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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(4): 124-129, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512172

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de tiroides ha aumentado en incidencia, sin embargo, la mortalidad se mantiene estable. Muchas de estas lesiones son a expensas de un microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides definido por la OMS como aquel carcinoma papilar de tiroides que en su diámetro máximo no sobrepasa los 10 mm. El avance de la imagenología sobre todo la ecografía de alta resolución y el hallazgo en pieza de anatomía patológica por lesiones benignas son las principales causas del aumento en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La vigilancia activa surge entonces como alternativa de manejo para pacientes portadores de microcarcinoma papilar con bajo riesgo de progresión, obteniendo resultados oncológicos comparables. Independiente de su tratamiento el pronóstico de estos pacientes es excelente con sobrevida cercana al 100% en 10 años. A pesar de lo dicho la morbilidad de las distintas opciones terapéuticas es muy distinta. Será fundamental buscar elementos clínicos y paraclínicos que permitan tomar una decisión práctica, con el fin de determinar qué pacientes con microcarcinomas papilares que podrán entrar en un protocolo de vigilancia activa. Esta revisión pretende examinar la bibliografía publicada al respecto como alternativa de manejo, y su eventual aplicación en Uruguay.


Thyroid cancer has increased in incidence; however, mortality remains stable. Many of these lesions are at the expense of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma defined by the WHO as papillary thyroid carcinoma that in its maximum diameter does not exceed 10 mm. The advance of imaging, especially high-resolution ultrasound and the finding of benign lesions in pathological anatomy specimens are the main causes of the increase in the diagnosis of this entity. Active surveillance arises then as a management alternative for patients with papillary microcarcinoma with low risk of progression, obtaining comparable oncologic results. Regardless of their treatment, the prognosis of these patients is excellent with a survival rate close to 100% in 10 years. In spite of what has been said, the morbidity of the different therapeutic options is very different. It will be essential to look for clinical and paraclinical elements that will allow making a practical decision, in order to determine which patients with papillary microcarcinomas will be able to enter an active surveillance protocol. This review aims to examine the literature published on this subject as a management alternative, and its eventual application in Uruguay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/therapy , Thyroid Neoplasms/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Papillary/prevention & control , Biomarkers, Tumor , Risk Assessment , Watchful Waiting
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981279

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate extrathyroidal extension (ETE) in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) with three-dimensional tomographic ultrasound imaging (3D-TUI). Methods A total of 97 thyroid nodules of 79 patients with PTMC treated in PUMC Hospital from February 2016 to January 2018 were included in this study.Two ultrasound experts performed independent blinded assessment of the relationship between thyroid nodules and thyroid capsule by two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and 3D-TUI.The results of 2D-US and 3D-TUI in evaluating ETE were compared with intraoperative findings and postoperative histological and pathological results. Results Among the 97 nodules,54 (55.7%) nodules had ETE.The diagnostic sensitivity (68.5% vs.37.0%;χ2=10.737,P=0.002),accuracy (74.5% vs.56.7%;χ2=6.686,P=0.015),and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve[0.761 (95%CI=0.677-0.845) vs.0.592 (95%CI=0.504-0.680);Z=3.500,P<0.001] of 3D-TUI were higher than those of 2D-US.However,3D-TUI and 2D-US showed no significant difference in the specificity (84.1% vs.81.4%;χ2=0.081,P=0.776),negative predictive value (67.9% vs.50.7%;χ2=3.645,P=0.066),or positive predictive value (84.1% vs.71.4%;χ2=1.663,P=0.240). Conclusion Compared with 2D-US,3D-TUI demonstrates increased diagnostic efficiency for ETE of PTMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Ultrasonography/methods , Retrospective Studies
3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 32-39, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380303

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) se encuentra representado por el carcinoma papilar y el carcinoma folicular. Comprende la gran mayoría (>90%) de todos los cánceres de tiroides. Objetivos: Estratificar el riesgo de recurrencia inicial de los pacientes con CDT. Relacionar la edad, sexo y tamaño tumoral con el riesgo de recurrencia, invasión capsular, ganglionar, vascular y de tejido peritiroideo. Materiales y métodos: Estratificar el riesgo de recurrencia inicial de los pacientes con CDT. Relacionar la edad, sexo y tamaño tumoral con el riesgo de recurrencia, invasión capsular, ganglionar, vascular y de tejido peritiroideo. Resultados: El 87% fueron del sexo femenino. La edad media fue de 43±14 años. Predominó el riesgo de recurrencia bajo en el 49% de los pacientes, seguido del riesgo intermedio (33%) y riesgo alto (18%). El tamaño tumoral ˃1cm confiere mayor riesgo de ser estratificado como riesgo de recurrencia intermedio/alto (OR 5,7 IC 95% 3,6-9). El sexo masculino representó mayor riesgo de invasión ganglionar (OR 2,8 IC 95% 1,2-6,6); la edad ≥55 años lo fue en la invasión vascular (OR 2,1 IC 95% 1,1-4,1); el tamaño >1cm constituyó un mayor riesgo de manera significativa de invasión capsular (OR 10,5 IC 95% 6,5-17), invasión ganglionar (OR 10,2 IC 95% 3,8-26,9), invasión vascular (OR 30,7 IC 95% 4,2-224) e invasión de tejido peritiroideo (OR 5,2 IC 95% 3,3-8,2). Conclusión: El riesgo de recurrencia inicial más frecuente fue el riesgo bajo. El sexo masculino, la edad ≥55años y el tamaño >1cm constituyen factores de riesgo de invasión a estructuras vecinas.


Introduction: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is represented by papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. It comprises the vast majority (> 90%) of all thyroid cancers. Objectives: Stratify the risk of initial recurrence of patients with DTC. Relate age, sex, and tumor size to the risk of recurrence, capsular, nodal, vascular, and perithyroid tissue invasion. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study with an analytical component. A total of 432 patients with a diagnosis of DTC from Hospital de Clínicas, Instituto de Previsión Social and Instituto Nacional del Cáncer between 2011 and 2015 were included. Results: 87% were female. The mean age was 43 ± 14 years. Low recurrence risk predominated in 49% of patients, followed by intermediate risk (33%) and high risk (18%). Male sex, age ≥55 years and tumor size ˃1cm confer a higher risk of being stratified as intermediate / high recurrence risk, but only size> 1cm was significantly (OR 5.7 95% CI 3.6-9). Male sex represented a higher risk of lymph node invasion (OR 3.1 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and vascular invasion (OR 2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.8); age ≥55 years was in the vascular invasion (OR 2.6 95% CI 1.4-4.9); size> 1cm constituted a significantly higher risk of capsular invasion (OR 10.7 95% CI 6.7-17.3), nodal invasion (OR 10.5 95% CI 4-27.7), vascular invasion (OR 33 95% CI 4.5-244) and invasion of perithyroid tissue (OR 5.1 95% CI 3.2-8.1). Conclusion: The most frequent initial recurrence risk was low risk. Male sex, age ≥55 years, and size> 1cm are risk factors for invasion of neighboring structures.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Risk , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2): e38208, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389694

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el estudio citológico por punción ecoguiada se caracteriza por ser rápido, confiable, mínimamente invasivo y rentable. Permite reducir procedimientos quirúrgicos innecesarios y clasifica apropiadamente a los pacientes con nódulos sospechosos o malignos para una intervención quirúrgica oportuna. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la correlación citológica-anatomopatológica del sistema Bethesda en un centro universitario (Hospital de Clínicas) de Uruguay. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo, basado el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes sometidos a cirugía tiroidea en el Hospital de Clínicas, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados: del total inicial de 119 pacientes, 93 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El rango de edad de la muestra fue entre 15 y 79 años. Del total de puncionados 49,5% (46) fueron informados como benignos y 50,5% (47) como malignos. Se calculó en forma global una sensibilidad de 96% (0,96) con IC 1,0-0,90, especificidad de 98% (0,97) con IC 1,0-0,93, un VPP de 98% y VPN de 96%. La sensibilidad diagnóstica para la categoría IV, V y VI fue de 96%, con una especificidad de 100, 94 y 100% respectivamente. Conclusiones: el sistema Bethesda aplicado a las PAAF de nódulos tiroideos potencia la certeza diagnóstica y asiste en la decisión terapéutica. En nuestra institución contamos con una buena correlación citopatológica, similar a otros trabajos reportados en la literatura, lo que permite predecir adecuadamente el riesgo de malignidad y facilitar la toma de decisiones.


Summary: Introduction: the ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) study is characterized by being fast, reliable, minimally invasive, and cost-effective. It reduces unnecessary surgical procedures and appropriately classifies patients with suspicious or malignant nodules for timely surgical intervention. Objective: the objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological-pathological correlation of the Bethesda System in a university center (Hospital de Clínicas) in Uruguay. Methodology: an observational, retrospective, descriptive study was carried out, based on the analysis of medical records of patients undergoing thyroid surgery at the Hospital de Clínicas, in the period between January 2008 and December 2018. Results: of the initial total of 119 patients, 93 met the inclusion criteria. The age range of the sample was between 15 and 79 years. Of the total of punctured, 49.5% (46) were reported as benign and 50.5% (47) as malignant. A sensitivity of 96% (0.96) with CI 1.0-0.90, specificity of 98% (0.97) with CI 1.0-0.93, a PPV of 98% and NPV of 96%. The diagnostic sensitivity for categories IV, V and VI was 96% with a specificity of 100, 94 and 100% respectively. Conclusions: the Bethesda system applied to FNA of thyroid nodules enhances diagnostic certainty and assists in the therapeutic decision. In our institution we have a good cytopathological correlation, similar to other works reported in the literature. This makes it possible to adequately predict the risk of malignancy and facilitate decision-making.


Resumo: Introdução: o estudo citológico por punção guiada por ultrassom caracteriza-se por ser rápido, confiável, minimamente invasivo e de baixo custo. Permite reduzir procedimentos cirúrgicos desnecessários e classificar adequadamente pacientes com nódulos suspeitos ou malignos para intervenção cirúrgica oportuna. Objetivo: avaliar a correlação citológico-patológica do Sistema Bethesda em um centro universitário (Hospital de Clínicas) no Uruguai. Metodologia: foi realizado um estudo observacional, retrospectivo, descritivo, baseado na análise de prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de tireoide no Hospital de Clínicas, no período janeiro de 2008-dezembro de 2018. Resultados: do total inicial de 119 pacientes, 93 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A faixa etária da amostra foi entre 15 e 79 anos. Do total de punções, 49,5% (46) foram relatadas como benignas e 50,5% (47) como malignas. No geral, uma sensibilidade de 96% (0,96) com IC 1,0-0,90, uma especificidade de 98% (0,97) com IC 1,0-0,93, um VPP de 98% e VPN de 96%. A sensibilidade diagnóstica para as categorias IV, V e VI foi de 96% com especificidade de 100, 94 e 100%, respectivamente. Conclusões: o sistema Bethesda aplicado à PAAF de nódulos tireoidianos aumenta a certeza diagnóstica e auxilia na decisão terapêutica. Em nossa instituição temos uma boa correlação citopatológica, semelhante a outros trabalhos relatados na literatura. Isso permite prever adequadamente o risco de malignidade e facilitar a tomada de decisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Neoplasm Staging/classification
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.


Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 75-77, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391818

ABSTRACT

El microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides es definido como un tumor de un cm o menos de diámetro mayor. La mayoría permanecen ocultos clínicamente, siendo un hallazgo en autopsias hasta en 36%. La presentación oculta ocurre hasta en un 10 a 26% de todas las neoplasias malignas de tiroides y se define como la presencia de ganglios metastásicos de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en ausencia de lesión primitiva tiroidea evidente durante la exploración clínica y ecográfica. El objetivo de este trabajo es el reporte de dos casos donde el diagnóstico de cáncer de tiroides se realizó a través de su presentación metastásica cervical, siendo el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza de resección quirúrgica el que devela la presencia de un microcarcinoma papilar. Si bien el tratamiento del de estas lesiones es controversial, existen elementos que sellan la necesidad de resolución quirúrgica. En el debut metastásico ganglionar cervical, está indicada la tiroidectomía total con el vaciamiento ganglionar cervical radical modificado ipsilateral y central. El raidioyodo postquirúrgico será empleado en forma complementaria ante la persistencia, recurrencia o elementos de alto riesgo.


Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is defined as a tumor one cm or less in diameter. Most remain clinically hidden, being an autopsy finding in up to 36%. Occult presentation occurs in up to 10% to 26% of all thyroid malignancies and is defined as the presence of metastatic nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of a primitive thyroid lesion evident on clinical and ultrasound examination. The objective of this work is the report of two cases where the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was made through its cervical metastatic presentation, being the pathological study of the surgical resection specimen that reveals the presence of a papillary microcarcinoma. Although the treatment of these lesions is controversial, there are elements that seal the need for surgical resolution. In cervical lymph node metastatic debut, total thyroidectomy with modified ipsilateral and central radical cervical lymph node dissection is indicated. Post-surgical radiation iodine will be used in a complementary way in the event of persistence, recurrence or high-risk elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
8.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408208

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades tiroideas son relativamente frecuentes que puede tener carácter benigno o maligno. El algoritmo para el diagnóstico de los nódulos tiroideos se dirige principalmente a definir la presencia o no de un carcinoma de la glándula. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede incluir técnicas convencionales, parciales y totales, y mínimamente invasivas. Objetivo: Describir los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de las enfermedades tiroideas en el Hospital General Docente "Enrique Cabrera" entre enero 2013 y diciembre de 2020. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo ambispectivo, en el mencionado centro, entre el 1ro de enero de 2013 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2020. El universo se conformó por todos los pacientes con enfermedades de tiroides que fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. La muestra quedó constituida por 96 pacientes. Resultados: La edad media fue 48,1 años. Predominó el sexo femenino (83,3 por ciento). El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el bocio con síntomas compresivos (39,6 por ciento), seguido del carcinoma tiroideo (25 por ciento), en este último el más observado fue el carcinoma papilar (66,6 por ciento). Se realizó tiroidectomía total en 40,6 por ciento, con pocas complicaciones posoperatorias (7,3 por ciento), siendo la parálisis recurrencial la más frecuente de ellas. Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico de las enfermedades tiroideas en el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Enrique Cabrera" tuvo buenos resultados, tanto en enfermedades benignas como en el cáncer tiroideo(AU)


Introduction: Thyroid diseases are relatively frequent and can be benign or malignant. The algorithm for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules is mainly aimed at defining the presence or absence of a carcinoma in the gland. Surgical treatment can include conventional, partial or total, as well as minimally invasive, techniques. Objective: To describe the outcomes of surgical treatment for thyroid diseases at Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital between 2013 and 2020. Methods: An ambispective and descriptive study was carried out, between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2020, in the aforementioned center. The universe was made up of all patients with thyroid diseases treated surgically. The sample consisted of 96 patients. Results: The mean age was 48.1 years. The female sex predominated (83.3 percent). The most frequent diagnosis was goiter with compressive symptoms (39.6 percent), followed by thyroid carcinoma (25 percent); among the latter, the most observed was papillary carcinoma (66.6 percent). Total thyroidectomy was performed in 40.6 percent, with few postoperative complications (7.3 percent), recurrent paralysis being the most frequent of them. Conclusions: The surgical treatment for thyroid diseases at Dr. Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital had good outcomes, both in benign diseases and in thyroid cancer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Goiter/diagnosis
9.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 663-667, dic. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388898

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características demográficas del cáncer de tiroides en la Región de Ñuble en pacientes operados en el servicio de cirugía del Hospital Clínico Herminda Martin del 2017 al 2019. Materiales y Método: Mediante estudio descriptivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes operados en la Unidad de Cirugía de Adultos del hospital entre enero de 2017 y diciembre de 2019, tabulando las variables demográficas, clínicas e histopatológicas y método diagnóstico. Resultados: Se operaron 124 pacientes con afecciones tiroideas, 58 resultaron tener cáncer. Predominó el sexo femenino (50 pacientes). Se realizaron 43 tiroidectomías totales como primera cirugía y 15 disecciones cervicales. El carcinoma papilar fue el más diagnosticado (93,1%). Hubo discrepancias entre las categorías Bethesda II y IV en cuanto al diagnóstico definitivo. En mujeres el 36% de los tumores tuvo extensión extra tiroidea y el 54% tenían un diámetro mayor a 1 cm. Discusión: La prevalencia en el sexo femenino corresponde con los datos que se aportan a nivel mundial y en Chile. La discrepancia en el sistema Bethesda pudo corresponder a errores de la toma de muestra o su interpretación citológica. Los hallazgos de extensión y tamaño tumoral pueden estar en relación con el tiempo de espera para la cirugía. Conclusiones: El cáncer tiroideo es más frecuente en el sexo femenino. El carcinoma papilar fue el más diagnosticado. La asociación de tiroiditis con cáncer tiroideo fue de 98%. No se realizó ninguna cirugía conservadora.


Aim: To describe the demographic characteristics of thyroid cancer in the Ñuble Region in patients operated on by the Herminda Martín de Chillán Clinical Hospital surgery service from 2017 to 2019. Materials and Method: Through a descriptive study, the medical records of the patients operated on in the Adult Surgery Unit of the hospital between January 2017 and December 2019 were reviewed, tabulating the demographic, clinical and histopathological variables and method diagnosis. Results: 124 patients with thyroid conditions were operated on, 58 had cancer. The female sex predominated (50 patients). 43 total thyroidectomies were performed as the first surgery and 15 cervical dissections. Papillary carcinoma was the most diagnosed (93.1%). There were discrepancies between Bethesda categories II and IV regarding the definitive diagnosis. In women, 36% of the tumors had an extra-thyroid extension and 54% had a diameter greater than 1 cm. Discussion: The prevalence in the female sex corresponds to the data provided worldwide and in Chile. The discrepancy in the Bethesda system could correspond to errors in the sampling or its cytological interpretation. The findings of tumor extension and size may be related to the waiting time for surgery. Conclusions: Thyroid cancer is more frequent in females. Papillary carcinoma was the most diagnosed. The association of thyroiditis with thyroid cancer was 98%. No conservative surgery was performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/surgery , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Cytodiagnosis
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 611-616, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346514

ABSTRACT

Resumen Para evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica del estudio patológico intraoperatorio (EPI) en cirugía tiroidea se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de sus resultados en 350 pacientes en comparación con la biopsia preoperatoria por punción con aguja fina (PAAF) y el est udio patológico diferido (EPD). Los resultados de la PAAF se clasificaron según el sistema de Bethesda en categoría II (91 casos, 26.0%), III (21 casos, 6.0%), IV (73 casos, 21.9%), V (54 casos, 15.4%) y VI (111 casos, 31.7%). El EPI mostró lesiones benignas en 137 casos (39.1%), malignas en 169 (48.2%), y resultados no definitivos en 44 (12.6 %). El EPD informó patología benigna en 161 casos (46%) y carcinoma en 189 (54%); se encontró carcinoma en 8 pacientes (5.8%) en quienes el EPI había informado lesión benigna y en 12 (27.2%) en quienes había informado no definitivo; 13 de estos 20 casos fueron microcarcinomas incidentales. El EPI no informó ningún falso positivo (especificidad 100%, sensibilidad 89.4%, valor predictivo positivo 100%, valor predictivo negativo 90.0%, exactitud 94.2%). Los resultados de malignidad con EPI y EPD, según categorías de Bethesda fueron respectivamente: II 3 (3.3%) y 7 (7.7%); III 8 (38.1%) y 10 (47.6%); IV 3 (4.1%) y 10 (13.7%); V 47 (87.0%) y 52 (96.3%); VI 108 (97.3%) y 110 (99.1%). El EPI no dio información adicional a la biopsia por PAAF en la mayoría de los casos ni detectó microcarcinomas en otros, por lo que no parece justificado indicarlo rutinariamente.


Abstract To evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative pathology (IP) in thyroid surgery, a retrospective review of its results in 350 patients was performed in comparison with the results of the preoperative fine-needle biopsy (FNB) and the surgical pathology report (SPR). The FNB was reported according to the Bethesda system as type II in 91 cases (26.0%), type III in 21 (6.0%), type IV in 73 (21.9%), type V in 54 (15.4%), and type VI in 111 (31.7%). The IP showed benign lesions in 137 cases (39.1%), malignancy in 169 (48.2%), and inconclusive results in 44 (12.6%). The SPR results were benign pathology in 161 cases (46%) and carcinoma in 189 (54%); carcinoma was found in 8 patients (5.8%) in whom the IP had reported benignity, and in 12 (27.2%) with IP inconclusive results; 13 of those 20 cases were incidental microcarcinomas. The IP did not report any false positive result (specificity 100 %, sensitivity 89.4%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 90.0%, and accuracy 94.2%). When discriminated by Bethesda types, the malignant lesions detected by IP and SPR were, respectively: II 3 (3.3%) and 7 (7.70%); III 8 (38.1%) and 10 (47.6%); IV 3 (4.1%) and 10 (13.7%); V 47 (87.0%) and 52 (96.3%); VI 108 (97.3%) and 110 (99.1%). In most cases, the IP did not provide additional information to the FNB report nor did it detect microcarcinomas in others, so it does not seem justified to perform it routinely.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
11.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-10, jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284419

ABSTRACT

Introduction.Thyroid cancer is currently the first most common cancer in women in Ecuador. This study aimed to assess the changes in clinical presentation and diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer at a third level hospital in Quito, Ecuador.Methods and Materials.This is a retrospective case series performed in three consecutive periods from 1990 to 2019 at a tertiary level hospital, in Quito, Ecuador. The clinical records of 875 patients who had been diagnosed and surgically treated for differentiated thyroid cancer were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, imaging, and pathological data were collected and analyzed.Results. Significant trends toward older age, higher educational level, less palpable primary tumors, less palpable neck nodes, less distant metastases, more ultrasound, tomography and cytology exams, smaller primary tumors, more stage I patients, and more histological variant description, were found. Introduction.Thyroid cancer is currently the first most common cancer in women in Ecuador. This study aimed to assess the changes in clinical presentation and diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer at a third level hospital in Quito, Ecuador.Methods and Materials.This is a retrospective case series performed in three consecutive periods from 1990 to 2019 at a tertiary level hospital, in Quito, Ecuador. The clinical records of 875 patients who had been diagnosed and surgically treated for differentiated thyroid cancer were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, imaging, and pathological data were collected and analyzed.Results. Significant trends toward older age, higher educational level, less palpable primary tumors, less palpable neck nodes, less distant metastases, more ultrasound, tomography and cytology exams, smaller primary tumors, more stage I patients, and more histological variant description, were found.


Introducción. El cáncer de tiroides es actualmente el cáncer más frecuente en la mujer en Ecuador. El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo evaluar los cambios en la presentación clínica y el diagnóstico del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides en un hospital de tercer nivel de Quito, Ecuador. Material y Métodos. El presente es un estudio retrospectivo de casos realizado en tres períodos consecutivos desde 1990 a 2019 en un hospital del tercer nivel en Quito, Ecuador. Los expedientes clínicos de 875 pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente por un cáncer diferenciado de tiroides fueron revisados. Los datos demográficos, clínicos, de imagen y patología fueron extraídos y analizados. Resultados. Se encontraron tendencias significativas hacia una edad más avanzada, nivel educativo más alto, menos tumores palpables, menos adenopatías regionales palpables, menos metástasis a distancia, más exámenes de ultrasonido y tomografía, más estudios de citología, más tumores pequeños y pacientes con estadío I y más descripciones de las variantes histológicas. Conclusiones. El cáncer de tiroides no sólo que ha aumentado continuamente en su frecuencia en los años recientes, sino que la presentación clínica, el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico ha cambiado significativamente en las tres últimas décadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Time Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Clinical Evolution , Demography , Retrospective Studies , Self-Examination , Ecuador/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 40-48, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152889

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the cytopathological Bethesda System classification of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in MTC patients and to assess the role of preoperative serum calcitonin (CT) levels in the investigation of this neoplasm in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients under observation at the Uopeccan (União Oeste Paranaense de Estudos e Combate ao Câncer). Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional review of medical records of patients monitored at the thyroid cancer outpatient clinic of Uopeccan. Clinical and demographic data, laboratory tests, ultrasound images, and cytopathological findings of MTC patients were evaluated. Results and discussion: Among the 360 patients with thyroid cancer monitored in the outpatient clinic, 5.2% (n: 19/360) had MTC. The hereditary form was more prevalent (63.2%), and there was no sex preference. The most common ultrasound findings were hypoechogenicity, solid appearance and microcalcifications. The FNAB diagnoses showed a sensitivity of 47.1%, and the most common cytopathological report was Bethesda category III. Serum CT levels showed good sensitivity (84.6%) for the diagnosis of MTC, and sensitivity levels were directly associated with the size of the nodule and distant metastases. Conclusion: Bethesda category III was more prevalent in this group of MTC patients. Serum CT levels were more sensitive than cytopathology for diagnosis of this neoplasm and were able to identify all patients who could not be diagnosed by FNAB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Calcitonin , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 772-778, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study investigated whether ELABELA plays a role in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland. Subjects and methods: Of the 87 patients included in the study, 12 had undergone surgery for benign thyroid diseases, 30 had papillary thyroid cancer without invasion and/or lymph node metastasis in the surrounding tissues in the pathology report, and 45 had papillary thyroid cancer with invasion and/or lymph node metastasis in the surrounding tissues. Results: In the macrocarcinoma group, the proportion of patients with severe ELABELA staining (61.1%) was higher than that in the adenoma (50%) and microcarcinoma (23.8%) groups, while the proportion of those with mild to moderate staining was lower (p < 0.001). In the microcarcinoma group, the proportion of patients with severe staining was lower than that in the adenoma group, while the proportion of those with mild to moderate staining was higher (p < 0.001). In papillary thyroid carcinomas, the rates of moderate and severe staining in the classical variant, mild staining in the follicular variant, severe staining in the classical + follicular variant, and severe staining in the oncocytic variant were higher. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to be conducted on this subject. In this study, ELABELA was not found to be significant in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, severe ELABELA staining patterns were more common in macrocarcinoma patients than in microcarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2598-2608, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150040

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de tiroides representa un 1% del total de todos los tipos de cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico de los pacientes operados de cáncer de tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo con todos los pacientes ingresados con cáncer tiroides en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez Hernández", en el período desde enero del 1993 a diciembre de 2018. Se empleó un modelo recolector de datos con las variables de interés para el estudio y los datos se presentaron en tablas de frecuencia, números y porciento. Resultados: el cáncer de tiroides fue más frecuente en el grupo etario de 31 a 50 años, predomino el sexo femenino, la variedad histológica papilar fue la más frecuente, el lóbulo derecho fue el más afectado. Conclusiones: el cáncer de tiroides es más frecuente en pacientes relativamente jóvenes y del sexo femenino, a forma clínica de nódulo solitario con función tiroidea normal y el carcinoma papilar la variedad más frecuente (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: Thyroid cancer represents 1% of the total of all kinds of cancer. Its incidence seems to increase 4% every year, and at the present time it is the eighth more frequent cancer in women. Objective: to determine the clinical epidemiological behaviour of the patients who underwent thyroid cancer surgery. Materials and methods: a retrospective, observational and descriptive study was carried out in all the patients who were admitted in the service of General Surgery of the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández" with thyroid cancer, in the period from January 1993 to December 2018. A data collector model was used with the variables of interest for the study and the data were presented by charts of frequency, numbers and percent. Results: thyroid cancer was more frequent in the age group of 31 to 50 years; the female sex prevailed; the most frequent variety was the histological papillary one, and the right lobe was the most affected. Conclusions: thyroid cancer is more frequent in relatively young, female patients; the clinical form of solitary nodule with normal thyroid function and papillary carcinoma the most frequent variety (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Signs and Symptoms , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 185-189, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131063

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The EIF1AX gene mutations have been recently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer. According with these reports, the gene as been considered as a drive gene for thyroid cancer development. However, the occurrence of these alterations in benign thyroid lesions is not known and is still under investigation. Some authors have already reported the presence of EIF1AX variants in follicular adenomas and hyperplastic nodules. Here, we describe for the first time a case of a man with the EIF1AX c.338-2A>T splice site mutation in an indeterminate FNA lesion with trabecular adenoma at final histology in the absence of other pathogenetic mutations, demonstrating that further studies are required to better understand EIF1AX role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Middle Aged
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 73-79, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma are common head and neck cancers. This cancer expresses a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor that plays a role as a cancer stimulant substance. This hormone has a diagnostic value in the management of thyroid carcinoma. Objective The present study aimed to determine the difference in TSH levels between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement. Methods The present research design was a case-control study. The subjects were patients with thyroid enlargement who underwent thyroidectomies at the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were mea- sured before the thyroidectomies. The inclusion criteria for the case group were: 1) differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and 2) complete data; while the inclusion criteria for the control group were: 1) benign thyroid enlargement, and 2) complete data. The exclusion criteria for both groups were: 1) patients suffering from thyroid hormone disorders requiring therapy before thyroidectomy surgery, 2) patients receiving thyroid suppression therapy before the thyroidectomy was performed, and 3) patients suffering from severe chronic diseases such as renal insufficiency, and severe liver disease. Results There were 40 post-thyroidectomy case group patients and 40 post-thyroidect- omy control group patients. There were statistically significant differences in TSH levels between the groups with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 8.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.19-36.50). Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that there were significant differences in TSH levels between the groups with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyrotropin/blood , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology
18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(4): e2019503, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124754

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de casos hospitalares de câncer primário de tireoide no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo descritivo dos casos informados pelos registros hospitalares de câncer que tiveram primeira consulta para tratamento no período 2000-2016 e cujo acompanhamento foi realizado pela instituição do registro informante. Resultados: Dos 52.912 casos, 83,4% eram femininos e 96,9% eram carcinomas diferenciados. Apresentaram menor tempo mediano para diagnóstico os casos anaplásicos (11 dias) e os residentes da região Sul do país (5 dias). O tratamento foi iniciado em até 60 dias em 88,8% dos casos que chegaram à instituição do registro sem diagnóstico e em 34,9% dos que chegaram com diagnóstico. Conclusão: Os achados são consistentes com a epidemiologia do câncer de tireoide, com predominância do sexo feminino e do carcinoma diferenciado. A análise do tempo para início do tratamento sugere dificuldades de acesso para aqueles que chegaram às instituições dos registros com diagnóstico.


Objetivo: Describir el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de los casos de cáncer de tiroides en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos reportados por los registros hospitalarios de cáncer que tuvieron su primera consulta de tratamiento en el período 2000-2016 y el monitoreo fue realizado por la institución del registro. Resultados: De los 52.912 casos, 83,4% eran mujeres y 96,9% era de carcinomas diferenciados. El tiempo promedio hasta el diagnóstico fue menor en los anaplásicos (11 días) y en la región Sur (5 días). El tratamiento se inició dentro de los 60 días en 88.8% de los casos que llegaron a la institución de registro sin diagnóstico y en 34.9% de los que llegaron con diagnóstico. Conclusión: Los resultados son consistentes con la epidemiología del cáncer de tiroides, con predominio del sexo femenino y carcinomas diferenciados. El análisis del tiempo de tratamiento sugiere dificultades de acceso para casos que llegaron con diagnóstico.


Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of primary thyroid cancer hospital cases in Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive study of cases held on hospital cancer records who had their first consultation for treatment in the period 2000-2016 and who were monitored by the hospitals providing those records. Results: Of the 52,912 cases, 83.4% were female and 96.9% were differentiated carcinoma cases. The median time to diagnosis was shorter for anaplastic cases (11 days) and for those living in Brazil's Southern region (5 days). Treatment was initiated within 60 days in 88.8% of cases that arrived at the hospitals without diagnosis and in 34.9% of those who arrived with diagnosis. Conclusion: The findings are consistent with thyroid cancer epidemiology, with a predominance of female cases and differentiated carcinomas. Analysis of time-to-treatment suggests access difficulties for those who already had diagnosis when they arrived at the hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hospital Records/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Health Information Systems , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Health Profile , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 145-149, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123619

ABSTRACT

Es bien conocido que ha existido en las últimas décadas un incremento en los casos de cáncer diferenciado de tiroides, especialmente los microcarcinomas. Diversos factores han contribuido a pesquisar pequeños cánceres como el aumento de la disponibilidad de exámenes imagenológicos. Estos pequeños cánceres tiroideos pueden tener un comportamiento no agresivo y no producir letalidad; esto es lo que se conoce como sobrediagnóstico. Esto último tiene implicancias tanto médicas como económicas por terapias agresivas. Así, desde el año 2015, un grupo de expertos cambia la nomenclatura en anatomía patológica del carcinoma papilar tiroideo variante folicular encapsulado (NIEFVPTC de sus siglas en inglés) por Neoplasia folicular tiroidea no invasiva con características nucleares de tipo papilar (NIFTP de sus siglas en inglés). Este cambio se basó en un estudio de Nikiforov donde los NIEFVPTC no tenían efectos adversos ni mortalidad en su seguimiento. Así, la intención inicial del cambio de nomenclatura es eliminar la palabra cáncer y evitar los sobretratamientos innecesarios. Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente que se sometió a cirugía por un nódulo tiroideo clasificado Bethesda III donde la biopsia definitiva posterior a cirugía evidenció que se trataba de un NIFTP. A raíz de este caso analizamos la literatura hasta la fecha de esta nueva entidad y hacemos un repaso histórico de los carcinomas papilares tiroideos variante folicular. Además, desarrollamos nuevas interrogantes que se plantean desde este nuevo diagnóstico anatomopatológico, de cómo sospecharlo previo a una cirugía, cuál es la cirugía de elección, y cómo debiera ser el seguimiento una vez diagnosticado.


It is well known that there has been an increase in cases of differentiated thyroid cancer in recent decades, especially microcarcinomas. Several factors have contributed to diagnose small cancers such as the increased availability of imaging tests. These small thyroid cancers can have a non-aggressive behavior and not cause lethality, this is what is known as overdiagnosis. The latter has medical as well as economic implications for aggressive therapies. Thus, since 2015, a group of experts has changed the nomenclature in pathological anatomy of encapsulated variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (NIEFVPTC) for non-invasive thyroid follicular neoplasia with papillary nuclear characteristics (NIFTP). This change was based on a Nikiforov study where the NIEFVPTC had no adverse effects or mortality in their follow-up; thus, the initial intention of the nomenclature change is to eliminate the word cancer and avoid unnecessary over-treatments. We present a clinical case of a patient who underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule classified Bethesda III where the definitive biopsy after surgery showed that it was a NIFTP. Following this case, we analyze the literature to date of this new entity and make a historical review of the follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas. In addition, we develop new questions that arise from this new pathological diagnosis, how to suspect it prior to surgery, what is the surgery of choice, and what should the follow-up once diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Biopsy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the risk stratification tool for thyroid nodules, and ultrasound elastography is not routinely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The current study aimed to compare the diagnostic parameters of ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology, using surgical pathology as the reference standard. METHODS: In total, 205 patients with abnormal thyroid function test results underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on the basis of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System classification and strain ultrasound elastography according to the ASTERIA criteria. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimens was performed according to the 2017 World Health Organization classification system. Moreover, a beneficial score analysis for each modality was conducted. RESULTS: Of 265 nodules, 212 measured ≥1 cm. The strain index value increased from benign to malignant nodules, and the presence of autoimmune thyroid diseases did not affect the results (p>0.05 for all categories). The sensitivities of histopathological examination, ultrasound elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detection of nodules measuring ≥1 cm were 1, 1, and 0.97, respectively. The working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was similar between strain ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for highly and moderately suspicious nodules. However, for mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules, the working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was higher in strain ultrasound elastography than in fine-needle aspiration cytology. CONCLUSION: Strain ultrasound elastography for highly and moderately suspicious nodules facilitated the detection of mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyrotropin/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
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