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1.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440509

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma papilar tiroideo es el tipo de cáncer más común de esta glándula, y su tratamiento de elección es la tiroidectomía. Entre las complicaciones asociadas resalta la parálisis de las cuerdas vocales, la cual ocurre por una lesión directa del nervio laríngeo recurrente durante la cirugía. Se presenta una paciente de 22 años de edad con este diagnóstico, a la cual se le realizó una tiroidectomía total; en el postoperatorio inmediato la paciente comenzó con estridor laríngeo intenso que requirió una traqueotomía de urgencia. En el examen físico se constató una parálisis bilateral de las cuerdas vocales y se decidió comenzar un tratamiento de rehabilitación del nervio recurrente laríngeo con laserterapia y HIVAMAT-200 como modalidades combinadas. Los resultados alcanzados con la fisioterapia fueron satisfactorios y la paciente se reintegró rápidamente a su ámbito familiar, escolar y social.


Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of cancer of this gland, and its treatment of choice is thyroidectomy. Vocal cord paralysis stands out among the associated complications, in which a direct injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurs during surgery. We present a 22-year-old female patient with this diagnosis, who underwent a total thyroidectomy; in the immediate postoperative period the patient began with intense laryngeal stridor requiring an emergency tracheotomy. Physical examination revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis and it was decided to begin rehabilitation treatment of the recurrent laryngeal nerve with laser therapy and HIVAMAT-200 as combined modalities. The results achieved with physiotherapy were satisfactory and the patient was quickly reintegrated into her family, school and social environment.


Subject(s)
Thyroidectomy , Tracheotomy , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
2.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(3): [207-218], 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526787

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de tiroides se posiciona como una de las neoplasias más prevalentes en Ecuador, manifestándose típicamente en la cuarta década de vida, con una mayor inciden-cia en mujeres. El subtipo histológico predominante es el papilar (CPT), y diversos estudios han evidenciado que hasta un 80% de los casos de CPT presentan la mutación BRAF. Esta mutación se ha asociado con factores de pronóstico desfavorable, como la presencia de me-tástasis ganglionares, estadíos tumorales avanzados, extensión extratiroidea y característi-cas histológicas agresivas. Además, se ha observado una relación con una mayor tasa de recurrencia y una respuesta reducida al tratamiento con yodo. Ante este contexto, esta inves-tigación se propone analizar la distribución de la mutación BRAF según características epide-miológicas e histopatológicas en pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer papilar de tiroides en Ecuador. Materiales y métodos: Este estudio se llevó a cabo de manera descriptiva y retrospectiva, abarcando a pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer papilar de tiroides a quienes se les practicó el análisis genético para la detección de la mutación BRAF. La muestra incluyó 106 historias clínicas que cumplían con los criterios de selección establecidos Resultados: La evaluación de las historias clínicas reveló la presencia de la mutación BRAF en el 75% de los casos. Este porcentaje fue más elevado en mujeres, individuos mayores de 45 años y residentes en áreas urbanas. Respecto a la ocupación, la mayoría de los pacientes se dedicaba a labores de limpieza y no presentaban antecedentes personales de exposición a radiación ionizante ni antecedentes oncológicos familiares. El 84% se encontraba en la etapa clínica I, y en su mayoría, la neoplasia estaba localizada en el lóbulo tiroideo derecho.Conclusión:Este análisis subraya la imperiosa necesidad de identificar los factores de riesgo vinculados con la aparición del carcinoma papilar de tiroides en la población ecuatoriana. Los resultados indican una prevalencia significativa de la mutación BRAF, lo que subraya su rele-vancia comomarcador pronóstico en esta enfermedad. Estos hallazgos pueden contribuir a una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología y la patogenia del cáncer de tiroides, así como a la mejora de las estrategias de prevención y tratamiento en el ámbito local.


Introduction: Thyroid cancer is positioned as one of the most prevalent neoplasms in Ecuador, typically manifesting in the fourth decade of life, with a higher incidence in women. The pre-dominant histological subtype is papillary carcinoma (PTC), and various studies presentshown that up to 80% of PTC cases present the BRAF mutation. This mutation has been as-sociated with unfavorable prognostic factors, such as the presence of lymph node metasta-ses, advanced tumor stages, extrathyroidal extension, and aggressive histologicalfeatures. Additionally, a correlationhas been observed with a higher recurrence rate and a reduced re-sponse toiodine treatment. Given this context, this research aims to analyze the distribution of the BRAF mutation according to epidemiological and histopathological characteristics in patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer in Ecuador. Materials and methods: This retrospective descriptive study involved the analysis of genetic data from 106 medical records of patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer who under-went BRAF mutation detection. The sample was selected based on established criteria. Results: Evaluation of medical records revealed the presence of the BRAF mutation in 75% of cases. This percentage was higher in women, individuals over 45 years of age, and residents in urban areas. Regarding occupation, most patients were dedicated to cleaning work and had no personal history of exposure to ionizing radiation orafamily history of cancer.Additionally, 84% of the patients were in clinical stage I and the neoplasmswerelocated in the right thyroid lobe.Conclusion: This analysis highlights the urgent need to identify risk factors linked to the ap-pearance of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ecuadorian population. The results indicate a significant prevalence of the BRAF mutation, underlining its relevance as a prognostic marker in this disease. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of thyroid cancerleadingtoimprovementsinprevention and treatment strategies at the local level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endocrine Gland Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Endocrine Glands
3.
Med. lab ; 27(3): 263-266, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444444

ABSTRACT

Los nódulos tiroideos son una ocurrencia común. Aunque la mayoría de los nódulos son benignos y asintomáticos, un pequeño porcentaje de ellos puede ser maligno. Por esta razón, es crucial identificar los nódulos malignos y proporcionar el tratamiento apropiado


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
4.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 351-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986894

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacies between open surgery and axillary non-inflatable endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 343 patients with unilateral PTC treated by traditional open surgery (201 cases) and transaxillary non-inflating endoscopic surgery (142 cases) from May 2019 to December 2021 in the Head and Neck Surgery of Sichuan Cancer Hospital. Among them, 97 were males and 246 were females, aged 20-69 years. 1∶1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed on the enrolled patients, and the basic characteristics, perioperative clinical outcomes, postoperative complications, postoperative quality of life (Thyroid Cancer-Specific Quality of Life), aesthetic satisfaction and other aspects of the two groups were compared after successful matching. SPSS 26.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled after PSM, with 95 cases in open group and 95 cases in endoscopic group. Intraoperative blood losses for endoscopic and open groups were [20 (20) ml vs. 20 (10) ml, M (IQR), Z=-2.22], postoperative drainage volumes [170 (70)ml vs. 101 (55)ml, Z=-7.91], operative time [135 (35)min vs. 95 (35)min, Z=-7.34], hospitalization cost [(28 188.7±2 765.1)yuan vs. (25 643.5±2 610.7)yuan, x¯±s, t=0.73], postoperative hospitalization time [(3.1±0.9)days vs. (2.6±0.9)days, t=-3.24], and drainage tube placement time [(2.5±0.8) days vs. (2.0±1.0)days, t=-4.16], with statistically significant differrences (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in surgical complications (P>0.05). There were significant diffferences between two groups in the postoperative quality of life scores in neuromuscular, psychological, scar and cold sensation (all P<0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences in other quality of life scores (all P>0.05). In terms of aesthetic satisfaction 6 months after surgery, the endoscopic group was better than the open group, with statistically significant difference (χ2=41.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy by a gasless unilateral axillary approach is a safe and reliable surgical method, which has remarkable cosmetic effect and can improve the postoperative quality of life of patients compared with the traditional thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy , Thyroidectomy/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 462-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985784

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance, as a first-line treatment strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, has been recommended by guidelines worldwide. However, active surveillance has not been widely accepted by doctors and patients in China. In view of the huge challenges faced by active surveillance, doctors should improve their understanding of the "low risk" of papillary thyroid micropapillary cancer, identify some intermediate or high-risk cases, be familiar with the criteria and methods of diagnosis for disease progression, and timely turn patients with disease progression into more active treatment strategies. By analyzing the long-term cost-effectiveness of active surveillance, it is clear that medical expense is only one cost form of medical activities, and the health cost (thyroid removal and surgical complications) paid by patients due to"over-diagnosis and over-treatment" is the most important. Moreover, the weakening of the patients' social function caused by surgical procedures is a more hidden and far-reaching cost. The formulation of health economic policies (including medical insurance) should promote the adjustment of diagnosis and treatment behavior to the direction which is conducive to the long-term life and treatment of patients, improving the overall health level of society and reducing the overall cost. At the same time, doctors should stimulate the subjective initiative of patients, help them fully understand the impact of various treatment methods on their psychological and physical status, support patients psychologically, and strengthen their confidence in implementing active surveillance. By strengthening multi-disciplinary treatment team and system support, doctors can achieve risk stratification of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, accurate judgment of disease progress, timely counseling for psychological problems, and long-term adherence to active surveillance. Improving the treatment level of advanced thyroid cancer is the key point of improve the prognosis. It is important to promote the development of active surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. In the future, it is necessary to carry out multi-center prospective research and accumulate research evidence for promoting the standardization process of active surveillance. Standardized active surveillance will certainly benefit specific papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy/methods , Prospective Studies , Watchful Waiting/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
6.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 16-21, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970440

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of circ_0092315 in the proliferation and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. Methods The expression of circ_0092315 in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells was examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.The proliferation and invasion of TPC-1 cells was assessed by CCK-8 and Transwell assays.The protein level of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) was determined by Western blotting.The regulatory relationship of circ_0092315,microRNA-1256 (miR-1256),and HMGA2 was explored by bioinformatics tools,dual-luciferase reporter assay,real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR,and Western blotting. ++++Results circ_0092315 was overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells (all P<0.001).circ_0092315 promoted the proliferation and invasion of TPC-1 cells (all P<0.001).The transfection of si-circ_0092315 up-regulated the expression of miR-1256 (P<0.001),and miR-1256 inhibitor up-regulated the protein level of HMGA2 (P<0.001). ++++Conclusion circ_0092315 is overexpressed in TPC-1 cells and it promotes the proliferation and invasion of TPC-1 cells by regulating the miR-1256/HMGA2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Computational Biology , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Proliferation , MicroRNAs/genetics
7.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 491-493, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982774

ABSTRACT

This case report has described a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroglossal duct in a young male. This patient was admitted with a mass in the anterior neck for 2 years. Preoperative Bultrasonography, CT and MR showed a subcutaneous cystic mass with irregular calcification shadow in the central region of the neck without obvious enhancement. Initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst, and was excised by Sistrunk under general anesthesia. The postoperative pathological examination showed thyroglossal duct cyst combined with thyroid papillary carcinoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry as thyroglossal duct papillary carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroglossal Cyst/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
8.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 375-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982752

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical significance of multigene assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods:Patients who underwent thyroidectomy in a tertiary hospital from August 2021 to May 2022 were enrolled. The eight-gene panel was used to detect the tumor tissue of patients, and the correlation between gene mutations and clinical features was analyzed. Results:Among 161 patients, mutation rate of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1 and TERT promotor were 82.0%, 6.8% and 4.3%, respectively. BRAF V600E mutation was more common in male patients(P=0.023). TERT promotor-mutated tumors had a large diameter(P=0.019), a high proportion of multifocal lesions(P=0.050), and a large number of lymph node metastases(P=0.031). Among 89 patients who completed preoperative BRAF detection, there was a strong consistency between the preoperative aspiration test and postoperative panel(Cohen κ=0.694, 95%CI: 0.482-0.906, P<0.01). In the hematoxylin-eosin sections obtained from 80 patients, BRAF V600E was still the main type of gene mutation, and the classical/follicular type was more distributed. TERT promotor and RET/PTC1 mutation were the main genetic events for tall-cell/columnar/hobnail type and diffuse sclerosing type, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that there were differences in diagnosis age(P=0.029) and tumor size(P<0.01) among different pathological types. Conclusion:As a simple and feasible clinical detection method for PTC, the multigene assay can supplement the identification of important genetic events other than BRAF V600E, and provide more prognostic information and follow-up hints for postoperative patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Mutation
9.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 370-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982751

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of recurrence after surgical resection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma combined with iodine-131 and TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormone) inhibition therapy. Methods:From January 2015 to April 2020, the clinical data of patients with structural recurrence and without recurrence were retrospectively collected after surgical treatment combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital. The general conditions of the two groups of patients were analyzed and the measurement data in line with the normal distribution was used for comparison between groups. For measurement data with non-normal distribution, the rank sum test was used for inter-group comparison. The Chi-square test was used for comparison between the counting data groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors associated with relapse. Results:The median follow-up period was 43 months(range 18-81 months) and 100 patients(10.5%) relapsed among the 955 patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the central region of the neck, and the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the lateral region were significantly correlated with post-treatment recurrence(P<0.001, P=0.018, P<0.001, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.496, 95%CI: 1.226-1.826, P<0.001), tumor frequency(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.927, 95%CI: 1.003-3.701, P=0.049), the number of lymph node metastases in the central neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 2.630, 95%CI: 1.509-4.584, P=0.001) and the number of lymph node metastases in the lateral neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 3.074, 95%CI: 1.649-5.730, P=0.001) was associated with tumor recurrence. Conclusion:The study showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases in the central region of the neck>5 and the number of lymph node metastases in the side of the neck >5 are independent risk factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer after surgical resection combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Adenocarcinoma , Thyrotropin , Lymph Nodes/pathology
10.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 365-369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982750

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between parathyroid hormone(PTH) level and permanent hypoparathyroidism(PHPP) on the first day after radical papillary thyroidectomy, and its predictive value. Methods:A total of 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroid resection and central lymph node dissection were collected and analyzed from January 2021 to January 2022. According to whether PHPP occurred after surgery, the patients were divided into hypoparathyroidism group and normal parathyroid function group, and univariate and binary logistics regression were used to analyze the correlation between PTH and serum calcium levels and PHPP on the first day after surgery in two groups. The dynamic changes of PTH at different time points after operation were analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic was used to evaluate the predictive power of PTH on the development of PHPP after surgery. Results:Among the 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer, 10 cases developed PHPP, with an incidence rate of 12.5%. Binary logistics regression analysis showed that PTH on the first postoperative day(OR=14.534, 95%CI: 2.377-88.858, P=0.004) was an independent predictive risk factor for postoperative PHPP. Taking PTH=8.75 ng/L on the first postoperative day as the cut-off value, the AUC of the area under the curve was 0.874(95%CI: 0.790-0.958, P<0.001), the sensitivity was 71.4%, the specificity was 100%, and the Yoden index was 0.714. Conclusion:PTH level on the first day after total thyroid papillary carcinoma surgery is closely related to PHPP, and is an independent predictor of PHPP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroidectomy
11.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 100-107, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984396

ABSTRACT

Background@#The majority of thyroid malignancies are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). We examined the incidence, disease extent, recurrence and disease-specific mortality (DSM) of DTC among Filipinos residing in the Philippines and Filipino immigrants.@*Methodology@# In accordance with the 2020 PRISMA statement, we performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane and Clinicaltrials.gov for the period January 1, 1980 until January 27, 2022. Pooled incidence rate ratio and pooled proportions of disease extent, recurrence and DSM were determined.@*Results@#Literature search yielded 1,852 studies. Out of 26 articles retrieved, nine retrospective case controls and cohorts were included. Incidence of DTC was significantly higher in female Filipino immigrants compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Distant metastases and recurrence were more common among Filipinos and Filipino immigrants compared with NHW. Limited data showed higher DSM in Filipino immigrants and NHW than Filipinos, which may be influenced by reporting bias.@*Conclusion@#This review supports the trend of increased incidence and recurrence of DTC among Filipinos, although case registries are essential to confirm these findings. In the setting of the newly released Philippine guidelines for DTC, prospective studies with active long-term follow-up will help detect any changes in the outcomes of DTC among Filipinos.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular
12.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 66-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984282

ABSTRACT

@#A 23-year-old woman underwent left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy for a 2 cm diameter firm mass on the left side of the neck that was also visualized on ultrasonography. The specimen consisted of a 22-gram thyroid gland composed of the left lobe, isthmus and a pyramidal lobe. Cut section of the left lobe showed a 3.5 cm diameter solitary, discrete and encapsulated mass with a tan lobulated and solid cut surface. The rest of the thyroid tissues had red-brown meaty cut surfaces. Microscopic section shows a follicular-patterned proliferation enclosed by a thin fibrous capsule with frequent Sanderson polster-like papillary excrescences. (Figures 1 and 2) Both the follicular and the papillary structures are lined by cuboidal to columnar follicular epithelial cells that had ample eosinophilic to pale cytoplasm and uniformly sized, minimally enlarged, generally round, and monolayered nuclei without nuclear grooving, folds, pseudoinclusions, and chromatin clearing. There are no mitotic figures seen. Some of the papillary structures have delicate vascular cores. (Figure 3) There are no psammoma bodies noted. The follicles contain variable amounts of pale eosinophilic colloid ranging from colloid-poor crowded follicles to those with ample colloid that have frequent peripheral scalloping. (Figure 4) Exhaustive sections failed to disclose capsular or vascular invasion. Based on the microscopic features, a diagnosis of follicular adenoma with papillary architecture was rendered.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
13.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 40-45, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980425

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective@#Epidemiological studies have shown that Filipinos have a higher prevalence of welldifferentiated thyroid cancer and a higher rate of recurrence. The BRAF V600E mutation has been proposed as a potential prognostic marker in aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. In this study, we determined whether this mutation is a risk factor for tumor recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer among Filipinos.@*Methods@#We conducted an age and sex-matched case-control study of patients with papillary thyroid cancer; we had two groups – with and without tumor recurrence – of 14 patients each, with at least a 5-year follow-up. We extracted the DNA samples from the patients’ (paraffin-embedded) tumor biopsy tissue blocks from thyroidectomy specimens, then detected the BRAF V600E mutation using polymerase chain reaction. The McNemar’s test for difference of proportions in paired data was used to determine the association of BRAF V600E mutation with recurrence. @*Results@#The BRAF V600E mutation was found in 57.14% of all cases. We found a prevalence of 64.29% among those with recurrence and 50.00% among those without recurrence, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.688).@*Conclusion@#Our study showed the BRAF V600E mutation was not associated with recurrence. We encountered several limitations: we had limited data regarding molecular methodologies in the Philippine setting, we had a small sample size, and therefore we could not study other parameters (e.g., tumor characteristics, lymph node metastasis, stage of disease). We hope that this paves the way for future studies and collaborations to establish the role of BRAF V600E in Filipinos with papillary thyroid tumor recurrence.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Pathology, Molecular
14.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 71-76, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980371

ABSTRACT

@#Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common well-differentiated thyroid malignancy accounting for more than 80 to 90% of all thyroid tumors. It has an overall excellent prognosis owing to advances in screening via imaging and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which have facilitated early detection, diagnosis, and surgical treatment followed by adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy. Exceptionally rare cases of papillary thyroid tumors may present with enormous growth due to delayed consultation and, thus, late diagnosis, posing a challenge to definitive management, quality of life, overall survival, and prognosis. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with a 4-year history of a bleeding exophytic and fungating anterior neck mass. Computed tomography showed a fungating mass arising from the left thyroid lobe that measured 14.1 x 14.0 x 11.1 cm with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, left internal jugular vein thrombus formation, and compression of the left internal carotid artery. The mass causes a displacement of the trachea to the right side and multiple bilateral cervical lymphadenopathies. The patient was fully aware, and she consented to undergo wide excision, total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and pectoralis major muscle flap reconstruction. However, she went into arrest intraoperatively attributed to massive pulmonary embolism. Papillary thyroid cancer is well known for its excellent prognosis. However, outcomes may not be favorable and can even be fatal in advanced and extensive cases. Although fungating papillary cancers are rare, they remain more common in the developing countries, where early detection and access to healthcare remains limited. They also represent a big challenge to surgeons. Even if the outcome was not good, we opted to report this case as there were many learning points. If only patients with good and excellent outcomes are reported in the literature, it will overestimate the treatment success of these complex cases.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
15.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 37-49, 20221230. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415289

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Existen resultados inconsistentes con relación al planteamiento de la hipótesis que sugiere una mayor probabilidad de documentar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes quirúrgicos con cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica. En los metaanálisis existentes se han incluido estudios no comparables metodológicamente y no se proponen claras fuentes de sesgo, justificación para la realización del presente metaanálisis. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Embase. Fueron obtenidos estudios retrospectivos donde se comparaba la prevalencia de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes con y sin cambios por tiroiditis linfocítica crónica. La evidencia recolectada fue sintetizada estadísticamente. Resultados. Un total de 22 artículos fueron incluidos. La población estuvo conformada por 63.548 especímenes. El OR combinado fue 1,81 (IC95%: 1,51-2,21). Hubo heterogeneidad entre la distribución de las razones de oportunidad entre los estudios (I2= 91 %; p>0,00001). La forma del gráfico en embudo de los estudios incluidos en el análisis parece estar simétrica, lo que indica la ausencia del sesgo atribuible a los estudios pequeños. Conclusiones. La literatura actual sugiere que existe un mayor riesgo de documentar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes quirúrgicos en los que se observan cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica; sin embargo, existen fuentes de sesgo que no será posible controlar en estudios retrospectivos, por lo que recomendamos estudiar la hipótesis que sugiere una mayor probabilidad de diagnosticar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes con cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica mediante metodologías prospectivas


Introduction. Inconsistent results exist in the literature regarding the hypothesis statement suggesting an increased likelihood of documenting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in surgical specimens with changes compatible with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Existing meta-analyses have included studies that are not methodologically comparable and do not propose clear sources of bias, thus, this is justification for the present meta-analysis. Methods. A literature search in Pubmed and Embase was performed from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2020. Retrospective studies comparing the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in specimens with and without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis changes were obtained. The collected evidence was statistically analyzed. Results. A total of 22 articles were included. The study population consisted of 63,548 surgical specimens. The pooled OR, based on the studies, was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.51-2.21). There was heterogeneity between the distribution of prevalence ratios and opportunity ratios across studies (I²= 91%; p>0.00001). The funnel plot shape of the studies included in the analysis appears to be symmetrical, indicating the absence of bias attributable to small studies. Conclusions. The current literature suggests that there is an increased risk of documenting papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens in which chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-compatible changes are observed; however, there are sources of bias that will not be possible to control for in retrospective studies, so we recommend studying the hypothesis suggesting an increased likelihood of diagnosing PTC in specimens with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-compatible changes using prospective methodologies


Subject(s)
Humans , Hashimoto Disease , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Specimen Handling , Retrospective Studies , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review
16.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 55(4)dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417824

ABSTRACT

Graves' disease (GD) is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism and diffuse toxic goiter in iodine-sufficient geographi-cal areas. GD is associated with classical manifestations such as ophthalmopathy and thyroid dermopathy, in addi-tion to diffuse goiter, which may be the site of carcinomas, as a complication. Case report: A 52-year-old woman presented with goiter and symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism, such as heat intolerance, weight loss, fati-gue, increased sweat, tachycardia, fine tremors, increased intestinal transit, anxiety, emotional lability, insomnia, exophthalmos, and pretibial myxedema. A complementary investigation confirmed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (high free T4 and total T3 levels and low thyroid-stimulating hormone - TSH levels). Ultrasound images showed dif-fuse enlargement of the thyroid lobes by approximately 10 times and the presence of three thyroid nodules, one of which was larger than 2 cm with heterogeneous echogenicity and vascularization throughout the nodule; ultrasoun-d-guided fine needle aspiration revealed cytology compatible with Bethesda IV; scintigraphy revealed a low uptake area (cold nodule) amid a diffuse high-uptake goiter. A thyroidectomy was performed, and the anatomical specimen diagnosis revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right lobe, with adjacent parenchyma compatible with GD. Histopathological examination of the skin showed the presence of myxedema compatible with Graves' dermopathy. The patient evolved with the normalization of TSH levels and a reduction of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion:GD abnormalities may not be restricted to the classic clinical manifestations, and a careful investigation may reveal the coexistence of carcinomas. (AU)


A doença de Graves (DG) é a principal causa de hipertireoidismo e bócio difuso tóxico em áreas geográficas com iodo suficiente. DG está associada a manifestações clínicas clássicas como oftalmopatia e dermopatia da tireoide, além do bócio difuso, que pode ser sítio de carcinomas, como uma complicação. Relato de caso: Mulher de 52 anos apresentou bócio e sintomas compatíveis com hipertireoidismo como intolerância ao calor, emagrecimento, fadiga, sudorese aumentada, taquicardia, tremores finos, trânsito intestinal aumentado, ansiedade, labilidade emocional, insônia, exoftalmia e mixedema pré-tibial. A investigação complementar confirmou o diagnóstico de hipertireoidis-mo (níveis elevados de T4 livre e T3 total; níveis baixos de hormônio estimulante da tireoide - TSH). As imagens ultrassonográficas mostraram aumento difuso dos lobos tireoidianos em aproximadamente 10 vezes e a presença de três nódulos tireoidianos, um dos quais, maior que 2 cm, com ecogenicidade e vascularização heterogêneas em todo o nódulo, cuja punção aspirativa por agulha fina guiada por ultrassom revelou citologia compatível com Bethesda IV; e a cintilografia evidenciou uma área de baixa captação (nódulo frio) em meio a um bócio difuso de alta captação. Foi realizada tireoidectomia e o diagnóstico da peça anatômica revelou carcinoma papilífero de tir-eoide em lobo direito, com parênquima adjacente compatível com DG. O exame histopatológico da pele mostrou a presença de mixedema compatível com dermopatia de Graves. A paciente evoluiu com normalização dos níveis de TSH e redução das manifestações cutâneas. Conclusão: As anormalidades da DG podem não estar restritas às manifestações clínicas clássicas, e uma investigação criteriosa pode revelar a coexistência de carcinomas, (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Graves Disease/therapy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Goiter/etiology , Myxedema
17.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(4): 588-596, 20220906. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396345

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La incidencia del carcinoma de tiroides ha aumentado a nivel mundial, probablemente relacionado con el sobre diagnóstico de nódulos tiroideos asintomáticos. La alta sobrevida del carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides ha permitido posibilidades de manejo quirúrgico menos radicales, o inclusive, la vigilancia activa de tumores seleccionados. Existen reportes de características clínico-patológicas del carcinoma de tiroides de nuestro país distintas a las reportadas en la literatura internacional. Métodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con carcinoma de tiroides atendidos en un hospital universitario entre 2015 y 2020. Resultados. Se identificaron 634 pacientes, el 83,4 % de sexo femenino. La tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento central fue el procedimiento más realizado (86,7 %). De 613 carcinomas diferenciados de tiroides, el 94,2 % corresponden al tipo papilar, seguido por el carcinoma de células de Hürtle (1,6 %); el 26,2 % presentaron subtipos histológicos agresivos y el 28,4 % compromiso tumoral bilateral. En los vaciamientos centrales se encontró 58,7 % de enfermedad metastásica; que fue de 49 % en los pacientes con microcarcinomas papilares (19 %). De las 68 lesiones del nervio laríngeo recurrente, 47 % fueron por secciones oncológicas. Discusión. En nuestra serie, la proporción de pacientes con carcinoma papilar de tiroides y de sus variantes histológicas agresivas, así como el compromiso tumoral bilateral es mayor a lo reportado en la literatura científica. Conclusión. El comportamiento biológico del carcinoma de tiroides es variable y puede tener características diferentes entre regiones; el manejo en nuestro medio debería considerar las características propias de nuestra población.


Introduction. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma has increased worldwide, probably related to the overdiagnosis of asymptomatic thyroid nodules. The high survival of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has allowed less radical surgical resection or even active surveillance for selected tumors. There are reports of clinicopathological features of thyroid carcinoma in our country that are different from those reported in the international literature. Methods. Retrospective observational study of a cohort of patients with thyroid carcinoma treated at a university hospital between 2015 and 2020. Results. 634 patients were identified; 83.4% were female. Total thyroidectomy with central dissection was the most performed procedure (86.7%). Of the 613 differentiated thyroid carcinomas, 94.2% were papillary type, followed by Hürtle cell carcinoma with 1.6%; 26.2% presented aggressive histological subtypes and 28.4% had bilateral tumor involvement. Metastatic disease was found in 58.7% of the central dissections performed, which was 49% in patients with papillary microcarcinomas (19%). Of the 68 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, 47% were due to oncological involvement. Discussion. In our series, the rate of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and its aggressive histological subtypes as well as bilateral tumor involvement is higher than that reported in the scientific literature. Conclusion: The biological behavior of thyroid carcinoma is variable and may have different characteristics between regions; the management in our country should consider our population's characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
18.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(1): 112-121, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368948

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la última década ha habido un incremento en la incidencia del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides, especialmente de microcarcinomas, cuyo comportamiento suele ser indolente, existiendo sobrediagnósticos y terapias agresivas innecesarias con grandes implicaciones económicas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir un caso de un paciente con una neoplasia tiroidea con bajo potencial maligno, cuyo tratamiento es netamente quirúrgico. Caso clínico: Hombre de 36 años sometido a cirugía por nódulo tiroideo clasificado Bethesda VI donde la histopatológica postquirúrgica evidenció una neoplasia tiroidea folicular no invasiva con características nucleares papilar (NIFTP). La evolución fue favorable, no necesitó sustitución de levo tiroxina ni yodo radioactivo. Discusión: Las variantes foliculares no invasivas del CPT tienen un potencial maligno muy bajo, por lo que la ATA la clasificó como neoplasia de bajo riesgo cuyo tratamiento es netamente quirúrgico, cambiando su nombre a NIFTP. Conclusión: NIFTP tiene excelente pronóstico, siendo suficiente la hemitiroidectomía en la mayoría de los casos.


Introduction: In the last decade, there has been an increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer, especially microcarcinomas, whose behavior is usually indolent, with overdiagnosis and unnecessary aggressive therapies with significant economic implications. This study's objective was to describe a patient with a thyroid neoplasm with low malignant potential whose treatment is purely surgical. Clinical case: A 36-year-old man underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule classified Bethesda VI, where the post-surgical histopathology showed a non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with nuclear papillary characteristics (NIFTP). The evolution was favorable; he did not need the substitution of levothyroxine or radioactive iodine. Discussion: Non-invasive follicular variants of PTC have a meager malignant potential, so the ATA classified it as a low-risk neoplasm whose treatment is purely surgical, changing its name to NIFTP. Conclusion: NIFTP has an excellent prognosis, hemithyroidectomy being sufficient in most cases.


Subject(s)
Thyroidectomy , Case Reports , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Thyroid Nodule
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364296

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/diagnosis , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Genetic Background , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 7-11, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359332

ABSTRACT

El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides incluye el tipo papilar y folicular que representan más del 80% de los casos y tienen un excelente pronóstico. Existen varios subtipos histológicos y las variantes foliculares son probablemente las más comunes. La incidencia de cáncer papilar variante folicular ha ido en aumento. En un reporte de un solo centro, cerca del 40% de los cánceres papilares eran variantes foliculares1. El subtipo infiltrativo de la variante folicular presenta sectores que invaden el parénquima tiroideo no neoplásico y carece de una cápsula tumoral bien definida. Tiene un comportamiento biológico y un perfil molecular que es más similar al tumor papilar clásico2. Existen características clínicas y patológicas asociadas con riesgo más alto de recurrencia tumoral y mortalidad; entre ellos se describen el tamaño del tumor primario y la presencia de invasión de tejidos blandos3. En la invasión de estructuras adyacentes, los sitios más comprometidos incluyen los músculos pretiroideos, el nervio laríngeo recurrente, el esófago, la faringe, laringe y la tráquea. Además, puede haber otras estructuras involucradas como: la vena yugular interna, la arteria carótida y los nervios vago, frénico y espinal4. El compromiso de los ganglios linfáticos y la incidencia de metástasis ganglionares en adultos depende de la extensión de la cirugía. Entre los que se realizan una disección radical modificada del cuello, hasta el 80% tienen metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos y el 50% de ellas son microscópicas5. Clínicamente los tumores localmente avanzados cursan con disfonía, disfagia, disnea, tos o hemoptisis, pero la ausencia de síntomas no descarta la invasión local. Según las guías de la American Thyroid Association6 son variables de mal pronóstico: la edad del paciente, el tamaño del tumor primario, la extensión extra tiroidea y la resección quirúrgica incompleta.


Differentiated thyroid cancer includes papillary and follicular types that represent more than 80% of cases and have an excellent prognosis. There are several histologic subtypes, and follicular variants are probably the most common. The incidence of papillary follicular variant cancer has been increasing. In a singlecenter report, about 40% of papillary cancers were follicular variants1. The infiltrative subtype of the follicular variant presents sectors that invade the non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma and lacks a well-defined tumor capsule. It has a biological behavior and a molecular profile that is more similar to the classic papillary tumor2. There are clinical and pathological characteristics associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and mortality; These include the size of the primary tumor and the presence of soft tissue invasion3. In the invasion of adjacent structures, the most compromised sites include the pre-thyroid muscles, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the esophagus, the pharynx, larynx and trachea. In addition, there may be other structures involved such as: the internal jugular vein, the carotid artery and the vagus, phrenic and spinal nerves4. The involvement of the lymph nodes and the incidence of lymph node metastases in adults depends on the extent of the surgery. Among those who undergo a modified radical neck dissection, up to 80% have lymph node metastases and 50% of them are microscopic5. Clinically locally advanced tumors present with dysphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, or hemoptysis, but the absence of symptoms does not rule out local invasion. According to the American Thyroid Association guidelines6, there are variables with a poor prognosis: the age of the patient, the size of the primary tumor, the extra-thyroid extension, and incomplete surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
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