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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 424-429, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350803

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Smoking is associated with the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory disorders and malignancies. Objective: To study the platelet indices, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in smokers and their correlation with smoking pack-years. Method: A total of 110 smokers and 110 non-smokers were included. The smokers were grouped into three groups: mild (<5 pack-years), moderate (5-10 pack-years) and heavy (>10 pack-years). The platelet count, plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) were noted. The NLR and PLR were calculated and the statistical analysis was made using the Student's T-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: The platelet count, PCT and PDW were significantly higher with mean values: 218.56 ± 121.31 vs 203.23 ± 80.35 (p-value = 0.038), 0.27 ± 0.10 vs 0.26 ± 0.10 (p-value = 0.041) and 12.54 ± 1.45 vs 11.99 ± 1.70 (p-value = 0.001) in smokers and non-smokers, respectively. The PLR differed significantly with mean values: 119.40 ± 84.81 in smokers and 181.99 ± 313.09 in non-smokers, with a p-value of 0.045. A significant positive correlation was found between pack-years of smoking and platelet count and PLR with the Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.250 and 0.198 and p-values, 0.008 and 0.037, respectively. The Platelet Count, PCT, MPV and PDW varied significantly between mild, moderate and heavy smoker groups, with p-values of 0.045, 0.010, 0.015 and 0.017, respectively. Conclusion: The platelet indices and inflammatory markers NLR and PLR are derived from routine blood investigations, which are easily available and inexpensive. The monitoring of platelet indices, along with the PLR, can be used as early predictors of morbidity in smokers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Mean Platelet Volume , Thromboembolism , Lymphocytes , NLR Proteins , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Neutrophils
2.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-59, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342185

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar es la manifestación más grave de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y la tercera causa de mortalidad cardiovascular. Su sintomatología puede ir desde un cuadro asintomático o con síntomas leves, hasta el paro cardiaco. Dentro del enfoque de esta patología es importante tener en cuenta escalas que permiten estimar la probabilidad de que determinado paciente con ciertos signos, síntomas y factores de riesgo presente un tromboembolismo pulmonar, así como escalas diseñadas para valorar el riesgo de morir, en pacientes en los que ya se estableció este diagnóstico. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anticoagulación y la trombólisis, sin embargo, esta última está indicada únicamente en algunos casos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar una actualización de la evidencia sobre el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico del tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde el ingreso del paciente al servicio de urgencias.


Pulmonary embolism is the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease and the third cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its symptoms can range from asymp-tomatic or mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. The approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism includes scores that allow estimating the clinical probability that a certain patient with certain signs, symptoms and risk factors will present a pulmonary thromboembolism, as well as scores that classify patients by severity and risk of hemody-namic decompensation. Treatment is based on anticoagulation and thrombolysis, which is used only in certain patients. The goal of this review is to present updated evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism from the moment the patient arrives at the emergency room.


A embolia pulmonar é a manifestação mais grave da doença tromboembólica venosa e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Seus sintomas podem variar de sintomas assintomáticos ou leves a parada cardíaca. No enfoque desta patologia, é importante levar em consideração escalas que permitem estimar a probabilidade de um determinado paciente com determinados sinais, sintomas e fatores de risco apresentar tromboembolismo pulmonar, bem como escalas destinadas a avaliar o risco de morrer, em pacientes nos quais esse diagnóstico já foi estabelecido. Os pilares do tratamento são a anticoagulação e a trombólise, porém, esta última está indicada apenas em alguns casos. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma atualização das evidências sobre a abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde a admissão do paciente no pronto-socorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 26-32, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El tromboembolismo venoso es una complicación prevenible en pacientes hospitalizados y la estratificación del riesgo mejora la seguridad del paciente, su valoración evita su ocurrencia. OBJETIVO. Evaluar el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y uso adecuado de terapia tromboprofiláctica en pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 412 y muestra de 373 pacientes encuestados, distribuidos: 186 en Unidades Clínicas, 163 en Unidades Quirúrgicas y 24 en Obstetricia del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, desde el 21 al 23 de febrero del 2019. La tabulación y análisis de datos se realizó en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 21. RESULTADOS. Se categorizó como alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso al 76,67% (286; 373) de pacientes; 49,46% (144; 163) postquirúrgicos y 69,40% (129; 286) clínicos de alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, recibiendo tromboprofilaxis farmacológica de forma adecuada el 38,80% (56; 144) de quirúrgicos y 57,40% (74; 129) de clínicos. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó que el uso de tromboprofilaxis no farmacológica y farmacológica con heparina de bajo peso molecular en pacientes hospitalizados con riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, fue bajo.


INTRODUCTION. Venous thromboembolism is a preventable complication in hospitalized patients and risk stratification improves patient safety, its ocurrence is prevented by its assessment. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and ade-quate use of thromboprophylactic therapy in hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 412 and sample of 373 patients surveyed, distributed: 186 in clinical wards, 163 in surgical wards and 24 in obstetrics of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, from february 21 to 23, 2019. Data tabulation and analysis was performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. RESULTS. 76,67% (286; 373) of patients were categorized as high risk of venous thromboembolism; 49,46% (144; 163) post-surgical and 69,40% (129; 286) clinical patients as high risk of venous thromboembo-lism, with 38,80% (56; 144) of surgical and 57,40% (74; 129) of clinical patients receiving adequate pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS. The use of nonpharma-cological and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in hospitalized patients at risk of venous thromboembolism was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/prevention & control , Veins , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Drug Therapy , Data Analysis , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anticoagulants
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 125-130, maio 5, 2021. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355066

ABSTRACT

Introdução: diante das preocupações causadas pela pandemia do novo Corona vírus e doença relacionada (COVID-19), seja para profissionais de saúde ou da sociedade em geral, estudos relacionados aos riscos para indivíduos com doença falciforme (DF) são ainda escassos. A doença falciforme possui um estado de hipercoagulabilidade, inclusive em pacientes estáveis, sendo assim, a infecção causada pela COVID-19 possivelmente agrava as manifestações fisiopatológicas desses pacientes, podendo ter consequências fatais. Objetivo: identificar eventos tromboembólicos causados pela COVID-19 que são frequentes na DF e podem trazer complicações para esses indivíduos, com consequente aumento do risco de mortalidade. Metodologia: revisão integrativa, onde foram identificados inicialmente 278 estudos, dos quais 264 foram excluídos, sendo então mantidos 14 artigos, os quais foram categorizados conforme o desenho estabelecido para cada um destes estudos, considerando como critérios de qualidade os itens definidos na escala PEDro, associados a outros parâmetros sugestivos de artigos de boa qualidade, como o Índice H, fator de impacto, representatividade dos autores na área do estudo e instituições as quais estes autores estão vinculados. Resultados: com base nas informações descritas, identificou-se o risco aumentado de indivíduos portadores de doença falciforme para o desenvolvimento de eventos tromboembólicos graves diante da exposição à COVID-19. Conclusão: o indivíduo portador de Doença Falciforme diante da infecção pela COVID-19 tem maior risco e suscetibilidade de desenvolvimento de complicações tromboembólicas, consequentemente aumentando suas chances de mortalidade. É de grande importância a realização de estudos clínicos sobre os efeitos tromboembólicos da COVID-19 em pacientes com DF devendo ser incentivados.


Introduction: in view of the concerns caused by the new Coronavirus pandemic and its disease (COVID-19), whether for health professionals or society in general, studies related to the risks for diseases with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) are still scarce. Sickle cell disease has a state of hypercoagulability, even in stable patients, thus, an infection caused by COVID-19, possibly worsens the pathophysiological manifestations of these patients, which can have fatal consequences. Objective: to identify thromboembolic events caused by COVID-19, which are frequent in the SCD and can cause complications for these individuals, with a consequent increase in the risk of mortality. Methodology: integrative review, in which 278 studies were identified, of which 264 were excluded, and 14 articles were then kept, and they were categorized according to the design established for each of these studies, considering as quality criteria the items written in PEDro scale, associated with other criteria suggestive of good quality articles, such as H Index, impact factor, representativeness of authors in the study area and institutions, such as which these authors are linked to. Results: based on the information described, an increased risk of patients with sickle cell disease for the development of serious thromboembolic events exposed to exposure to COVID-19 was identified. Conclusion: people diagnosed with Sickle Cell Disease if infected with COVID-19 have a higher risk and susceptibility to the development of thromboembolic complications, consequently enhancing their chances of mortality. Clinical studies on thromboembolic effects of COVID-19 in patients with DF are of great importance and must be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thromboembolism , COVID-19 , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Review
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 129-139, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152979

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia sustentada mais comum na prática clínica com predileção pelas faixas etárias mais avançadas. Com o envelhecimento populacional, as projeções para as próximas décadas são alarmantes. Além de sua importância epidemiológica, a fibrilação atrial é destacada por suas repercussões clínicas, incluindo fenômenos tromboembólicos, hospitalizações e maior taxa de mortalidade. Seu mecanismo fisiopatológico é complexo, envolvendo uma associação de fatores hemodinâmicos, estruturais, eletrofisiológicos e autonômicos. Desde os anos 1990, o estudo Framingham em análises multivariadas já demonstrou que, além da idade, a presença de hipertensão, diabetes, insuficiência cardíaca e doença valvar é preditor independente dessa normalidade do ritmo. Entretanto, recentemente, vários outros fatores de risco estão sendo implicados no aumento do número de casos de fibrilação atrial, tais como sedentarismo, obesidade, anormalidades do sono, tabagismo e uso excessivo de álcool. Além disso, as mudanças na qualidade de vida apontam para uma redução na recorrência de fibrilação atrial, tornando-se uma nova estratégia para o tratamento de excelência dessa arritmia cardíaca. A abordagem terapêutica envolve um amplo conhecimento do estado de saúde e hábitos do paciente, e compreende quatro pilares principais: mudança de hábitos de vida e tratamento rigoroso de fatores de risco; prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos; controle da frequência; e controle do ritmo. Pela dimensão de fatores envolvidos no cuidado ao paciente portador de fibrilação atrial, ações integradas com equipes multiprofissionais estão associadas aos melhores resultados clínicos.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice, with a preference for older age groups. Considering population ageing, the projections for the next decades are alarming. In addition to its epidemiological importance, atrial fibrillation is evidenced by its clinical repercussions, including thromboembolic phenomena, hospitalizations, and a higher mortality rate. Its pathophysiological mechanism is complex and involves an association of hemodynamic, structural, electrophysiological, and autonomic factors. Since the 1990s, the Framingham study of multivariate analyses has demonstrated that hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and valvular disease are independent predictors of this rhythm abnormality along with age. However, various other risk factors have been recently implicated in an increase of atrial fibrillation cases, such as sedentary behavior, obesity, sleep disorders, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Moreover, changes in quality of life indicate a reduction in atrial fibrillation recurrence, thus representing a new strategy for excellence in the treatment of this cardiac arrhythmia. Therapeutic management involves a broad knowledge of the patient's health state and habits, comprehending 4 main pillars: lifestyle changes and rigorous treatment of risk factors; prevention of thromboembolic events; rate control; and rhythm control. Due to the dimension of factors involved in the care of patients with atrial fibrillation, integrated actions performed by interprofessional teams are associated with the best clinical results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 21-26, Ene-Jun 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147874

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento anticoagulante oral con fármacos inhibidores de la vitamina K como la warfarina se viene utilizando desde hace décadas para la terapia y prevención de la enfermedad tromboembólica con efectos secundarios ampliamente conocidos, pero con una utilidad clínica bien contrastada. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la proporción de mortalidad y hospitalización de la consulta de anticoagulación y trombosis del Centro Cardiovascular Regional ASCARDIO en el año 2017 para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal que incluyó una muestra de 294 pacientes. La principal indicación de anticoagulación fue la fibrilación auricular (73%) seguida de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (13%) e isquemia miocárdica (9%). Se registró una mortalidad de 11,7% siendo la principal causa de muerte de origen cardíaco (58%). La edad promedio de los pacientes fallecidos fue de 65 años, siendo 53% del sexo femenino; para el momento de la muerte, el 65% de los pacientes estaba tomando warfarina. La hospitalización se observó en el 10% de la muestra siendo la principal causa de la misma la cardíaca (60%) seguida de causas hemorrágicas (18%); de los pacientes hospitalizados, la edad promedio fue de 66 años siendo 52% del sexo femenino; el 90% de los pacientes estaba tomando warfarina al momento de la hospitalización. El análisis de riesgo para mortalidad y hospitalización según causa y estatus de warfarina no mostró significancia estadística. No se evidenció relación de riesgo estadísticamente significativa entre muerte, hospitalización y estatus de la warfarina. Hubo mayor proporción de muertes (45%) y hospitalización (17%) en el grupo que ingresó con diagnóstico de isquemia miocárdica(AU)


Oral anticoagulant treatment with vitamin K inhibitor drugs such as warfarin has been used for decades for the therapy and prevention of thromboembolic disease with widely known side effects but with well-proven clinical utility. To determine the proportion of mortality and hospitalization of the anticoagulation and thrombosis clinic of the ASCARDIO Regional Cardiovascular Center in 2017 a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out that included a sample of 294 patients. The results show that the main indication for anticoagulation was atrial fibrillation (73%) followed by venous thromboembolic disease (13%) and myocardial ischemia (9%). An 11.7% mortality rate was observed. The mean age of the deceased was 65 years with a slight prevalence of the female sex (53%). The main cause of death was cardiac (58%) and 65% of the deceased patients were taking warfarin at the moment of death. A 10% hospitalization rate was observed with an average age of hospitalized patients of 66 years; 52% were females. The main cause of hospitalization was cardiac (60%) followed by hemorrhage (18%) and 90% of the patients were taking warfarin at the time of hospitalization. The risk analysis for mortality and hospitalization according to cause and status of warfarin did not show statistical significance. There was a higher proportion of deaths (45%) and hospitalization (17%) in the group admitted with a diagnosis of myocardial ischemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thromboembolism , Vascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06856, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340358

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to describe the main clinico-epidemiological, laboratory, and anatomopathological findings in 10 cattle affected with caudal vena cava thrombosis. The main clinical signs observed were decreased milk production, reduced appetite, apathy, impairment of ruminal motility, cardiorespiratory disorders (tachycardia and tachypnea), epistaxis, hemoptysis, and ascites. Intercurrent diseases such as mastitis, metritis, and phlebitis were verified. The hematological findings were mild anemia, leukocytosis due to neutrophilia with regenerative left shift, and hyperfibrinogenemia. The pathological exams revealed thrombi in the caudal vena cava, hepatomegaly, ascites, liver abscesses, pulmonary edema and emphysema, and abscesses in the lungs. The association of epidemiological information, clinical signs such as respiratory distress, epistaxis or hemoptysis, in addition to anemia and leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, as well as the occurrence of thrombus in the caudal vena cava as pathological findings, are indicative elements of the clinical picture of vena cava thrombosis in cattle. It is reiterated that this disease has an unfavorable prognosis and, when diagnosed, the animal must be culled.(AU)


Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever os principais achados clínico-epidemiológicos, laboratoriais e anatomopatológicos de 10 bovinos diagnosticados com trombose da veia cava caudal. Os principais achados clínicos foram redução da produção leiteira, diminuição do apetite, apatia, comprometimento da dinâmica ruminal, alterações cardio-respiratórias (taquicardia e taquipnéia), epistaxe, hemoptise e ascite. Foi constatada a ocorrência de doenças intercorrentes como mastite, metrite e flebite. O hemograma revelou discreta anemia, leucocitose por neutrofilia com desvio para esquerda regenerativo e hiperfibrinogenemia. No exame anatomopatológico revelou trombos localizados na veia cava caudal, hepatomegalia, ascite e abscessos hepáticos; além de abscessos, enfisema e edema pulmonares. A associação de informações epidemiológicas, sinais clínicos como desconforto respiratório, epistaxe ou hemoptise, além de anemia e leucocitose por neutrofilia, bem como a ocorrência de trombo na veia cava caudal como achados patológicos são elementos indicativos do quadro clínico de trombose de veia cava em bovinos. Reitera-se que essa doença tem prognóstico desfavorável e, quando diagnosticada, o animal deve ser abatido.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Thromboembolism/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Cattle , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/veterinary
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03738, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250725

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo O estudo teórico apresentado tem por objetivo discorrer sobre o papel do enfermeiro na prevenção mecânica do tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes cirúrgicos. Método O estudo considerou as versões atualizadas dos principais guidelines internacionais e revisões acerca do tema. Além de serem discutidas as medidas não farmacológicas de prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes cirúrgicos e o papel do enfermeiro. Resultados É importante que o enfermeiro cirúrgico inclua, em suas atividades, as avaliações de risco do tromboembolismo venoso e as medidas profiláticas não farmacológicas, baseadas em evidências científicas e protocolos institucionais bem delineados. Conclusão Dentre as medidas mecânicas, o uso de meias elásticas de compressão graduada e a compressão pneumática intermitente devem ser asseguradas pelos enfermeiros.


RESUMEN Objetivo El estudio teórico presentado tiene como objetivo discurrir sobre el papel del enfermero en la prevención mecánica del tromboembolismo venoso de pacientes quirúrgicos. Método El estudio tuvo en cuenta las versiones actualizadas de las principales directrices y revisiones internacionales sobre el tema, además de discutir las medidas no farmacológicas para la prevención del tromboembolismo venoso en pacientes quirúrgicos y el papel del enfermero. Resultados Es importante que el enfermero quirúrgico incluya, en sus actividades, evaluaciones de riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y medidas profilácticas no farmacológicas, basadas en la evidencia científica y en protocolos institucionales bien diseñados. Conclusión Entre las medidas mecánicas, los enfermeros deben garantizar el uso de medias elásticas de compresión graduada y la compresión neumática intermitente.


ABSTRACT Objective This theoretical study aims to discuss the role of nurses in the mechanical prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgical patients. Method The study considered the updated versions of the main international guidelines and reviews on the topic. Non-pharmacological measures to prevent venous thromboembolism in surgical patients and the role of nurses are discussed. Results It is important that surgical nurses include in their activities risk of assessments for venous thromboembolism and non-pharmacological prophylactic measures, based on scientific evidence and well-designed institutional protocols. Conclusion Among the mechanical measures, the use of graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression should be ensured by nurses.


Subject(s)
Operating Room Nursing , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thromboembolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Patient Safety
10.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Cluzet, Óscar; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio. La pandemia por COVID-19: una mirada integral desde la emergencia del hospital universitario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.109-120, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344074
11.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020231, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153176

ABSTRACT

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare entity. In this setting, the secondary involvement of the heart is far more frequent than the primary cardiac lymphoma. Herein, we present an autopsy case of a disseminated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with a dominant mediastinal involvement. Extensive cardiac infiltration with the near replacement of the myocardial wall by the neoplastic cells was observed. A total of nine isolated case reports of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with cardiac involvement were found in the English-language literature, and a widespread cardiac and thymic infiltration by the systemic ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma has not been documented. An incidental regenerative nodule was also identified in the liver. The patient died of pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/pathology , Heart Neoplasms , Autopsy , Thromboembolism , Thymus Gland/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Heart Arrest
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223884

ABSTRACT

La pandemia COVID-19 provocada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 exige rápidas respuestas desde el campo de la medicina. El riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y arterial está aumentado durante la infección, especialmente en pacientes críticos. En ese contexto se destaca una coagulopatía caracterizada por niveles elevados de dímero D, con tendencia a la falla multiorgánica, y aumento de la mortalidad. Esas anormalidades de la hemostasia responden a varios mecanismos que deben tenerse en cuenta para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Analizamos la evidencia científica disponible en la que se fundamenta el enfoque terapéutico de la coagulopatía descripta y sus complicaciones, con el objetivo de diseñar recomendaciones terapéuticas realistas tendientes a disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thromboembolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Heparin
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 1010-1012, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143999

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent orthotopic heart transplant 14 years earlier. Routine echocardiography showed giant masses in the left atrium. There were no symptoms or thromboembolic events in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging study revealed very enlarged left atrium (8.7 × 10.6 cm) occupied by irregular smooth mass (7 × 5 × 6.1 cm) with a stalk that was attached to the posterior left atrial wall in the area of graft suture lines. Intraoperative examination revealed a massive thrombus (12 × 10 cm) that filled almost the entire left atrial area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/surgery , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Echocardiography , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 477-483, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137312

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation with concomitant Dor plasty is only reported anecdotally. We herein aimed to describe our experience with LVAD and concomitant Dor procedures and describe long-term outcomes of this special subset of heart failure patients. Methods: Between January/2010 and December/2018, 144 patients received LVAD therapy at our institution. Of those, five patients (80% male, 60.4±7.2 years) presented with an apical aneurysm and received concomitant Dor plasty. Apical aneurysms presented diameter between 75 and 98 mm, with one impending rupture. Results: Procedural success was achieved in all patients. No unplanned right ventricular assist device implantation occurred. Furthermore, no acute 30-day mortality was seen. In follow-up, one patient was lost due to intentional disconnection of the driveline. One patient underwent heart transplantation on postoperative day 630. The remaining three patients are still on device with sufficient flow; pump thromboses were successfully managed by lysis therapy in one patient. Conclusion: LVAD implantation with concomitant Dor procedure is feasible, safe, and occasionally performed in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Major advantages are prevention of thromboembolism and facilitation of LVAD placement by improving pump stability and warranting midventricular, coaxial alignment of the inflow cannula. In long-term follow-up, no adverse event associated with Dor plasty was observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Heart-Assist Devices , Thromboembolism , Retrospective Studies , Heart Transplantation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Heart Failure/surgery
16.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 426-431, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact evaluate the impact of an institutional protocol on a tertiary hospital for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in 2005 patients submitted to primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods Data from medical records of patients submitted TKA before (n= 1,115) and after (n= 890) the implementation of the institutional protocol, totaling 2,005 patients, were retrospectively reported. Demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes were analyzed. Results There was no significant change in the cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (1.6% versus 2.4%; p= 0.211). There was an increase in cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) (0.2% versus 0.8% p= 0.049). Conclusion Despite the implementation of the prevention protocol, no reduction in the studied events was observed. The small global incidence makes further studies with larger series necessary to confirm or rule out these findings.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o impacto de um protocolo institucional em um hospital terciário na prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso em 2.005 pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total primária de joelho. Métodos Os dados dos prontuários de pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total do joelho antes (n= 1.115) e após (n= 890) a implantação do protocolo institucional, totalizando 2.005 pacientes, foram relatados retrospectivamente. Dados demográficos, comorbidades e desfechos foram analisados. Resultados Não houve alteração significativa nos casos de trombose venosa profunda (TVP) (1,6% versus 2,4%; p= 0,211). Houve um aumento nos casos de embolia pulmonar (EP) (0,2% versus 0,8%; p= 0,049). Conclusão Apesar da implementação do protocolo de prevenção, não houve redução nos eventos estudados. A pequena incidência global faz com que novos estudos, com séries maiores, sejam necessários para confirmar ou descartar esses achados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thromboembolism/complications , Medical Records , Incidence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Arthroplasty, Replacement , Venous Thrombosis , Protocols , Venous Thromboembolism , Knee
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 505-511, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287203

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 provocada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 exige rápidas respuestas desde el campo de la medicina. El riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y arterial está aumentado durante la infección, especialmente en pacientes críticos. En ese contexto se destaca una coagulopatía caracterizada por niveles elevados de dímero D, con tendencia a la falla multiorgánica, y aumento de la mortalidad. Esas anormalidades de la hemostasia responden a varios mecanismos que deben tenerse en cuenta para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Analizamos la evidencia científica disponible en la que se fundamenta el enfoque terapéutico de la coagulopatía descripta y sus complicaciones, con el objetivo de diseñar recomendaciones terapéuticas realistas tendientes a disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thromboembolism/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Argentina/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
18.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.3): 65-66, June 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135192

ABSTRACT

Si bien la incidencia es incierta, algunos reportes de caso sugieren que la infección por COVID 19 se asocia con un aumento del riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso. Sugerimos iniciar tromboprofilaxis a todos los pacientes hospitalizados por síntomas asociados con una infección por COVID-19, a menos que esté contraindicado, con enoxaparina 40 mg SC diariamente si el clearance de creatinina es mayor a 30 ml/min.


Although the incidence is uncertain, some case reports suggest that COVID 19 infection is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We suggest starting prophylactic anticoagulant therapy for all patients hospitalized with a symptomatic infection with COVID-19, unless contraindicated, with enoxaparin 40 mg SC daily if creatinine clearance is greater than 30 ml/min.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Inpatients , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
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