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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(1): 112-121, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368948

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la última década ha habido un incremento en la incidencia del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides, especialmente de microcarcinomas, cuyo comportamiento suele ser indolente, existiendo sobrediagnósticos y terapias agresivas innecesarias con grandes implicaciones económicas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir un caso de un paciente con una neoplasia tiroidea con bajo potencial maligno, cuyo tratamiento es netamente quirúrgico. Caso clínico: Hombre de 36 años sometido a cirugía por nódulo tiroideo clasificado Bethesda VI donde la histopatológica postquirúrgica evidenció una neoplasia tiroidea folicular no invasiva con características nucleares papilar (NIFTP). La evolución fue favorable, no necesitó sustitución de levo tiroxina ni yodo radioactivo. Discusión: Las variantes foliculares no invasivas del CPT tienen un potencial maligno muy bajo, por lo que la ATA la clasificó como neoplasia de bajo riesgo cuyo tratamiento es netamente quirúrgico, cambiando su nombre a NIFTP. Conclusión: NIFTP tiene excelente pronóstico, siendo suficiente la hemitiroidectomía en la mayoría de los casos.


Introduction: In the last decade, there has been an increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer, especially microcarcinomas, whose behavior is usually indolent, with overdiagnosis and unnecessary aggressive therapies with significant economic implications. This study's objective was to describe a patient with a thyroid neoplasm with low malignant potential whose treatment is purely surgical. Clinical case: A 36-year-old man underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule classified Bethesda VI, where the post-surgical histopathology showed a non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with nuclear papillary characteristics (NIFTP). The evolution was favorable; he did not need the substitution of levothyroxine or radioactive iodine. Discussion: Non-invasive follicular variants of PTC have a meager malignant potential, so the ATA classified it as a low-risk neoplasm whose treatment is purely surgical, changing its name to NIFTP. Conclusion: NIFTP has an excellent prognosis, hemithyroidectomy being sufficient in most cases.


Subject(s)
Thyroidectomy , Case Reports , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Thyroid Nodule
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364296

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/diagnosis , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Genetic Background , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics
3.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 7-11, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359332

ABSTRACT

El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides incluye el tipo papilar y folicular que representan más del 80% de los casos y tienen un excelente pronóstico. Existen varios subtipos histológicos y las variantes foliculares son probablemente las más comunes. La incidencia de cáncer papilar variante folicular ha ido en aumento. En un reporte de un solo centro, cerca del 40% de los cánceres papilares eran variantes foliculares1. El subtipo infiltrativo de la variante folicular presenta sectores que invaden el parénquima tiroideo no neoplásico y carece de una cápsula tumoral bien definida. Tiene un comportamiento biológico y un perfil molecular que es más similar al tumor papilar clásico2. Existen características clínicas y patológicas asociadas con riesgo más alto de recurrencia tumoral y mortalidad; entre ellos se describen el tamaño del tumor primario y la presencia de invasión de tejidos blandos3. En la invasión de estructuras adyacentes, los sitios más comprometidos incluyen los músculos pretiroideos, el nervio laríngeo recurrente, el esófago, la faringe, laringe y la tráquea. Además, puede haber otras estructuras involucradas como: la vena yugular interna, la arteria carótida y los nervios vago, frénico y espinal4. El compromiso de los ganglios linfáticos y la incidencia de metástasis ganglionares en adultos depende de la extensión de la cirugía. Entre los que se realizan una disección radical modificada del cuello, hasta el 80% tienen metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos y el 50% de ellas son microscópicas5. Clínicamente los tumores localmente avanzados cursan con disfonía, disfagia, disnea, tos o hemoptisis, pero la ausencia de síntomas no descarta la invasión local. Según las guías de la American Thyroid Association6 son variables de mal pronóstico: la edad del paciente, el tamaño del tumor primario, la extensión extra tiroidea y la resección quirúrgica incompleta.


Differentiated thyroid cancer includes papillary and follicular types that represent more than 80% of cases and have an excellent prognosis. There are several histologic subtypes, and follicular variants are probably the most common. The incidence of papillary follicular variant cancer has been increasing. In a singlecenter report, about 40% of papillary cancers were follicular variants1. The infiltrative subtype of the follicular variant presents sectors that invade the non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma and lacks a well-defined tumor capsule. It has a biological behavior and a molecular profile that is more similar to the classic papillary tumor2. There are clinical and pathological characteristics associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and mortality; These include the size of the primary tumor and the presence of soft tissue invasion3. In the invasion of adjacent structures, the most compromised sites include the pre-thyroid muscles, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the esophagus, the pharynx, larynx and trachea. In addition, there may be other structures involved such as: the internal jugular vein, the carotid artery and the vagus, phrenic and spinal nerves4. The involvement of the lymph nodes and the incidence of lymph node metastases in adults depends on the extent of the surgery. Among those who undergo a modified radical neck dissection, up to 80% have lymph node metastases and 50% of them are microscopic5. Clinically locally advanced tumors present with dysphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, or hemoptysis, but the absence of symptoms does not rule out local invasion. According to the American Thyroid Association guidelines6, there are variables with a poor prognosis: the age of the patient, the size of the primary tumor, the extra-thyroid extension, and incomplete surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
4.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.


Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 472-475, dez 20, 2021. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354351

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide é a neoplasia maligna que mais acomete o sistema endócrino, correspondendo a cerca de 90% dos casos. Diante de sua frequência, nas últimas décadas, foi registrado um aumento do número de casos na população pediátrica e, devido a isso, o número de crianças e adolescentes submetidos à tireoidectomia se tornou cada vez maior. Enquanto as alterações gênicas mais encontradas em adultos com carcinoma papilífero concentram-se em mutações pontuais, na população pediátrica as fusões gênicas são mais frequentes, com destaque para os rearranjos RET/PTC. Objetivo: relatar aspectos clínico-patológicos do carcinoma papilífero de tireoide, associado à fusão do gene RET, em criança submetida à tireoidectomia e radioiodoterapia adjuvante. Em seguida, discute-se a importância do diagnóstico molecular na escolha de terapias relevantes no tratamento do CPT. Caso Clínico: trata-se de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 11 anos de idade, submetida a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical após diagnóstico do referido carcinoma. O estudo anatomopatológico revelou um carcinoma metastático em linfonodos regionais. Utilizou-se uma amostra de tecido em bloco de parafina para a realização de um sequenciamento de nova geração, que apontou a existência da fusão gênica TRIM24-RET. Conclusão: os dados deste relato de caso evidenciam que a mutação RET/PTC6 está muito associada à população pediátrica e que testes moleculares, como o NGS, são de extremo valor na identificação dessas alterações gênicas e, consequentemente, na terapia a ser adotada para cada paciente.


Introduction: thyroid papillary carcinoma is the malignant neoplasm that most affects the endocrine system, corresponding to about 90% of cases. Given its frequency, in recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of cases in the pediatric population and, as a result, the number of children and adolescents undergoing thyroidectomy has become increasingly larger. While the most common gene alterations found in adults with papillary carcinoma are concentrated in point mutations, in the pediatric population gene fusions are more frequent, with emphasis on the RET/PTC rearrangements. Objective: to report clinical and pathological aspects of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with RET gene fusion in a child undergoing thyroidectomy and adjuvant radioiodine therapy. Then, the importance of molecular diagnosis in choosing relevant therapies in the treatment of PTC is discussed. Clinical Case: this is an 11-year-old female patient who underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection after diagnosis of the aforementioned carcinoma. The anatomopathological study revealed a metastatic carcinoma in regional lymph nodes. A tissue sample in paraffin block was used to perform a new generation sequencing, which showed the existence of the TRIM24-RET gene fusion. Conclusion: the data in this case report show that the RET/PTC6 mutation is closely associated with the pediatric population and that molecular tests, such as the NGS, are extremely valuable in identifying these genetic alterations and, consequently, in the therapy to be adopted for each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thyroidectomy , Translocation, Genetic , Child , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
7.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 599-610, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291153

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Dado que un ensayo clínico aleatorio es irrealizable, el rol del vaciamiento ganglionar profiláctico en pacientes con cáncer papilar de tiroides sin comprobación clínica de compromiso ganglionar metastásico (cN0) es controversial. El vaciamiento ganglionar profiláctico acarrea un proceso de reclasificación de pacientes, al hacer evidente la positividad ganglionar micrometastásica antes ignorada, lo que genera una aparente pero falsa mejoría en los desenlaces de los grupos de estadificación, mientras el pronóstico individual y total de la población no cambia, fenómeno conocido como migración de estadio o fenómeno de Will Rogers. Métodos. Se ejecutaron simulaciones de poblaciones con cáncer papilar de tiroides con compromiso ganglionar metastásico clínicamente evidente (cN+) y cN0, para determinar el impacto del fenómeno de migración de estadio en los pacientes sometidos a vaciamiento ganglionar profiláctico. Resultados. Con la simulación de las poblaciones y sus estadios ganglionares, se observa cómo la migración de estadio ganglionar genera una aparente mejoría en los desenlaces de recurrencia loco regional y supervivencia, sin cambiar los desenlaces de la población total ni individuales. Discusión. El fenómeno de migración de estadio es uno de los sesgos más importantes que limitan el uso de grupos históricos de control en ensayos de tratamiento experimental. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados, este fenómeno podría explicar los beneficios observados con el vaciamiento ganglionar profiláctico en algunos de los estudios agregativos publicados hasta el momento, hallazgos que no han sido documentados para el cáncer papilar de tiroides


Introduction. The role of prophylactic central lymph node dissection at the time of total thyroidectomy remains controversial in clinically node-negative (cN0) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, a prospective randomized controlled trial of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in cN0 RCT is not readily feasible. Methods. In this study we simulated cN0 and clinically node-positive (cN+) populations, to evaluate impact of nodal stage migration in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients that undergo prophylactic central neck dissection. We use simulations of population and nodal stages .Results. Nodal stage migration phenomenon seems to have an improvement in locoregional recurrence and overall survival of cN0 and cN+ populations, without changes in overall population and individual outcomes.Discussion. Nodal stage migration is recognized as an important bias that precludes the use of historical controls groups in experimental treatment trials. In accordance to our findings, this phenomenon could explain the improvements observed in outcomes in patients that undergo prophylactic central neck dissection


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Survivorship , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 611-619, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291154

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirugía para extirpación de metástasis en un cuello previamente intervenido afronta un reto para lograr una resección exitosa. El presente estudio pretende demostrar la utilidad de la técnica de inyección de azul de metileno, guiada por ecografía, para la localización intraoperatoria de lesiones recurrentes en cáncer de tiroides, para facilitar su resección. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, en pacientes reintervenidos por recurrencia de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides, durante un periodo de dos años y medio. Se utilizó la inyección intratumoral de azul de metileno guiada por ecografía para su identificación intraoperatoria de recurrencia. Se hizo análisis de variables demográficas y clínicas. Resultados. Este estudio incluyó 10 procedimientos en 9 pacientes, 77,8 % mujeres, con una media de edad de 54 años. Todos tenían un nivel de tiroglobulina detectable y elevado antes de la intervención; posteriormente, el 89 %presentó un descenso y el 33 % una adecuada respuesta bioquímica. La técnica agregó 10 minutos al tiempo quirúrgico. En el 100 % se identificaron de manera intraoperatoria los ganglios marcados; el promedio de ganglios resecados fue de 12, de los cuales, 6 fueron positivos, todos con carcinoma papilar de tiroides. Esta técnica se consideró de gran utilidad y de bajo costo en todos los casos. Discusión. Esta técnica se muestra como una estrategia efectiva para la identificación intraoperatoria de las recurrencias corregionales en carcinoma de tiroides, permitiendo una disección ganglionar exitosa, disminuyendo complicaciones, tiempo quirúrgico y, especialmente, costos frente a otras intervenciones


Introduction. The approach of a previously operated neck for metastasis resection faces a challenge to achieve a successful resection. The present study aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasound-guided injection of methylene blue technique for the intraoperative localization of recurrent lesions in thyroid cancer to facilitate their resection. Methods. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in patients reoperated for recurrences of differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a period of two and a half years, using ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of methylene blue for its intraoperative identification. An analysis of demographic and clinical variables was carried out and its advantages over other methods were identified. Results. This study included 10 procedures in nine patients, 77.8% women and 22.2% men, with a mean age of 54 years. All had a detectable and elevated thyroglobulin level before the intervention, 89% had a decrease in its level and 33% had an adequate biochemical response. The technique added 10 minutes to the surgical time. All marked lymph nodes were identified intraoperatively. The average number of lymph nodes resected was 12, of which six were positive, all with papillary thyroid carcinoma. It was considered of great utility and low cost in all cases. Discussion. This technique shows to be an effective strategy for the intraoperative identification of locoregional recurrences in thyroid carcinoma, allowing a successful lymph node dissection, reducing complications, surgical time and especially costs compared to other interventions


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Reoperation , Ultrasonography , Lymph Node Excision , Methylene Blue
9.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(2): 131-140, 31 de agosto 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La acromegalia se produce por un adenoma hipofisario somatotropo, que secreta una excesiva producción de GH e IGF1, se relaciona con mayor riesgo de tumores malignos, no guardando asociación con un patrón especifico de presentación y el objetivo de este estudio es analizar la evolución del cáncer papilar de tiroides en acromegalia. Casos: Se trata de tres pacientes diagnosticados de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) con diferente pronóstico, con características faciales, y sintomatología como cefalea, alteraciones del campo visual, alteraciones menstruales, que condujeron a la realización de estudios bioquímicos, de imagen y al diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolución: La aparición de cáncer de tiroides varía en el tiempo de evolución de la acromegalia, en dos de los casos lo antecedió y en el tercero se presentó a la par con esta patología. La respuesta al tratamiento en el CPT es indeterminada en la primera paciente y \excelente en los otros casos; en una paciente se alcanzó remisión. Conclusiones: la coexistencia de acromegalia con cáncer tiroides es posible, que los cambios acrales, faciales y la sintomatología expansiva del tumor conducen al diagnóstico de acromegalia y que la identificación de malignidades no guarda relación con la evolución de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Acromegaly is produced by a somatotropic pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excessive production of GH and IGF1, it is related to a higher risk of malignant tumors, not being associated with a specific pattern of presentation and the objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of papillary thyroid cancer in acromegaly. Cases report: These were three patients diagnosed with CPT with different prognosis, with facial characteristics, and symptoms such as headache, visual field alterations, menstrual alterations, which led to biochemical and imaging studies and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Evolution: The appearance of thyroid cancer in the time of evolution of acromegaly is different, in two of the cases it preceded it and in the third it was presented alongside this pathology. The re-sponse to treatment in CPT is indeterminate in the first patient and excellent in the other cases; re-mission was achieved in one patient. Conclusions: It is concluded that the coexistence of acromegaly with thyroid cancer is possible, that the acral and facial changes and the expansive symptomatology of the tumor lead to the diag-nosis of acromegaly and that the identification of malignancies is not related to the evolution of the disease.


Introdução: A acromegalia é produzida por um adenoma hipofisário somatotrópico, que secreta uma produção excessiva de GH e IGF1, está relacionada a um maior risco de tumores malignos, não estando associada a um padrão específico de apresentação e o objetivo deste estudo é analisar a evolução de câncer papilar de tireoide na acromegalia. Casos: São três pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma papilífero de tireoide (CPT) de prognóstico diferente, com características faciais e sintomas como cefaleia, alterações do campo visual, alterações menstruais, que levaram à realização de estudos bioquímicos, de imagem e diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolução: O aparecimento do câncer de tireoide varia com o tempo de evolução da acromegalia, em dois dos casos ela o precedeu e no terceiro foi apresentado concomitantemente a esta patologia. A resposta ao tratamento no CPT é indeterminada no primeiro paciente e excelente nos demais casos; a remissão foi alcançada em um paciente. Conclusões: a coexistência de acromegalia com câncer de tireoide é possível, que as alterações acrais e faciais e a sintomatologia expansiva do tumor levam ao diagnóstico de acromegalia e que a identificação de neoplasias não está relacionada à evolução da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Growth Hormone , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Thyroglobulin/classification , Thyrotropin , Suppression , Endothelial Growth Factors
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 277-288, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Thyroid nodules located in isthmus were found less prevalent, although papillary thyroid cancer in this location was reported to be more aggressive behaviour in some studies. Our aim was to evaluate hormonal,ultrasonographic, and cytopathologic features of nodules located in isthmus (isthmic nodules). Subjects and methods: Patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2006-2014 reviewed retrospectively. Hormonal, ultrasonographic, and cytopathologic features compared between patients with isthmic (Group-1) and with lober (non-isthmic, Group-2) nodules. Results: Group-1 and Group-2 consisted of 251 and 2076 patients, respectively. 260 isthmic (5.5%) and 4433 non-isthmic (94.5%) nodules were compared.However,most ultrasonographical features such as presence of microcalcification and halo, diameters, echogenicity, texture, margin, and vascularity were similar between groups, macrocalcification rate was lower in isthmic nodules (18.8%, 25.9%; p = 0.012). Cytologic results were also similar.Although malignancy rate was lower in isthmic nodules (6.2%, 12.5%; p = 0.002), type of thyroid cancer was similar in isthmic and non-isthmic nodules.When malignant isthmic (n = 16,2.8%) and malignant non-isthmic nodules (n = 553, 97.2%) were compared, diameter and type of tumor, lymphovascular and capsular invasions, extrathyroidal extension and multifocality rates were not statistically significant.Malignant isthmic nodules (n = 16, 6.2%) had smaller size [10.1 (7.5-34.5) mm, 19.95 (8.4-74.1) mm; p = 0.002], and higher hypoechogenicity rate (31.3%, 5.7%, p = 0.003) compared to benign isthmic nodules (n = 244, 93.8%). Negative predictive value was higher and positive predictive value was lower in isthmic nodules compared to non-isthmic nodules (p = 0.033, p = 0.047, respectively). Conclusion: Isthmic nodules appear to be indolent because of having lower malignancy rate. FNAB might be required in isthmic nodules even if it has relatively small size.The surgery with limited extent or follow-up might seem to be reliable in the management of patients having isthmic nodules especially with indeterminate cytology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
11.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 248-256, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223908

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides son tumores de hasta 10 mm en su diámetro mayor. Su tratamiento es sujeto de debate y se propone, desde seguimiento clínico, hasta intervención quirúrgica temprana. Este estudio buscó identificar factores de riesgo relacionados con compromiso ganglionar, que permitan una mejor selección de los pacientes en nuestro medio, en quienes se propone manejo quirúrgico inmediato o vigilancia activa, en consonancia con la clasificación del riesgo de progresión. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte analítica ambispectiva que incluyó pacientes con microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides llevados a tiroidectomía más vaciamiento central. Se caracterizó la población y se realizó un análisis de regresión logística multivariado para definir factores preoperatorios asociados al compromiso ganglionar. Adicionalmente, se evaluó de manera retrospectiva la eventual asignación a grupos de riesgo de progresión, según los criterios de Miyauchi, y su comportamiento respecto al estado nodal. Resultados. Se incluyeron 286 pacientes. El 48,9 % presentó compromiso ganglionar, y de estos, el 33,5 % presentó compromiso ganglionar significativo, que modificó su clasificación de riesgo de recaída. De estos últimos, el 59,5 % hubiesen sido manejados con vigilancia activa, según los criterios propuestos por Miyauchi. Se identificó que la edad menor de 55 años, los ganglios sospechosos en la ecografía y los nódulos mayores de 5 mm, se relacionan con compromiso ganglionar significativo. Discusión. El manejo quirúrgico inmediato parece ser una opción adecuada para pacientes con sospecha de compromiso ganglionar en ecografía preoperatoria, pacientes menores de 55 años y nódulos mayores de 5 mm. Es posible que los actuales criterios para definir vigilancia activa no seleccionen adecuadamente a los pacientes en nuestro medio.


Introduction. Papillary thyroid microcarcinomas are tumors up to 10 mm in greatest diameter. Its treatment is subject of debate, and it is proposed from clinical follow-up to early surgical intervention. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors related to lymph node involvement, which allow a better selection of patients in our setting, in whom immediate surgical management or active surveillance is proposed, in accordance with the classification of risk of progression.Methods. Ambispective analytic cohort study that included patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma who underwent thyroidectomy and central dissection. The population was characterized and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to define preoperative factors associated with lymph node involvement. Additionally, eventual assignment to progression risk groups, according to the Miyauchi criteria, and their nodal state were evaluated.Results. 286 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were included. Among them, 48.9% had lymph node disease, and 33.5% had a significant lymph node disease that increased their relapse risk classification. Of the latter, 59.5% could have had a conservative treatment, under Miyauchi's criteria. For ages < 55 years old, suspect nodes in ultrasound and nodules > 5 mm were identified as related to significant lymph node involvement.Discussion. Immediate surgical management appears to be an appropriate option for patients with suspected lymph node involvement on preoperative ultrasound, patients younger than 55 years and nodules larger than 5 mm. It is possible that the current criteria for defining active surveillance do not adequately select patients in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Neck Dissection , Carcinoma, Papillary , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Lymphatic Metastasis
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e70-e74, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147277

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar de tiroides es el tumor tiroideo más común en la infancia. En estadios avanzados, puede presentarse con cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria. El tratamiento de elección es la tiroidectomía total y iodo radiactivo. En tumores irresecables, se debería considerar terapia con inhibidores multicinasa.Niña de 10 años de edad derivada por insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva. Se realizó el diagnóstico de cáncer papilar de tiroides con metástasis pulmonares. Por presentar un tumor irresecable no pasible de cirugía, se indicó el uso compasivo de lenvatinib, que mostró una rápida y favorable respuesta clínica con resolución de la insuficiencia respiratoria al noveno día del tratamiento.El diagnóstico temprano de cáncer papilar de tiroides previene la grave morbilidad respiratoria ocasionada por diagnósticos tardíos. Podría considerarse el uso de lenvatinib como alternativa previa a las terapias de primera línea (cirugía e iodo radiactivo) en casos de enfermedad con gran compromiso local y a distancia.


Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid tumor in childhood. In advanced stages, it can present with respiratory failure. The treatment of choice is total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. In cases of unresectable tumors, therapy with multikinase inhibitors should be considered. A 10-year-old girl was referred for progressive respiratory failure. A diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer with pulmonary metastases was made. Due to the presence of an unresectable tumor not subject to surgery, the compassionate use of lenvatinib was indicated, showing a rapid and favorable clinical response with resolution of respiratory failure on the ninth day.Early diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer prevents severe respiratory morbidity caused by late diagnoses. The use of lenvatinib should be considered as a previous step towards first-line therapies (surgery and radioactive iodine) in cases with great local and distant involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Combined Modality Therapy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 44-49, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147879

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de describir las recidivas de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) en pacientes tiroidectomizados atendidos en el Servicio Autónomo Oncológico del estado Lara, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de recolección retrospectiva de datos de 140 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de CPT registrados durante el lapso 2006-2017. Los pacientes incluidos se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 46,67 ± 13,94 años, siendo los más afectados los grupos de 41-50 años y 51-60 años; se observó un predominio del sexo femenino (86,33%). La intervención quirúrgica más realizada en estos pacientes fue la tiroidectomía total (44,29%) y tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar (41,43%); 35,71% de los pacientes recibieron Iodo-131 como tratamiento adyuvante. El porcentaje de recidivas fue de 4,29%, siendo las recidivas más frecuentes la local y regional (33,33%, respectivamente); 66,67% de los casos de recidiva aparecieron en los primeros 5 años. De los pacientes con recidivas, 50% se les practicó tiroidectomía total y recibieron Iodo-131. Con estos resultados se aporta información epidemiológica actual sobre el CPT en nuestro centro con el fin de contribuir en la preparación de los servicios de cirugía y oncología para la atención de este grupo de pacientes(AU)


With the aim of describing the recurrences of papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroidectomized patients treated at the Autonomous Oncology Service of Lara State, a cross-sectional descriptive retrospective study was conducted examining 140 medical records of patients with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma registered during the period 2006-2017. Patients had an average age of 46.67 ± 13.94 years, being the most affected the 41-50 years and 51-60 years groups (26.43%, respectively); a predominance of females was observed (86.33%). The most performed surgical intervention was total thyroidectomy (44.29%) and total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection (41.43%). Likewise, 35.71% received Iodine-131 as adjuvant treatment. The percentage of recurrences was 4.29%, being the most frequent local and regional with a prevalence of 33.33%, respectively; in addition, 66.67% of recurrences appeared during the first 5 years; 50% of these patients underwent total thyroidectomy and received Iodine-131. With these results, current information is provided in order to contribute to the preparation of surgical and oncological services for the care of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is important to maintain oncological follow-up in order to evaluate the evolution and prognosis of the different types of recurrences according to the place of appearance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Iodine/therapeutic use , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921559

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an artificial intelligence model based on B-mode thyroid ultrasound images to predict central compartment lymph node metastasis(CLNM)in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods We retrieved the clinical manifestations and ultrasound images of the tumors in 309 patients with surgical histologically confirmed PTC and treated in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from January to December in 2018.The datasets were split into the training set and the test set.We established a deep learning-based computer-aided model for the diagnosis of CLNM in patients with PTC and then evaluated the diagnosis performance of this model with the test set. Result The accuracy,sensitivity,specificity,and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of our model for predicting CLNM were 80%,76%,83%,and 0.794,respectively. Conclusion Deep learning-based radiomics can be applied in predicting CLNM in patients with PTC and provide a basis for therapeutic regimen selection in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887865

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the association between contrast-enhanced ultrasound and risk of tumor recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods A total of 287 PTCs in 287 patients who underwent surgery,conventional ultrasound,and contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)were enrolled in this study.According to 2015 American Thyroid Association(ATA)Modified Initial Risk Stratification System,the patients were categorized into three groups:low risk,intermediate risk,and high risk.The CEUS patterns of PTCs were compared between different risk stratifications. Results Hypo-enhancement was presented in 57.6% of ATA low-risk PTCs,iso-enhancement in 62.3% of ATA intermediate-risk PTCs,and hyper-enhancement in 48.2% of ATA high-risk PTCs(


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879266

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the improvement of the sensitivity of examination equipment and the change of people's living environment and diet, the rate of thyroid cancer has risen rapidly, which has increased nearly five folds in 10 years. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, biological behavior, treatment and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma of different pathological types are obviously different. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can develop at any age, which accounts for about 90% of thyroid cancer. It progresses slowly and has favourable prognosis, but lymph node metastasis appears easily. Whether PTC is accompanied by lymph node metastasis has an important impact on its prognosis and outcome. The Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B(BRAF)gene mutation plays a crucial role in PTC lymph node metastasis. Having an in-depth understanding of the specific role and mechanism of BRAF gene mutation in PTC is expected to provide new ideas for diagnosis and treatment of PTC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mice , Mutation , Oncogenes , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879942

ABSTRACT

To investigate the expression of xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 () in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its clinical implication. The HPA and UALCAN databases were used to explore the expression of XPR1 in PTC and normal tissues. The cBioPortal database was used to obtain the clinical data of PTC patients and gene expression profile. The correlation of expression with gender,age,sub-types,T stage,N stage,M stage and clinical stage of patients were analyzed. Cox regression was conducted to analysis the factors affecting the prognosis of PTC patients. The mutation of was assessed through cBioPortal database. GO and KEGG analyses were used to explore the related biological pathway of involved in PTC. HPA database analysis showed that XPR1 was highly expressed in PTC tissue compared with normal tissues. UALCAN analysis displayed that expression was significantly higher in PTC tissue compared with normal tissues (0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that was an independent prognostic factor of PTC patients (=2.894,<0.05). The cBioPortal database indicated that the mutation appeared in 6% PTC patients; the mutation type mainly was missense and the mutation point was located at the E615K. Enrichment analysis indicated that might affect the PTC progression through involvement in metabolic pathway. is highly expressed in PTC tissues,which is associated with the prognosis of patients. Metabolic pathway associated with might play an important role in PTC progression,indicating that might be a novel biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285403

ABSTRACT

Papillary thyroid carcinoma with desmoid-type fibromatosis (PTC-DTF) or nodular fasciitis-like stroma (PTC-NFS) is a rare morphological variant of PTC with a favorable prognosis. There is a paucity of molecular data regarding this entity. We present the case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a palpable mass over the anterior aspect of the neck for the past 3-4 months, which was diagnosed as PTC-NFS. Ultrasonogram of the neck revealed a bulky left lobe of thyroid that contained a well-defined heterogenous lesion measuring around 24 × 26 × 36 mm with involvement of the adjacent isthmus. She underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed a biphasic tumor with epithelial and stromal components resembling nodular fasciitis. Two dissected lymph nodes showed metastasis of the epithelial component only. On immunohistochemistry, BRAF mutant protein expression was evident in the epithelial component only, while β-catenin was negative in both the components. The histopathological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma with nodular fasciitis-like stroma was offered. Sanger sequencing revealed a BRAFV600E (c.1799T>A, Val600Glu) mutation. Post-operatively, no residual tumor was detected on ultrasound and radioiodine scans. The patient was doing well at follow-up of 9 months. PTC-NFS/DTF is a histological variant of PTC with a favorable prognosis. Our index case was associated with the BRAF mutation, which was restricted to the epithelial component. Thorough sampling of the excised specimen is essential in order not to miss the epithelial component, which, in most reported cases (including ours) appears to be small.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , beta Catenin , Fasciitis , Myofibroblasts , Lymph Node Excision , Mutation
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 77-80, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283556

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma oculto de tiroides está poco reportado. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años. Durante un control por hipotiroidismo se solicitó ecografía cervical, la que mostró áreas hipoecogénicas en lóbulo derecho, una formación nodular hiperecogénica circunscrita no sospechosa de 8 mm y una adenopatía cervical periglandular derecha de 20 x 12 x 8 mm con áreas quísticas y microcalcificaciones, asociadas a hipervascularización. Se solicitó punción aspirativa por aguja fina del ganglio linfático, con resultado de citología negativa para células neoplásicas. El examen microscópico es compatible con tiroiditis, por lo que no es posible descartar metástasis. Se realizó biopsia del ganglio linfático, el que se informa como metástasis ganglionar linfática de 1.3 cm, histología de carcinoma papilar variedad folicular, sin invasión extracapsular. Se realizó tiroidectomía total y disección cervical derecha. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó una tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto con un nódulo fibroso hialinizado de 0,4 cm negativo para tumor maligno y metástasis en 4 de 28 ganglios linfáticos, sin invasión extracapsular. El tamaño de la metástasis fue de 0,3 a 0,9 cm. Posteriormente se administró 100 mci de radioyodo. Actualmente, la paciente está en buenas condiciones y mantiene controles con ecografía y tiroglobulina periódicos.


Occult thyroid carcinoma is under-reported. The case of a 59-year-old woman is presented. During a check-up for hypothyroidism, a cervical ultrasound was requested, which showed hypoechogenic areas in the right lobe, an 8 mm nonsuspicious circumscribed hyperechogenic nodular formation and a 20 x 12 x 8 mm right cervical periglandular lymphadenopathy with cystic areas and microcalcifications, associated with hypervascularisation. Fine needle aspiration of the lymph node was requested, with negative cytology results for neoplastic cells. Microscopic examination was compatible with thyroiditis, so metastasis could not be ruled out. A biopsy of the lymph node was performed, which was reported as a 1.3 cm lymph node metastasis, histology of papillary carcinoma of the follicular variety, without extracapsular invasion. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical dissection were performed. The anatomopathological study reported chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a 0.4 cm hyalinised fibrous nodule negative for malignant tumour and metastases in 4 of 28 lymph nodes, without extracapsular invasion. The size of the metastasis was 0.3 to 0.9 cm. Subsequently, 100 mci of radioiodine was administered. The patient is currently in good condition and maintains regular ultrasound and thyroglobulin monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes/pathology
20.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153186

ABSTRACT

Objective : Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon entity of unknown etiology. It contains a wide range of clinical presentations. The discovery of oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation in LCH has provided additional evidence that LCH is a neoplasm. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common cancer of the thyroid characterized by a high incidence of BRAF V600E mutations. LCH with concomitant PTC is rare, with few cases reported in the literature. Cases summary We identified two cases of LCH with concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma in adult patients. The first was a 49-year-old female with a thyroid nodule diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Later, the patient had a left neck mass; Ultrasound-guided lymph node FNA was diagnosed with Langerhans histiocytosis. Subsequently, a chest CT scan revealed signs of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the lung. The second case refers to a 69-year-old male who presented with a left thyroid nodule diagnosed on FNA cytology as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient was found to have multiple bone lytic lesions. Biopsies revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Later, the patient experienced LCH involvement of the bone marrow with associated secondary myelofibrosis. Conclusions LCH is rare in adults; the association with papillary thyroid carcinoma is reported and should be considered in the presence of Langerhans cell groups along with PTC, whether in the thyroid gland or cervical lymph nodes. Once LCH has been diagnosed, pulmonary involvement should also be investigated. This will direct treatment plans for patients with pulmonary or systemic disease involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Mutation
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