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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828402

ABSTRACT

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Genetics , China , DNA, Ribosomal , Resins, Plant , Thymelaeaceae
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828383

ABSTRACT

Mountain-agarwood plays an important role in ethnic medicine in China for its pharmaceutical value. Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that mountain-agarwood was effective for its anti-myocardial ischemia, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and analgesic effects. Mountain-agarwood derives from the peeled roots, stems or twigs of Syringa pinnatifolia which belongs to Syringa genus. It often depends on the purple substance and fragrance to estimate the formation of mountain-agarwood. However, the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation has not been reported. To observe the microcosmic change in the process during the formation of mountain-agarwood, this study described the microscopic and histochemical characteristics of mountain-agarwood formation through histochemical staining. Our results showed that a significant difference of the distribution of tyloses existed during mountain-agarwood formation. It was observed that inchoate mountain-agarwood had more starch granules and viable cells than mountain-agarwood formed with high level or low level. The amount of polysaccharide and degree of lignification were increased during the mountain-agarwood formation. The results indicated that the mountain-agarwood, which meets the quality requirements for pharmaceutical use, contained the following characteristics: a large amount of purple tyloses in heartwood; yellow-brown tyloses distributing in heartwood and sapwood which were less in the latter; lignification with high level; a few viable cells; lots of polysaccharide and few starch granules in xylem rays cell. This study is aimed to reveal the change of histochemical characteristics during mountain-agarwood formation, and lay the foundation for exploring the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia , Syringa , Thymelaeaceae
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827938

ABSTRACT

To explore the diversity of bacterial community structure between different layers of agarwood, Hiseq(high-throughput sequencing) was used to analyze the bacterial community structure of samples from different layers of agarwood. Our results showed that 1 150 096 optimized sequences and 9 690 OTUs were obtained from 15 samples of 5 layers of agarwood, which belonged to 28 bacterial phyla, 61 classes, 110 orders, 212 families and 384 genera. Further analysis revealed that the normal layer(NL) had the lowest bacterial species richness and the smallest number of OTUs. And the total number of OTUs of the agarwood layer(AL) and NL was zero, which was quite different.At the same time, there were significant differences in bacterial community structure and species diversity between NL and the other four layers. While there were some common dominant bacterial genera in both transition layer(TL) and NL. The similarity of bacterial distribution in 4 non-NL layers was relatively high, which had four common genera, such as Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium, Acidothemus and Sphingomonas. While Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium and Acidothemus were the dominant bacterial genus of DA and AL, and all of these layers contained volatile oil. In addition, the Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant in agarwood layer. Our results showed that bacterial community diversity and abundance were decreasing from DL to AL, and different layers showed significant differences in bacterial enrichment. It provided the clues to investigate how bacteria participate in the formation of agarwood.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Oils, Volatile , Thymelaeaceae , Genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773133

ABSTRACT

Heortia vitessoides is the most serious pest of Aquilaria sinensis,which is an economically important evergreen tree native to China and is the principal source of Chinese agarwood. In severe infestations,the insects completely eat up the leaves of A. sinensis,causing severe economic losses. In a more recent study,we found that the antennal sensilla of adult play important roles in the host location,mating and oviposition of H. vitessoides. Here,the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of H. vitessoides were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that the antennae of both sexes of H. vitessoides were filiform in shape,which consist of the scape,pedicel and about 64 segments of flagellomeres. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes,including sensilla trichodea,sensilla chaetica,sensilla basiconica,sensilla coeloconica,sensilla styloconica,sensilla auricillica,sensilla squamiformia and böhm bristle. Major differences were recorded in the distribution and quantity of different sensilla types in each segment of antenna. The sensillas are almost confined to the ventral and lateral surfaces rather than the back side of antennae. Antennal flagella contained the most sensilla while the scape and pedicel segments only contained böhm bristles and sensilla squamiformias. Sensilla trichodea Ⅲ were only found on male antennae. These results are discussed in relation to the possible roles of the sensilla types in the host location,mating and oviposition selection behavior of H. vitessoides.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Female , Lepidoptera , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sensilla , Thymelaeaceae
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773097

ABSTRACT

Two sesquiterpenes were isolated from the agarwood originating from Gyrinops salicifolia with various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were determined as 12-hydroxy-dihydrocyperolone(1) and(rel)-4β,5β,7β-eremophil-9-en-12,8α-olide(2), through a combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compound 2 showed cytotoxicities against K562 and BEL-7401 cell lines, with IC_(50) values of(17.85±0.04) and(21.82±0.07) mg·L~(-1), respectively [taxol as positive control, with IC_(50) values of(1.97±0.11) and(6.31±0.08) mg·L~(-1)].


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes , Pharmacology , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , Wood , Chemistry
6.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 157-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760549

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity effect of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves aqueous extract (AEAM) towards male ICR mice in terms of body weight, relative organ weight, mortality rate and sperm parameters. In acute toxicity study, a single dose at of 2000 mg/kg was performed. In sub-acute toxicity study, the mice were received normal saline (control group), 50, 100, 150, 200, 500, or 1000 mg/kg of AEAM orally for 21 days of treatment. In sub-acute toxicity study, the number of abnormal sperm were significantly decreased in AEAM 100, 150, 200, 500, and 1000 when compared to the control group. While, the motility of sperm were found to be significantly increased in AEAM 100, 150, 200, and 1000 as compared to the control group. No mortality was recorded in the control group and treated groups in both toxicity studies except for one mouse from AEAM 1000 group. However, the mild sedative effect in terms of the tendency to sleep was clearly noticeable in both toxicity studies. Results indicated that the AEAM can be one of the useful alternative medicine to enhance fertility rate by increasing healthy sperm production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birth Rate , Body Weight , Complementary Therapies , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mortality , Organ Size , Spermatozoa , Thymelaeaceae
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812511

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical constituents of the roots of Stellera chamaejasme (Thymelaeaceae). One new biflavone glucoside (1), along with other thirteen known compounds (2-14), was isolated by repeated column chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses. The cytotoxic activities of selected compounds were evaluated against four human cancer cell lines (A549, BEL-7402, HCT-116, and MDA-MB-231) by the SRB assay method. Compound 9 showed remarkable cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 with IC50 value being 0.65 μg·mL(-1); compounds 7, 8, and 12 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against A549 with IC50 values being 2.38, 1.57, and 2.35 μg·mL(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Biflavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Glucosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Structure , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812498

ABSTRACT

The biflavonoid isochamaejasmin is mainly distributed in the root of Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) that is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat tumors, tuberculosis, and psoriasis. Herein, isochamaejasmin was found to show similar bioactivity against Bcl-2 family proteins to the reference Bcl-2 ligand (-)-gossypol through 3D similarity search. It selectively bound to Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 with Ki values being 1.93 ± 0.13 μmol·L(-1) and 9.98 ± 0.21 μmol·L(-1), respectively. In addition, isochamaejasmin showed slight growth inhibitory activity against HL-60 with IC50 value being 50.40 ± 1.21 μmol·L(-1) and moderate growth inhibitory activity against K562 cells with IC50 value being 24.51 ± 1.62 μmol·L(-1). Furthermore, isochamaejasmin induced apoptosis of K562 cells by increasing the intracellular expression levels of proteins of the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP which involved in the Bcl-2-induced apoptosis pathway. These results indicated that isochamaejasmin induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by inhibiting the activity of Bcl-2 family proteins, providing evidence for further studying the underlying anti-cancer mechanism of S. chamaejasme L.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Apoptosis , Biflavonoids , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Gossypol , Pharmacology , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , K562 Cells , Leukemia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812145

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents and identify new components of the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry. Eight megastigmane glycosides and two cucurbitacins were isolated and identified as (9S) megastigma-4,7-diene-2,3,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (9S) megastigma-4(13),7-diene-3,6,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), macarangloside D (3), corchoionoside C (4), staphylionoside H (5), (+) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), citroside B (8), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl cucurbitacin I (9), bryoamaride (10). Compounds 1 and 2 were newly identified megstigmane glucosides and reported from this genus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Cucurbitacins , Chemistry , Cyclohexanones , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Norisoprenoids , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305348

ABSTRACT

Aquilaria sinensis can generate agarwood, which is closely related with endophyte. Up to now, studies mainly focused on the effects of endophytic fungi on agarwood formation, but studies about endophytic bacteria are rarely reported. In our research, the T-RFs and Shannon index of endophytic bacteria in samples of agarwood increase. The number of distinctive T-RFs fragments of corresponding samples in the same group accounted for more than 60% the number of total T-RFs fragments. In samples of no-agarwood, the dominant bacterial population are Anoxybacillus, Clostridium, Candidatus endobugula, Lysinibacillus. In samples of agarwood, the dominant bacterial population are Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Luteimonas, phytoplasma. Besides, there are. specific T-RFs fragment in samples of agarwood and no-agarwood respectively. When we perform cluster analysis, we found samples of agarwood highly gather together and samples of no-agarwood highly gather together. This means community of endophytic bacteria emerge significant and regular changes during agarwood formation, which may be result of agarwood production, or maybe it is important reason of agarwood production. In this paper, we obtain more comprehensive and accurate community of endophytic bacteria in Aquilaria sinensis and it's variation during agarwood formation using T-RFLP, which is first study of effects of endophytic bacteria on agarwood formation, and will help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria more reasonably.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , Genetics , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Classification , Genetics , Thymelaeaceae , Microbiology , Wood , Microbiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279239

ABSTRACT

Advance on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Stellera plants have been conducted. The chemical constituents include terpenes, coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, volatile oils, and other compounds. Pharmacological studies showed that diterpenoids and biflavones showed strong activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV, and immune regulations. This review hopes to provide a scientific basis for further research and explorations of the medicinal values of the genus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Structure , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , Classification
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246098

ABSTRACT

This study is to develop a sensitive method by using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector (HPLC-UV) to simultaneously determine four bioactive compounds, iriflophenone 3-C-beta-D-glucoside, iriflophenone 3,5-C-beta-D-diglucoside, mangiferin, and iriflophenone 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside in the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis. An Agilent Zorbax SB-C, column (4, 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used, and the gradient elution was performed with mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was 280 nm, and the column temperature was 25 degrees C. The four marker compounds were well separated with good linearity (R2 > 0.9990), precision, stability and repeatabili y. The-recovery rates were in the range of 98.80%-101.39%. For 15 branch of the leaves, the contents of iriflophenone 3-C-beta-D-gluoside, iriflophenone 3,5-C-beta-D-diglucoside, mangiferin, and iriflophenone 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside were between 0.41-14.48, 0.72-3.85, 4.30-29.07, 0.24-5.06 mg, respectivley. This method is precise, accurate and reliable, which provides an efficient way for the quality control of the leaves of A. sinensis. This will promote the comprehensive usage of this plant.


Subject(s)
Benzophenones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Methods , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , Xanthones
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319630

ABSTRACT

To investigate the mechanism of agarwood formation in Aquilaria sinensis induced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the fermentation liquor of L. theobromae was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). JAs were detected in the fermentation liquor. The effect of the fermentation liquor on the abundance of sesquiterpenes in the callus of A. sinensis was analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). And the fermentation liquor stimulated alpha-guaiene, alpha-humulene and delta-guaiene biosynthesis in calli. It was inferred that L. theobromae produced JAs, which resulted in a significant increase of sesquiterpenes in A. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Physiology , Fermentation , Sesquiterpenes , Metabolism , Thymelaeaceae , Metabolism , Microbiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319629

ABSTRACT

The aim of the paper is to observe the distribution of the endophytic fungi in leaves of Aquilaria sinensis by using permanent paraffin-cut section, optical microscope photography and histochemistry. Total DNA was extracted with modified CTAB method and rDNA ITS regions of plant and endophytic fungi were amplified with eukaryotic universal primers. The rDNA ITS amplicon was characterized by RFLP analysis, sequencing of rDNA ITS library and phylogenetic analyses using PAUP by maximum parsimony. Fusarium sp. A2 was used to induce the formation of resinous in A. sinensis trees. As a result, endophytic fungi mainly distributed in spongy and phloem in leaf. Endophytic fungi distributed in the phloem in agarwood-producing tree and had a relatively high abundance. Phoma sp. and Collectrotrichum sp. were the absolute advantage species in the leaf tissues of non-resinous and agarwood-producing tree, respectively. Collectrotrichum sp. was the only fungal species detected both in the two types of A. sinensis with different levels of abundance. The culture-independent molecular method can be used to identify fungal species directly and rapidly from the plant tissues. Endophytic fungal communities in non-resinous and agarwood-producing A. sinensis leaf tissues were quite different.


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , Endophytes , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Fusarium , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Metabolism , Thymelaeaceae , Microbiology , Wood , Metabolism , Microbiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812294

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To study the chemical constituents from the fermentation of the endophytic fungus HP-1 of Chinese eaglewood.@*METHODS@#The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Four compounds were isolated and identified as 3α, 3β, 10β-trimethyl-decahydroazuleno[6, 7]furan-8, 9, 14-triol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (2), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (3), and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (4).@*CONCLUSION@#Compound 1 was a new compound. Compound 2 showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Endophytes , Chemistry , Fungi , Chemistry , Phenylacetates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry , Thymelaeaceae , Microbiology , Wood , Microbiology
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 927-931, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244993

ABSTRACT

This is to report the screening, extracting and validating antitumor components and compounds from Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data. In this work, different components from Stellera chamaejasme L. were collected by HPD macroporous resin and polyamide resin column, and their antitumor activity on A549 were tested by MTT assay. Activity results indicate that activity of components at 30-39 min is more potent than that of Stellera chamaejasme L. extract, and the activity of components at 33.97 min is equivalent to positive drug, cis-platinum at 100 microg x mL(-1), but with totally different mode of action. Under the case of discrete activity, the weight analysis is capable of screening active components and compounds from natural products.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Humans , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327923

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to clone the open reading frame of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) from Aquilaria sinensis and analyze the bioinformatics and expression of the gene. One unique sequence containing C4H domain was discovered in our previous reported wound transcriptome dataset of A. sinensis. The open reading frame of C4H was cloned by RT-PCR strategy with the template of mixed RNA extracted from A. sinensis stem which treated by different wound time. The bioinformatic analysis of this gene and its corresponding protein was performed. C4H expression profiles in responds to MeJA (methyl jasmonate) application were analyzed by real-time PCR. The length of C4H open reading frame (ORF) was 1 515 bp, encoding 514 amino acids. The GenBank accession number is KF134783. Inducible-experiments showed that the genes were induced by mechanical wound as well as MeJA induction, and reached the highest expression level at 8 h and 20 h, respectively. The full-length cDNA of C4H and its expression patterns will provide a foundation for further research on its function in the molecular mechanisms of aromatic compounds and flavonoids biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Oxidoreductases , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Thymelaeaceae , Chemistry , Genetics , Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321382

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to clone the acetyl-CoA C-acetyl transferase (AACT) gene from Aquilaria sinensis and analyze the bioinformatics and expression of the gene.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>One unique sequence containing partly AACT gene sequence was discovered in our previous transcriptome dataset of A. sinensis. AACT gene was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE strategy with the template of RNA extracted from A. sinensis stem. The bioinformatic analysis of this gene and its corresponding protein was performed. The AsAACT expression in calli was analyzed with GADPH gene as an internal control gene in wounded condition by qRT-PCR technique.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>One unique sequence of AACT, named as AsAACT, was cloned from A. sinensis. The full length of AsAACT cDNA was containing a 1 236 bp ORF that encoded 411 amino acids. The result of qRT-PCR displayed that the highest expression level was at 4 h. which indicated that it was possibly involved in early-stage response to wound.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cloning and analyzing AsAACT gene from A. sinensis provided basic information for study the function and expression regulation of AsAACT in terpenoid biosynthesis.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Structure, Secondary , Thymelaeaceae , Genetics
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1194-1199, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299147

ABSTRACT

Aquilaria sinensis callus induced by stem tips were used to establish the suspension cell system. The results showed that the most suitable medium for callus induction and subculture is MS + 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA + 1.0 mg x L(-1) 6-BA. After 12 times of subculture, the energetic and loose callus, which were appropriate for cell suspension culture, were cultured and shook in liquid medium MS + 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA + 1.0 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 500.0 mg x L(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH) to establish the suspension cell system. The growth curve of suspension cells showed a "S" type. At the beginning of the culture, cell density increased slowly; during 4 to 6 days, suspension cells reached logarithmic growth period; during 7 to 12 days, suspension cells were in the platform period; but after 12 days, cell density and activity went down obviously. Agarwood sesquiterpenes were not detected in the suspension cells during the growth period, however, they could be detected in MeJA treated suspension cells. In this study, a stable and active growing suspension cell system was established, which was a proper system to study the mechanism of agarwood sesquiterpene formation, and additionally provided a potential way to generate agarwood sesquiterpenes through application of cell culture.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Plant Cells , Metabolism , Plant Stems , Cell Biology , Sesquiterpenes , Metabolism , Thymelaeaceae , Cell Biology
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1724-1729, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251829

ABSTRACT

A sesquiterpene synthase (AsSS4) full-length open reading frame (ORF) cDNA was cloned from wounded stems of Aquilaria sinensis by RT-PCR method. The result showed that the ORF of AsSS4 was 1,698 bp encoding 565 amino acids. Prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-AsSS4 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant AsSS4 protein was obtained after induction by IPTG and SDS-PAGE analysis with a MW of 64 kD. Enzymatic reactions using farnesyl pyrophosphate showed that recombinant AsSS4 protein purified by Ni-agarose gel yielded five sesquiterpene compounds, cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2, 4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-, β-elemene, α-guaiene, α-caryophyllene and δ-guaiene. This paper reported the first cloning and functional characterization of AsSS4 gene from A. sinensis, which will establish a foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of wound-induce agarwood formation in A. sinensis


Subject(s)
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases , Genetics , Azulenes , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Escherichia coli , Open Reading Frames , Polyisoprenyl Phosphates , Recombinant Proteins , Sesquiterpenes , Metabolism , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane , Thymelaeaceae , Genetics
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