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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 468-478, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339110


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate incidence of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Subjects and methods: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study of 15,105 civil servants, examined at baseline and over a 4-year follow-up. This analysis included 9,705 participants with normal thyroid function at baseline, follow-up information about thyroid function and with no report of using drugs that may interfere in the thyroid function. Thyroid function was defined by TSH/FT4 levels or routine use of thyroid hormones/anti-thyroid medications. Annual and cumulative (over 4-year) incidence rates were presented as percentages (95% Confidence Intervals). Results: The incidence of all overt and subclinical thyroid disease was 6.7% (1.73%/year): 0.19% for overt hyperthyroidism (0.048%/year), 0.54% for subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.14%/year), 1.98% for overt hypothyroidism (0.51%/year), and 3.99% for subclinical hypothyroidism (1.03%/year). The incidence of all thyroid diseases was higher in women, when compared to men, with a low women:men ratio (1.36). For Blacks the highest incidence was for overt hyperthyroidism, while for Whites, the highest incidence was for overt hypothyroidism. However, the highest incidence of overt hyperthyroidism was detected in Asian descendants. The presence of antithyroperoxidase antibodies at baseline was associated with higher incidence of overt thyroid diseases. Conclusion: These results showed a high incidence of hypothyroidism, which is compatible with a country with a more-than-adequate iodine intake. The low women:men ratio of the incidence of thyroid dysfunction highlights the importance of the diagnosis of thyroid diseases among men in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyrotropin , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 122-129, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223502


La relación entre función tiroidea y trastornos del ánimo se ha observado desde hace más de 50 años. Las hormonas tiroideas, actúan en el cerebro modulando génicamente proteínas asociadas a la fisiopatología de los trastornos del ánimo y potenciando los sistemas de neurotransmisión serotoninérgica y noradrenérgica. En el tratamiento de un episodio depresivo, la normalización de hormonas tiroideas es fundamental, y debe realizarse en todo paciente con sintomatología anímica, especialmente en aquellos con respuestas insuficientes a tratamiento, que requieren niveles de hormonas más estrictos que lo recomendado para población general. En pacientes eutiroideos, la potenciación con triyodotironina ha sido probada, pero también se ha utilizado T4 en altas dosis en casos resistentes, en que se postula que pudiese existir un estado de resistencia a hormonas tiroideas, no reflejado en los niveles hormonales periféricos evaluados rutinariamente. Las enzimas deiodasas, el receptor de hormona tiroidea, y el transportador de hormona tiroidea en la barrera hematoencefálica son blancos a investigar. Los objetivos de la presente revisión son ofrecer orientaciones respecto del uso de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes con trastornos del ánimo, una puesta al día sobre la relación entre hormonas tiroídeas y sistema nervioso central, y las interacciones entre psicofármacos y función tiroidea.

The relationship between thyroid function and mood disorders has been observed for more than 50 years. Thyroid hormones act in the brain genetically modulating proteins associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders and potentiating the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission systems. In the treatment of a depressive episode, the normalization of thyroid hormones is essential, and should be performed in all patients with mood symptoms, especially in those with insufficient responses to treatment, which require more stringent hormone levels than recommended for the general population. In euthyroid patients, potentiation with triiodothyronine has been proven, but T4 has also been used in high doses in resistant cases, in which it is postulated that there might be a state of resistance to thyroid hormones, not reflected in the peripheral hormonal levels evaluated routinely. The enzymes deiodasas, the thyroid hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone transporter in the blood brain barrier are white to investigate. The objectives of this review are to provide guidance regarding the use of thyroid hormones in patients with mood disorders, an update on the relationship between thyroid hormones and central nervous system, and the interactions between psychoactive drugs and thyroid function.

Humans , Thyroid Diseases/psychology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Depression , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 55-60, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091898


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE It has been observed that celiac disease (CD) is not restricted to a single type characterized by diarrhea but also has atypical, asymptomatic (silent), and latent forms. The prevalence of this autoimmune disease, which affects approximately 1% of the world, is estimated to be around 3%, including atypical and asymptomatic cases. In our study, we aimed to evaluate adult celiac patients. METHODS Between December 2008-2015, patients diagnosed with CD over the age of 18 years old were included in the study. Patients' symptoms at admission, frequency and type of anemia, transaminase levels, and celiac antibody positivity, and autoimmune diseases diagnosed at follow up were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS Of 195 patients, 151 (77.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35.73 ± 12.19 years (range, 18-71 years). A hundred patients (51.3%) had gastrointestinal symptoms. At the time of admission, 118 patients (60.5%) had anemia, and 52 (26.7%) had hypertransaminasemia. During the mean follow-up period of 58 months (36-120 months), 84 (43.1%) of the patients presented at least one autoimmune disease, and this rate was 96.6% in individuals diagnosed above the age of 50 years. CONCLUSION In adult CD, resistant anemia, dyspepsia, and hypertransaminasemia are very common findings at the time of diagnosis, and the association with other autoimmune diseases, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is high.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS Observou-se que a doença celíaca (DC) não se restringe a um único tipo caracterizado por diarreia, mas também tem formas atípicas, assintomáticas (silenciosas) e latentes. Estima-se que a prevalência desta doença autoimune, que afeta aproximadamente 1% da população do mundo, seja em torno de 3%, incluindo casos atípicos e assintomáticos. Em nosso estudo, objetivou-se avaliar pacientes celíacos adultos. MÉTODOS Entre dezembro de 2008 e 2015, pacientes diagnosticados como DC com idade acima de 18 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os sintomas dos pacientes na admissão, frequência e tipo de anemia, níveis de transaminases e positividade de anticorpos celíacos e doenças autoimunes diagnosticadas no seguimento foram avaliados retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS Dos 195 pacientes, 151 (77,4%) eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 35,73±12,19 anos (variação de 18 a 71 anos). Cem pacientes (51,3%) foram encaminhados com sintomas gastrointestinais. No momento da internação, 118 pacientes (60,5%) apresentavam anemia e 52 (26,7%) apresentavam hipertransaminemia. Durante o período médio de acompanhamento de 58 meses (36-120 meses), 84 (43,1%) pacientes estavam acompanhados por pelo menos uma doença autoimune, e essa taxa foi de 96,6% em indivíduos diagnosticados acima dos 50 anos de idade. CONCLUSÃO No adulto DC, anemia resistente, dispepsia e hipertransaminasemia são achados muito comuns no momento do diagnóstico e a associação com outras doenças autoimunes, especialmente tireoidite de Hashimoto, é alta.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/complications , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Transaminases/blood , Anemia/complications , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 351-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019365


ABSTRACT Objective In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of positive antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) according to sex, age strata, and presence of thyroid dysfunction using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Materials and methods Thyroid hormone tests were obtained from each study participant at baseline. Levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured using a third-generation immunoenzymatic assay. Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were measured by electrochemiluminescence and were considered to be positive when ≥ 34 IU/mL. Results The prevalence of TPOAb among 13,503 study participants was 12%. Of participants with positive TPOAb, 69% were women. Almost 60% of the individuals with positive TPOAb were white. The presence of positive TPOAb was associated with the entire spectrum of thyroid diseases among women, but only with overt hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in men. Conclusion The distribution of positive TPOAb across sex, race, age, and thyroid function in the ELSA-Brasil study is aligned with the worldwide prevalence of positive TPOAb reported in iodine-sufficient areas. In women, the presence of TPOAb was related to the entire spectrum of thyroid dysfunction, while in men, it was only related to the occurrence of overt thyroid disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Iodide Peroxidase/blood , Antibodies/blood , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Brazil/ethnology , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e8417, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984031


Thyroid disorders are common diseases, both in Brazil and worldwide. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study that investigates cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and associated factors, including non-classical cardiovascular risk factors such as thyroid function. Thyroid function was classified according to thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and use of medication to treat thyroid disorders, after excluding participants who reported use of any medication that could alter the results of the TSH and FT4 tests. All analyses included in this review are cross-sectional using baseline data (2008 to 2010). The results showed an association of subclinical thyroid disorders with biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and some psychiatric disorders. No association was found with the biomarker of inflammation high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or changes in pulse wave velocity or heart rate variability.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 333-340, mar. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784902


Background: Thyroid dysfunction is common among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It presents in different forms and has a multifactorial etiology. Aim: To determine the prevalence and features of thyroid dysfunction among patients infected with HIV. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 127 patients infected with HIV aged 19 to 75 years (85% males). Patients with previous diagnoses of endocrine diseases and pregnant women were excluded. Participants responded a questionnaire about symptoms and the evolution of HIV infection. A blood sample was obtained to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, viral load and CD4 count. Results: Hypothyroidism was found 13 cases, hyperthyroidism in one case and hypothyroxinemia in eight cases. No difference in symptoms was found between patients with or without thyroid dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in CD4 count or the prevalence of co-infection with Hepatitis B virus among patients with thyroid dysfunction. No association between antiretroviral agents and thyroid dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The thyroid abnormalities found in this group of HIV infected patients were usually asymptomatic. It may be advisable to systematically assess thyroid function in HIV infected patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroxine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(4): 213-217, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841497


La prevalencia de trastornos tiroideos (TT) no ha sido suficientemente evaluada en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP). El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar dicha relación. En este estudio prospectivo de diseño caso-control, se incluyeron 194 mujeres. El grupo SOP consistió en 142 pacientes diagnosticadas por criterios Rotterdam 2003, y el grupo control incluyó a 52 mujeres sanas apareadas por edad. Se extrajeron muestras de sangre en ayuno para dosajes de T4 libre, tirotrofina, anticuerpos antiperoxidasa (ATPO), insulinemia y glucemia y se calculó el índice HOMA. Un total de 52 pacientes con SOP presentó autoinmunidad tiroidea (AIT+) y/o hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) (36.6%) (TT+) en comparación con 7 mujeres del grupo de control (13.5%), lo que representa una frecuencia cinco veces mayor de TT en pacientes con SOP en comparación con los controles (odds ratio ajustado: 5.6; IC 95%: 2.1-14.9; p < 0.001). Las pacientes TT+ tuvieron valores de insulinemia y HOMA significativamente más altos que aquellas sin trastornos tiroideos (TT-) (p < 0.05).Este estudio muestra una alta tasa de TT en mujeres con SOP asociada a mayores niveles de insulinemia y HOMA. Teniendo en cuenta que el SOP, el hipotiroidismo y la autoinmunidad tiroidea pueden tener un profundo impacto en la salud reproductiva, nuestros datos sugieren que las pacientes con SOP deberían ser evaluadas para descartar TT.

The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities (TA) has not been sufficiently assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to evaluate this relationship. In this prospective study 194 women were included. The PCOS group consisted of 142 patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and the control group included 52 age-matched healthy women. Fasting blood samples were drawn for free T4, thyrotropin, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), fasting insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were calculated. A total of 52 PCOS patients had either autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT+) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) (36.6%) (thyroid abnormalities:TA+) compared with 7 women of the control group (13.5%), accounting for more than a five fold higher prevalence of TA in PCOS patients, compared with the age-matched controls (adjusted odds ratio: 5.6; CI 95%: 2.1 -14.9; p < 0.001). TA+ patients had significantly higher FI and HOMA-IR values than patients without thyroid abnormalities(p < 0.05). These results demonstrate a high rate of TA in young PCOS women, associated with higher levels of FI and HOMA-IR. As PCOS, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity may have a profound impact on reproductive health, our data indicate that PCOS patients should be screened for TA.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroxine/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Thyrotropin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Homeostasis , Insulin/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 112-115, 04/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746456


Objective Thyroid diseases are common in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and should be investigated annually in these individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid diseases in first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1DM. Subjects and methods Eighty individuals (40 patients with T1DM and 40 FDR) were interviewed and blood was sampled for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measurement. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), islet antigen-2 (IA2) and autoantibodies against insulin (AAI) were measured in FDR. Results We found a similar prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with T1DM and their FDR (22.5% vs. 27.5%; p = 0,79). There were no differences in serum TSH levels (p = 0.29), FT4 (p = 0,45), frequency of abnormal TSH (p = 0.28), positive TPO antibodies (p = 0.13), titers of TPO antibodies (in positive cases) between patients with T1DM and their FDR (p = 0.94). Conclusions Thyroid abnormalities seem to be common not only in patients with T1DM but also in their FDR, which suggests that screening strategies for thyroid diseases might also be useful to these individuals. .

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Thyroid Diseases/genetics , Autoantibodies/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/genetics , Iodide Peroxidase/blood , Prevalence , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 116-122, 04/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746470


Objective This study aims to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases and anti-TPO status. We searched for an association among presence of immune reconstitution and use of stavudine, didanosine and protease inhibitors with thyroid diseases. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was performed to analyze the records of 117 HIV-infected patients who had their CD4+ cell count, viral load, anti-TPO, TSH and free T4 levels collected on the same day. Immune reconstitution was considered in those whose T CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3, but these values increased above 200 cells/mm3 after the use of antiretrovirals. The odds ratio obtained by a 2x2 contingency table and a chi-square test were used to measure the association between categorical variables. Results The prevalence of thyroid disease was 34.18%; of these, 4.34% were positive for anti-TPO. There was an association of risk between stavudine use and subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 4.19, 95% CI: 1.29 to 13.59, X2 = 6.37, p = 0.01). Immune reconstitution achieved protection associated with thyroid disease that was near statistical significance OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.04, X2 = 3.55, p = 0.059. Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid disease in the sample studied was higher than what had been found in the literature, with a low positive anti-TPO frequency. The historical use of stavudine has an association of risk for the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism, and immune reconstitution has trends towards protection for the presence of thyroid diseases. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Iodide Peroxidase/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stavudine/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Didanosine/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/immunology , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stavudine/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 34(1): 27-32, ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-752978


INTRODUCCIÓN: la citología es uno de los métodos de estudio de la Anatomía Patológica, es de realización muy fácil, rápida y con pocos gastos. Este proceder resulta de mucha ayuda en el diagnóstico de las enfermedades, y en especial las relacionadas con la glándula tiroides. Se considera el método de elección en estos casos y en la actualidad se utiliza en todo el mundo. OBJETIVO: describir los tipos de lesiones citopatológicas de la glándula tiroides, así como algunas variables relacionadas con las mismas. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 72 pacientes procedentes de la consulta de endocrinología del Hospital Central de Benguela, a los cuales se les fue indicado estudio citológico de nódulos de tiroides, en el período comprendido de enero de 2012 a marzo de 2013. Se tuvieron en cuenta las variables: diagnóstico histopatológico, edad y sexo. RESULTADOS: la muestra estuvo conformada por 70 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 80 años, con predominio del sexo femenino. Resultaron afectados con neoplasia maligna un 2, 9 % de los casos después de los 55 años y presentaron lesiones sospechosas de malignidad un 7,1 % a partir de las edades comprendidas entre 31-45; en un mayor porciento estuvieron las lesiones benignas (90 %), predominó el bocio, distribuidas en todos los grupos de edades. CONCLUSIONES: las lesiones tiroideas comienzan desde edades tempranas de la vida. Predominó el diagnóstico citológico de bocio. El carcinoma se presentó después de los 59 años. Hubo una mayor morbilidad en general de pacientes del sexo femenino.

INTRODUCTION: cytology is one of the study methods in Anatomic Pathology. It is an easy, fast, inexpensive procedure of great usefulness in the diagnosis of diseases, especially those related to the thyroid gland, for which it is considered to be the method of choice worldwide. OBJECTIVE: describe the types of cytopathologic lesions of the thyroid gland and some related variables. METHODS: an observational descriptive study was conducted of 72 patients from the endocrinology service at Benguela Central Hospital who underwent cytological examination of thyroid nodules from January 2012 to March 2013. The variables considered were histopathologic diagnosis, age and sex. RESULTS: the sample was composed of 70 patients aged 15-80 with a predominance of the female sex. Malignant neoplasm was found in 2.9 % of patients aged over 55. Suspiciously malignant lesions were found in 7.1 % of patients aged 31-45. There was a predominance of benign lesions (90 %), mainly goitre, in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: thyroid lesions appear early in life. The cytological diagnosis of goitre was predominant. Carcinoma was found in the over 59 age group. Overall morbidity was higher among female patients.

Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 719-725, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77293


PURPOSE: Vitiligo prevalence and its associated comorbidities rate have been reported variably among different populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitiligo in Korea along with the baseline rate of comorbidities and compared the risks to the general population using hospital visit information of the total population in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed demographic characteristics of vitiligo patients in Korean population from 2009 to 2011 in a nationwide data from Health Insurance Review Assessment Service. Patients who had at least one visit to Korea's primary, secondary, or tertiary referral hospitals with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for vitiligo were identified. As a supplementary study, comorbidities associated with vitiligo were selected for further review to calculate relative risks compared to the general population. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of vitiligo determined by hospital-visiting rate in Korea was 0.12% to 0.13% over a three year period. In sync with other previous epidemiological studies, there was bimodal distribution among the age groups and no difference between genders. Also, vitiligo in Korean population was associated with various autoimmune/non-autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. CONCLUSION: This study was by far the most comprehensive review on prevalence of vitiligo using a data of total population in Korea. The prevalence is within a range of those reported in previous literatures, and increased risk of comorbidities such as thyroid diseases and psoriasis in vitiligo might aid clinicians in the initial work up of vitiligo patients and concurrent follow ups.

Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Vitiligo/epidemiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(4): 315-320, ago. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734392


Los pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) tienen una mayor prevalencia de disfunción tiroidea cuando se los compara con la población general. Las manifestaciones más frecuentemente observadas son: el síndrome del eutiroideo enfermo, la enfermedad de Graves y el hipotiroidismo subclínico. La relación entre el uso de la terapia antirretroviral y el incremento en la prevalencia de alteraciones tiroideas fue demostrada en varias series de pacientes. La enfermedad de Graves se reconoce claramente como una consecuencia del síndrome de restitución inmune. Además, existen estudios que sugieren una relación entre hipotiroidismo y el uso de inhibidores nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa, en particular estavudina y el inhibidor no nucleósido de la transcriptasa reversa efavirenz. Nuevos estudios podrán aportar evidencia adicional sobre la necesidad de evaluaciones rutinarias de la función tiroidea en pacientes infectados por HIV.

Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunction when compared with the general population. The most frequently observed manifestations are euthyroid sick syndrome, Graves´ disease and subclinical hypothyroidism. The relationship between the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction has been demonstrated in several series of patients. Grave’s disease is recognized as a consequence of immune restitution syndrome. Besides, several studies have suggested an association between hypothyroidism and the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly stavudine and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as efavirenz. Further studies could provide additional evidence of the need for routine assessment of thyroid function in HIV-infected patients.

Humans , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/etiology , Graves Disease/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/epidemiology , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(9): 685-690, Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696913


OBJECTIVES: Acromegaly is frequently associated with thyroid diseases. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of thyroid disorders in a series of acromegalic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 106 acromegalic patients using thyroid ultrasonography (US) and measurements of GH, IGF-I, free T4, TSH and anti-thyroperoxidase antibody levels. IGF-I was expressed in mass units and age-related standard deviation scores (SD-scores). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed on thyroid nodules with a diameter greater than one centimeter or with suspicious characteristics. RESULTS: Thyroid disorders were found in 75 patients. Eleven patients had diffuse goiter, 42 patients had nodular goiter, and 22 patients had unspecific morphological abnormalities. Four patients (3.8%) had thyroid carcinoma. Considering the patients with diffuse or nodular goiter, thyroid volume was greater in patients with active acromegaly, and was positively correlated with GH, IGF-I, and IGF-I SD-score. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that benign thyroid diseases are frequent in acromegalic patients. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was higher than in the overall population. We suggest that thyroid US should be routinely performed in patients with acromegaly.

OBJETIVOS: Acromegalia está frequentemente associada a doenças tireoidianas. Neste estudo, avaliamos a presença de tireoidopatias em uma série de pacientes acromegálicos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes por ultrassonografia (US) e dosagens de GH, IGF-1, T4 livre, TSH e anticorpo antitireoperoxidase. O IGF-I foi expresso em unidades de massa e desvio-padrão (DP-IGF-I). Punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF) foi realizada quando os nódulos eram maiores que um centímetro ou tinham características suspeitas. RESULTADOS: Alterações tireoidianas foram encontradas em 75 pacientes. Onze apresentavam bócio difuso, 42, bócio nodular e 22, alterações morfológicas inespecíficas. Houve quatro casos (3,8%) de câncer diferenciado de tireoide. Considerando os pacientes com bócio difuso ou nodular, o volume tireoidiano foi maior naqueles com acromegalia em atividade e correlacionou-se positivamente com os níveis de GH, IGF-1 e DP-IGF-1. CONCLUSÕES: Nosso estudo confirmou que as doenças tireoidianas benignas são frequentes nos pacientes acromegálicos. A prevalência de câncer diferenciado de tireoide foi maior que na população geral. Sugerimos que US de tireoide seja realizado rotineiramente nos pacientes com acromegalia.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acromegaly/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Acromegaly/complications , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma/epidemiology , Carcinoma/etiology , Carcinoma/pathology , Growth Hormone/blood , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Iodide Peroxidase/blood , Prevalence , Sex Distribution , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Thyroid Diseases/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/etiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyrotropin/blood
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(6): 450-456, ago. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685407


Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are the main causes of thyroid dysfunction and the most common autoimmune diseases in the world. An association between AITD and infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in combination with the effects of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), has been suggested by several research groups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction and AITD in women > 35 years of age infected with HIV, and to identify factors associated with the emergence of these thyroid abnormalities. HIV-infected women (n = 153) selected from the infectious disease outpatient clinic at a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro were characterized based on their circulating CD4+ lymphocytes levels, viral loads, serum TSH levels, and the presence of FT4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab). A total of 129 participants were on HAART and 24 were not. The frequency of thyroid disorders was 7.8% (12/153 patients) and all were on HAART at the time of diagnosis, yielding a prevalence of 9.3% in patients receiving HAART compared with 0% in patients not on HAART. AITD, hyper, and hypothyroidism were detected in 4.6%, 3.1%, and 4.1% of HAART patients. It was not detected any thyroid dysfunction or autoimmunity in HIV-infected women not on HAART. This study demonstrated an association between HAART and the development of AITD. In addition AITD only developed in HAART patients also presenting with undetectable viral loads and slightly elevated CD4+ T cell counts.

Doenças tiroidianas autoimunes (DTAI) são a maior causa de disfunção tiroidiana e são as doenças autoimunes mais comuns no mundo. A associação entre DTAI e infecções com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), em combinação com a terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa (HAART), foi sugerida por vários grupos de pesquisadores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a fre-quência de disfunção tiroidiana e DTAI em mulheres com mais 35 anos de idade infectadas com o HIV e identificar fatores associados com a emergência dessas anormalidades tiroidianas. As mulheres infectadas com HIV (n = 153), selecionadas do ambulatório de doenças infecciosas de um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, foram caracterizadas com base no nível de linfócitos CD4+ circulantes, carga viral, níveis de TSH sérico e presença de anticorpos FT4 e antitiroperoxidase (TPO-Ab). Um total de 129 participantes se tratava com HAART e 24 não. A frequência de desordens da tiroide foi 7,8% (12/153 pacientes) e todas estavam em tratamento com HAART no momento do diagnóstico, levando a uma prevalência 9,3% em pacientes recebendo HAART, em comparação com 0% em pacientes não tratadas com HAART. DTAI, hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo foram detectados em 4,6%, 3,1% e 4,1% das pacientes tratadas com HAART. Não foram detectadas disfunção tiroidiana ou autoimunidade em mulheres infectadas com HIV e não tratadas com HAART. Este estudo demonstrou uma associação entre a HAART e o desenvolvimento de DTAI. Além disso, a DTAI apenas se desenvolveu em pacientes tratadas com HAART e que apresentavam cargas virais indetectáveis e contagens de células CD4+ T levemente elevadas.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology
West Indian med. j ; 62(1): 28-34, Jan. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045583


OBJECTIVE: We attempted to evaluate maternal thyroid function in a new self-sequential longitudinal reference interval (SLRI) which we established recently. By this method, we analysed the correlation between pregnancy outcome, neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and maternal thyroid diseases. METHODS: A total of 1744 pregnant women participated in the study and 1747 babies were born from those women (three bore twins). The levels of TSH, free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) of mothers were quantified by electrochemistry immunoassay (ECL). The levels of neonatal blood TSH were detected by time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA). All data were collected and statistically analysed by SPSS 13.0 software. RESULTS: With our new SLRI method, we found that 0.11%~3.84% pregnant women would get thyroid diseases. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the most common maternal thyroid disorder. Being positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies was a significant risk factor of subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The median, P2.5~P97.5, and interquartile range (IQR) of neonatal TSH (N-TSH) of 1747 babies were 2.72 mIU/L, 0.10~8.01 mIU/L and 2.62 mIU/L, respectively; 28.6% of pregnant women with thyroid diseases developed pregnancy complications. The prevalence was significantly higher than in the normal thyroid function group (p< 0.001). The levels of N-TSH were low correlated with maternal TSH levels (p < 0.05), but there were no significant correlations between N-TSH and maternal FT4 and maternal TPO-Ab (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid disorders, especially subclinical hypothyroidism, are common in pregnant women. These disorders are associated with pregnancy and fetal outcome. Routine maternal thyroid function screening is important and should be recommended.

OBJETIVO: Intentamos evaluar la función tiroidea materna en un nuevo intervalo de referencia longitudinal auto-secuencial (SLRI) que establecimos recientemente. Por este método, analizamos la correlación entre el resultado del embarazo, el nivel de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides (TSH) en neonatos, y las enfermedades tiroideas maternas MÉTODOS: Un total de 1744 mujeres embarazadas participó en el estudio y 1747 bebés nacieron de esas mujeres (tres de ellas tuvieron gemelos). Los niveles de TSH, la tiroxina libre (FT4), y los anticuerpos de la peroxidasa tiroidea (TPO-Ab) de las madres, fueron cuantificados mediante inmunoensayo electroquímico (ECL). Los niveles de TSH en la sangre de los neonatos, fueron determinados mediante inmunoensayo por fluorescencia resuelto en el tiempo (TRFIA). Todos los datos fueron recogidos y analizados estadísticamente usando el software SPSS 13.0 RESULTADOS: Con nuestro nuevo método SLRI, encontramos que 0.11%~3.84% de las mujeres embarazadas contraerán enfermedades tiroideas. El hipotiroidismo subclínico fue el trastorno de la tiroides materna más común. Ser positivo a los anticuerpos de la peroxidasa tiroidea fue un factor de riesgo significativo del hipotiroidismo subclínico durante el embarazo. La mediana, P2.5~P97.5, y el rango intercuartil (IQR) de la TSH (N-TSH) neonatal de los 1747 bebés fueron 2.72 mIU/L, 0.10~8.01 mIU/L y 2.62 mIU/L respectivamente. El 28.6% de las mujeres embarazadas que tenían enfermedades tiroideas, desarrollaron complicaciones del embarazo. La prevalencia fue significativamente más alta que en el grupo con función tiroidea normal (p < 0.001). Los niveles de N-TSH fueron bajos en correlación con los niveles de TSH maternos (p < 0.05), pero no hubo ninguna correlación significativa entre la N-TSH y la FT4 materna, y la TPO-Ab materna (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIÓNS: Los trastornos tiroideos, especialmente el hipotiroidismo, son comunes en las mujeres embarazadas.Estos trastornos se hallan asociados con el resultado del embarazo y el resultado fetal. El tamizaje de rutina de la función tiroidea materna es importante y debe recomendarse.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Peroxidases/blood , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyrotropin/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimesters/blood , Reference Values , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Function Tests/methods , Pregnancy Outcome , China/epidemiology , Neonatal Screening
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(1): 95-103, ene. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674051


Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyrotropin/blood , Chile/epidemiology , Health Surveys/methods , Reference Values , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 23(3): 281-290, sep.-dic. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-663853


Las enfermedades del tiroides ocupan un lugar importante, por su frecuencia y variedad, entre las afecciones endocrinas del niño y el adolescente, y aunque puedan padecer las mismas enfermedades tiroideas del adulto, presentan afecciones específicas de la edad, cuyo diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado puede prevenir los efectos devastadores e irreversibles que estas pueden producir. Se presenta, con interés de actualizar y establecer consenso, el enfoque terapéutico de algunas tiroidopatías de la infancia, en orden de importancia y frecuencia, como es el nódulo de tiroides, el bocio y el hipertiroidismo(AU)

Thyroid diseases hold an important place because of their frequency and variety in the endocrine diseases affecting the child and the adolescent. Although both can suffer the same thyroid diseases as the adults, there are specific illnesses of the age, the diagnosis and treatment of which may prevent the devastating and irreversible effects that they can bring. For the purpose of updating information and reaching a consensus, this paper presented the therapeutic approach to some thyroid diseases of the childhood by order of importance and frequency, such as the thyroid nodule, the goiter and the hyperthyroidism(AU)

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyroid Nodule/therapy , Goiter/therapy , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/adverse effects
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 71(1): 53-56, abr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-591999


Introducción: La tiroidectomía total es una de las cirugías más frecuentes en cabeza y cuello. La experiencia en servicios de ORL es escasa en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar la experiencia clínica en tiroidectomía total en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo. Evaluación de los aspectos clínicos, la técnica quirúrgica y el porcentaje de complicaciones de los pacientes sometidos a tiroidectomía total durante el año 2009. Resultados: Se realizaron 34 tiroidectomías totales. La indicación más frecuente fue bocio multinodular (82,3 por ciento). Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron hiperplasia folicular (44 por ciento) y carcinoma papilar (32 por ciento). Se presentó lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente transitoria en 8,8 por ciento, no se presentaron lesiones permanentes. Se presentó hipocalcemia transitoria en 29 por ciento y permanente en sólo un paciente (2,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: Nuestra experiencia presenta resultados en relación a indicaciones, diagnósticos y complicaciones concordantes con los estándares aceptados por la literatura mundial.

Introduction: Total thyroidectomy is one of the most frequent surgeries in head and neck. Experience in ENT services is scarce in Chile. Aim: To analyze clinical experience in total thyroidectomy in the ENT service of Guillermo Grant Benavente Hospital. Material and method: Prospective descriptive study. Evaluation of clinical aspects, surgical technique and percentage of complications of patients submitted to total thyroidectomy during the year 2009. Results: There were done 34 total thyroidectomies. The most frequent indication was multinodular goiter. The most frequent diagnoses were follicular hyperplasia (44 percent) and papillary carcinoma (32 percent). Transitory injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve was present in 8,8 percent. Permanent injuries did not happen. Transitory hypocalcemia was present in 29 percent and permanent in only one patient (2,9 percent). Conclusions: Our experience presents results in relation to indications, diagnosis and complications, in accordance with the standards of the world literature.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Child , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroidectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thyroidectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies