importado, ingresados en el Departamento de Medicina del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, desde enero de 2016 a diciembre de 2018. Los datos fueron procesados en una base de datos en Microsoft Excel y luego analizados en el programa estadístico SPSS 11,5. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino, con una media de edad de 35,9 años. Fue significativa la relación existente entre los signos de alarma y la severidad del cuadro clínico, la hiperparasitemia, el supuesto estado no inmune de los pacientes, trombocitopenia y la demora en el ingreso. La respuesta al tratamiento es excelente con los esquemas combinados utilizados a base de quinina. Conclusiones: Los signos de alarma, dentro de los cuales podemos incluir la trombocitopenia, constituyen elementos importantes para poder prevenir futuras complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Malaria is an acute potentially fatal febrile disease caused by parasites transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Most of the 214 million malaria cases reported in the year 2016 were children aged under five years from Sub-Saharan Africa. Mortality is due to the presence of complications which should be detected and treated timely. Objective: Identify the presence of warning signs and determine their relationship to other clinical and laboratory variables. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted of 47 adult patients with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria admitted to the Medicine Department of Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute from January 2016 to December 2018. The data obtained were processed in a Microsoft Excel database and then analyzed with the statistical software SPSS 11.5. Results: Male patients prevailed, with a mean age of 35.9 years. A significant relationship was found between warning signs and severity of the clinical status, hyperparasitemia, the supposed non-immune status of patients, thrombocytopenia and admission delay. An excellent response was obtained to treatment with combined quinine-based schemes. Conclusions: Warning signs, among them thrombocytopenia, are important to prevent future complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Malaria/prevention & control
11.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 74-79, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341263

ABSTRACT

Resumen El potasio es, sin lugar a duda, uno de los componentes más importantes del balance hidroelectrolítico, además de ser uno de los exámenes de laboratorio más solicitados en el ámbito clínico. La hipercalemia se define por un valor sérico mayor a 5.5 mEq/L y su principal diagnóstico diferencial es la pseudohipercalemia o hipercalemia espuria. Esta se define como elevación del potasio solo en componente sérico y no plasmático con una diferencia mínima de 0.5 mEq/L. Entre las causas de pseudohipercalemia se encuentran factores mecánicos, químicos, contaminantes, temperatura y tiempo de procesamiento de la muestra. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, con antecedentes de cardiopatía cianosante, que cursa con elevación espuria de potasio en suero, con aumento aislado severo del hematocrito y trombocitopenia concomitante, que luego mostraría valores normales en plasma.


Abstract Potassium is, without a doubt, one of the most important components of hydroelectrolitic balance, as well as being one of the most requested laboratory exams in the clinical setting. Hyperkalemia is defined as serum value above 5.5 mEq/L, and its main differential diagnosis is pseudohyperkalemia or spurious hyperkalemia. This conditioned is defined as an elevation of potassium levels exclusively in serum and not in plasma, with a minimal difference of 0.5 mEq/L between these measurements. Some of the causes of pseudohyperkalemia include mechanical factors, chemicals, contaminants, temperature and the time of sample processing. It is reported the case of a 22-year-old male with history of cyanotic heart disease that presented with a spurious elevation of serum potassium, with a severe increment in hematocrit and concomitant thrombocytopenia, that would later show normal levels in plasma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Polycythemia , Thrombocytopenia , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Defects, Congenital
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e80-e83, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147283

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por mordedura de serpiente es un problema de salud pública global. En la población pediátrica, la intoxicación por mordedura de serpiente presenta características diferentes que en los pacientes adultos. La Bungarus multicinctus es una especie de elápido sumamente venenoso. Las presentaciones clínicas documentadas después de la intoxicación por mordedura de Bungarus multicinctus son reacciones locales mínimas, insuficiencia respiratoria, dolor generalizado e hiponatremia potencialmente mortal. Presentamos el caso de una intoxicación por mordedura de Bungarus multicinctus en una niña con manifestaciones clínicas atípicas, incluidas necrosis tisular grave y trombocitopenia con coagulopatía.


Snakebite envenoming is a global public health problem. The pediatric population poisoned by snakebite envenoming has different features than adult patients. Bungarus multicinctus is a highly venomous species of the elapid snake. The documented clinical presentations following Bungarus multicinctus envenoming are minimal local reactions, respiratory failure, general pain, and life-threatening hyponatremia. We present an uncommon case of Bungarus multicinctus envenomation in a girl with unusual clinical findings, including severe tissue necrosis and thrombocytopenia with coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Snake Bites , Necrosis , Poisoning , Thrombocytopenia , Blood Coagulation Disorders , China , Bungarus
13.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 485-499, 2021. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293234

ABSTRACT

La microangiopatía trombótica (MAT) es un síndrome donde hay formación de microtrombos en la circulación que llevan a anemia hemolítica microangiopática (AHMA) y trombocitopenia con falla multiorgánica, debido a la isquemia de los tejidos. Las MAT pueden ser primarias sin causa subyacente asociada, como la púrpura trombocitopénica trombótica debida a deficiencia de la enzima ADAMTS13, el síndrome hemolítico urémico debido a la toxina Shiga de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágica, y la MAT producida por alteraciones en la regulación del complemento. Adicionalmente, pueden ser secundarias a enfermedades malignas, infecciosas, metabólicas, autoinmunes o inducidas por el embarazo. Estas patologías requieren diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos debido a que tienen alta morbimortalidad y se asocian a complicaciones que incluyen enfermedad renal, alteraciones neurológicas como convulsiones, accidente cerebrovascular, coma y muerte. El tratamiento es multidisciplinario y se enfoca en el soporte hemodinámico, transfusional y en el manejo de la etiología cuando esta es identificada. La siguiente revisión pretende explicar de forma clara y precisa los aspectos generales de las MAT primarias


Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a syndrome characterized by the formation of microthrombi in the circulation leading to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia, with multiorgan failure due to tissue ischemia. TMA can be primary with no associated underlying cause, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to ADAMTS13 deficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome due to the Shiga toxin from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, or due to complement dysregulation. Furthermore, TMA can be secondary to malignant, infectious, metabolic or autoimmune diseases, or induced by pregnancy. These conditions require a timely diagnosis and treatment due to their associated high morbidity and mortality, and complications like renal disease, neurological disorders such as seizures, stroke, coma and death. Treatment is multidisciplinary and focuses on hemodynamic and transfusion support, and on the management of the etiology when it is identified (daily plasma exchange, eculizumab or management of underlying disease). This review aims to discuss the general aspects of primary thrombotic microangiopathies


Subject(s)
Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombocytopenia , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Anemia, Hemolytic
14.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: E0033, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291380

ABSTRACT

Pacientes com COVID-19 podem apresentar trombocitopenia grave. Esse achado tem importante impacto no aumento de desfechos negativos e mortalidade, representando um importante fator prognóstico da doença. Vários mecanismos etiopatogênicos foram descritos, sendo a trombocitopenia imune um dos fatores mais frequentes. A abordagem terapêutica inclui como opções: corticoterapia, imunoglobulina, transfusão de plaquetas e análogos da trombopoietina. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar o relato de caso de uma paciente com PCR positivo para SARS-CoV-2, que desenvolveu queda acentuada e abrupta das plaquetas no 20º dia de internação. Além disso, casos semelhantes na literatura foram analisados e as possibilidades terapêuticas elencadas. Por fim, conclui-se que há a necessidade de estudos mais amplos para auxiliar a criação de protocolos sistematizados para o diagnóstico e abordagem dessa condição.


COVID-19 patients may experience severe thrombocytopenia. Such finding has an important impact on the increase in negative outcomes and mortality, representing an important prognostic factor of the disease. Several etiopathogenetic mechanisms have been described, in which immune thrombocytopenia is one of the most frequent. The therapeutic approach includes as options: corticosteroid therapy, immunoglobulin, platelet transfusion and thrombopoietin analogs. The following study aims to present a case report of a patient with positive PCR for SARSCoV-2 who developed a severe and abrupt drop in platelets on the 20th day of hospitalization. In addition, similar cases reports in the literature were analyzed and the therapeutic possibilities were listed. Finally, it is concluded that there is a need for broader studies to help create systematic protocols for the diagnosis and approach of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19 , Therapeutics , Thrombopoietin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Platelet Transfusion
15.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 535-546, 2021. tabs, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342897

ABSTRACT

El síndrome hemolítico urémico (SHU) típico en adultos es una patología infrecuente. En la literatura se encuentran pocos reportes, y se ha documentado principalmente en la población pediátrica. Esta entidad se caracteriza por ser una microangiopatía trombótica (MAT) que compromete de manera característica los riñones. Es causada usualmente por la infección por Escherichia coli productora de toxina Shiga (STEC), específicamente el serotipo O157:H7. En Colombia no existen casos reportados sobre esta condición en adultos, lo cual llama la atención, pero puede deberse en parte a las dificultades en su diagnóstico, al no tenerse fácil acceso a algunas de las pruebas que orientan hacia esta enfermedad y confirman el diagnóstico. Se reporta el caso de una mujer adulta mayor colombiana, quien consultó por deposiciones diarreicas y hematoquecia, con el posterior desarrollo de trombocitopenia severa, lesión renal aguda, y evidencia de equinocitos y esquistocitos en extendido de sangre periférica, lo que llevó a sospechar una MAT. Se le solicitó FilmArray® gastrointestinal, el cual fue positivo para STEC, confirmando así el diagnóstico de un SHU típico. Se presenta también una breve revisión del tema de una entidad que requiere un diagnóstico temprano y certero que permita brindar un tratamiento eficaz y oportuno


The classic or typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in adults is a rare disease. Few reports are found in the literature, and it has mainly been documented in the pediatric population. This condition is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), which characteristically compromises the kidneys. It is mainly caused by infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), specifically the O157:H7 serotype. In Colombia there are no reports on this condition in adults, and may be due in part to difficulties in its diagnosis, as there is not easy access to some of the tests that guide towards this condition and confirm the diagnosis. The case of an elderly Colombian woman is reported, who presented diarrhea and hematochezia, and subsequently developed severe thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury, with evidence of echinocytes and schistocytes in peripheral blood smears, which led to suspect TMA. A gastrointestinal FilmArray™ was ordered, which was positive for STEC, thus confirming the diagnosis of a typical HUS. A brief literature review is also presented, which covers general concepts of a condition that requires an early and accurate diagnosis in order to provide an effective and timely treatment


Subject(s)
Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Thrombocytopenia , Shiga Toxin , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Acute Kidney Injury , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Anemia, Hemolytic
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00292021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Data on health problems and fatal complications associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have consistently been reported. Although immune thrombocytopenia has been associated with multiple viral infections, only few studies have shown its association with COVID-19. Here, we have reported a case series of two cases pertaining to patients diagnosed with COVID-19-associated immune thrombocytopenia, elaborating on the clinical course, management, and response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1671-1675, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922315

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients usually show immune dysfunction, which often leads to autoimmune hemocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is one of the common complications. The pathogenesis of CLL-related ITP is complex and has not been fully elucidated. At present, the researches mainly focus on humoral immunity, cellular immunity and innate immune disorders. Recent studies suggest that genomic abnormalities and microRNAs are also involved in CLL-related ITP. Traditional ITP standard therapy has a poor effect on CLL-related ITP. Chemotherapy or monoclonal antibody therapy against the primary pathogenesis of CLL can effectively treat thrombocytopenia, and the emergence of new targeted drugs also provides new treatment options for the disease. In this paper, the progresses of CLL-related ITP pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment in recent years are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , MicroRNAs , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1667-1670, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922314

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune cytopenia is a general term for all hemocytopenia diseases caused by humoral or cellular immunity abnormalities, and its common immune mechanism determines the importance of immunosuppressive therapy. Sirolimus, as an immunosuppressant against of mTOR, induces immune tolerance by adjusting Treg cells, which has application prospect in the treatment of refractory autoimmune cytopenia. This article reviews the mechanism, application, and possible adverse reactions of sirolimus in the treatment of idiopathic autoimmune cytopenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Sirolimus , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Thrombocytopenia
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1577-1581, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of enhanced autophagy in megakaryocyte to proplatelet formation in children with immune thrombocytopenia(ITP).@*METHODS@#Giemsa staining and immunofluorescence staining were used to observe megakaryocyte morphology and proplatelet formation, Western blot was used to determine the expression of cytoskeleton protein and autophagy related protein. Autophagr regulation drugs Rap or 3-MA was used to regulate autophagy of megakaryocytes.@*RESULTS@#Some vacuole-like structures was found in ITP megakaryocytes of the children, the expression of LC3II/I (ITP 1.32±0.18; Ctrl 0.49±0.16,P<0.05) and Atg5-Atg12 (ITP 0.69±0.17; Ctrl 0.12±0.08,P<0.05) was significantly higher in ITP children as compared with those in control group. The immu- nofluorescence staining showed that the cytoskeleton arrangement in megakaryocytes of ITP children was abnormal, and the phosphorylation of myosin light chain was also increased(ITP 0.74±0.09, Ctrl 0.05±0.02,P<0.05). In vitro, inducer or inhibitor of autophagy could regulate the production of proplatelet and the expression of cell cycle related protein, including CyclinD1(Veh 1.08±0.12; Rap 0.46±0.04; Rap+3-MA 0.70±0.03), CyclinD2(Veh 0.47±0.04; Rap 0.27±0.04; Rap+3-MA 0.41±0.03), P21(Veh 0.15±0.01; Rap 0.04±0.01; Rap+3-MA 0.05±0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Enhanced autophagy is the key factor of poor proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes of ITP children.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Blood Platelets , Humans , Megakaryocytes , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the influencing factors in children with chronicity immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to provide basis for judging the prognosis and treatment in children with ITP.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children with ITP admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in the past 5 years were retrospectively analyzed and followed up for more than 1 year. According to the inclusion criteria, the eligible cases (328 cases in total) were selected and collected through medical record system retrieval, outpatient clinic and telephone follow-up. Independent influencing factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP were obtained through single-factor and multi-factor logistic analysis, and their predictive value for the prognosis of ITP in children were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Of 328 children with ITP, 208 were newly diagnosed with ITP (64%), 54 were persistent ITP (16%), 66 were chronic ITP (20%), and the remission rate within 1 year was 79.9%. The results of univariate analysis showed that, age, pre-morbidity history of infection and vaccination, antinuclear antibodies, initial absolute lymphocyte count(ALC) and treatment options were related to the prognosis of the children (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the history of infection and vaccination before onset, initial treatment options, and ALC at the time of initial diagnosis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP (P<0.05). The time for platelet recovery to 100×10@*CONCLUSION@#The initial treatment plan combined with IVIG can reduce the occurrence of chronicity in children with ITP, and its efficacy is better than that of the single corticosteroids group (the platelet recovery time is shorter); history of preceding infection or vaccination, ALC at the time of initial diagnosis are independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP, and the combination of the two shows a better predictive value for the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Prognosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia
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