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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 768-777, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of pregnancy on differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) behavior Subjects and methods: Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with DTC before or during pregnancy and treated with standard therapy. In women diagnosed with DTC before pregnancy, we evaluated the occurrence of progression according to categories of response to therapy based on imaging and non-stimulated thyroglobulin (TG) levels. Results: Of 96 analyzed patients, 76 became pregnant after DTC treatment and 20 were diagnosed with DTC during pregnancy. Among women who became pregnant after a DTC diagnosis, no difference was observed regarding response to therapy before and after pregnancy. Disease progression after pregnancy was documented in six of these patients, while seven of them presented progression before pregnancy but were only treated after delivery. Patients with DTC diagnosed during pregnancy had a higher rate of distant metastases at diagnosis (30%) compared with the patients who became pregnant after DTC diagnosis (9.2%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy had no impact on the natural course of DTC. Disease progression after pregnancy was limited and probably related to more aggressive disease and higher risk stratification at diagnosis. Still, mild disease progression may have occurred asymptomatically in some patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Thyroglobulin , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4859-4870, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345769

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar as potencialidades dos indicadores do estado nutricional de iodo em indivíduos ou populações. A revisão foi baseada no PRISMA. A busca pelos artigos ocorreu em janeiro de 2019, nas bases Pubmed, Scopus e LILACS, utilizando a combinação "indicadores AND estado nutricional AND iodo". A seleção seguiu as etapas de exclusão dos duplicados, leitura de títulos e resumos e análise na íntegra. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos foi avaliada pelo instrumento de Downs e Black. Foram identificados 178 estudos e 20 foram incluídos. A Concentração Urinária de Iodo (CUI) foi analisada em 65% dos estudos e foi considerado o melhor indicador para avaliar o estado nutricional de iodo populacional. A tiroglobulina foi determinada em 20% dos estudos e refletiu o estado de iodo pregresso. O hormônio estimulante da tireoide foi verificado em 45% dos artigos e mostrou-se sensível para a vigilância de deficiência de iodo em recém-nascidos. Apenas um estudo avaliou o iodo no cabelo, útil para analisar a ingestão dietética em longo prazo. Na avaliação da qualidade metodológica, a menor pontuação foi 12, e a maior 16, em 17 pontos possíveis. Para diagnóstico de deficiência e excesso de iodo na população, recomenda-se a CUI.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the potentialities of indicators of the nutritional status of iodine in individuals or populations. The review was based on PRISMA. The search for articles occurred in January 2019, in the Pubmed, Scopus and LILACS databases, using the key words: indicators AND nutritional status AND iodine. The selection followed the stages of excluding the duplicates, reading the titles, abstracts and analyses in full. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated by the Downs and Black instrument. A total of 178 studies were identified and 20 were included. Urinary Iodine Concentration (UIC) was analyzed in 65% of the studies and was considered the best indicator to evaluate the nutritional status of iodine in the population. Thyroglobulin was determined in 20% of the studies and reflected the pre-existing state of iodine. Thyroid stimulating hormone was verified in 45% of the articles and was important for the surveillance of iodine deficiency among newborns. Only one study evaluated capillary iodine, useful for analyzing long-term dietary intake. In the evaluation of methodological quality, the lowest score was 12 and the highest 16, in 17 possible points. The use of UIC is recommended for the diagnosis of deficiency and excess of iodine in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Malnutrition , Iodine , Thyroglobulin , Nutritional Status , Eating
3.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(2): 131-140, 31 de agosto 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La acromegalia se produce por un adenoma hipofisario somatotropo, que secreta una excesiva producción de GH e IGF1, se relaciona con mayor riesgo de tumores malignos, no guardando asociación con un patrón especifico de presentación y el objetivo de este estudio es analizar la evolución del cáncer papilar de tiroides en acromegalia. Casos: Se trata de tres pacientes diagnosticados de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) con diferente pronóstico, con características faciales, y sintomatología como cefalea, alteraciones del campo visual, alteraciones menstruales, que condujeron a la realización de estudios bioquímicos, de imagen y al diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolución: La aparición de cáncer de tiroides varía en el tiempo de evolución de la acromegalia, en dos de los casos lo antecedió y en el tercero se presentó a la par con esta patología. La respuesta al tratamiento en el CPT es indeterminada en la primera paciente y \excelente en los otros casos; en una paciente se alcanzó remisión. Conclusiones: la coexistencia de acromegalia con cáncer tiroides es posible, que los cambios acrales, faciales y la sintomatología expansiva del tumor conducen al diagnóstico de acromegalia y que la identificación de malignidades no guarda relación con la evolución de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Acromegaly is produced by a somatotropic pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excessive production of GH and IGF1, it is related to a higher risk of malignant tumors, not being associated with a specific pattern of presentation and the objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of papillary thyroid cancer in acromegaly. Cases report: These were three patients diagnosed with CPT with different prognosis, with facial characteristics, and symptoms such as headache, visual field alterations, menstrual alterations, which led to biochemical and imaging studies and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Evolution: The appearance of thyroid cancer in the time of evolution of acromegaly is different, in two of the cases it preceded it and in the third it was presented alongside this pathology. The re-sponse to treatment in CPT is indeterminate in the first patient and excellent in the other cases; re-mission was achieved in one patient. Conclusions: It is concluded that the coexistence of acromegaly with thyroid cancer is possible, that the acral and facial changes and the expansive symptomatology of the tumor lead to the diag-nosis of acromegaly and that the identification of malignancies is not related to the evolution of the disease.


Introdução: A acromegalia é produzida por um adenoma hipofisário somatotrópico, que secreta uma produção excessiva de GH e IGF1, está relacionada a um maior risco de tumores malignos, não estando associada a um padrão específico de apresentação e o objetivo deste estudo é analisar a evolução de câncer papilar de tireoide na acromegalia. Casos: São três pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma papilífero de tireoide (CPT) de prognóstico diferente, com características faciais e sintomas como cefaleia, alterações do campo visual, alterações menstruais, que levaram à realização de estudos bioquímicos, de imagem e diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolução: O aparecimento do câncer de tireoide varia com o tempo de evolução da acromegalia, em dois dos casos ela o precedeu e no terceiro foi apresentado concomitantemente a esta patologia. A resposta ao tratamento no CPT é indeterminada no primeiro paciente e excelente nos demais casos; a remissão foi alcançada em um paciente. Conclusões: a coexistência de acromegalia com câncer de tireoide é possível, que as alterações acrais e faciais e a sintomatologia expansiva do tumor levam ao diagnóstico de acromegalia e que a identificação de neoplasias não está relacionada à evolução da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Growth Hormone , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Thyroglobulin/classification , Thyrotropin , Suppression , Endothelial Growth Factors
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 428-435, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) after total thyroidectomy is a prognosis marker for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). As Tg level is influenced by thyrotropin (TSH), perhaps the STg/TSH ratio is also a prognosis marker for these tumours. We aimed to compare STg/TSH ratio and first STg level in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients for their ability to predict the long-term response to initial treatment. Subjects and methods: This retrospective study evaluated data from 181 DTC patients for first (1st) STg and STg/TSH ratio, at 1-3 months post-total thyroidectomy and before iodine-131 therapy, according to response to initial therapy [Excellent/Indeterminate or Incomplete (Biochemical/Structural)] observed at final evaluation, and with the survival time with excellent/indeterminate response. Results: Cases with incomplete response presented higher STg level [225.13 ± 585.26 ng/mL versus (vs) 20.4 ± 192.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001] and STg/TSH ratio (3.01 ± 7.8 vs 0.27 ± 2.58; p < 0.001). Cutoffs of 5 ng/mL for STg and 0.085 for STg/TSH displayed sensitivities of 76.7% and 76.9%, and specificities of 79.2% and 82.6%, respectively, in predicting response to therapy. Values below these cutoffs were associated with longer survival time in excellent/indeterminate response (140.4 vs 15.9 and 144.6 vs 15.9 months, respectively). Conclusion: STg/TSH ratio has a similar performance to the 1st STg in predicting long-term response to initial therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e203, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156393

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las bases fisiopatológicas del Síndrome de ovario poliquístico pueden predisponer a mayor riesgo de autoinmunidad a las mujeres que tienen esta condición y existen evidencias, aunque escasas, de mayor prevalencia de autoinmunidad tiroidea en ellas. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de marcadores serológicos de autoinmunidad tiroidea en mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico e identificar si existe asociación entre la presencia de ellos y las concentraciones de progesterona y testosterona. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio en 50 mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico y 50 sin el síndrome. Se realizaron determinaciones de autoanticuerpos tiroideos (anti tiroglobulina (Anti-Tg) y anti peroxidasa (anti-TPO) a las mujeres de ambos grupos de estudio. Se realizaron determinaciones de hormonas (testosterona y progesterona) solo al grupo de estudio de mujeres con SOP. Se crearon categorías por anticuerpos: Positivo si los títulos fueron superior al rango de referencia y negativo dentro del rango. Se consideró respuesta autoinmune positiva, cuando al menos uno de los anticuerpos se encontró elevado. Para la asociación entre la presencia de autoinmunidad y las variables independientes se hicieron análisis bivariados mediante comparación de medias y test no paramétricos. Se consideró un nivel de significancia de α = 0,05. Resultados: En las mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico, 62 por ciento mostraron anticuerpos positivos y 14 por ciento en las sin el síndrome. En las mujeres sin síndrome, de las 7 mujeres con marcadores de autoinmunidad positivos, en 6 (85,7 por ciento) el anti-Tg fue el que dio positivo. No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto a la asociación con los niveles de testosterona y progesterona. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico tienen mayor frecuencia de desarrollar respuesta autoinmune tiroidea, independiente de los niveles de progesterona y testosterona(AU)


Introduction: The physio-pathological bases of polycystic ovary syndrome may predispose women with this condition to a higher risk of autoimmunity and there is evidence, albeit scarce, of higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in them. Objectives: Determine the frequency of serological markers of thyroid autoimmunity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and identify whether there is an association between the presence of them and progesterone and testosterone concentrations. Methods: A study was conducted in 50 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 without the syndrome. Determinations of thyroid autoantiantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin (Anti-Tg) and anti-peroxidase (anti-TPO) were made to women in both study groups. Hormone determinations (testosterone and progesterone) were made only to the study group of women with PCOS. Categories were created by antibodies: Positive if the titles were greater than the reference range, and negative if within the range. It was considered a positive autoimmune response when at least one of the antibodies was found increased. For the association between the presence of autoimmunity and independent variables, bivariate analyses were performed by means comparison and non-parametric tests. It was considered a significance level of α =0.05. Results: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, 62 percent showed positive antibodies and 14 percent in those without the syndrome. In women without the syndrome, of the 7 women with positive autoimmune markers, in 6 (85.7 percent) the anti-Tg was the one that tested positive. There were no significant differences in the association with testosterone and progesterone levels. Conclusions: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more often able to develop thyroid autoimmune response, independently from the progesterone and testosterone levels(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Autoimmunity/physiology , Hormones/analysis , Antibodies , Testosterone/analysis , Thyroglobulin/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9781, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132497

ABSTRACT

Serum thyroglobulin is used as part of the early postoperative assessment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) since there is a clear relationship between an increased risk of recurrence and persistent disease after initial treatment and high postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) values. Thus, although ps-Tg above 10-30 ng/mL is considered an independent predictor of worse prognosis, the value that is associated with distant metastases is not defined. Thus, this was our objective. We selected 655 DTC patients from a nuclear medicine department database (Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Brazil). All patients had received total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and had ps-Tg values higher than 10 ng/mL with negative anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Then, we selected patients who presented post-therapy whole-body scan with pulmonary and/or bone uptake but with no mediastinum or cervical uptake. Patients with negative findings on functional imaging or any doubt on lung/bone uptake were submitted to additional exams to exclude another non-thyroid tumor. Of the 655 patients, 14.3% had pulmonary and 4.4% bone metastases. There was a significant difference in ps-Tg levels between patients with and without metastases (P<0.001). The cutoff value of ps-Tg was 117.5 ng/mL (sensitivity: 70.2%; specificity: 71.7%) for those with lung metastasis, and 150.5 ng/mL (sensitivity: 79.3%; specificity: 85%) for those with bone metastasis. The cutoff value for patients with eitherpulmonary or bone metastasis was 117.5 ng/mL (sensitivity: 70.2%; specificity: 83.7%). Our findings demonstrated that ps-Tg could predict distant metastasis in DTC patients. We identified a cutoff of 117.5 ng/mL with a high negative predictive value of 93.7%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroglobulin , Brazil , Iodine Radioisotopes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826378

ABSTRACT

To tailor the subsequent treatment and follow-up strategy,this study dynamically assessed the response to initial therapy in non-distant metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with intermediate and high risk. A total of 184 non-distant metastatic DTC patients (intermediate-risk 111 cases and high-risk 73 cases) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Based on the results of initial response assessment (6-12 months after initial therapy),patients were divided into two groups:excellent response (ER) group (=113) and non-excellent response (non-ER) group (=71). We compared the differences in clinicopathological features between these 2 groups and evaluated the changes of dynamic response to therapy at the initial and final assessments after initial therapy in all patients. Compared with the ER group,the non-ER group showed a larger tumor size (=2771.500,=0.000),higher proportion of extrathyroidal invasion (=4.070,=0.044),and higher preablative-stimulated thyroglobulin levels (=1367.500,=0.000). ER was achieved in 31% of patients in the initial non-ER group [including indeterminate response (IDR) and biochemical incomplete response (BIR)] at the final follow-up only by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy,among which 63.6% were with intermediate risk (especially the patients with IDR) and 36.4% at high risk. In addition,5.2%(6/113) of patients in the initial ER group were reassessed as IDR,BIR,or even structural incomplete response at the end of the follow-up (among which one patient developed into cervical lymph node recurrence,as confirmed by pathology);the TSH level in these patients fluctuated at 0.56-10.35 μIU/ml and was not corrected in time during the follow-up after initial therapy. Some of non-distant metastatic DTC patients with intermediate and high risks who presented initial non-ER may achieve ER only by TSH suppression therapy over time;in contrast,the patients presented initial ER may develop into non-ER without normalized TSH suppression therapy. The dynamic risk assessment system may provide a real-time assessment of recurrence risk and tailor the subsequent treatment and follow-up strategies.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Thyroglobulin , Blood , Thyroid Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Thyrotropin
8.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 29(3): 220-228, 31 de diciembre del 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140799

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existen factores de riesgo que se asocian a desarrollo cáncer de tiroides diferenciado; la Tiroglobulina es una proteína ligada al tamaño tumoral, su rol dentro de las patologías oncológicas es controversial. El objetivo del estudio fue determinarsi las variaciones del gen de Tiroglobulina se asocian a la presencia de cáncer tiroideo. Métodos:Este estudio observacional de casos y controles se realizó con muestra no probabilística con muestras de patología de casos de cáncertiroideo diagnosticados en elHospital Oncológico Solón Espinosa Ayala de Quito. Se estableció un grupocontrol con voluntarios sanos. Se mide las variaciones SER734Ala y ARG1980 trp del gen de la Tiroglobulina. Se comparan las frecuencias con Chi cuadrado. Resultados:Un total de 51casos de cáncertiroideo y 50 controles. Variaciones en SER734Ala en el grupo de casos fueron homocigotos 24/51casos (53.3% (IC95% 38.8 -67.9%)en el grupo controlfueron24/50(53.3% (IC95% 38.8-67.9%)P=0.83. La variaciónheterocigotaARG1980 trp fueron en el grupo de casos 47/51(92.2%IC95% 84.3 -100%), en los controles 35/50(70% IC95% 56.6-83.4%)P=0.004. Conclusión:Se demostró que lasvariaciones del gen de laTiroglobulina pueden presentarse en pacientes con Cáncer Tiroideo en igual frecuencia que en voluntarios sanos


Introduction: There are risk factors associated with the development of differentiated thyroid cancer; Thyroglobulin is a protein linked to tumor size, its role in oncological pathologies is controversial. The objective of the study was to determine whether variations in the thyroglobulin gene are associated with the presence of thyroid cancer. Methods: This observational case-control study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample with pathology samples from thyroid cancer cases diagnosed at the Solón Espinosa Ayala Oncological Hospital in Quito. A control group with healthy volunteers was established. The SER734Ala and ARG1980 trp variations of the Thyroglobulin gene are measured. The frequencies werecompared with Chi square. Results:A total of 51 thyroid cancer cases and 50 controls. Variations in SER734Ala in the group of cases were homozygous 24/51 cases (53.3% (CI95% 38.8 -67.9%) in the control group were 24/50 (53.3% (CI95% 38.8-67.9%) P = 0.83. Heterozygous ARG1980 trp were in the case group 47/51 (92.2% 95% CI 84.3 -100%), in the controls 35/50 (70% 95% CI 56.6-83.4%) P = 0.004. Conclusion:It was shown that variations of the Thyroglobulin gene couldoccur in patients with Thyroid Cancer in the same frequency as in healthy volunteers


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms , Gene Components , Volunteers
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 37-42, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin collected after total thyroidectomy is a useful predictor of better prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas in general, but studies with microcarcinomas are scarce. Objective: To assess whether the first postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin measurement is a prognostic factor in patients with microcarcinoma. Methods: The medical data of 150 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients were studied retrospectively, and 54 (36%) cases with microcarcinoma were selected. The first postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin (1st stimulated thyroglobulin), measured after thyroidectomy, initial presentation data, and microcarcinomas treatment were assessed regarding outcome. Worse prognosis was defined as neoplasm persistence/recurrence. Results: Persistence/recurrence occurred in 27.8% of the cases. These patients were identified according to the following parameters: receiving more than one 131iodine dose (100% vs. 0%; p < 0.0001); accumulated 131iodine dose (232.14 ± 99.09 vs. 144 ± 33.61 mCi; p < 0.0001); presented active disease in the last assessment (53.3% vs. 0%; p < 0.0001); follow-up time (103.07 ± 61.27 vs. 66.85 ± 70.14 months; p = 0.019); and 1st stimulated thyroglobulin (19.01 ± 44.18 vs. 2.19 ± 2.54 ng/dL; p < 0.0001). After multivariate logistic regression, only the 1stSTg [odds ratio = 1.242; 95% confidence interval: 1.022-1.509; p = 0.029] and follow-up time (odds ratio = 1.027; 95% confidence interval: 1.007-1.048; p = 0.007) were independent predictors of risk of persistence/recurrence. The cutoff point of 1.6 ng/dL for the 1st stimulated thyroglobulin was significantly associated with disease persistence/recurrence [area under the curve = 0.713 (p = 0.019)]. Conclusion: The first stimulated thyroglobulin predicted disease persistence/recurrence in patients with microcarcinoma.


Resumo Introdução: A tireoglobulina estimulada pelo hormônio tireoestimulante endógeno coletada após tireoidectomia total é um preditor útil de melhor prognóstico em pacientes com carcinomas diferenciados de tireoide em geral, mas os estudos com microcarcinomas são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar se a primeira medida pós-operatória de tireoglobulina estimulada é um fator prognóstico em pacientes com microcarcinoma. Método: Os dados clínicos de 150 pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide foram estudados retrospectivamente e 54 (36%) casos com microcarcinoma foram selecionados. A primeira dosagem de tireoglobulina estimulada (1a TgE) pós-operatória, medida após a tireoidectomia, os dados da apresentação inicial e tratamento do microcarcinoma foram avaliados quanto ao resultado. O pior prognóstico foi definido como a persistência/recorrência da neoplasia. Resultados: A persistência/recorrência ocorreu em 27,8% dos casos. Esses pacientes foram identificados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: receberam mais de uma dose de iodo131 (100% vs. 0%; p < 0,0001); dose acumulada de iodo131 (232,14 ± 99,09 vs. 144 ± 33,61 mCi; p < 0,0001); apresentou doença ativa na última avaliação (53,3% vs. 0%; p < 0,0001); tempo de seguimento (103,07 ± 61,27 vs. 66,85 ± 70,14 meses; p = 0,019); e 1ªTgE (19,01 ± 44,18 vs. 2,19 ± 2,54 ng/dL; p < 0,0001). Após a regressão logística multivariada, apenas a 1ª TgE [odds ratio = 1.242; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,022-1,509; p = 0,029] e tempo de seguimento (odds ratio = 1,027; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,007-1,048; p = 0,007) foram preditores independentes de risco de persistência/recorrência. O ponto de corte de 1,6 ng/dL para a 1a TgE foi significativamente associado à persistência/recidiva da doença [área abaixo da curva = 0,713 (p = 0,019)]. Conclusão: A 1ª dosagem sérica de tireoglobulina estimulada previu a persistência/recorrência da doença em pacientes com microcarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroglobulin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma/blood , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Reference Values , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772110

ABSTRACT

Thyroglobulin is the most important and abundant protein in thyroid follicles and has been widely studied as a tumor marker of thyroid cancer recurrence and persistence. Tg is considered the material basis of thyroid hormone synthesis and does not participate in the regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. This review summarizes the recent progress in the research of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion regulation via a negative feedback regulation mechanism by the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Thyroglobulin can negatively regulate the synthesis of thyroid hormone by thyroid follicular cells and antagonize the positive regulation of thyrotropin TSH. The function of thyroid follicular cells is presumably a result of Tg and TSH interaction, and a follicular cycle model is proposed to explain the causes of follicular heterogeneity in glands. We also discuss the prospects and clinical significance of studies into the negative feedback regulation mechanism of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary axis and compare two theories for this mechanism.


Subject(s)
Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Physiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Thyroglobulin , Metabolism , Thyroid Gland , Physiology , Thyroid Hormones , Metabolism , Thyrotropin , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762611

ABSTRACT

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common endocrine disorder in neonates and infants with an incidence of one in 2,000 to one in 4,000 newborns. Primary CH can be caused by thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid dyshormonogenesis. CH due to a TG gene mutation is one cause of thyroid dyshormonogenesis and can be characterized by goitrous CH with absent or low levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). In the present case, a 15-day-old neonate was referred to us with elevated thyroid stimulating hormone detected during a neonatal screening test. At the age of 34 months, extensive genetic testing was performed, including targeted exome sequencing for hypothyroidism, and revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the TG gene. Sanger sequencing of both parents’ DNA samples revealed a c.3790T> C (p.Cys1264Arg) mutation located at exon 17 inherited from the mother, and a c.4057C> T (p.Gln1353*) mutation located at exon 19 was inherited from the father. The c.4057C> T (p.Gln1353*) mutation located at exon 19 has never been reported and, therefore, is a new discovery. We report a case of primary permanent CH with compound heterozygous mutations of the TG gene, including a novel mutation.


Subject(s)
Congenital Hypothyroidism , DNA , Exome , Exons , Fathers , Genetic Testing , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Neonatal Screening , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Dysgenesis , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Engineered cell sheet transplantation has been considered an alternative physiological therapy for endocrine disorders. In this study, we attempted to fabricate functional human thyroid cell sheets using the engineering technology by culturing primary thyrocytes in free-feeder monolayers and assessed their proliferation and function in two different media. METHODS: The non-tumorous tissues (approximately 2 g) were dissected during surgery. Primary human thyroid cells were isolated by mechanical dispersion and treatment with isolation solution. The cells were cultured on tissue culture dishes or temperature-responsive culture dishes to induce the formation of detached cell sheets. RESULTS: Primary thyroid cells isolated from nine patients were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroglobulin (TG) and cytokeratin 7. Cell sheets with follicles were fabricated by cells incubated in both Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and hepatocyte-defined medium (HDM) culture medium. The diameter and thickness of sheets fabricated in HDM were larger and thicker than those fabricated from DMEM. Furthermore, the cells incubated in HDM secreted higher levels of fT3 and fT4 than those incubated in DMEM. The thyroid peroxidase and TG mRNA of cells maintained in HDM were higher than those in cells maintained in DMEM. CONCLUSION: HDM appears suitable as a culture medium for maintaining primary thyrocytes and fabricating functional cell sheets. These in vitro findings may contribute to the development of appropriate culture conditions for human thyrocytes as well as engineered functional cell sheets.


Subject(s)
Eagles , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Iodide Peroxidase , Keratin-7 , RNA, Messenger , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Transcription Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719654

ABSTRACT

Thyroid disorders are common, affecting more than 10% of people in the US, and laboratory tests are integral in the management of these conditions. The repertoire of thyroid tests includes blood tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), and calcitonin. TSH and free thyroid hormone tests are frequently used to assess the functional status of the thyroid. TPO-Ab and TRAb tests are used to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, respectively. Tg and calcitonin are important tumor markers used in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), respectively. Procalcitonin may replace calcitonin as a biomarker for MTC. Apart from understanding normal thyroid physiology, it is important to be familiar with the possible pitfalls and caveats in the use of these tests so that they can be interpreted properly and accurately. When results are discordant, clinicians and laboratorians should be mindful of possible assay interferences and/or the effects of concurrent medications. In addition, thyroid function may appear abnormal in the absence of actual thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in critical illness. Hence, it is important to consider the clinical context when interpreting results. This review aims to describe the above-mentioned blood tests used in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, as well as the pitfalls in their interpretation. With due knowledge and care, clinicians and laboratorians will be able to fully appreciate the clinical utility of these important laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Biomarkers, Tumor , Calcitonin , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Graves Disease , Hematologic Tests , Iodide Peroxidase , Physiology , Pregnancy , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786495

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 47-year-old female known with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Her treatment history included total thyroidectomy and 3 previous radio ablations with a cumulative dose of 950 mCi of ¹³¹I. On follow-up, her thyroglobulin levels had demonstrated a rising trend (from 3789.0 to 4240.0 ug/L) despite a ¹²³I whole-body scan demonstrating a reduction in tracer avid lesions. She was suspected of having radio-resistant disease. The patient underwent both ¹⁸F-FDG and ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging with both scans demonstrating congruent lesions however with far greater intensity on the ⁶⁸Ga-PSMA study.


Subject(s)
Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iodine , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although postoperative radioiodine (RAI) therapy has been used in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) for many years, there is still lack of data defining the timing of RAI administration. A retrospective analysis was carried out to answer the question whether the time of postoperative RAI treatment demonstrated any impact on long-term outcomes, particularly in low-risk DTC.MATERIAL: The analyzed group involved 701 DTC patients staged pT(1b)-T₄N₀-N₁M₀, who underwent total thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy. According to the time interval between DTC diagnosis and RAI administration, patients were allocated to one of three groups: up to 9 months (N = 150), between 9 and 24 months (N = 323), and > 24 months (N = 228). Median follow-up was 12.1 years (1.5−15.2).RESULTS: Based on an initial DTC advancement and postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin concentration patients were stratified as a low-, intermediate-, and high-risk group. Low-risk patients, who received RAI therapy up to 9 months, demonstrated significantly lower risk of relapse comparing to those, in whom RAI was administered between 9 and 24 months and after 24 months since DTC diagnosis: 0%, 5.5%, and 7.1%, respectively. Regarding intermediate- and high-risk groups, the differences in the timing of postoperative RAI treatment were not significant.CONCLUSION: If postoperative RAI treatment is considered in low-risk DTC, any delay in RAI administration above 9 months since diagnosis may be related to poorer long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by antibodies stimulating the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) measurement is useful for predicting GD relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. However, the association of other thyroid autoantibodies with GD relapse remains obscure. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients with GD who were initially treated with ATD. TRAb, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured at the initial diagnosis and at the time of ATD discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 49.7 years, and 39 patients (70.9%) were female. Antibody positivity at diagnosis was 90.9%, 69.1%, and 61.9% for TRAb, TPOAb, TgAb, respectively. Median ATD treatment period was 15.1 months. At the time of ATD withdrawal, TRAb titers decreased uniformly overall. Conversely, TPOAb and TgAb showed various changes. After withdrawal of ATD, 19 patients (34.5%) experienced relapse. No clinical features or laboratory results were significantly related to relapse in the overall patient group. However, in the TPOAb positive group at diagnosis, increasing titer of TPOAb or TgAb after ATD treatment was significantly and independently related to relapse free survival (TPOAb: hazard ratio [HR], 17.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 195.43; P=0.02) (TgAb: HR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 27.26; P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Changes in TPOAb or TgAb titers during treatment might be useful for predicting relapse after ATD treatment in patients with positive TPOAb at diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Autoantibodies , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Female , Graves Disease , Humans , Iodide Peroxidase , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative routine radioiodine (RAI) treatment is currently debated for patients with low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. If performed, a low 131I activity (i.e., 1 to 2 GBq) is recommended with the aim to ablate thyroid remnant and facilitate subsequent follow-up by thyroglobulin measurement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between postsurgical technetium-99m (99mTc)-pertechnetate scintigraphy and the rate of successful remnant ablation after low activity radioiodine ablation in patients with DTC. METHODS: Enrolled were 193 patients with low risk DTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI ablation with a fixed 1.1 GBq activity of 131I. 99mTc-pertechnetate scans were done and thyrotropin stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels measured just before ablation. Ablation effectiveness was assessed 6 to 12 months later by sTg measurement, neck ultrasound and diagnostic whole body scan. RESULTS: A negative 99mTc-perthecnetate scans was the best predictor of successful ablation (P<0.001) followed by preablative sTg levels <0.8 ng/mL (P=0.008) and 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake rate values <0.9% (P=0.065). Neither sex nor age of the patient at the time of ablation or tumor histology and size showed a significant association with the rate of successful ablation. CONCLUSION: The 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is a simple and feasible tool to predict effectiveness of low activity 131I thyroid to ablate thyroid remnants in patients with DTC.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neck , Radionuclide Imaging , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Ultrasonography , Whole Body Imaging
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300356

ABSTRACT

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), which results from insufficient thyroid hormone biosynthesis, is one of the most common neonatal endocrine disorders. Thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid dyshormonogenesis are the two causes of CH and either one will lead to deficiencies of enzymes during thyroid hormone biosynthesis and insufficient thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Recently, researchers have performed extensive studies on genetics of CH. This paper reviews genes reported to be associated with CH in China.


Subject(s)
Congenital Hypothyroidism , Genetics , Humans , Iodide Peroxidase , Genetics , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , PAX8 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Genetics , Thyroglobulin , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical completeness in endoscopic total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection via unilateral axillo-breast approach (UABA) compared with bilateral axillo-breast (BABA) and open approach (OA) by means of the radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) ratio and thyroglobulin (Tg) of remnant thyroid. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: From July 2010 to March 2013, 82 patients who had underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection and postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation for papillary thyroid carcinoma were enrolled. Of these patients, 27 patients underwent UABA, 24 patients BABA, and 31 patients OA. Clinicopathologic data, surgical outcome, stimulated Tg and RAIU ratio on the first postoperative RAI ablation scan were compared among 3 groups. RESULTS: Patients in the endoscopic surgery groups (UABA, BABA) were younger than those in the OA groups. Invasiveness such as operation time, postoperative pain, and drain amount in UABA was less than that in BABA and severer than that in OA. Other variables regarding clinicopathologic and surgical data were not significantly different. Stimulated Tg and RAIU ratio did not show significant differences among 3 groups (p=0.659 and p=0.664). CONCLUSION: The completeness of UABA was comparable with that of BABA and OA. The UABA may be a safe option for patients who need endoscopic thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Humans , Iodine , Methods , Neck Dissection , Neck , Pain, Postoperative , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719029

ABSTRACT

Most cases of congenital hyperthyroidism are autoimmune forms caused by maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies. Nonautoimmune forms of congenital hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene are rare. A woman gave birth to a boy during an emergency cesarean section at 33 weeks of gestation due to fetal tachycardia. On the 24th day of life, thyroid function tests were performed due to persistent tachycardia, and hyperthyroidism was confirmed. Auto-antibodies to TSHR, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin were not found. The patient was treated with propylthiouracil and propranolol, but hyperthyroidism was not well controlled. At 3 months of age, the patient had craniosynostosis and hydrocephalus, and underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Direct sequencing of the TSHR gene showed a heterozygous mutation of c.1899C>A (p.Asp633Glu) in exon 10. No mutations were discovered in any of the parents in a familial genetic study. We have reported a case of sporadic nonautoimmune congenital hyperthyroidism, by a missense mutation of the TSHR gene, for the first time in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Craniosynostoses , Emergencies , Exons , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hyperthyroidism , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Iodide Peroxidase , Korea , Male , Mutation, Missense , Parents , Parturition , Pregnancy , Propranolol , Propylthiouracil , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Tachycardia , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Function Tests , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
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