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1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.3): 65-66, June 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135192

ABSTRACT

Si bien la incidencia es incierta, algunos reportes de caso sugieren que la infección por COVID 19 se asocia con un aumento del riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso. Sugerimos iniciar tromboprofilaxis a todos los pacientes hospitalizados por síntomas asociados con una infección por COVID-19, a menos que esté contraindicado, con enoxaparina 40 mg SC diariamente si el clearance de creatinina es mayor a 30 ml/min.


Although the incidence is uncertain, some case reports suggest that COVID 19 infection is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We suggest starting prophylactic anticoagulant therapy for all patients hospitalized with a symptomatic infection with COVID-19, unless contraindicated, with enoxaparin 40 mg SC daily if creatinine clearance is greater than 30 ml/min.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Inpatients , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 712-721, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an alternative therapy for atrial fibrillation patients who have high embolic risk and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of percutaneous LAA occlusion, including device-related thrombosis. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous LAA occlusion with AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ device from September 2015 to March 2018 were enrolled. Patients were followed for 21 ± 15 months (median - 20 months, interquartile range - 9 to 27 months). The postprocedural assessment was done at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th) month. Patients were clinically evaluated, and transesophageal echocardiography was performed at each visit. We evaluated the condition of normality of variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. P-values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The most common indication for the procedure was major bleeding with anticoagulants (n: 53, 88.3%). The procedure was completed successfully in 59 (98.3%) patients. Periprocedural mortality was observed in one patient. Postprocedural antiplatelet treatment was planned as dual or single antiplatelet therapy or low-dose anticoagulant therapy in 52 (88.1%), 2 (3.4%), and 5 (8.5%) patients, respectively. We found no clinically significant cerebrovascular events, device-related thrombus, or embolization in any patient during the follow-up. Two (3.4 %) patients presented significant peri-device leak (>3 mm) at the 1st month evaluation, which disappeared at the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that LAA occlusion using the Amulet™ LAA occluder can be performed with high procedural success and acceptable outcomes.


Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) é uma terapia alternativa para pacientes com fibrilação atrial que tenham alto risco embólico e contraindicações à terapia anticoagulante. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade, segurança e resultados de médio prazo da oclusão percutânea do AAE, incluindo a trombose relacionada à prótese. Métodos: Sessenta pacientes consecutivos que foram submetidos à oclusão percutânea do AAE com a prótese AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ de setembro de 2015 a março de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 15 meses (mediana - 20 meses, intervalo interquartílico - 9 a 27 meses). A avaliação pós-procedimento foi feita no 1º, 6º e 12º mês. Os pacientes foram examinados clinicamente e um ecocardiograma transesofágico foi realizado a cada visita. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A indicação mais comum para o procedimento foi sangramento significativo com anticoagulantes (n: 53, 88,3%). O procedimento foi concluído com sucesso em 59 (98,3%) pacientes. Mortalidade peri-procedimento ocorreu em um paciente. A tratamento antiplaquetário pós-procedimento foi planejado como terapia antiplaquetária única ou dupla ou terapia anticoagulante de dose baixa em 52 (88,1%), 2 (3,4%) e 5 (8,5%) pacientes, respectivamente. Não foram encontrados eventos cerebrovasculares clinicamente significativos, trombo relacionado à prótese ou embolização nos pacientes durante o seguimento. Dois (3,4%) pacientes apresentaram vazamento peri-prótese significativo (>3 mm) na avaliação do 1º mês, que desapareceu no 12º mês de seguimento. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a oclusão do AAE com o oclusor de AAE Amulet™ pode ser realizada com grande sucesso e resultados aceitáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Risk Assessment , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 80-83, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare warfarin and dabigatran for thromboembolic event prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort of participants with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter using either warfarin or dabigatran in a reference center in Brazil. Results: There were 112 patients (mean age 65.5 years), with 55.3% using warfarin. The median duration of follow-up was 1.9 years for warfarin and 1.6 years for dabigatran (p = 0.167). Warfarin patients had a higher median of medical appointments per year (8.3 [6.8-10.4] vs 3.1 [2.3-4.2], p < 0.001) and the frequency of minor bleeding was more than four times higher (17.7% vs 4.0%, p = 0.035). Among patients with prior stroke, those using warfarin had 2.6 times more medical appointments for person-years of follow-up (8.5 vs 3.3). There was no major bleeding or embolic event during follow-up period. Conclusion: The dabigatran group had a lower frequency of minor bleeding and number of medical appointments than the warfarin group, without more embolic events or major bleeding.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar varfarina e dabigatrana para prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar ou flutter (FA). Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes com FA em uso de varfarina ou dabigatrana em serviço especializado no Brasil. Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 pacientes (média idade 65,5), com 55,3% no grupo varfarina. A mediana do tempo de seguimento foi de 1,9 anos para o grupo varfarina e 1,6 para dabigatrana (p = 0,167). No grupo varfarina houve maior mediana de consultas médicas (CM) por ano (8,3[6,8-10,4] vs. 3,1[2,3-4,2], p < 0,001), com frequência de sangramento menor quatro vezes maior (17,7% vs. 4,0%, p = 0,035). Nos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico prévio, o grupo varfarina teve 2,6 vezes mais CM por pessoas-ano de seguimento (8,5 vs. 3,3). Não houve sangramento maior ou eventos embólicos no período de seguimento. Conclusão: Pacientes em uso de dabigatrana tiveram menor número de sangramento menor e CM que aqueles em uso de varfarina, sem aumentar eventos embólicos ou sangramentos maiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Flutter/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
7.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.705-713.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009195
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(5): 332-338, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thromboembolism is the most frequent complication in endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, causing disability and death. As stent retrievers have achieved high rates of arterial recanalization in the management of ischemic stroke, these devices were tested as rescue therapy of thromboembolism during aneurysm embolization. We retrospectively analyzed 10 consecutive patients with transprocedural arterial occlusion, treated with mechanical thrombectomy at a single center. Good angiographic recanalization was achieved in eight cases, mTICI 3, 2b and 2a in five, three and two patients, respectively, without additional complications or any deaths. Five patients showed complete recovery (mRS 0) and all patients showed improvement of disability (average mRS 1.1) over a mean follow-up period of 31 months. Eight patients had good clinical recovery, while two remained with deficits (mRS 3 and 4). The study found that the stent retriever is a valuable, rapid and effective tool for restoring blood flow, improving the safety of endovascular treatment.


RESUMO Tromboembolismo é a complicação mais frequente no tratamento endovascular de aneurismas cerebrais, podendo causar morte ou sequelas. Como os stent retrievers alcançaram altas taxas de recanalização arterial no tratamento do acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico, testamos esses dispositivos para tratar eventos tromboembólicos ocorridos durante a embolização de aneurismas. Foram analisados retrospectivamente 10 pacientes apresentando oclusão arterial transoperatória, tratados com trombectomia mecânica em um único centro. Obtivemos recanalização angiográfica em oito casos, mTICI 3, 2b e 2a em cinco, três e dois pacientes, respectivamente, sem complicações adicionais ou óbito. Cinco casos apresentaram recuperação completa (mRS 0) e todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora dos déficits (mRS médio 1.1) durante acompanhamento médio de 31 meses. Oito pacientes apresentaram boa recuperação clínica, enquanto dois permaneceram com déficits (mRS 3 e 4). O estudo concluiu que stents são uma ferramenta valiosa, rápida e eficaz para restaurar o fluxo sanguíneo, aumentando a segurança do tratamento endovascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stents , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Thrombectomy/instrumentation , Device Removal/instrumentation , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Cerebral Angiography , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy/adverse effects
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 541-549, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia with high risk for thromboembolic events, specially stroke. Objective: To assess the safety of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with nonvalvular AF. Methods: This study included 15 patients with nonvalvular AF referred for LAAC, 6 older than 75 years (mean age, 69.4 ± 9.3 years; 60% of the male sex). Results: The mean CHADS2 score was 3.4 ± 0.1, and mean CHA2DS2VASc , 4.8 ± 1.8, evidencing a high risk for thromboembolic events. All patients had a HAS-BLED score > 3 (mean, 4.5 ± 1.2) with a high risk for major bleeding within 1 year. The device was successfully implanted in all patients, with correct positioning in the first attempt in most of them (n = 11; 73.3%). Conclusion: There was no periprocedural complication, such as device migration, pericardial tamponade, vascular complications and major bleeding. All patients had an uneventful in-hospital course, being discharged in 2 days. The echocardiographic assessments at 6 and 12 months showed neither device migration, nor thrombus formation, nor peridevice leak. On clinical assessment at 12 months, no patient had thromboembolic events or bleeding related to the device or risk factors. In this small series, LAAC with Amplatzer Cardiac Plug proved to be safe, with high procedural success rate and favorable outcome at the 12-month follow-up. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Resumo Fundamento: Fibrilação atrial (FA) é uma arritmia cardíaca que submete os pacientes a alto risco de eventos tromboembólicos, particularmente o acidente vascular encefálico. Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança da oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE) com o dispositivo Amplatzer Cardiac Plug na prevenção de fenômenos embólicos em pacientes com FA de origem não valvar. Métodos: Este estudo de OAAE incluiu 15 pacientes, sendo 6 (40%) acima de 75 anos (idade média, 69,4 ± 9,3 anos; 60% do sexo masculino). Resultados: A média do escore CHADS2 foi 3,4 ± 0,1. Quando se aplicou o CHA2DS2VASc, a média foi de 4,8 ± 1,8, mostrando alto risco de eventos tromboembólicos. Todos os pacientes tinham o escore HAS-BLED > 3 (média 4,5 ± 1,2) com alto risco de sangramentos maiores em 1 ano. Houve sucesso no implante do dispositivo em todos os pacientes, com posicionamento correto na primeira tentativa na maioria deles (n = 11; 73,3%). Conclusão: Não houve complicações periprocedimento, como migração do dispositivo, tamponamento pericárdico, complicações vasculares e hemorragias maiores. Na fase intra-hospitalar, os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente, obtendo alta em até 2 dias. Nas avaliações ecocardiográficas do seguimento em 6 e 12 meses, não houve migração do dispositivo, presença de trombos e nem vazamentos peridispositivo. Na evolução clínica aos 12 meses, nenhum dos pacientes apresentou eventos tromboembólicos ou sangramentos relacionados aos fatores de risco ou ao dispositivo. Nesta pequena série, a OAAE mostrou-se segura, com uma alta taxa de sucesso do procedimento e evolução favorável dos pacientes aos 12 meses. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thrombosis , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Equipment Safety
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 290-296, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838729

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The SAMe-TT2R2 score was developed to predict which patients on oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) will reach an adequate time in therapeutic range (TTR) (> 65%-70%). Studies have reported a relationship between this score and the occurrence of adverse events. Objective: To describe the TTR according to the score, in addition to relating the score obtained with the occurrence of adverse events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) on oral anticoagulation with VKAs. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients with nonvalvular AF attending an outpatient anticoagulation clinic of a tertiary hospital. Visits to the outpatient clinic and emergency, as well as hospital admissions to the institution, during 2014 were evaluated. The TTR was calculated through the Rosendaal´s method. Results: We analyzed 263 patients (median TTR, 62.5%). The low-risk group (score 0-1) had a better median TTR as compared with the high-risk group (score ≥ 2): 69.2% vs. 56.3%, p = 0.002. Similarly, the percentage of patients with TTR ≥ 60%, 65% or 70% was higher in the low-risk group (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). The high-risk group had a higher percentage of adverse events (11.2% vs. 7.2%), although not significant (p = 0.369). Conclusions: The SAMe-TT2R2 score proved to be effective to predict patients with a better TTR, but was not associated with adverse events.


Resumo Fundamento: O escore SAMe-TT2R2 foi desenvolvido visando predizer quais pacientes em anticoagulação oral com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) atingirão um tempo na faixa terapêutica (TFT) adequado (> 65%-70%) no seguimento. Estudos também o relacionaram com a ocorrência de eventos adversos. Objetivos: Descrever o TFT de acordo com o escore, além de relacionar a pontuação obtida com a ocorrência de eventos adversos adversos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) não valvar em anticoagulação oral com AVKs. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes com FA não valvar em acompanhamento em ambulatório de anticoagulação de um hospital terciário. Foi realizada uma avaliação retrospectiva de consultas ambulatoriais, visitas a emergência e internações hospitalares na instituição no período de janeiro-dezembro/2014. O TFT foi calculado aplicando-se o método de Rosendaal. Resultados: Foram analisados 263 pacientes com TFT mediano de 62,5%. O grupo de baixo risco (0-1 ponto) obteve um TFT mediano maior em comparação com o grupo de alto risco (≥ 2 pontos): 69,2% vs. 56,3%, p = 0,002. Da mesma forma, o percentual de pacientes com TFT ≥ 60%, 65% ou 70% foi superior nos pacientes de baixo risco (p < 0,001, p = 0,001 e p = 0,003, respectivamente). Os pacientes de alto risco tiveram um percentual maior de eventos adversos (11,2% vs. 7,2%), embora não significativo (p = 0,369). Conclusões: O escore SAMe-TT2R2 foi uma ferramenta eficaz na predição do TFT em pacientes com FA em uso de AVKs para anticoagulação, porém não se associou à ocorrência de eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Prothrombin Time , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Decision Support Techniques , Disease-Free Survival , International Normalized Ratio , Stroke/etiology
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(1): 5-12, ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887488

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una de las arritmias más comunes, y su prevalencia aumenta con la edad. Se asocia con alto riesgo de embolia cerebral. La prevención de dichas tromboembolias se realiza mediante anticoagulantes orales, que en nuestro país parecen estar subutilizados. El Registro CARMEN-AF tiene como objetivo primario determinar cuál es el estado actual de la tromboprofilaxis de la FA no valvular en México. Como objetivo secundario pretende conocer la morbimortalidad asociada a la FA no valvular en por lo menos un año de seguimiento. Métodos: El Registro CARMEN-AF es un estudio observacional, longitudinal, multicéntrico y nacional sobre el empleo de los anticoagulantes orales en pacientes con FA no-valvular que pretende la inclusión de pacientes mayores de 18 años de edad diagnosticados con FA no valvular durante los últimos 6 meses y con al menos un factor de riesgo para desarrollar una tromboembolia de acuerdo con la escala de CHA2DS2-Vasc. Serán recolectados datos demográficos y clínicos en las visitas clínicas habituales a lo largo de un seguimiento de 2 años. El reclutamiento comenzó el 19 de septiembre de 2014 y se prevé la inclusión del último paciente el 18 de septiembre de 2016. Se estima la inclusión de 1,200 pacientes dada la incidencia de FA reportada a nivel mundial y tomando en consideración la población mexicana total. Conclusiones: El registro de FA y riesgo embólico en México (CARMEN-AF) permitirá conocer el estado actual de la tromboprofilaxis en pacientes con FA no valvular y permitirá obtener una panorámica del cumplimiento de las guías nacionales e internacionales de práctica clínica en esta materia.


Abstract: Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common arrhythmias, and its prevalence increase with age. It is associated with high risk of stroke. The prevention of such thromboembolism is done with oral anticoagulants, which in our country seem to be underused. CARMEN-AF registry aims primarily to determine the current status of thromboprophylaxis of non-valvular AF in Mexico. A secondary objective is to know the morbidity and mortality associated with non-valvular AF in at least one year of follow-up. Methods: CARMEN-AF registry is an observational, longitudinal, multicenter, and national survey about the use of oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular AF. Patients 18 years old or older, diagnosed with AF during the last 6 months, and with at least one risk factor of thromboembolism based in the CHA2DS2-Vasc score are being selected. Demographic and clinical data will be collected during the visits to their usual clinic with a follow-up of 2 years. The recruitment began on September 19, 2014, and the inclusion of the last patient is expected on September 18, 2016. According to the reported incidence of AF globally and taking into account the total Mexican population, the inclusion of 1,200 patients is estimated. Conclusions: The Atrial Fibrillation and Embolic Risk Registry (CARMEN-AF) will reveal the current status of thromboprophylaxis in patients with non-valvular AF, and will allow to get an overview of the national and international clinical practice guidelines accomplishment in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Registries , Research Design , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Mexico , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
13.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 20(2): 59-60, 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128484

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, muchos pacientes con fibrilación auricular son anticoagulados por largos períodos. Durante este tiempo pueden ser sometidos a procedimientos invasivos. A partir de una viñeta clínica, un médico se plantea el impacto de utilizar o no heparina de bajo peso molecular como puente farmacológico al momento de suspender la anticoagulación oral. Luego de realizar una búsqueda ad hoc, un ensayo clínico aleatorizado de no inferioridad demuestra que en pacientes con fibrilación auricular, con puntajes de riesgo tromboembólico (CHADS2) intermedios a bajos que requieren una interrupción temporal del tratamiento con warfarina para un procedimiento invasivo electivo, la estrategia de no reemplazar la anticoagulación oral con heparina de bajo peso molecular no resultó inferior (o menos efectiva) para la prevención de tromboembolismo arterial, y disminuyó además el riesgo de sangrado mayor en comparación al uso de un puente con esta medicación. (AU)


Many patients with atrial fibrillation are anticoagulated for long periods. During this time they may be subjected to invasive procedures. From a clinical vignette, a physician discusses the impact of using (or not) low molecular weight heparin as a pharmacological bridge at the time of suspending oral anticoagulation. After conducting a bibliographic search, a no inferiority randomized clinical trial showed that in patients with atrial fibrillation with intermediate to low thromboembolic risk (CHADS2) requiring a temporary interruption of warfarin therapy for an elective invasive procedure, the strategy of with holding low molecular weight heparin bridging was not inferior (or less effective) for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism than its use, also decreasing the risk of major bleeding. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , General Surgery , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , Colonoscopy , Dalteparin/administration & dosage , Dalteparin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Bridging , Acenocoumarol/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(11): 736-743, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the potential protective effects of enoxaparin against the adverse events of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum. METHODS: Thirty four rats were divided into three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent insertion of Veress needle into the abdomen and 90 min of anesthesia with no gas insufflation. The animals in control and enoxaparin groups were subjected to 90 min of 14 mmHg CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Enoxaparin (100 u/kg) was administered subcutaneously to the rats in enoxaparin group one hour before the operation. After 90 min of pneumoperitoneum, the rats were allowed for reperfusion through 60 min. Blood and liver samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Treatment with enoxaparin decreased the histopathological abnormalities when compared with the control group. The highest levels of oxidative stress parameters were found in control group. The use of enoxaparin decreased the levels of all oxidative stress parameters, but the difference between the control and enoxaparin groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Enoxaparin ameliorated the harmful effects of high pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/adverse effects , Carbon Dioxide/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/methods , Pressure , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/pathology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(4): 322-329, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-792817

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Randomized clinical trials have shown that the new oral anticoagulants have at least similar impact regarding reduction of thromboembolic events, compared with warfarin, with similar or improved safety profiles. There is little data on real costs within clinical practice. Our aim here was to perform economic analysis on these strategies from the perspective of Brazilian society and the public healthcare system. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cost-minimization analysis; anticoagulation clinic of Hospital Municipal Odilon Behrens, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. METHODS: Patients at the anticoagulation clinic were recruited between August and October 2011, with minimum follow-up of four weeks. Operational and non-operational costs were calculated and corrected to 2015. RESULTS: This study included 633 patients (59% women) of median age 62 years (interquartile range ­49-73). The mean length of follow-up was 64 ± 28 days. The average cost per patient per month was $ 54.26 (US dollars). Direct costs accounted for 32.5% of the total cost. Of these, 69.5% were related to healthcare professionals. With regards to indirect costs, 52.4% were related to absence from work and 47.6% to transportation. Apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban were being sold to Brazilian public institutions, on average, for $ 49.87, $ 51.40 and $ 52.16 per patient per month, respectively, which was lower than the costs relating to warfarin treatment. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian context, from the perspective of society and the public healthcare system, the cumulative costs per patient using warfarin with follow-up in anticoagulation clinics is currently higher than the strategy of prescribing the new oral anticoagulants.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Estudos clínicos randomizados demonstraram que novos anticoagulantes orais têm pelo menos impacto semelhante em reduzir eventos tromboembólicos quando comparados à varfarina, com perfil de segurança similar ou superior. Há pouca evidência acerca de custos reais na prática clínica. Nosso objetivo é realizar análise econômica dessas estratégias, na perspectiva do sistema de saúde pública e da sociedade brasileiros. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Análise de custo-minimização; Clínica de Anticoagulação do Hospital Municipal Odilon Behrens, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes da clínica de anticoagulação foram recrutados de agosto a outubro de 2011, com tempo mínimo de acompanhamento de quatro semanas. Custos operacionais e não operacionais foram computados e corrigidos para 2015. RESULTADOS: Este estudo incluiu 633 pacientes, com idade mediana de 62 (intervalo interquartil 49-73) anos, sendo 59% mulheres. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 64 ± 28 dias. O custo médio por paciente por mês foi de $ 54.26 (dólares). Custos diretos foram responsáveis por 32,5% do custo total. Destes, 69,5% foram relacionados aos profissionais de saúde. Em relação aos custos indiretos, 52,4% estavam relacionados ao absenteísmo ao trabalho e 47,6% ao transporte. Apixaban, dabigatran e rivaroxaban são vendidos a órgãos públicos brasileiros, respectivamente, a um preço médio mensal de $ 49.87, $ 51.40 e $ 52.26 por paciente por mês, valores inferiores aos custos relacionados ao tratamento com varfarina. CONCLUSÃO: No contexto brasileiro, na perspectiva do sistema de saúde pública e da sociedade, os custos cumulativos por paciente em uso de varfarina acompanhados em clínica de anticoagulação são atualmente superiores à estratégia de prescrever novos anticoagulantes orais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Anticoagulants/economics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/economics , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/economics , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Atrial Fibrillation/economics , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Administration, Oral , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Dabigatran/economics , Dabigatran/therapeutic use
16.
Bogotá; IETS; mayo 2016. tab, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-837465

ABSTRACT

Problema de investigación: Calcular los costos y la efectividad esperada de dabigatran, rivaroxaban y apixaban, comparado con warfarina, para prevención de fenómenos tromboembólicos e isquémicos en pacientes adultos con fibrilación auricular no valvular en Colombia. Tipo de evaluación económica: Evaluación de costo-efectividad. Población objetivo: Pacientes adultos con fibrilación auricular no valvular en Colombia, análisis del subgrupo de pacientes en falla. Intervención y comparadores: Dabigatran 110 mg y 150 mg, rivaroxaban y apixaban, comparado con warfarina. Horizonte temporal: Tiempo trascurrido entre diagnóstico y expectativa de vida. Perspectivas: Sistema general de Seguridad\tSocial en salud de Colombia. Tasa de descuento: En el caso base se empleó una tasa de descuento común tanto a los costos como a los desenlaces en salud, equivalente al 5% anual. Adicionalmente, se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad de 0 %, 3,5 %, 7 % y 12 %. Estructura del modelo: Modelo de Markov. Fuentes de datos de efectividad y seguridad: \r\nRevisiones sistemáticas de literatura, de acuerdo a la población y tecnologías de la pregunta de investigación. Desenlaces y valoración: Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad (AVAC). Costos incluidos: Costos directos del tratamiento de acuerdo a las alternativas evaluadas y seguimiento a los pacientes. Fuentes de datos de costos: Los medicamentos fueron costeados con la información del SISMED, el costo de los procedimientos fue estimado a partir de los valores contenidos en el Manual Tarifario ISS2001 + 30%. Resultados del caso base: Los nuevos anticoagulantes orales son más costosos pero más efectivos que el tratamiento con warfarina. La relación de costo-efectividad incremental oscila entre $ 74.462.000 para dabigatran 150 mg y $ 97.501.541 para apixaban y para dabigatran 110 mg es de 72.107.742. Es decir, a los precios actuales, estas no serían alternativas costo-efectivas para un umbral equivalente a 3 veces el PIB per cápita. Análisis de sensibilidad: Los resultados del caso base son sensibles a cambios en el precio de los nuevos anticoagulantes y las probabilidades de ACV isquémico y sangrado. A partir de los resultados del análisis de sensibilidad se concluye que para que los nuevos anticoagulantes orales sean costo ­ efectivos, es necesaria una reducción del precio de los nuevos anticoagulantes orales. Conclusiones y discusión: Los resultados de esta evaluación muestran que desde la perspectiva del Sistema General de Seguridad Social de Colombia, los nuevos anticoagulantes orales dabigatran, apixaban y rivaroxaban, son más efectivos que warfarina, en el esquema de prescripción habitual, para la prevención de eventos tromboembólicos e isquémicos en pacientes adultos iguales o mayores a 60 años con diagnóstico de fibrilación auricular no valvular sin falla renal y con falla renal, pero no son estrategias costo-efectivas, a los precios actuales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Biomedical Technology , Colombia , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Dabigatran/classification , Drug Therapy, Combination , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
17.
Bogotá; IETS; mayo 2016. tab, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-846778

ABSTRACT

Tecnologías evaluadas: Dabigatran, rivaroxaban y apixaban, comparado con warfarina. Población: Pacientes adultos con fibrilación auricular no valvular en Colombia. Perspectiva: Tercer pagador - Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud. Horizonte temporal: El horizonte temporal de esta AIP en el caso base corresponde a un año. Adicionalmente se reportan las estimaciones del impacto presupuestal para los años 2 y 3, bajo el supuesto de inclusión en el POS en el año 1. Costos incluidos: Costos directos del tratamiento de acuerdo a las alternativas evaluadas y seguimiento a los pacientes. Fuente de costos: Los medicamentos fueron costeados con la información del SISMED, para costear los procedimientos se empleó tarifario ISS2001. Escenarios: Escenarios de aumento de participación en el mercado y de disminución de precios acorde a los resultados de la evaluación económica paralela a este AIP. Resultados: En el escenario 1, la inclusión implicaría una inversión de 479.616.207.902 en el año 1, de $ 112.930.049.925 en el año 2 y de $ 145.201.625.581 en el año 3, en el escenario 2 implicaría una inversión $ 212.829.453.5 en el año 1, $ 54.400.081.439 en el año 2 y $ 69.849.046.563 en el año 3.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Ischemia/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Biomedical Technology , Colombia , Costs and Cost Analysis/methods , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Health Evaluation/economics , Reproducibility of Results , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 147-151, 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796801

ABSTRACT

Introduccion: La atención de pacientes con reemplazo valvular cardíaco constituye una actividad importante en cardiología. Si bien el recambio valvular representa una alternativa terapéutica eficaz para el manejo de esta patología, muchos pacientes requieren de tratamiento anticoagulante oral (TACO) para lograr mayor sobrevida. Objetivos: Describir los resultados terapéuticos obtenidos en un cohorte de pacientes sometidos a recambio valvular, controlados en el Hospital Regional de Antofagasta. Resultados: Se identificaron 180 pacientes con reemplazo valvular de los cuales 135 cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Hubo 76 mujeres (56,3%), 59 hombres (43,7%); la edad global promedio fue 62 años (28-90), 59 años (30-90) en las mujeres y 64 (36-81) en los hombres. La válvula intervenida fue la aórtica en 69 pacientes (51,1%), mitral en 60 (44,5%), aórtica y mitral en 5 (3,7%), y tricúspide en 1 paciente (0,7%). No hubo casos de recambio valvular pulmonar. Se instalaron 122 válvulas mecánicas (90,4%) y 13 válvulas biológicas (9,6%). El INR promedio fue 2,64 (1,11-5,47). Según válvula intervenida el INR promedio fue: mitral 2,50 (1,11-4,89), aórtica: 2,75 (1,19-5,47), mitral y aórtica: 2,65 (1,28-3,74), y tricúspide: 1,87. Del total de cirugías valvulares, 77 (57,03%) se encontraron dentro del rango terapéutico deseado: (mitral 33/60, Aórtica 43/69 mitral y aórtica 0/5, Tricúspide: 0/1). 58 pacientes (42,97%) se encontraron fuera del rango terapéutico deseado. Conclusion: Los resultados obtenidos en nuestro centro se encuentran por debajo de las recomendaciones nacionales. La dificultad por obtener mejores resultados refuerza el uso de prótesis biológicas y la implementación óptima de un policlínico de tratamiento anticoagulante (TACO).


Background: Care of patients with cardiac valve replacement often includes the need for anticoagulation which prevents complications that may decrease survival rate. Aim: to describe the experience with OAT in a cohort of patients with cardiac valve replacement at the Regional Hospital in Antofagasta Results: 135 out of 180 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. There were 76 females (56.3%) and 59 males (43.7%), with a mean of 62 years old (28-90), 59 (30-90) in females and 64 (36-81) in males. The valve replaced was the aortic in 69 patients (51.1%), the mitral in 60 (44.5%), both the aortic and the mitral valve in 5 (3.7%). Only 1 patients had a tricuspid valve replaced. 122 mechanical valves (90.4%) and 13 biological valves (9.6%) were implanted. The overall mean INR was 2.64 (1.11 - 5.47). The mean INR value according to the valve replaced was: mitral valve 2.5 (1,11-4,89), aortic valve 2.75 (1.195.47) and mitral plus aortic valve 2.65 (1.28-3.74). Overall, 58 patients were found to be outside the therapeutic target. Conclusion: These results are less satisfactory than those proposed by national guidelines. The anticoagulant clinic must be optimized and more biological rather than mechanical valves should be used for cardiac valve replacement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Valves/surgery , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , International Normalized Ratio , Observational Study , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
19.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(3): 177-182, jul.-set.2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-794194

ABSTRACT

A fibrilação atrial (FA) aumenta o risco de eventos tromboembólicos por êmbolos origina do sem apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE). Métodos mecânicos para a oclusão do AAE foram desenvolvidos como alternativa à anticoagulação oral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma experiência inicial com o AMPLATZER® Cardiac Plug. Métodos: Incluímos pacientes com FA permanente ou paroxística, que apresentavam contraindicações ou complicações derivadas da anticoagulação oral. Pacientes com anatomia e medidas do AAE compatíveis com o oclusor, e sem trombos foram selecionados por meio de ecocardiograma transesofágico. Resultados: Foram realizados 14 procedimentos em 13 pacientes (5M:8F), com média de idade de 66,7 anos. Sangramento significativo e acidentes vasculares cerebrais prévios foram encontrados em 69,2% e em 53,8%, respectivamente. A FA era permanente em 84,6% e paroxística no restante da amostra. Os diâmetros médiodo óstio e da zona alvo mediram 23,9 mm e 20,8 mm, respectivamente. AAE bilobulados foram observados em 76,9%. Os procedimentos foram possíveis em todos os casos. Dezesseis dispositivos foram usados em 13 pacientes, numa razão de 1,2:1, e apenas 1 paciente precisou de um segundo dispositivo para oclusão do AAE. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,2 meses. Todos os AAE permanecem fechados e sem defeito residual até o momento. Houve apenas um óbito tardio não relacionado ao procedimento. Conclusões: A oclusão do AAE com o dispositivo de AMPLATZER® Cardiac Plug mostrou ser segura e eficaz nesta pequena série de pacientes. Os resultados iniciais são encorajadores e apontam para o fechamento transcateter do AAE como alternativa para a anticoagulação oral em pacientes selecionados...


Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of thromboembolic events caused by embolioriginating in the left atrial appendage (LAA). Mechanical methods for LAA occlusion have been developed as an alternative to oral anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to present an initial experience with the AMPLATZER® Cardiac Plug. Methods: Patients with permanent or paroxysmal AF and with contraindications or complications of oral anticoagulation were included. Patients with LAA anatomy and measures compatible with the occluder, and without thrombi, were selected through transesophageal echocardiography. Results: A total of 14 procedures were performed in 13 patients (5M:8F), with mean age of 66.7 years. Significant bleeding and previous strokes were found in 69.2% and 53.8%, respectively. AF was permanent in 84.6% and paroxysmal in the remainder. The mean diameters of the ostium and the landing zone were 23.9 mm and 20.8mm, respectively. Bilobulated LAA was observed in 76.9%. Procedures were possible in all cases. Sixteen devices were used in 13 patients, a ratio of 1.2:1, and only one patient required a second device for LAA occlusion. The mean follow-up was 12.2 months. All LAA remain closed, with no residual defect to date. There was only one late death, unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions: LAA occlusion using the AMPLATZER® Cardiac Plug device was shown to be safe and effective in this small series of patients. The initial results are encouraging and indicate the transcatheter closure of the LAA as an alternative to oral anticoagulation therapy in selected patients...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Prostheses and Implants , Angiography/methods , Catheters , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Risk Factors , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heart Atria
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 3-10, July 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755003

ABSTRACT

Introduction:

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce.

Objective:

To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use.

Methods:

Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012.

Results:

We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%.

Conclusions:

The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for ...


Fundamento:

A fibrilação atrial e o flutter atrial são responsáveis por um terço das hospitalizações por arritmias, com impacto socioeconômico significativo. Os dados brasileiros a respeito desses atendimentos são escassos.

Objetivo:

Investigar o subtipo fibrilação atrial ou flutter em pacientes atendidos em emergência em virtude dessas arritmias e comparar os perfis de comorbidades, risco de eventos tromboembólicos e uso de anticoagulantes.

Métodos:

Estudo transversal retrospectivo, com coleta de dados de prontuário de todos os pacientes atendidos por flutter e fibrilação atrial na emergência do Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul no primeiro trimestre de 2012.

Resultados:

Foram incluídos 407 pacientes (356 com fibrilação atrial e 51 com flutter). Os pacientes com fibrilação atrial paroxística eram, em média, 5 anos mais jovens do que aqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente. Comparados àqueles com fibrilação atrial paroxística, os pacientes com fibrilação atrial persistente e flutter tinham maior diâmetro atrial (48,6 ± 7,2 vs. 47,2 ± 6,2 vs. 42,3 ± 6,4; p < 0,01) e menor fração de ejeção (66,8 ± 11 vs. 53,9 ± 17 vs. 57,4 ± 16; p < 0,01). A prevalência de acidente vascular cerebral e insuficiência cardíaca foi maior naqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente e flutter. Os pacientes com fibrilação atrial paroxística e flutter apresentavam mais frequentemente escore CHADS2 de zero em relação àqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente (27,8% vs. 18% vs. 4,9%; p < 0,01). A prevalência de anticoagulação nos pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-Vasc ≥ 2 foi de 40%.

Conclusão:

A população de nossa amostra teve características demográficas e perfil de comorbidades ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Flutter/physiopathology , Age Factors , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Flutter/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Epidemiologic Methods , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
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